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CHAPTER FIVE HEATING LOADS

CHAPTER FIVE
HEATING LOADS

5.1- INTRODUCTION
Calculating residential heating loads involves the estimation of the maximum (block) heat loss
of each room or space to be heated, and hence, the simultaneous maximum (block) heat loss for the
entire building, while maintaining a selected indoor air temperature during periods of design outdoor
weather conditions. Mainly, the heat loss components, as shown in Fig.(5.1), are:
1. The heat transferred from the indoor to the outdoor through the confining walls, glass, ceiling,
floor, or other surfaces. The concept of thermal resistance is applied to provide a satisfactory
estimation for the above mentioned components, where the calculations are done using tables that
list coefficients and other data required for typical situations. In HVAC work the term building
envelope refers to the walls, roofs, floors, and any fenestrations that enclose the building, through
which heat can transfer, as follows:
a) The walls and roofs, which are usually assembled of multi-layers of various materials.
b) The windows, which are often made of two or more layers of glass with air spaces between
them and usually have drapes or curtains.
c) The basements, in which floors and walls are in contact with the ground.
2. Infiltration losses or energy required to warm outdoor air leaking through cracks and crevices
around doors and windows, open doors and windows, and through porous building materials.

Fig.(5.1) Heat losses from a particular zone

5.2- HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS


In standard situations, all three modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously. However, they will
be considered separately for clarity and ease of presentation.

5.2.1- THERMAL CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER


Thermal conduction is the mechanism of heat transfer between parts of continuum due to the
transfer of energy between particles or groups of particles at the atomic level. The simplest form of
Fouriers equation is used to express steady-state conduction in one dimension as:
dt
q kA (5.1)
dx
Where:
q =heat transfer rate, W
k = thermal conductivity, W/m C
A = area normal to heat flow, m2
dt dx = temperature gradient, C/m
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Consider the individual flat wall A shown in Fig.(5.2), where uniform temperatures t1 and t2
are assumed to exist at the inner and outer surface, respectively.

Fig.(5.2) Heat conduction across composite wall

If the thermal conductivity, the heat transfer rate and area are constant, Eq.(5.1) can be written as:
A t t
q k t 2 t1 1 2 (5.2)
x x kA
A very useful form of Eq.(5.2) is:
q t1 t 2
1
(5.3)
R
Where:
R is the thermal resistance defined by:

R x kA (5.4)
The thermal resistance for a unit area of material is very commonly used in handbooks and in the
HVAC literature. Fig.(5.2) shows a wall constructed of three different materials. The heat transferred
by conduction is given by Eq.(5.4), the same value of heat is transferred through the different layers
as:
q qa qb qc (5.5)
t1 t 2 t 2 t 3 t 3 t 4 t1 t 4
q (5.6)
Ra Rb Rc Rt
Where Ra, Rb, and Rc are the thermal resistances for different materials of the composite wall shown
above, while Rt is the total of thermal resistance of it.
Generally:
t t t1 t n
q 1 n (5.7)
Rt xa xb xc xn
......
k a Aa kb Ab kc Ac k n An
For plane walls, the area is constant and above equation can be written as:
At1 t n
1
q (5.8)
Rt
xa xb xc x
Rt ...... n (5.9)
k a kb k c kn

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Note: The values of thermal conductivity are given for a wide range of building material, see Table
(5.1), and insulating materials, see Table (5.2).

Table (5.1) Thermal conductivity (k) of some building materials

Table (5.2) Thermal conductivity (k) of some insulating materials

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Table (5.2) (Continued)

5.2.2- THERMAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER


Thermal convection is the transport of energy by mixing in addition to conduction. It is associated
with fluids in motion along a surface. The transfer mechanism is complex and highly dependent on
the nature of the flow.
The rate of convection heat transfer is usually expressed as:
q hAt t w (5.10)
Where:
q = heat transfer rate from fluid to wall, W
h = film coefficient, W/m2 C
t = bulk temperature of the fluid, C
tw = wall temperature, C
So, when heat transfer takes place between a solid surface and the fluid adjacent to it, a thin film layer
of this fluid, which is almost stationary, is created. This layer causes extra thermal resistance that
lessens the heat transported. The thickness of this layer depends on the shape, inclination, and
roughness of the solid surface. In addition, it depends on whether the convection heat transfer is
forced or natural. The heat transfer coefficient across the film layer is referred herein as the film
coefficient f. Thus, the thermal resistance across the film layer is:
1
Rf (5.11)
f

Where fi and fo are respectively the film coefficient for the inner and the outer surfaces of walls
and ceilings. Experiments revealed that the f value increases with the increase in the surface
roughness, air speed, and/or the temperature difference. Therefore, estimating its value is far too
difficult, and hence, the value of fi is estimated considering stationary air in the indoor, while its value
for the outdoor is estimated according to the season as:
fi =9.37 W/m2 C, For stationary air
fo =34.1 W/m2 C, For wind speed 24 km/h at winter
2
fo =22.7 W/m C, For wind speed 24 km/h at summer
Taking the thermal resistance for the two film layers of the composite wall, the total thermal
resistance becomes:

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1 xa xb xc x 1
Rt ...... n (5.12)
f i k a kb k c kn f o

5.2.3- THERMAL TRANSPORT ACROSS AIR GAPS AND NON-HOMOGENEOUS MATERIALS


Some walls include air gaps extending longitudinally along the wall height. The benefit of such
gaps is to enhance the thermal insulation due to the use of air, which is relatively a bad thermal
conductor. These gaps are usually created intentionally inside brick walls to improve their thermal
insulation and their ability to alleviate external noise. The heat conductance of such gaps is termed a
(W/m2 C) and given in Table (5.3), so, its thermal resistance is:
1
Ra (5.13)
a

Table (5.3) Film or surface conductance (f) for air film and air spaces

The thermal conductivity k (W/m C) is usually used for homogeneous materials. On the other
hand, a factor called the heat conductance C (W/m2 C) is utilised for non-homogeneous materials,
where the thermal resistance for those materials is estimated as:
1
Rc (5.14)
C

The values of thermal conductance for a wide range of construction materials are given in Table
(5.4) for the thickness indicated.

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Table (5.4) Thermal conductance (C) of some building materials and construction for the thickness
indicated

5.2.4- THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER ACROSS A COMPOSITE WALL


The overall thermal resistance for any composite wall "composed of multi-layers made of
homogeneous and/or non-homogeneous materials, air gaps, inside- and outside-air films" can be
calculated as:
1 x1 x2 x 1 1 1 1 1
Rt ...... n ..... (5.15)
f i k1 k 2 k n a1 C1 C2 Cn f o
Thus, the total overall heat transported across a composite wall composed of the above
mentioned resistances can be determined as:
q UAti t o (5.16)
2
Where U (W/m C) is the overall heat transfer coefficient (thermal transmittance) of any composite
wall, which is estimated as the reciprocal of the overall thermal resistance Rt (m2 C/W) as:
1
U (5.17)
Rt

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Notes:
1- The values of overall heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of structures are given in Table
(5.5) for the thickness indicated and outside wind velocity of 24 km/hr.
2- More details about thermal properties of various building materials and structures are given
in Table (5.6) published by ASHRAE, which is quite useful for design purposes.

Table (5.5) Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) for structures with outside wind velocity of 24 km/hr

Example 5.1- A plane wall is made up of 20mm cement plaster, 24cm of brick having density of
(1920kg/m3), and 20mm perlite sand aggregate. If the outside temperature is 45C and the inside
temperature is 22C. Find: 1. Thermal resistance of the wall, 2. Heat transfer rate across the wall.
Solution-

From Table (5.6), we find that:


Cement plaster k=0.72 W/ m C
Perlite sand aggregate k=0.81 W/ m C
Brick of density (1920kg/m3) k=0.81 W/ m C
While the internal and external film coefficients are:
fi =9.37 W/m2 C
fo =22.7 W/m2 C
1 x x x 1
Rt 1 2 3
fi k1 k 2 k3 fo
1 20 10 3 24 10 2 20 10 3 1

9.37 0.72 0.81 0.81 22 .7
2
Rt=0.4995 m .C/W Ans.

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1
Ut =2 W/m2.C
Rt
Q=UA(to-ti)
q =Q/A=2(45-22)=46 W/m2 Ans.

Table 5.6- Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating MaterialsDesign Valuesa

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Table 5.6- Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating MaterialsDesign Valuesa (Continued)

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Table 5.6- Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating MaterialsDesign Valuesa (Continued)

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Table 5.6- Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating MaterialsDesign Valuesa (Continued)

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5.3- WALL SURFACE TEMPERATURE

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The internal surface temperature of any wall or roof is not equal to the room inside temperature.
The temperature of the room internal surface depends upon convection heat transfer conditions inside
the room, thermal insulation of the room, and the outdoor temperature and wind strength. If the
internal surface temperature of a wall or roof ts decreases below the room dew point tdp, the water
vapour will start to condense on that surface. This phenomenon causes damage to the wetted surface.
Sometimes, it is not an option to increase wall/roof thermal insulation, thus, it is necessary to reduce
either the indoor humidity or the air film thermal resistance through increasing the air speed over the
wall/roof surface in order to avoid such a problem.
The internal surface temperature of a particular wall or roof can be easily computed if the
temperature difference between its internal and external sides is known. This can be done as follows:
At i t o
1 A
q t t (5.18.a)
Rt Rt
Also:
Ati t s
1 A
q t f (5.18.b)
Rf Rf
Where the internal surface temperature ts can be found by equating above equations as:
R f t f ti t s
(5.19)
Rt tt ti to

Example 5.2- A building wall consists of 20mm cement plaster, 15cm limestone concrete of density
(1920kg/m3), and 13mm lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster. If the outside temperature is -18C
and the inside temperature 24C DBT and 18C WBT, determine whether the moisture will condense
on that wall or not? If so, find the thickness of fiber glass (k =0.055 W/m C) required to prevent
condensation.

Solution:
From Table (5.6), we find that:
Cement plaster k1 =0.72 W/m C
Limestone concrete (1920kg/m3) k2 =1.14 W/m C
Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster (13mm) C3 =17.7 W/m2 C
Fiber glass k =0.055 W/m C
1 x1 x2 1 1
Rt
f i k1 k 2 C3 f o

1 20 10 3 15 10 2 1 1
=0.352 m2 C/W
9.37 0.72 1.14 17 .7 34 .1
1 1
R fi 0.1067 m2 C/W
f i 9.37
R fi

ti t s 0.1067
24 t s
ts =11.27C
Rt ti t o 0.365 24 18
From the psychrometric chart, we find that the dew point for the inside condition is 14.8C.
As ts < tdp, the water vapour will condense on the inside surface of the wall.

The required thickness of insulation:


Let the wall temperature equal to the inside condition dew point of (tdp =14.8C), hence;
R fi t t
i s
0.1067

24 14.8
Rt new t i t o Rt new 24 18

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Rt new= 0.487 m2 C/W
Rt new= Rwall + Rins.
0.487=0.352+ Rins
Rins=0.135 m2 C/W
x
Rins ins.
kins.
xins=Rins kins=0.1350.055=7.425 mm of fiber glass is required to prevent condensation.

5.4- TEMPERATURES OF UNCONDITIONED SPACES


Sometimes, there are unconditioned rooms/zones adjacent to the conditioned rooms, where their
temperature is lower than the heated room but higher than the outdoor air at winter, while it is higher
than the cooled room but lower than the outdoor air at summer. Therefore, the temperature of such
zones should be known while computing the heat transferred to or from it. To this end, the formulae
below can be used to predict the design temperatures for unconditioned zones as:
1. Air cooling with adjacent uncooled room:
t ti to ti
2
(5.20)
3
2. Air heating with adjacent unheated room:
t ti ti to
1
(5.21)
2
3. Adjacent rooms including unusual heat sources: This means the existence of cookers, laundries,
etc., which increases the indoor temperature over than the outdoor temperature in winter or
summer. In such a case, 5 to 10C should be added to the outdoor temperature in order to predict
the temperature in such a zone as:
t to 5 10 (5.22)
4. Flooring or below-grade spaces: For flooring locating directly over the ground or the flooring of
basements as well as their walls adjacent to the ground, the ground temperature can be between
assumed from 10 to 14C. However, some people prefer to set a specific temperature difference
between the indoor condition and the ground.

Example 5.3- An inside room faces an enclosed porch. The room wall adjacent to the porch is 6m
long by 2.5m height and includes a one glazed door 1m by 2m. Single glass, which has Uglass=6.3
W/m2 C, forms 80% of the total area of the door, which is made of 50mm wood having Rwood=0.22
m2.C/W based on 25mm wood thickness. The wall is built of 20mm gypsum plaster (kgypsum= 0.8
W/m2 C) on both sides and 12cm common brick (kbrick= 0.72 W/m2 C). Find: 1. Heat loss from the
door, 2. Heat loss from the wall. If:
Indoor condition: 22C DBT, 50% RH.
Outdoor condition: 4C DBT, 2C WBT.

Solution:
1. Heat loss from the door:
Uglass=6.3 W/m2 C
Rwood=0.22 m2 C/W for 25mm=xwood/kwood, thus;
kwood= xwood/Rwood = 0.025/0.22= 0.1136 W/m2.C
1 x 1
Rwood wood , where; fo=fi
f i k wood f o
1 50 10 3 1
0.653 m 2 . C / W
9.37 0.1136 9.37

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U wood
1.53 W / m 2 . C
Rwood 0.653
Qwood=Uwood Awood [0.5 (ti-to)]
=1.532[0.2(12)][0.5(22-4)] = 5.5 W
Qglass=Ug Ag (ti-to) 0.5
=6.3[0.8(12)][0.5(22-4)]=90.7 W
Qdoor total= Qglass+ Qdoor
=5.5+90.7=96.2 W
2. Heat loss from wall:
kgypsum= 0.8 W/m2 C
kbrick= 0.72 W/m2 C
1 x1 x2 1
Rwall , where; fo=fi
f i k1 k 2 f o
1 20 10 3 12 10 2 1
0.405 m 2 . C / W
9.37 0.8 0.72 9.37
1 1
U wall 2.468 W / m 2 . C
Rwall 0.405
Awall=(62.5)-(12)=13 m2
Qwall=Uwall Awall [0.5 (ti-to)]
=2.46813[0.5(22-4)]=289 W

5.5- INFILTRATION OF AIR


Infiltration is the uncontrolled flow of outdoor air into a building through cracks and other
unintentional openings and through the normal use of exterior doors for entrance and egress.
Infiltration is also known as air leakage into a building. The quantity of air infiltrating to the inside
of any building depends on the outside air speed besides the structures used for the doors and windows
and how sealed they are. The air infiltrating to the inside of a building should leave the building in
the same rate. In general, air infiltrates into a building from the side facing the winds and exits from
the opposite side.
This phenomenon imposes an additional load due to the need for heating the infiltrating air to
the room temperature in winter and vice versa in summer. This extra load is divided sensible and
latent loads. The sensible load is due to the heat required to raise the temperature of infiltrating air
from the ambient temperature to the internal air temperature as follows:

qs 1.22 V ti t o (5.23)

Where V (m3/s) represents the air infiltration rate.
The latent part, on the other hand, is required to make-up the reduction in the moisture content
resulting from the air infiltration from outside the building, where the humidity is relatively low.
The rate of latent heat needs to be made-up can be computed as:

ql V Wi Wo h fg (5.24)
Where Wi and Wo are the specific humidity of the indoor and outdoor air, respectively, while hfg stands
for the latent heat required for vaporisation. Assuming that the air density is 1.2 kg/m3 and the
vaporisation latent heat equals to 2450 kJ/kg, above equation can be rewritten as:

ql 2940 V Wi Wo (5.25)
The total heat loss is:

qt 1.2V hi ho (5.26)

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There are two ways to estimate the rate of air infiltrating as clarified in the sub-sections below.
5.5.1- AIR CHANGE METHOD
To estimate how many times that the air is replaced in a room as a result of infiltration, it should
be taken into consideration the structure of this room and its usage in addition to the climatic
conditions, wind speed, etc. So, knowing the volume of the room considered along with the number
of times of air change per hour, shown in Table (5.7), the infiltration rate can be estimated as:
V= ACH Room Volume (5.27)

Table (5.7) Room change per hour


Room type ACH

Room without any windows or outside doors. 0.5 to 0.75

Room with windows or doors in one side exposed. 1.0

Room with windows or doors in two sides exposed. 1.5

Room with windows or doors in three sides exposed. 2.0

Room with windows or doors in four sides exposed. 2.0

Buildings entrance. 2.0 to 3.0

Reception halls. 2.0

Bath rooms 2.0

5.5.2- THE CRACK METHOD


This method depends on estimating the quantity of air infiltrating through the cracks around
doors and windows. Therefore, it is essential to measure the overall length of cracks, through which
air infiltrates, as shown in Fig.(5.3).

1. Single hung window or door


LC=No.[2(H+W)]

2. Double hung window or door H H


LC=No.[2(H+W)+H]
LC: Crack Length (m) W W

No.: Number of windows or doors Single hung Double hung


H: Window or door height (m).
W: Window or door width (m).
Fig.(5.3) Calculating the crack length for doors and windows
Notes:
1- For buildings having two opposite faces, the effective crack length used in this method should not be less
than half of the total length of cracks in the external walls of such buildings, where air infiltrates through
the half facing the wind must leave from the opposite side.
2- For rooms having only one external wall, the total length of cracks is considered.
3- For rooms having two external walls or more, the wall having the longest crack is considered as long as
this crack is not shorter than half the total length of all cracks.
After that, the infiltration rate per meter of crack is estimated using tables developed for this
purpose, where the infiltration rate is predicted according to the wind speed and type of the doors
and/or windows used, as shown in Table (5.8). Thus, the total rate of air infiltrating to the room is
obtained through multiplying the infiltration rate by the crack length calculated earlier as:
V= LCrack Wind Speed (5.28)

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Wind Velocity (km/hr)
Type of Aperture Remarks 8 16 24 32 40
CHAPTER FIVE

L/hr.m of crack length

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Average; non-weather-stripped. 650.3 1988.1 3623 5481 7432.24

Average; weather -stripped. 371.6 1207.7 2230 3345 4552.25

Poorly fitted; non-weather -stripped. 2508 6410.3 10312 14307 18487.7


Double-hung wood sash
Poorly fitted; weather -stripped. 557.4 1765.2 3159 4738 6596.12
windows (unlocked)
Around window frame: masonry wall, 278.7 743.22 1301 1858 2508.38
un-calked
Around window frame: masonry wall, 92.9 185.81 278.7 371.6 464.515
calked
Around window frame: wood frame 185.8 557.42 1022 1579 2136.77
structure
Non-weather -stripped ;unlocked 1858 4366.4 6875 9662 12727.7
Double-hung metal
Non-weather -stripped; locked 1858 4180.6 6503 8919 11612.9
windows
Weather -stripped ;unlocked 557.4 1765.2 2973 4274 5574.18
Table (5.8) Infiltration rate per crack length

Industrial; horizontally pivoted. 4831 10034 16351 22668 28242.5


Single -sash metal
Residential casement 1301 2972.9 4831 7061 9290.3
windows
Vertically pivoted 2787 8175.5 13471 17280 20531.6

Well-fitted 2508 6410.3 10219 14307 18487.7


Doors

Note: Calk is a substance used for filling in the gaps around the edge of something, e.g. windows.
Poorly-fitted 5017 12821 20439 28614 36975.4

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5.6- VENTILATION AIR


Ventilation is the intentional introduction of air from the outside into a building. Most buildings
require input of ventilation air for occupants or processes. Ventilation air requirements for acceptable
indoor air quality include the amount of outdoor air required to control moisture, carbon dioxide,
odours, and tobacco smoke generated by occupants. This additional outdoor air introduced through
the air-conditioning equipment will increase the heating/cooling load to be provided in the air
conditioning apparatus. Thus, the rate of air infiltration should be estimated in advance, where Table
(5.9) can be used for this purpose depending on the function of the building considered.

Example 5.4- An office includes (12) windows double hung 1.5m1m, (8) windows single hung
0.5m1m and 4 poorly fitting doors 2m1.5m. If there are 26 persons in this office and the infiltration
rate across windows is 1296L/hr.m while its value for the doors is 14,400L/hr.m, find the heating
loads due to both air infiltrating across windows and doors and ventilation air. Also, find the amount
of water vapour must be added to the air to maintain an indoor condition of 22C DBT and 50% RH
when the outdoor condition is 4C DBT and 2C WBT.

Solution:
Infiltration through windows:
1- Double hung: LC=No.[2(H+W)+H]= 12[2(1.5+1)+1]=72m
2. Simple hung: LC=No.[2(H+W)]=8[2(1+0.5)]=24m
LC t=72+24=96m
V=96 m1296=124416 L/hr =34.56 L/s

Infiltration through doors:


LC=No.[2(H+W)]=4[2(2+1.5)]=28m
V=2814,400==403200 L/hr =112 L/s
Total rate of air infiltration=34.56+112=146.56 L/s
From Table (5.9), the air required for ventilation is 10L/s per person. So, the total ventilation air is:
V.=2610=260 L/s
The net rate of ventilation air required for the building is:
Vnet =260-146.56=113.44 L/s
Heating loads required for the ventilation air:
From psychrometric chart:
Wi=0.0082 kg/kg dry air, Wi=0.0035 kg/kg dry air, o=0.84 m3/kg dry air

Qs 1.22 V ti t o =1.220.11344(22-4)= 2.491 kW Ans.

Ql 2940 V Wi Wo =29400.11344(0.0082-0.0035)= 1.568 kW Ans.
Amount of the water vapour added:
mw =maW =0.11344/0.84(0.0082-0.0035) =6.34510-4 kgw/s Ans.

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Table (5.9)

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Table (5.9)

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5.7- HEATING LOAD ESTIMATION PROCEDURE


In order to maintain comfortable indoor conditions, the heating load, which is the rate of heat
lost from a particular zone to the outdoor or surrounding zones, need to be continuously made-up
through utilising an air heating system. Thus, a designer should be comprehensively aware of all the
heat loss sources from the zone designed. Those sources can be summarised as:
1. Heat loss from the indoor to the outdoor through the zone surroundings Building Envelope,
which include external walls, ceilings, roofing, basements walls, as well as the internal walls
common with unconditioned zones.
2. Heat losses through doors and windows.
3. The heat required to heat up both the ventilation air and the air infiltrating to the zone through
cracks around external doors and windows.
4. Other thermal requirements such as humidification of the outside air and setting a safety factor
might be required in case of unexpected conditions, i.e. extremely freezing conditions.
To sum up, Table (5.10) summarises the calculation procedure required to estimate the heat loads.

Table (5.10) Heating load components


Heating load Equation Description
Roofs, Ceiling, U From material properties tables.
walls, glass A Area calculated from plans.
q U A TD Temperature difference between inside and
TD outside design conditions, for temperatures
in unheated spaces, see Eqs.(5.2022).
Floors
Infiltration and Volume of outside air entering the building.
ventilation air qs 1200 V TD

V
For infiltration by Air Change Method
Table (5.7) or by Crack Method Table (5.8).
qL 2900 V W For ventilation air use Table (5.9).
Temperature difference between the inside
TD
and outside design by bulbs.
W Humidity ratio difference.

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