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International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention

ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714


www.ijhssi.org ||Volume 6 Issue 6||June. 2017 || PP.14-23

The Usage and Understanding of Information and


Communication Technology on Housewife in Family Welfare
Empowerment Organization in Manado City
Julyeta P. A. Runtuwene1, Meiske N. Mamuaya2, Nova Ch. Mamuaya3
1
(Faculty of Engineering, Manado State University)
2(
Faculty of MIPA, Manado State University)
3
(Faculty of Economics, Manado State University)

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the usage and understanding of Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) on housewives who actively organize in Family Welfare Empowerment
(PKK) Manado City and relationship between the profile of the housewives with internet usage. Primary data
was collected using a questionnaire, with 50 housewives who actively organize in Family Welfare
Empowerment Manado City as a respondent and obtained by purposive sampling. The analysis used in this
research is descriptive and verification with SPSS Version 23. The results showed that the use of internet on the
housewives who actively organize in PKK of Manado City reached 68% which 60% using their smartphone;
internet access is done every day by 67,65% housewives; internet usage is still limited to the use of social
media, where 56% admitted spending their time to open social networking sites; 50% for information, while the
use of email is limited to 22%, online shopping 10% and only 2% using their internet to enter world of banking;
all survey respondents feel that ICT has an important function in anticipating globalization, where the positive
and negative aspects of ICT also become a concern for respondents and they agreed on the importance of
training in order to equip themselves; age significantly effect on the use of internet, while education and income
are not significant.
Keywords: ICT usage, ICT understanding, Housewife, Manado

I. Introduction
The development of science and technology that very quickly and easily accessed with low cost often
brings a change in social order. One change that was clearly visible is the information that easy and quickly
circulated from around the world. Communication system through internet or group short message that grow
fast able to shorten the distance and time between people who are separated by continents.
Information and communication technologies are more modern, more easily obtained and can be
accessed anytime and anywhere, and cost is a factor increasingly rapid circulation of information. Observing the
development of information technology and communications that take place, visible stages are quite astonishing.
If used when communicating by telephone, long distance will further enhance the cost to be incurred.
Furthermore, the advent of the internet reduce these costs, but people still have to use a computer when
communicating. Combined second bore technology smart phone that can be accessed anywhere with little cost.
At present various telephone providers offer unlimited Internet access, so that any communication that runs not
only through voice but was able to do a conference call so that communication seemed without limit.
At this point, it takes understanding and skill in sorting out what information and how to find that
information. Knowledge of information and communication technologies, especially for the housewives in
urban areas become a part of everyday life today. Currently Housewives have been able to utilize information
technology as a media liaison between families and relatives around the home environment. Common
technology in use by housewives usually a mobile phone, only with a set of communication tools that a mother
can monitor the state of children in school, sharing information with neighbors and even coordinate an activity
in the home environment. In accordance with the results of Association of Indonesian Internet Service Provider
(APJII) research in collaboration with the Center for the Study of Communication (PusKaKom) University of
Indonesia in 2014 that the majority of Internet users in Indonesia are in the urban areas and the number of users
of the second largest after the workers and the self-employed (55%) is students and housewives which amounted
to 34%. The research results also showed that Internet users in Indonesia most frequently access the Internet
using mobile phones, which amounted to 85% (Indonesian Internet Service Provider Association, 2015).
Aside from being a two-way communication function, the development of mobile phone technology
has enabled widespread communication and information without boundaries. The rate of smart phone
technology very quickly been able to change the style of human communication including the housewives. The
use of smart phones used only as a means of regular communication also be grown as part of a lifestyle. Its

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existence cant be separated from social and economic status symbol, or become the symbol of the pride of a
specific community that uses it. Some people even created a different lifestyle with trying to find something
different to everyone else. As well as eating, drinking, houses, cars, vacations, now people cant be separated
from mobile phones in public. For example, when a smart phone brands issued a new model, most people
immediately replace their smart phone to show the ability to have the latest model. This occurs because for some
people the usage of mobile phones has become a necessity of life style that cant be separated from them.
Although not all the housewives utilized the existing technology as a whole, but the role of technology
is becoming very important in the years to come. The gap between the urban lifestyle is great and people in the
area are very instrumental in the rapid advancement of technology use among housewives. In urban
communities where a flurry of activity and density of individuals making use of information technology is very
important, is inversely proportional to the community in other areas there are some who use information
technology some are even still using manual way of disseminating information.
A thing is not entirely absolutely give positive impacts, negative impacts will arise over its use. With
that information technology is growing rapidly at this time of the housewife easy to access any information
about household matters and solving them. But with that people tend to be more passive in social, people tend to
categorize activities based on interests. In contrast to the people who use information technology is still lacking,
social activities will be much more active. In addition, the use of this technology can also be a boomerang when
the information submitted is incorrect. Ability to communicate to respond to such false information should be
coupled with an understanding of the use of the internet to get the correct information.
The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze usage and understanding rate of ICT on
Housewife especially member of TP PKK Manado City and relationship between housewife profile especially
member of TP PKK Manado City with internet usage.
II. Theoretical Framework
According to the Curriculum Center of Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia, Information
and Communication Technology includes two aspects, namely the Information Technology and Communication
Technology. In this sense, Information Technology defined as all matters related to process, which technology
roles as a tool to manipulate and manage any kind of information. Some other meanings of information
technology are:
1. Oxford Dictionary (1995): Information Technology is a study or electronic equipment, especially computer,
to store, analyze, and distribute any information, including words, numbers, and pictures.
2. Haag & Keen (1996): Information Technology is a set of tools that help working by providing information
and carrying out tasks related to processing of such information.
3. Martin (1999): Information Technology is not confined to computer technology (software and hardware)
used to process or store information, but includes communication technology to transfer information.
4. Lucas (2000): Information Technology is all forms of technology applied to process and transmit
information in electronic form.
5. William & Sawyer (2003): Information Technology is a technology that combines computing (computers)
with a high-speed communication lines that carry data, voice, and video.
And then Communication Technology is defined as all matters relating to the use of tools to process
and transferring data from one device to another. Based on two meanings then Information and Communication
Technology is all activities related with processing, manipulation, management, and transferring information
between media.
At the present time, the understanding of Information and Communication Technology is not limited to
the use of sophisticated technology involving expensive equipment, but has grown in conventional case, for
example, the use of communications equipment to receive or disseminate information quickly and accurately.
For example, in communication there are several components that interrelated, respectively.
1. Information Sender; in communication, every person who acted as the questioner or the answerer can act as
an Information Sender.
2. Information Receiver; is a person who acted as a listener.
3. Information Form; where activities in conversation form, a form that used is ORAL communication, but if
the information that sent or received is written, then the form is WRITTEN communication.
4. Media or Information Tools; is SOUND or TEXT.
Progress in the field of information and communication technology leads to two sides, namely the
development of products that are in the system software development and the concept of the concept (idea,
procedure), with a range of applications in all areas that require people interact with information, views of the
device used; and the application of the product and the concept, which includes a number of specific activities,
among others in the fields of industry, finance and trade, printing, military, tourism and for the management of
work in the office. At this point the use of information and communication technologies become a leader in
encouraging the development of an activity.
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According to Johannesen (1996) technology is defined as a distinctive cultural activity when humans
create and alter natural reality for the sake of practical purposes. Every step of the technological advances led to
a series of changes that interact with other changes arising from technological system as a whole. Furthermore,
Gouzali Saydam (2005), stated that the communications technology is essentially a transfer of information from
one place to another via telecommunications equipment (wire, radio or other electromagnetic devices). Such
information may take the form of sound (telephone), text and images (the telegraph), the data (computer), and so
on. While Shiroth and Amin (1998) stated that communications technology is rapidly expanding technology,
along with the development of electronics and computer industry. The trend is increasingly towards wireless
technology (without cable). The forms of communication technology according to Kadir and Triwahyuni (2003)
covers telephone, radio, and television.
Information and Communication Technology basically cant be separated from the internet. Internet is
an online media which is defined as an extensive network of computers that able to connect with each other to
disseminate and distribute digital files as well as shorten the distance of the country. Unlike radio and television
broadcast from one location to be received in the surrounding area, the Internet can connect between one
computer with another computer, as well as broadcasters and receiver (Perebinossoff, 2005). Simply put
"internet" or "net" only, its definition is almost the entire global network that connects millions of computers (an
almost global network of computers connecting million) [Thurlow, Lengel & Tomic, 2004].

The usefulness of the Internet is (Imelda and Andayani, 2011):


1. The function of communication. Internet is a communication tool, a very important purpose from internet is
messages exchange with electronic mail (e-mail).
2. Resource Sharing Function. With internet, it can search software, essay, data and programs from thousand
distribution points all over the world.
3. Resource Discovery Function. Navigation to search for specific file, document, host or person among
millions of hosts.
4. Community Function. Internet community users make internet as a tool to communicate within a
community. Internet development make communication lines between humans are very fast. The
information communicated quickly from source to source in all over the world in seconds.
As a result of the development of information technology, the Internet became the new prima donna in
communication between humans. Since its generally introduction in 1982, the internet is slowly but surely
penetrated all parts of the world up to Indonesia. In the homeland, even though in the beginning the Internet "a
luxury item" and can only be accessed by certain communities, at a later stage the Internet quickly became an
integral part of the pattern of inter-personal communication. The presence of the Internet as a "food shall be" the
world's information and communication occurred after the big wave "procurement internet" surge in the early
2000s. The big wave is marked by numerous service providers and internet operators and also the cheapening
ordinary Internet access continues to surge up to lately.
Undeniably, in short time, an internet presence replaces the various media of communication and
information. Starting letters, telegrams, newspaper, telephone and various other media have been replaced by
Internet. This occurs because the Internet is considered more efficient and effective for the world of work,
especially regarding to communication and information. However, internet has some aspects whether positive
aspects or negative aspects regarding to information access, media communications, work efficiency, and
business optimization. Nevertheless, the negative aspects of Internet usage as open access to pornography
following its spread.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is developing are still very close to the male
identity. The view commonly seen when exposed to ICT, more often involved were male. Women are often just
as objects in ICT while a very rapid flow of information from various sources, require increased capabilities and
the empowerment of women to select the information to keep up and not become objects (Indrayani, 2005).
Gender and ICT is one of the key issues and major facing for women globally after poverty and
violence against women, even in the Beijing Declaration 1995 and its program of action have included gender
and ICT, which gave birth to a new desire to empower women through skills upgrading, knowledge and access
to the use of information technology (Indrayani, 2005). Of the 12 critical grounding in the relevant declaration
that related is Women and Mass Media is to increase participation and opportunities for women to express and
decision-making in and through the mass media and new communication technologies (www.lbh-apik.or.id).
As an illustration, the number of female Internet users is much smaller than the males only 26.4% of all
Internet users. A survey conducted by International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in 2002, found that 99%
of women surveyed in six different regions feel that ICTs are vital in achieving personal empowerment,
entrepreneurship and professional goals. Data from Digital Review for Asia Pacific stated that ICT growth in
Indonesia is quite admirable of 10,000 residents is 1 having an internet host and only 1-5% that have access to
ICTs and the 7.1 million people in Indonesia have access to telephone and cellular phone (Indrayani, 2005).

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Hafkinn and Taggart in Lestari (2010) reveals some barriers for women to access information
technology systems in developing countries are:
1. Illiterate numbers and education level. Women require literacy ability and education to make simple
messages, internet navigation, and operate some software. One of two women in developing countries still
illiterate. Women ability in computers still lower than men.
2. Language. English is very dominant as an internet language and as an international language. These factors
can significantly affect women and other marginalized groups without access to formal education that gives
an opportunity to learn English.
3. Time. Generally, most of women spend times to their responsibilities to take care child and family. Then
directly women dont have enough time to learning internet at home, or at their office. Lack of time
constraint lack of information. Access in using internet technology can be solved with mobile devices with
internet facility, but generally they use mobile phones just for chatting or accessing Facebook.
4. Social norms and culture. Patriarchal culture always relate men with tasks and functions outside home, while
women have a duty to take care child. Patriarchal culture also felt in technology field. Until now, technology
is not friendly enough for women. Still a presumption that technology is a duty for men and masculine
realm. So, the world of information technology is still a male-dominated.
Of these four factors, social and cultural norms seem become the biggest obstacle in Indonesia and
other developing countries with a tradition and a strong patriarchal culture and marginalizing women. Lestari
(2010) stated that with reinforcement from Phiphitkuls opinion that the marginalization of women in ICT field
should be considered in the context of women's relationship with science and technology. Technology issues
and all matters relating to ICT identical to men. Research has shown that men dominate the computer-based
education and technology. Some studies indicate that in the field of education, men dominate classes in
computer skills than women. According Siswanto (2007), the selection of majors for girls are more associated
with domestic functions, while the boys are expected role in sustaining the family economy and should be more
choose hard science skills, technology and industry.
In family, the importance of ICT knowledge for women is also related to the education of children.
Internet usage by children is increasing, and often we cant separate the child's world with the internet. They are
digital native generation, the generation that was born and developed in the digital world. Because the Internet
also have a negative impact, so parents especially mothers who became the main educators, must understand
how to prevent the negative result of the use of the internet. A mother can guide children when surfing in
cyberspace. For under age children, caring parents are needed in the use of the internet. Parents can provide an
explanation of what activities to do on the internet, the site (where resources) are useful, as well as bad things
and threats that may occur. Kids must be encouraged to find a variety of information, of course, with the
guidance of their parents. And the most important thing is to build a good and balanced communication with
children, especially if the age of the child is a teenager. The strongest fortress to ward off negative material on
the internet is a family communication.
Bad influence of the Internet will not be optimal for the anticipated if it is done in a way to distance
themselves from this technology product. Meanwhile, some housewives acknowledge that the Internet was not
so popular among housewives because there was no opportunity for them to learn it, but most of the housewives
too much already 'literate' will benefit from the internet. It is unfortunate in this condition because a mother has
an important role in personal formation of a generation. By controlling the Internet would be able to benefit at
least in the context of supervision of the child, mastering the Internet, handphone and computers are needed for
accompanying children's behavior began to grow up. Media globalization in the field of multimedia technology
is developing very rapidly in the fields of electronics, namely television, radio, movies, mobile phones, internet
and print media, namely magazines, periodicals, newspapers greatly affect the mindset of the family, especially
children.
Media globalization, enables a person to obtain information easily and quickly. Moreover, the
electronic media are more easily accessible, fast and inexpensive new information. Various necessary
information can be obtained on the internet. Internet facilities can be enjoyed using personal computers, laptops,
and mobile phones. For the happiness of the child, the mother will look for the right information to meet the best
needs for their children. Housewife role is very important in directing children into future leaders. Therefore,
knowledge to use the Internet and obtain information from the Internet is required by a mother. There are still
many housewives who claimed just learning the internet because of her desire to seek insight regarding the
growth and development of children. In addition to expanding the network, it is done so that later can supervise
their interaction in the cyber world. Thus, housewife can take a lot of the benefits of the internet.
Technology was created to facilitate human in socializing with others. In the information age today, a
housewife should be able to improve their knowledge with understanding and recognize IT start to operate the
computer until the open Internet. Many internet sites that offer knowledge and important information that should
be known to the mother. Unfortunately based on the data obtained, approximately 60% of users only use the

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Internet for the benefit of communicating or "chat". Actually, a lot of information related and useful for a
housewife who has a family. This information can be mothers access via the internet ranging from recipes,
healthy living, beauty, problems fished even news and infotainment. For the sake of children's education and
help the learning process, information related to child psychology educational material as well as exam
questions and materials to assist the school, mothers can also access via the internet. Until now a lot of sites that
present data and information that are useful for household purposes instantly.
Moreover, in the present when economic conditions difficult, the internet can be used to obtain
additional family income by doing business online via the internet. Mothers can join the affiliate program or
directly learn from internet marketing expert or can be teamed up with other mothers and selling via the Internet
through deals and acquiring customers. Information technology has changed the way we learn, work,
communicate, shop and various other living affairs. With internet we can also recognize work remotely (remote
working). People do not have to always work behind an office desk but can be at home, caf and even outside
the city. Many also use the Internet as a place to trade, a talking shop and also make some kind of shop as a
place of business. This method can be cheaper and can reach more people and places. In addition, to
communicate, many people use electronic mail (electronic mail) and instant messenger that is considered to be
more effective and efficient.
Furthermore, for women, the use of ICT for business has become a phenomenon today with the
proliferation of Internet-based online business. Use of the Internet for online business widely used by women for
more flexible business from home so duties and responsibilities towards the family still met. Utilization of ICT
is not supposed to be aimed at large-scale enterprise-firms. A great opportunity for women to develop their
ability to take advantage of ICT is through the Small and Medium Enterprises. However, management and
marketing skills are also necessary in this case. Efforts need to be done such as through increased skills and
knowledge of the use of IT, both integrating gender issues in every program - especially community
development program of small business development for women.

In general, the use of ICT for housewife can provide several benefits, including:
1. Time Management. Task of housewife actually unlimited, especially if the mother is a working woman.
Preparing foods, clothes, cleaning the house, childrens activities, and office activities. Some ICT
applications will be able to manage this entire activity, so it wont interfere each other.
2. Increasing Knowledge. Various internet services start from simple standard search engines such as Google,
Yahoo, Ask me, and others, to specific applications, knowledge-based, enables woman to gain new and
reliable knowledge. Those applications is able to help housewife in getting any information, including help
their children in schoolwork as well as provide other common knowledge.
3. Improving ability to cook. Various sites on internet today providing information about food. In addition to
the recipes of famous chefs as well as from leading restaurants, a simple recipe of fellow housewife also be
easily obtained via internet. Internet is also able to provide information about nutritional content in food as
well as information about harmful substances in food content.
4. Fashion. As part of lifestyle, internet can provide up to date information about fashion trend anywhere in the
world. Development of network system also enables internet to handle online shopping so it makes
housewife easy to keep abreast of world fashion.
5. Health and Fitness. Various sites on internet today is inseparable from health and fitness development. In
addition to providing information about the importance of maintaining personal and family health, sites like
youtube.com also filled with variety of exercise video for health that could easily followed by housewife,
without using specific tool.
6. Shopping. Nowadays, online shopping sites have mushroomed. The rise of social media also enliven this
business. Start from clothing, footwear, household appliances, up on online airplane tickets easily done from
home. With very competitive prices with direct expenditure, this business is even easier housewife in
searching their family needs.
7. Existence and Self-actualization. Social media is increasingly widespread allows a mother to expand her
social household. Internet world creates communication without borders. Social networks can be formed
easily engaged communities from different parts of the world.

III. Research Method


This research located in Manado City, primary data obtained using a main instrument questionnaire,
with 50 housewives who actively organize in Family Welfare Empowerment (PKK) Manado City as
respondents and obtained by purposive sampling. Analysis used in this research is descriptive and verification
analysis, descriptive analysis is done by using descriptive statistics in tables form and frequency distribution to
determine and analyze the profile and the usage and understanding level of information and communication
technology role in housewife; whereas verification analysis done using chi square test and logistic regression to

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determine and analyze the relationship between housewives profile with the usage of information and
communication technology. Analyzis were performed using SPSS Version 23.

IV. Result
In this section, analysis of housewife profile who actively participated Mobilization Team (TP) PKK
Manado City activities, that become the respondents of this research, is performed. In this section, education
level and income become key factors to be view. These are the data tabulation of housewife profile that become
respondents of this research:
Table 1. Housewives Profile

Source: Processed Primary Data, 2016

Table 1. shows data on home and mobile phone ownership, as well as education and income based on
age. Data shows that more than fifty percent (54%) or 27 housewives derived from 41-50 years old group. For
education level in this age group, 62,96% housewives is a high school graduate; 11,11% Diploma; 14,81%
Bachelor and 3,70% Magister; while 7,41% did not answer. Furthermore, the amount of income in this age
group; 15 housewives (55,55%) earn between 2 5 million rupiah; 5 people (18,52%) earn under 2 million; 6
people (22,22%) earn over than 5 million; while one person (3,70%) did not answer. As a communication tools,
this age group admitted using a mobile phone as a communication tool (100%) and no one using home
telephone.
Next highest housewives age is above 50 years old, total 12 people or fifty-four percent (24%). For
education level in this age, 9 people (75%) is high school educated; 2 people (16,67%) Magister; and 1 people
(8,33%) is junior high school educated; while no one is a Diploma or Bachelor. For income, 5 people (41,67%)
were in the range of 2 5 million; 3 people (25%) earn under 2 million and over 5 million, while 1 person
(8,33%) did not answer. Like the previous group, in this age group, mobile phones usage also dominating,
where 100% housewives using mobile phone while only 2 people (16,67%) using home telephone, while the
rest are not.
Furthermore, range of 31 40 years old as many as 8 people (16%), with 4 respondents (50%) is high
school educated and 4 respondents (50%) Bachelor degree. Respondents income in this age range, as many as 4
respondents (50%) earn less than 2 million; 1 respondent (12,5%) earn over than 5 million; while three
respondents (37,5%) did not answer. For telephone use, all respondents (100%) using a mobile phone; while
only two respondents (25%) using home telephone.
On the use of ICT, housewives asked to describe the use of communication tools at their disposal, to
see whether the use of ICT tools has been able to provide benefits to its users. The results are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. ICT Usage Level


Using the Internet
Computer Internet Internet Access Internet Usage* (the answer more than 1**
Age
(years) Yes No Yes No Telp WiFi Mobile Other 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
20 - 30 2 1 3 - - - 3 - 2 - 1 - 1 1 - 2 - - -

31 - 40 7 1 7 1 1 - 6 - 6 - 1 - 5 3 - 6 - - -

41 - 50 15 12 19 8 4 6 16 1 12 6 1 - 20 7 1 13 3 - -

>50 3 9 5 7 - - 5 - 3 2 - - 2 - 1 4 2 - -

Total 27 23 34 16 5 6 30 1 23 8 3 - 28 11 2 25 5 - -
Source: Processed Primary Data, 2016

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Notes:
* 1. Everyday ** 1. BBM/line/Whatsapp/Facebook 5. Online Shopping
2. 1 4 a week 2. E-mail 6. Online Selling
3. 1 2 a month 3. Internet Bank 7. Others
4. < 1 a month 4. Searching information

Based on the data in Table 2, the use of computers in housewives reached 54% or 27 respondents.
Furthermore, internet usage is even higher, reaching 68% or 34 respondents. Dominated by mobile internet
users as internet media, which reaches 30 respondents or 60% of total respondents. These results are consistent
with the results in Table 1, where mobile phone users reached 100% total respondents.
Furthermore, if viewed from the liveliness in using the Internet, 34 respondents who using Internet,
67.65% claimed to use internet every day; 23.53% used 1-4 times a week, while the rest (8.82%) reported using
the Internet 1-2 times a month. Internet usage in housewife is still limited to the use of social media, where the
majority of Internet users is 28 housewives (56%) would rather spend hours internet to open up social
networking sites such as BBM, LINE, Whatsapp and Facebook. Furthermore, the Internet is also a place to find
information, such as that delivered by 25 housewives (50%). As for the use of e-mail, is limited to 11
respondents (22%), online shopping by 5 respondents (10%) and only 1 respondent (2%) who use the internet to
enter the world of banking. The section also shows that the internet is still rarely used as a medium to sell,
because no respondents chose vend function when accessing the internet.
In the understanding the role of ICTs, housewives given questions about their view of ICT role in
everyday life. In 15 questions, most respondents have been able to sense the importance of ICTs in accessing the
available information. More than fifty percent of respondents agree that ICT will enable them to influence others
who previously disagreed and lets them tell their views to others. In addition, respondents also agreed that ICT
allows them to access information faster and communication with outside parties more open.
In addition to the positive impact, respondents also agreed that ICT give negative impact, where the
increasing exploitation of women and children that lead to pornography via Internet, so that the respondents also
agreed on the need for training in internet usage. Basically, the invention of the internet is quite large, which
changed the world of local or regional nature to be global. Since the internet are sources of information
worldwide that can be accessed by anyone, anywhere through the Internet. Through internet, distance and time
factors is not an problem anymore. The world seems to be small, and communication becomes easier. This
allows the distribution of information to be unlimited. An event, positive or negative, will be quickly
communicated from one source to another.
Furthermore, in the field of training on Internet usage, more than fifty percent or seventy percent (70%)
or 35 respondents said they had not received training in ICT, while the remainder (30% or 15 respondents) had
never received training. For the purpose of training almost all, 98% respondents felt that ICT training would be
useful for them. For the form of training, the choice of most respondents, or about 42% of respondents chose the
form of training of communication and information via the Internet as the largest selection, basic training
followed by the internet as much as 32% of respondents, while the rest are training in the use of smart phones,
Internet applications and e-business training. Interestingly, only 4% or 2 people who feel the need of training for
e-business. This is consistent with results in Table 2, where the use of the Internet to sell has not been done by
any respondent in this study. For this type of training, most respondents chose the exercise classes (36%), while
training through short workshops selected by 26% of respondents, 20% of respondents chose a combination of
classroom training, workshops and on line. The remaining 15% of respondents opted for training on line and the
rest did not answer. This shows the interest of respondents to the training is very high because awareness of the
importance of ICT usage in everyday life.
Chi-square analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between housewife profile that
include age, education and income using internet. The results of chi square analysis is shown below.

Relation Between Age with Internet Usage


The relationship between age and internet usage can be seen in Table 3.

Table 3. Relation Between Age with Internet Usage


Age Internet Usage Sig.
No Yes Total
Amount % Amount % Amount %
20-30 0 0 3 6 3 6
31-40 1 2 7 14 8 16
41-50 8 16 19 38 27 54 0,046
>50 7 14 5 10 12 24
Total 16 32 34 68 50 100
Source: Processed Primary Data, 2016
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Based on cross-tabulation (crosstabs) conducted between age and internet usage, obtained that:
a. Number of 20-30 years old respondents as many as 3 people (6%) which all using internet (6%).
b. Number of 31-40 years old respondents as many as 8 people (16%) with the details that do not using
internet as much as 1 (2%) and 7 people using internet (14%).
c. Number of 41-50 years old respondents as many as 27 people (54%) with the details that do not using
internet as much as 8 people (16%) and 19 people using internet (38%).
d. Number of >50 years old respondents as many as 12 people (24%) with the details that do not using internet
as much as 7 people (14%) and 5 people using internet (10%).
Based on the results of Chi-Square analysis obtained with a significant value, p = 0.046 <-0.05, which
indicates a significant relationship between age and internet usage in housewives who actively organize in PKK
Manado.

Relation Between Education with Internet Usage


Relation between education and internet usage can be seen in Table 4.

Table 4. Relation Between Education with Internet Usage


Education Internet Usage Sig.
No Yes Total
Amount % Amount % Amount %
Junior High School 1 2 0 0 1 2
Senior High School 12 24 20 40 32 64
Diploma 1 2 4 8 5 10 0,296
Bachelor 2 4 9 18 11 22
Magister 0 0 1 2 1 2
Total 16 32 34 68 50 100
Source: Processed Primary Data, 2016

Based on cross-tabulations (crosstabs) conducted between education and internet usage, obtained that:
a. Number of junior high school educated respondents as much as 1 person (2%) and do not using internet.
b. Number of senior high school educated respondents as much as 32 people (64%) with the details do not
using internet as much as 12 people (24%) and 20 (40%) people using internet.
c. Number of Diploma educated respondents as much as 5 people (10%) with the details do not using internet
as much as 1 person (2%) and 4 people (8%) using internet.
d. Number of Bachelor educated respondents as much as 11 people (22%) with the details do not using
internet 2 people (4%) and 9 people (11%) using internet.
e. Number of Magister educated respondents as much as 1 person (2%) and using internet.
Based on the results of Chi-Square analysis obtained with a significant value, p = 0.296 >0.05, which
shows a significant correlation between education and internet usage in housewives who actively organize in
PKK Manado.

Relation Between Income with Internet Usage


Relation between income and internet usage can be seen in Table 5.

Table 5. Relation Between Income with Internet Usage


Income Internet Usage Sig.
(in Million Rp) No Yes Total
Amount % Amount % Amount %
<2 3 6 11 22 14 28
2-5 10 20 17 34 27 54
>5 3 6 6 12 9 18 0,581
Total 16 32 34 68 50 100
Source: Processed Primary Data, 2016

Based on cross-tabulations (crosstabs) conducted between income and internet usage, obtained that:
a. Number of respondents who earn < 2 million rupiahs as many as 14 people (28%) with the details that do
not using internet as much as 3 people (6%) and 11 people (22%) using internet.
b. Number of respondents who earn 2 5 million rupiahs as many as 27 people (54%) with the details that do
not using internet as much as 10 people (20%) and 17 people (34%) using internet.
c. Number of respondents who earn > 5 million rupiahs as many as 9 people (18%) with the details that do not
using internet as much as 3 people (6%) and 6 people (12%) using internet.
Based on the results of Chi-Square analysis obtained with a significant value, p = 0.581 >0.05, which
shows no significant relationship between income and internet usage in housewives who actively organize in

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PKK Manado. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of age, education, and
income simultaneously on internet usage to housewives who actively organize in PKK Manado. The results of
analysis are shown in Table 6.

Table 6. Logistic Regression Analysis Result


B Wald Sig.
AGE -1,111 4,367 0,037
EDUCATION 0,523 1,467 0,226
INCOME -0,067 0,018 0,895
Source: Processed Primary Data, 2016

Based on Table 6 it can be seen that age significantly affect internet usage, which is indicated by
significance value (p) 0,037 < 0,05; while education and income did not significantly affect internet usage,
which is indicated by significance value (p) both variables > 0,05.

V. Discussion
Descriptive analysis showed that all housewives who actively organize in PKK Manado using a mobile
phone where its use is prevalent in all age levels. Home telephone usage is only done by 8 respondents, or 16
percent of total respondents. This is consistent with data from the Ministry of Communications and Information
Technology (www.kemkominfo) which stated that the use of mobile phones in Indonesia is increasing. The
dynamics of the mobile phone has become a primary need to establish rapid communication among the people
to make the mobile phone has been shifted which was originally a secondary requirement is the primary
requirement. Besides the development of mobile phone which is currently dominated by smart phones show the
user is no longer a part of the communication needs, but it has become part of the lifestyle. This can be seen
when the smart phone accessory that is increasingly diverse, meet the desires of its fashion.
Descriptive analysis also showed that Internet usage within housewives reached 68%, Internet users are
dominated by mobile phones as Internet media reaches 60% housewives (in line with the result that mobile
phone users reached 100%), 67, 65% housewives access the internet every day, and 56% housewives access the
internet to open up social networking sites such as BBM, Line, Whatsapp and Facebook.
The results are consistent with the results of research from Association of Indonesian Internet Service
Provider in cooperation with the Center for the Study of Communication, University of Indonesia in 2014 which
showed that the majority of Internet users in Indonesia are in urban areas where the number of the second to the
workers and the self-employed (55%) is students and housewives, amounting to 34% of all internet users in
Indonesia by 88 million people, internet users in Indonesia is dominated by mobile phones as internet media
reaches 85%, 80% of internet users in Indonesia access the internet every day, and 87% access for open social
networking sites such as BBM, Line, Whatsapp and Facebook (Indonesian Internet Service Provider
Association, 2015). Another study by Imelda and Andayani (2011) on housewives shows an interesting thing
where as a function of educators and heads of household, the Internet serves as a tool for communication,
resource sharing, resource discovery and community functions. On resource sharing functions, respondents see
the Internet as a search function information about child development, things are good while the popular fashion
and lifestyle. Instead Imelda and Andayani research shows that the communication function is very rarely used.
Housewife in Imelda research and resource discovery Andayani choose function over represented themselves as
the primary educator in the family. This function is selected in the face of the globalization of the world, so that
respondents feel the need to equip themselves to face it. In the context of supervision of children, respondents
prioritize resource sharing functionality to equip themselves to information via internet not always contain a
positive value. The results are consistent with Imelda and Andayani (2011) research which shows awareness of
the importance of Internet usage in the housewife groups. ICT especially the electronic media are considered
more accessible, faster and cheaper to provide new information. The research also shows even if the Internet is
not so popular for housewife due to lack of time for training, but they are already aware of the importance of
ICT in preparing future generations, so that ICT can help them take care of children, especially in the
development of physical and mental. The result of chi square analysis and logistic regression sees a relationship
between age, education, and housewives income with internet usage shows that the age of housewives has a
significant effect on internet usage; while education and income not significantly affect and did not have a
relation with internet usage. This result is due to various levels of housewives age majority that using internet, at
various levels of housewives education that high school educated dominates more than 50% amounting to 64%
while housewives that junior high school educated and magister was minimal which was respectively only 2%;
on income, housewives that earn 2-5 million reached 54% but only 34% able to use internet, while they who
earn >5 million is 18% but only 12% using internet. Internet users percentage of housewives that earn >5
million is smaller than housewives who earn <2 million especially when compared with housewives who earn 2-
5 million rupiahs.

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VI. Conclusion And Suggestion


Conclusion from this research are:
1. The use of smartphones among housewives that actively organize in PKK Manado City reached one
hundred percent, at the level of junior high school to magister with various amount of income.
2. The use of internet among housewives that actively organize in PKK Manado City reached 68% where
media usage is largely (60%) through mobile phone or smart phone.
3. Internet access by internet users was done every day by 67,65% housewife; 23,53% used 1-4 times a week,
while the rest (8,82%) reported using internet 1-2 times a month.
4. The use of internet among housewives that actively organize in PKK Manado City is still limited on social
media usage, where 56% admitted spending hours internet to open up social networking sites such as BBM,
LINE, Whatsapp and Facebook; 50% searching information, while the use of email is limited to 22%,
online shopping 10% and only 2% using internet to enter the world of banking.
5. All respondents felt that ICT has an important function in anticipation of globalization, which positive and
negative aspects of ICT is also a concern of respondents, and they agreed on the importance of training in
order to equip themselves better.
6. Age significantly effect on internet usage, while education and income had no significant effect.

Based on conclusion above, advice or suggestion that can be given are:


1. The need for socialization of this research results to related parties, so that ICT can provide benefits for all
people.
2. The need for the addition of profession variables related to housewifes profile to find out the relation with
internet usage.
3. To enhance the benefits of ICT among housewives, it is advisable to do ICT training especially in relation to
the use of internet as an information channel and how to gather those information for families empowering.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Dr. Ferry Ramon Tumiwa for his assistance, editing and suggestions that substantially
improved the content of the paper.

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