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2.12 Valves
2.12.1 General

Valves shall be suitable for use with the fluid being conveyed at the temperatures
and pressures required for the application. Generally, pressure designation shall
not be less than PN 1.0.valves shall have integral flanges drilled as specified in
relevant latest IS specifications or BS: 4504. Flanges to other standards shall be
used only if approved and provided that any differences do not affect mating
dimensions. Back faces of flanges shall be machined. Sluice valves and butterfly
valves shall be suitable for flow in either direction. Sluice valves shall comply with
IS: 14846 or other relevant latest IS specifications, IS: 2685:1971, IS: 2906:1984

and IS specifications or BS: 5155/ WWA-C 504/1980. Reflux /check valves shall
conform to IS: 5312 or BS: 5153.

Valves shall be suitable for frequent operation, and for infrequent operation after
long periods of standing either open or closed. Rubber used in valves shall be
ethylene propylene rubber (EPDM or EPM) or styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). It
shall comply with the requirements of Appendix B of BS: 5155 or of latest I S
specifications, be suitable for making a long term flexible seals, and be resistant to
anything causing deterioration of the flexible seal.
2.12.2 Eccentric Plug Valve

Eccentric Plug Valves shall be of the tight closing, resilient faced, non-lubricating
variety and shall be of eccentric design such that the valves pressure member
(plug) rises off the body seat contact area immediately upon shaft rotation during
the opening movement. Valves shall be drop-tight at the rated pressure (175 psi
through 12", 150 psi 14" and above) and shall be satisfactory for applications
involving throttling service as well as frequent or infrequent on-off service. The
valve closing member should rotate approximately 90 degrees from the full-open
to full-close position and vice-versa. The valve body shall be constructed of cast
iron (semi-steel) conforming to ASTM A126, Class B. Body ends shall be:

1. Flanged with dimensions, facing, and drilling in full conformance with A-ANSI
B16.1, Class 125. This includes flange thickness. 2. Mechanical joint to meet
requirements of AWWA C111/ANSI A21.11. 3. Grooved ends to meet
requirements of AWWA C606.

Eccentric plug valves shall have a rectangular or circular shaped port. Port areas
for 3 20 valves shall be a minimum 80% of full pipe area.

Valve seat surface shall be welded-in overlay, cylindrically shaped of not less that
90% pure nickel. Seat area shall be raised, with raised areas completely covered
with weld to insure proper seal contact. The machined seat area shall be a
minimum of .125 thick and .500" wide.

The valve plug shall be constructed of cast iron (semi-steel) conforming to ASTM -
A126, Class B. The plug shall have cylindrical seating surface that is offset from
the center of the plug shafts. The plug shafts shall be integral. The entire plug
shall be 100% encapsulated with Buna-N rubber in all valve sizes. The rubber
compound shall be approximately 70 (Shore A) durometer hardness. The rubber
to metal bond must withstand 75 lbs. pull under test procedure ASTM D - 429 - 73
Method B. Shaft bearings, upper and lower, shall be sleeve type metal bearings,
centered; oil impregnated and permanently lubricated type 316 stainless steel
conforming to ASTM A743 Grade CF-8M. Thrust bearings shall be Nylatron.

Plug valve shaft seals shall be on the multiple V-ring type (Chevron) and shall be
adjustable. All packing shall be replaceable without removing the bonnet or
actuator and while the valve is in service. Shaft seals shall be made of Buna-N.

Each valve shall be given a test against the seat at the full rated working pressure
and a hydrostatic shell test at twice the rated working pressure. Certified copies of
individual tests shall be submitted when requested. Certified copies of proof-of-
design tests shall be submitted upon request.
Manual valves shall have lever or worm gear type actuators with hand wheels, 2"
square nuts, or chain wheels attached. Lever actuators shall be furnished on
valves 8" and smaller where the maximum unseating pressure is 25 psig or less.
Worm gear type actuators shall be furnished on all 4" or larger valves where the
maximum unseating pressure is 25 psig or more.

100% port eccentric plug valves shall be designed and/or tested to meet the
following standards:

1. AWWA C517-05 Resilient-Seated Cast-Iron Eccentric Plug Valve.

2. ANSI flange drilling conforms to ANSI B16.1, Class 125 and ANSI B16.5,
Class 150.
3. Mechanical-joint end connections conform to ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11.
4. MSS-SP91 guidelines for manual operation of valves.
5. Metric 10 bar flange drilling conform to the NP 10 requirements ISO 2084,
to the 10 bar requirements of BS: 4504
6. Metric 16 bar flange drilling conform to the NP 16 requirements of ISO
2084, to the 16 bar requirements of BS: 4504
7. British Table D flange drilling and Table E flange drilling conform to BS:

2.12.3 Gate Valves (Sluice Valves)

The design, manufacture and construction features of sluice valves shall comply
with IS 14846 or equivalent international standards. The valve shall be suitable for
installation with the valves or spindle in any position. Valve flange shall be parallel
to each other and flange face shall be right angle to valves center line. Backside of
the valves flanges shall be machined or spot faced for proper seating of bolt head
and nut. Sluice valves shall be double flanged rising stem type. The valves shall
be provided with hand wheel. The valves shall be closed with clockwise rotation of
the hand wheel. The direction of closing and opening shall be marked on the hand
Valves of 350mm & above shall be provided with renewable shoe channel
arrangement so that gate shall be guided throughout its travel.
Valves up to 300mm shall be provided with manual wheel arrangement. Valves
above 300mm & up to 500mm shall be provided with manual enclosed gear
arrangement and above 600mm size shall be provided with electric actuator
All the valves shall be subjected to hydraulic test as per relevant code.

Martial of construction:
1. Body and wedge - CI as per IS 210 Gr FG-260
2. Spindle - Stain less steel IS: 6603(04cr
19 Ni 9)
3. Spindle nut - Bronze IS: 318 LTB-2
4. Body and seat ring - SS-316/CF-8M
5. Shoe and channel lining - SS-304
6. Fasteners - SS-304.
7. Bearing - SKG/FAG.
2.12.4 Non-return (Check) Valves

Non return Valve shall be of swing or Ball type.

Swing Type Non Return Valve:-
The design, manufacture & construction features of Non- return valves comply
with IS 5312 I for single door type & IS-5312 II for multi door type or equivalent
international standards. Non-return swing check valves shall be designed for rapid
closing without slamming no later than the moment forward flow stops. The valve
design shall be chosen to give the best performance possible. Taking in to
account of the system where valve is installed, the effect of any surge in the
system as well as static & dynamic heads shall be included in the assessment.
If self-closing without slamming cannot be achieved, external mechanism may be
used to control the closure rate. Details of mechanism will be subjected to
approval. Non return valve used in sludge system shall not be installed vertically
positioned so that solids can settle against the valve flap when flap is closed.
Direction of flow shall be clearly embossed on the valve body. Valves of size
600m & above shall be of multi door type.
The materials of construction of different parts of swing type check valve shall be
as follows.
1. Body & door - Cl conforming to IS 210 Gr FG260
2. Body rings - conforming to SS-316.
3. Door rings - conforming to SS-316.
4. Bearing bushes - Leaded tin bronze IS 318GrLTB-2.
5. Ball (if applicable) - To be covered with EPDM rubber.
6. Bolt & nuts - SS-304.
Test: The necessary tests shall be carried out as relevant code.
2.12.5 Butterfly Valves

All butterfly valves shall be of PN-1 rating manually operated having double-
flanged sturdy valve body with face-to-face length & flange drilled (IS 1538)
generally conforming to IS13095 requirement. The material of construction of
various components shall be suitable for handling sewage.

Body, Disc and Disc Cover Cast Iron- IS210 Grade- FG 300
SG Iron SG 400/12 IS:1865
Disc Seal EPDM rubber
Stainless steel- ASTM A-276, Grade
Body Seat ring
AISI: 316
Split thrust ring Bronze IS:318 LTB-2
Flanged bush bearing Bronze IS :318 LTB-2
Stub shaft NDE Stainless Steel: 316
sleeve SS-410
Dowel Pin Stainless Steel: 316
Drive Shaft Stainless Steel: 316
Gasket CAF IS: 2712
O ring Nitrile rubber
Fasteners SS-304
Bearings Gunmetal, BS1400, Grade: LG2

Seat leakage test: All valves shall be tested for leakage through the seat at 1.5
times the rated pressure.
Hydrostatic body test: All valves are tested at 1.5 times the rated pressure for
verifying the strength of the body and check for porosity in castings. Disc strength
test at body test pressure.
All valves shall have mechanical indicator arrangement for disc position indication
and mechanical stops to limit over travel of disc.
All valves shall be checked for correct mechanical operation, dimensions and
2.12.6 Pressure-Relief Valves (PRV)

Pressure relief valves shall be designed to prevent the pressure in the pipeline
upstream of the valve rising above present level. The valve shall remain closed at
lower pressures. The pressure at which the valve opens shall be adjustable. A
pressure gauge shall be provided to indicate upstream pressure over the
operating range of the valve. Safety valves shall comply with BS: 6759: part 1.

They shall be designed to open at the specified pressure and re-close and prevent
further release of fluid after normal pressure has been restored. The
pressure/temperature rating shall be in accordance with table PE-1 in BS: 1560:
Part 2. Shell materials shall be from the materials listed in table PE-1 BS: 1560:
part 2. Flanged ends shall be class 900, raised face type complying with ANSI
B16.25 or Table PE-1 of BS: 1560. Butt-welded ends shall be in accordance with
Section 8 of BS: 1868.

2.12.7 Ball Valves

Ball valves shall conform where applicable to BS:5159. Multi piece bodies shall be
used where work on the ball and seats when installed may be needed. If valves
need removal for servicing, one-piece bodies may be used. Seat materials shall
be chosen for long life, with erosion and corrosion resistance. Ball supports shall
be of the floating ball or trunnion type. If line pressure is too low to ensure a
positive leak-free seal, built-in seat loading devices, or specially shaped seatings
shall be used to ensure sealing.

2.12.8 Knife Gate Valves

The valve shall meet requirements of MSS SP 81

Outer body shall be provided with inner liner in corrosion resistant stainless steel
which shall extend in to the gland.
The body shall be devoid of any wedge/dead pockets to avoid setting of
suspended particles and solid in the service fluid.
The gate /plate shall be precision buffed and the edge contoured to a knife edge.
The gate move along /is guided by the seat ring to ensure that it scraps any
deposit/scale enabling smooth uninterrupted movement. Seat shall be so
designed that there is no recess /relieve groove to harbor deposition that could
build up and swamp the valve. The design shall also in-corporate bosses that
guide the gate and avoid deflection ensuring positive shut off. The stem shall have
double start threads cut in order to ensure smooth and speedy operation. Gland
packing shall offer minimum frictional resistance. As positive sealing element; the
packing shall also include a resilient rubber ring.
The knife edge and seat face in flow path shall be hard faced to a hardness of 400 to 450
BHN to counter erosion. In such cases, provision shall be made to ensure the fluid
contact with seat ring is minimal.

The material of construction of valve shall be as follows.

S.No Component Material

Body C.I IS .210 Gr FG-260/DI
Inter lining S.S. BS.970 Gr 316
Knife gate /plate S.S. BS.970 Gr 316.
Stem S.S. BS.970 Gr 316
Seating/Boss S.S. BS.970 Gr 316
Gland housing C.I .IS-210 Gr FG260
Gland housing Teflon impregnated with asbestos rubber

2.12.9 Fire Hydrant Valve

Supply, delivery and fixing brand new underground CI Fire Hydrant (sluice type)
valve conforming to IS:909-1992 with 63.5 mm Instantaneous pattern single outlet
fitted with bolts and nuts, CI loose cap fitted with wrought iron chain, tested to a
pressure of 10 Kg/Cm2 and providing, fixing and jointing true to line, alignment
and gradient suitable dia. CI double flanged sluice valve (IS:14846), DI D/F pipe,
tail pieces, duck foot bend, connecting sleeves as per relevant IS.

The Fire hydrant valve shall be along with surface box.

The material of construction of various components shall be as follows:

Valve Body /Bonnet :Cast Iron- IS210 Grade- FG 200

Valve :GM IS-318
Valve seat :GM IS-318
Spindle : Brass IS :319
Spindle Nut : : GM IS-318
Retainer/ clamping ring : MS 2062 GR .F e 410
Chain : Galvanized MS
Spindle Cap/ Cap : C.I IS-210
outlet : GM IS-318
Gland : C.I IS-210
Fasteners : G.I IS 1367/SS

2.14 Valve Operation

Shafts and caps for tee-key operated valves. Operating and extension shafts for
valves operated by the tee key shall be caped. Extensions shafts shall be circular
section. For valves installed in chambers, extension shafts shall be provided with
split bearings, rigidly held on brackets spaced not more than 1500mm apart. For
buried valves, the shaft shall be supported inside a protecting tube held on a
purpose made support, which shall be fixed to top of the valve and provided with a
shaft guide. Bearings and shafts shall be suitably protected against corrosion.
Extension shaft couplings shall be provided with locking arrangements.

2.15 Manual Operating Mechanisms

Manual closing of valves shall be by the clockwise rotation of a tee key or hand
wheel. Tee-key operated valves shall be provided with detachable cast iron shaft
caps, with keys to match the cap. One key shall be supplied for every five valves
installed, with a minimum requirement of two keys in any one size. Hand wheels
shall be shaped to give a safe grip without sharp projections clearly marked with
the direction of opening and closing and shall be fitted with integral locking
devices. A padlock and chain will not be acceptable for locking. Manually operated
valves and penstock shall be capable of being opened and closed by one person,
when the specified max. Unbalanced pressure id applied to the valve or penstock.
Under this condition the total force required at the rim of the hand wheel or at the
tee key to open the valve or penstock from the closed position shall not exceed 30
kg (15 kg each hand).

Where necessary, gearing and bearings shall be provided and the hand wheel
sized to fulfill this requirement. Gearboxes shall be totally enclosed oil bath
lubricated. Thrust bearings shall be provided so that the gear case may be opened
for inspection or be dismantled without releasing the stem thrust or taking the
valve or penstock out of service. Oil and grease lubricated gearing, bearings and
glands shall be protected against the ingress of dust and moisture. Operating
mechanism shall be of the weatherproof type and those parts subject to
submergence shall have a degree of protection IP68 to BS: 5490 at a depth of
submergence of 5m. Where practicable, operating mechanisms shall be fitted with
mechanical position indicators clearly visible from the operating position.
Headstocks of the non rising shaft type shall each have an index pointer working
over a graduated, open-to-closed position indicator fixed to the side of the pillar.

2.16 Electric Actuators

Electric actuators shall operate valves and penstocks at opening and closing rates
that will not impose unacceptable surge pressures on the pipe work. Actuators
shall be rated at not less than 20 percent in excess of the power required to
operate the valve or penstock under maximum working conditions. Actuator
enclosures shall have a minimum protection IPW 65 to BS: EN 60529. Actuator
electric motors shall permit the successive full travel operation of the travel from
open to closed and vice versa but shall not be less than 15 minutes. For
modulating type actuators the motor shall have a duty-type rating (DTR) to meet
the varying cyclic load requirements of the valve. Electric motors shall be provided
with built-in thermal protection complying with BS: 4999 Part 111. Actuators shall
be complete with:

1. An alternative system for manual hand wheel and reduction gear

operation which shall be lockable.
2. An interlock, to prevent engagement of the hand wheel whilst the actuator
is being power drive and to disengage the manual drive positively when
the power drive is started.
3. Reserving type motor starter complete with isolating switch.
4. Local and remote control selector switch when specified, which shall be
5. Open, stop and close push-buttons.
6. Potentiometer for remote valve position indication when remote control is
7. Torque switches for mechanical disengagement of the drive at the
extremes of valve operation to limit excess torque.
8. Supply failure and remote control available monitoring relays. The supply
failure relay shall operate under single phasing relays as necessary.
9. Auxiliary and interposing relay as necessary.
10. Voltage-free changeover type contacts for the remote indication of
11. Motor tripped on overload
12. Fully open
13. Fully closed
14. Operating
15. Supply failed
16. Remote control available

The rating of volt-free contacts shall be not less than 15A at 240 V A.C and 2 A at
50 D.C unless otherwise specified. The contacts shall be suitable for inductive
load switching. Anti-condensation heater: Separate or segregated terminal boxes
shall be provided for the connection motor, heater and control cables.

2.17 Valve Packaging and Installation

The Contractor shall provide all equipment needed to handle and install valves
and associated equipment without damage to any coatings. The equipment shall
include lifting beams, reinforced canvas slings, protective padding, cradles and the
like. Wire rope or chain slings shall not be used for handling these items.
Temporary packing, coverings or crates provided for protection in transit shall not
be removed (except for inspection purposes after which they shall be replaced)
until immediately before installation.

2.17.1 Marking and Packing

Each valve shall be indelibly marked with the diameter pressures rating and shall
carry a unique reference number to enable each item to be clearly identified with
works fabrication records; works test certificates, delivery notes and the like.

Wherever possible, the identification marks shall be painted on the outside of the
item but where there is not enough smooth surface area for the identification
marks they shall be put on rust proofed metal tags secured to the item with gal
vanished wire or chain (not through flange holes). Valves shall be packed in the
closed position except that uncrated resilient seat gate valves for transport to
tropical areas shall be in the open position.

2.17.2 Valve Installation

Valves shall be installed and commissioned in accordance with the manufacturers

instructions. After installation, valves shall be cleaned, gates, discs, seats and
other moving parts closely inspected, foreign matter removed, and the valves
checked for ease of operation. Moving parts shall be lightly greased or otherwise
treated in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.

Unless otherwise specified or directed by the Engineer, butterfly valves shall be

enclosed in chambers, installed with the shaft horizontal, and supported as
detailed on the drawings. They shall be installed so that when the valve is opening
the lower portion of the disc moves in the direction of the main or normal flow.
Unless shown otherwise on the drawings, gates valves shall be installed with their
shafts vertical.

Gate valves without external gearing, and not otherwise required to be in a

chamber, may be buried. The buried part of the valve shall be protected as
specified. Unless otherwise specified, backfilling shall be to just below the top of
the valve or shaft shroud, and a surface box shall be provided. Jointing, sleeving,
external wrapping, anchor and thrust blocks, valve chambers, valve marker posts
and the cleaning and disinfections of valves shall be executed as specified for the
associated pipeline.