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Loss of Field Protection in IM3G-V

Method of Calculations for settings

1.0 IM3G-V relay continuously monitors the impedance level and


position of the impedance vector. Inside the relay a circular area is
defined by setting two parameters:

K1. This is the synchronous reactance of the generator expresses


as a percentage of the base impedance of the generator. This
defines the diameter of a circular area , which forms the trip
zone.

K2 this defines the offset of the center of the circle on the 270o
axis of the impedance diagram.

By setting the above parameters, the area of the circle (the trip
zone) and the position of the circle is defined in the impedance
diagram of the generator.

If at any time , the impedance vector of the generator falls within


the circle defined as above, the relay treats it as a loss of field
condition and initiates trip command.

Suitable time delays can be set , in terms of tx and ti based on the


size and type of installation.

The calculations for K1 & K2 are given below .

2.1 Get the following details from the customer :

a) the voltage kVA, Voltage & current ratings of the generator


b) the CT / PT ratio
c) the transient reactance Xt of the generator
d) the synchronous reactance Xs of the generator.

2.2 Example :

Generator rating = 1500 kVA, 6.6 V


Transient Reactance Xt = 24%
Synchronous reactance Xs = 200%
CT ratio = 150 / 5 = 30
PT Ratio = 6600 / 110 = 60
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2.03 We have to reduce the reactance values to ohmic levels at operating


conditions.

Transient reactance of the generator :

(24 x V2) CT Ratio


Xt = x
100 x KVA PT Ratio

24 x 6600 x 6600 30
= x
1500 x 1000 x 100 60

= 3.48 ohms

Synchronous reactance of generator

Xs x V2 CT ratio
= x
KVA PT Ratio

200 x 6600 x 6600 30


= x
100 x 1500000 60

= 29.04 ohms

Actual Impedance seen by the relay when normal running:

Zb = Uns / 1.732 Ib

Ib = 1500000 / 1.732 x 6600 = 131.22 A


Zb = 110 x 30 / 1.732 x 131.22

= 14.52 ohms

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2.04 K1 & K2 settings :

Synchronous reactance in ohms


K1 = x 100
Base impedance in ohms

29.04
= x 100 = 200 %
14.52

0.5 x Transient reactance


K2 =
Base impedance in ohms

0.5 x 3 48 x 100
= = 11.98 = 12%
14.52

Impedance diagram of the generator :

Jx

Rx

K1
Z

K2