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Raymond Peat, Ph.D.

Phosphate and Calcium Metabolism

KMUD, 2012

(transcribed by Sweetly, verified by Burtlancast)

Andrew: Please give us a rundown of your academic and professional career Peat.

Peat: I've been interested in nutrition for many years, and between 1968 and 1972, I
studied biology at the University of Oregon, concentrated on the chemistry and
physiology of aging, especially the reproductive system. And that got me interested
in many related processes. Before I went to graduate school, I lived in Mexico, and
was interested in the economics of nutrition and how to optimize good nutrition on
minimum income. And I saw that the ancient Indian civilization had made some
great technological advances in processing corn; corn normally has quite a few
toxins in it; but they discovered that cooking it with lime, calcium hydroxide, made
it more edible and less toxic. And so, the traditional diet there was extremely rich in
calcium, just as part of the tortilla and other processed corn. And that turns out to be
something thats increasingly of interest to the biochemists of aging in the last 5 or
10 years; phosphate had sort of been ignored for about 100 years in biology because
it was sort of like water to a fish, it's always there. And the inorganic form of it is
usually just considered as sort of the raw material from which you activate proteins
or form adenosine triphosphate (the energy containing molecule) and so on. But
recently, the inorganic phosphate in itself is turning out to be very central for all
metabolic processes.

Sarah: So how were the south Americans making the lime? Just mining limestone?

Peat: Yea, you burn limestone, then soak it in water and cook your corn in basically
almost pure calcium hydroxide. And that partly it makes soap out of the fatty
acids; and so it removes the toxic unsaturated fats, which interfere with hormones.
And it changes some of the amino acids; ordinary corn tends to have too much
leucine, and that contributes to some of the toxic symptoms. But it's normally
deficient in some of the vitamins; and it happens that the lime process converts
tryptophan to niacin; and so it's like a niacin vitamin supplement. And that's why the
nutrition diseases that occurred in the U.S., southern states, among people who lived
largely on corn, never occurred in the traditional Indian cultures.

Andrew: You've warned against tryptophan as being potentially harmful...

Peat: Yes and the process of turning it into niacin happens to be very important in
regulating phosphate, which otherwise would be one of the toxic features of any
grain. Cereals, beans, seeds of any sort, have a very high ratio of phosphorus to
calcium. So, they (the Indians) are not only adding calcium, but they're giving a
means for regulating your phosphate more perfectly, because niacin happens to be
an anti-phosphate nutrient.

Sarah: So, is there a recipe they follow or just trial and error with dried corn and

Peat: Yea, the recipe seems to be a big kettle full of corn and a big spoonful full of
lime, and cook it until the shells pop off the corn; the little transparent husk loosens
as the corn kernel swells up and becomes hominy. And so when it looks like
hominy, you stir it a little to separate the cellulose husks. And traditionally, they
would let it stand in that liquid for a day, and that makes sure the process is well

Andrew: Would you be able to do a similar thing with fire ashes?

Peat: Yea, that probably is better for some of the nutrients. And it makes a very
delicious product; corunda is one of the tamale-like foods made with ashes instead
of the calcium.

Andrew: I picked up on what you said about the fatty acids and this is like
saponification in soap-making, you said that the fatty acids that are normally
something that you'd wanna keep down are actually esterified, I guess, by the
process and so that is similar to soap-making ?

Peat: Yea, I don't know if they originally used the stuff for washing their clothes,
but it is like a soapy solution that they pour off after the <staining?>.

Sarah: Well, when I was visiting the mountains of Mexico and watching them make
their different corn preparations, they used ashes for a certain type of product and
lime for different types. And I couldn't quite understand which ones used which. But
they were very specific that the ashes were only for certain types.

Peat: Yea, they're both very delicious.

Sarah: Haha, they were ALL very delicious.

Andrew: You've done a lot of research [Peat] and you've said time and time again
aging as a broad-base subject and I think the feature of tonight's discussion about
inorganic phosphate, and how prevalent it's become in today's commercial food
industry (and we'll get into the reasons why in a bit). The pathology that comes from
it is pretty interesting, because the aging process is something inherently that most
people would want to stave off as long as possible and stay as healthy as possible.
Because everything that we do, if we're not careful, contributes to degeneration and
oxidation and the aging process. So, can you talk a little bit about the age-related
changes that occur with inorganic phosphate consumption and where the bulk of
people's inorganic phosphate is coming from?

Peat: The main sources are meat and seeds, beans and nuts, whole wheat, much
more than refined white flour or white polished rice; those have the germ removed
(and the germ contains most of the phosphate). So, it sounds funny to say that white
rice and white bread have advantages; but nutritionally, they do.

Sarah: Because they also don't also have the PUFA ?

Peat: Yes. And other toxins as well. But the vegetable source of calcium that has the
least phosphate would be leaves. And so since cows naturally prefer to eat a lot of
leaves, cow's milk has a very good ratio of calcium to phosphorus.

Andrew: What's a good calcium/phosphate ratio?

Peat: Milk and cheese are about 1.3 to 1. And human milk is much better. I think if
cow's weren't given grain supplements that their milk would have an even higher

Sarah: Does grass-fed cow milk have a better ratio?

Peat: Yea I think so. And a lot of people habitually eat a ratio of roughly 5, 6 or 7
times as much phosphate as calcium, probably shouldn't exceed about 2 parts of
phosphate for each calcium. And if you stick to mostly cheese and milk centered diet
for your proteins, you'll stay close to a 1 to 1 ratio.

Sarah: What is the maximum recommended daily allowance of milk in regard to its
phosphate content ?

Peat: In a quart [of milk] you get about 1200-1250mg calcium, and just under a
1000mg of phosphate. So a quart and half you'd around 1.5g of phosphate.

Sarah: How much meat, grains, whole grains or legumes would be the maximum to
eat in a day?

Peat: Probably something like half a pound would be tolerable.

Sarah: Then if you want to put some eggs and cheese in there, maybe a little less
than half a pound .

Peat: Yeah, you have to displace one phosphate source for the other.

Andrew: We're not anti-vegetarianism; neither are we pro-meat eating because they
have all their benefits and their costs. You say meats have fairly high amounts of
phosphate, Ray?

Peat: Yeah. And the calcium in meat is very low, it's as high as 10/1 phosphate over

Andrew: Describe the cellular aging effects of phosphate and how we, as consumers
of phosphate, can be harming ourselves if not careful ?

Peat: In the last few years, a strange mutant mouse was discovered; they named it
klotho for a Greek fate; this mutant mouse aged very rapidly and had most of the
features of human aging, such as decreased lung function, respiratory failure,
hardening of the arteries, osteoporosis, wrinkling of the skin, all of the basic things
we think of as aging (calcification generally; deposition of calcium phosphate where
it shouldn't be while taking it out of bones where it should be).

Andrew: So that's the aging process in general, you just described

Sarah: So excess dietary phosphate is one of the factors in the aging processes

Peat: Yea. And lack of the nutrients such as niacin, which help to get it out of the
body and keep it from being absorbed so freely.

Andrew: There's was an article I was looking at that mentioned the link between
lung cancer and an increased inorganic phosphate consumption. Say a little about
the industrialized food production, and the inorganic phosphate that's used in the
production of foods, and why. A lot of people dont know it.

Peat: I think it was probably in the 60s when they started finding that I think it
was because the government started regulating the adulteration of meats; they had
been simply adding salt water in huge amounts. They started regulating how much
water they could put in meat, they started defining the chemicals that could be used.
And it turned out that phosphate, various forms, polyphosphate and phosphate salts
were effective for making meat hold more water. And once that was approved it
became very standard. And so, all of the things you buy in delicatessens are likely to
be hydrated ham now, as I think, unless you have it specially made, it's going to be
hydrated with something like 15% extra weight. So they charge for it as if it is all
meat, it makes it much more profitable.

Sarah: And also, the diapers underneath pieces of meat in grocery stores that have
pre-cut pieces of meat for sale are usually very water-logged

Peat: They can give these chemicals to animals and cause them to have edema at the
time they slaughter them. And that counts as the starting weight, and then they can
add 15% beyond that. So, if you have very edematous animals, your meat is even
more profitable.

Sarah: Untreated fresh meat doesn't leak water. You said Peat, that it's hard to fry
steak anymore because of the insane water content, ending up being boiled not fried.

Peat: In the 50s, I liked to have fried ham with eggs for breakfast; but starting in the
60s, I found that I couldn't get anything but boiled ham. Just put it on the frying pan
and it would just full up the pan with water.

Sarah: Unless it's like a prosciutto that's been dry-cured, it's probably injected with
a lot of water. That's probably why prosciutto is so expensive, then

Peat: Yeah. And this generally means that you're getting a tremendous extra amount
of phosphate.

Sarah: So not only is meat already high in phosphate, they're adding extra
phosphate to it. This is why they're noticing 5-6 times dietary intake of phosphates.

Peat: Yea.

Sarah: So what are the best sources of calcium to balance increased phosphate

Peat: In plant materials, leaves really are a great source of calcium. Turnip greens,
for example, have about 10 times as much calcium as phosphate; others, not quite as
much. But then you have to choose your leaves according to the toxins that you want
to minimize. The cabbage family is anti-thyroid. And all leaves have a fairly high
unsaturated fat content, that can interfere with protein digestion. And so, if you can
process the leaves ideally, then you can get very good nutrition out of the leaves,
(high protein and high calcium). Otherwise, milk and cheese are pretty much the
alternatives sources, unless you want to grind up eggshells (that's basically pure
calcium carbonate).

Sarah: I like to recommend nettle leaf steeped over night, because it has a lot of
calcium (I think 1000mg per half cup of leaves soaked in a quart of water

Peat: Yeah. If you boil any of these leaves, turnip leaves, for example, you can just
boil them quickly, get out most of the calcium, and then throw away the leaf, and
have a good supplement.

Sarah: You've mentioned that baking soda added to spinach and chard helps to
block oxalic acid and to release the minerals from the cellulose fibers ?

Peat: Yes. It happens that baking soda has some of the same benefits that
niacinamide has; it helps your body to excrete phosphate more easily. And anything
that helps your body make carbon dioxide helps to excrete phosphate. And salt and
calcium help to stimulate the production of carbon dioxide. So, foods that are high in
calcium and moderate in sodium will help to get rid of any excess phosphate.

Andrew: Kidney disease, and kidney burden can be caused by phosphate overload.
How to eat better and get a better calcium/phosphate?

Peat: Lots of doctors for years have recommended cutting down on your calcium
intake to avoid calcification. But actually, thats the same sort of reasoning that they
know that calcium excites cells, and so they say cut down calcium (if you have
seizures, or high blood pressure, or whatever). But it turns out thats a whole aspect
of calcium that has been neglected; if you are deficient in calcium you tend to get
cramps, might have seizures, bronchial spasms, asthma. The lack of calcium excites
tissues, turns on the excitotoxic mediators, triggers inflammation, and sets up the
conditions for depositing calcium. So, when you're low in calcium in your diet,
you're setting up conditions, increasing the parathyroid hormone for example, to
take calcium out of your bones to make up for what you're not eating. And the
parathyroid hormone releases serotonin, among other things, and histamine, causing
more inflammation, more calcification of the tissues, more tendency for the calcium
to combine with phosphate and settle into the arteries, kidneys, brain cells,
everywhere except the bones.

Sarah: So a calcium-deficient diet is really associated with the stimulation of a lot

of inflammatory mediators ?

Peat: Yeah. In fact, the tone of the small arteries is very responsive to calcium. So,
if you're low in calcium, your blood pressure goes up. And for about 30 years, David
McCarron has been saying it's not sodium that causes high blood pressure, it's
calcium deficiency. So, eating extra calcium can often cure hypertension. Or,
avoiding excess phosphate in the diet. Or, a good ratio; for example one of the things
that started getting me interested in phosphate was looking at the fat-free diet that
George Burr and a group did in the 1930s; they believed that unsaturated fatty acids
were nutritionally essential. So, one of their group, William Brown, went on a 6-
month fat-free diet, where his diet consisted of nothing but a total of 2500 calories a
day, made up basically of sugar, syrup, for several meals; and for supper, fat-free
cottage cheese with a small potato starch biscuit and half an orange. So basically it
was a sugar and milk diet, a gallon total of milk, some of it made into cottage cheese
for his dinner, for 6 months. He had chronically life-long migraines headaches every
week; and at work, he experienced a normal amount of fatigue at the end of the day.
And he had hypertension, 150 over a 100 sometimes. His cholesterol was 250 and he
was about 10 pounds overweight. But a few months into his diet, the sugar and milk
diet, his cholesterol had come down about 50 points, his weight stabilized about 10
pounds lower, his blood pressure came down to normal; and he never again had
migraine headaches.
One of the things they kept talking about in the article was that, surprisingly, at the
end of the work day, he wasn't tired.

Sarah: So the fat-free diet was actually good for him?

Peat: Yeah. But it was a high-calcium diet essentially. And with a ratio of 1.3 to 1
of calcium to phosphorus. And several years ago, a group at the Linus Pauling
institute wrote a review on the importance of avoiding fructose (I think it was their
point). But, they cited the study in which, where I think 10 or 11 men were put on a
diet emphasizing sugar; I think they used decaffeinated coke with HFCS as the main
carbohydrate; every meal had a cola drink. And for some reason, they, knowing a
human requires 400mg of magnesium every day, they put these men on 165mg. And
they were wanting to prove a fructose diet would cause derangement of the mineral
metabolism. And in fact, it did, but in a very surprising way. On a magnesium
deficient diet, these men went into a positive magnesium balance, meaning that
some part of their body was retaining a little extra bit of magnesium every day, like
they were growing. And also, it retained a little extra calcium, like they were
growing. But the derangement caused by the phosphate was a slight loss of
phosphate everyday; it went into a negative phosphate balance. And to do that, you
can account for increasing calcium and magnesium while losing phosphate. I think
only if they were turning over their bones and, young bone is formed from carbon
dioxide and calcium, calcium carbonate, as the first bone. Which is then replaced
with phosphate during aging. So, they were losing phosphate while gaining
magnesium and calcium; I think that meant they were building new bone.

Sarah: And that was on a high fructose diet?

Peat: Yea.

Andrew: We've got a caller.

Caller 1: Man calls in and talks about how he has arthritis in the back and asks for
diet advice.

Peat: Reducing the phosphate intake, or getting a good ratio, ideally not much over
2 to 1 in relation to calcium, I think is important. And that closely relates to thyroid,
I think; the polyunsaturated fats which interfere with thyroid function and steroid
function (they interfere with progesterone production for example) they happen to
also lower calcium in the blood. So, when you're under stress, your calcium goes
down, and tends to deposit, because specifically of the increased free fatty acids.
And so, cutting down the unsaturated fats in the diet will help to improve your
calcium ratio and your thyroid function, and other steroids which are anti-

Sarah: So, an equivalent of 3 pints of milk a day would provide 2000mg of calcium,
or a couple of glasses of milk with some eggshell/oyster shell powder or boiled
greens. 2000mg calcium would be a good start for helping your calcium levels,
while keeping your whole grains, beans and meat, to not more than 8 ounces a day.
Or, if you take a quarter teaspoon of eggshell powder 3 times a day with your meals,
that's about 2000mg.

Andrew: The recommendations have recently been coming out that phosphate
should be lowered as an additive in food because of its health repercussions; do you
think industry is listening to that?

Peat: I think they'll find some other way to make meat weigh more, some other way
to get it to hold water. I'm afraid that one of those might be the gluey substances
such as carrageen and other gums thats already in practice, where they take waste
fragments of meat or fish and add a jelly, such as carrageen or alginate, and then
glue the whole mess together with an enzyme that glues proteins together, so it looks
like a real lamb chop or squid patty, or whatever.

Andrew: These are kind of reconstituted meats ?

Peat: Yea

Andrew: We've got another caller

Caller 2: I just started listening about 30-40 minutes ago, and you were talking
about these sources being inorganic; so, would organic whole wheat, pasta, or
organic meats, have less phosphate?

Peat: No, unless they've added it to one product and not the other. But, the way the
animal is fed depends more on whether it has a lot of grass versus grains; the grains
can be organic but they're still very high in phosphate. And so the animal will be
slightly poisoned by eating them.

Sarah: So grass-fed meat and milk will have less phosphate than grain-fed, because
grains are very high in phosphate, whole-wheat pasta has more than white (refined)
pasta, for example.

Andrew: There might have been some confusion between inorganic phosphate that
occurs in food and the naturally occurring phosphate.

Sarah: The phosphate they add to waterlog the meat, versus the phosphate that
occurs naturally in the grains and the meat itself.

Peat: In physiology, when you say that the organic phosphate is a protein with a
phosphorus group on it, or the ATP molecule or such, when that releases the
phosphate, you call it inorganic, just because it's not attached to another molecule.
But we're constantly making our own inorganic phosphate molecules.

Andrew: In regard to the addition of phosphate to meats in order to bulk them up,
and the link between phosphates and aging, as decrease of function, increased
calcification, I know you've mentioned about how important calcium is, and the
misnomer that increased calcium would cause calcification, where its actually the
opposite. You said that it's possible to reverse atherosclerosis.

Sarah: Commonly referred to as hardening of arteries.

Peat: Yea, the Japanese have done studies using just vitamin K. And, very high
doses of it very effectively rebuild osteoporotic bones, while taking calcium out of
arteries in their animal studies. But vitamin K is working on cellular energy and
specifically on the handling of carbon dioxide as a group that lets the proteins handle
calcium. And things that increase your carbon dioxide work right along with vitamin
K in helping to keep the calcium and phosphate in your bones rather than in your
arteries. Even baking soda helps to build strong bones. And in the way it's acting, it's
the same as vitamin K or niacinamide; it's helping the kidneys to excrete phosphate
that you don't need, helping to deposit calcium and phosphate in the bones, while
taking it out of arteries.

Andrew: Talk a bit about parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphate.

Peat: People who have good thyroid function and get enough calcium in their diet
have a pretty low parathyroid hormone activity, towardsits the low end of what's
now considered the normal range. At the middle of the so-called normal range,
people tend to suffer inflammatory diseases, muscle pains, bone loss and so on. And
the higher the parathyroid is, the more these degenerative, inflammatory diseases
you have. And the first way to suppress excess parathyroid is by eating enough
calcium but also vitamin d, that's the next most important thing.

Sarah: So if somebody doesn't get enough calcium+vitamin d, then they will be

eating their bones?

Peat: Yeah. In an experiment with animals 35 years ago, they put one group on a
starchy diet, the other group with only sugar as the carbohydrate and a vitamin d
deficiency; and the ones on the regular starchy diet had very weak atrophied bones
because they weren't getting enough vitamin d to handle the calcium. But in that
study, the sugar diet built strong bones despite the deficiency in vitamin d. And
when you look at the experiment at the Linus Pauling institute, or the William
Brown experiment, sugar was lowering phosphate. And apparently, that accounted
for the sugar making up for a vitamin d deficiency; it helps to handle calcium
properly by helping to avoid excess phosphate.

Andrew: So do you think any of this could be an energy-driven process by this


Peat: Yes; as they saw in William Brown's study, the high-sugar diet with calcium
increased his production of carbon dioxide. When he started the experiment, his
metabolic rate was 10 or 12% below normal; when he got on that diet, it came up
almost to normal. And his production of carbon dioxide, respiratory quotient, was
higher than it had ever been.

Andrew: This would be measured by his basal body temperature right, that would
be a good way for people to assess their own metabolic rate?

Peat: Yea, that's the quickest way to look at it.

Sarah: And also, monitoring their carbon dioxide in blood tests. Talk about
phosphate concentrations in blood, there's a range of like 2.5 to 4.5 mg per
deciliter; and you said it's better when its between 2 and 3.

Peat: William Brown's was 4 when he started, came down to 2.7 to 3 I think it was.

Sarah: So that's another way people can monitor the phosphate levels in their
blood. Do you suggest people eat more sugar in the winter time due to decreased
vitamin d from sunlight?

Peat: I think, yea, it helps to activate the thyroid too; your liver needs sugar to
convert thyroxine into the active T3 hormone. And I think people tend to crave
sweets more in the winter, which is an adaptive instinct.

Andrew: I think we have a caller.

Caller 3: I have low thyroid and low body temperature, around 97. Is that what
you're talking about? Any suggestions?

Peat: If you have eaten things that suppressed your thyroid, sometimes just a
deficiency of protein can create a low thyroid state. But usually, polyunsaturated
fats, or too much of the cabbage family vegetables, too many beans and grains; all
these have some anti-thyroid agents. Change your diet away from those towards the
fruit, and milk and cheese categories. The saturated fats don't have these toxic and
thyroid effects; so, butter and coconut oil can actually help to increase your
metabolic rate and thyroid, while reducing inflammation.

Sarah: Isn't it only 1 teaspoon a day of these PUFAS that starts suppressing the
thyroid and the immune system?

Peat: Yea. They looked at various animal studies to see where starts the influence of
polyunsaturated fats in increasing the cancer mortality; it's with 4g per day for the
average human bodyweight. Even the saturated fat foods like milk and coconut oil,
cheese and butter and so on, about 2% of those fats are unsaturated. So, even when
you're avoiding the cooking oils, and mayonnaise and so on, you're still getting 2 or
3 grams a day of the PUFA, unavoidably.

Sarah: A big source is fried foods from fast food and restaurants.

Peat: The cancer mortality increases more or less in proportion with the amount of
PUFA in diet.

Sarah: The polyunsaturated fats include fish oils, hempseed, flaxseed, canola,
sunflower, soy, corn, cotton seed oils.

Caller 4: Do you suggest taking vitamin k and baking soda for hardening of

Peat: Well vitamin k, you can get a high potency formula of mixture of K1 and K2
And with that, I think, from 1 to 10mg per day, is up in the safe range, as well as
probably being therapeutic for the bones and arteries.

Caller 4: Where would you get vitamin K, and can you use baking soda instead?

Peat: Well, liver and kale are the famously rich sources. I try to eat liver once or
twice a month at least; and kale is a good source. But I've known people who
regularly take 1 or 2 teaspoons of baking soda with meals or after meals; they notice
that it increases their endurance and energy, prevents fatigue and so on.

Caller 4: Interesting, I use it myself or heartburn, it works amazingly well, almost


Peat: They've tested it on athletes; and as much as a tablespoon at the start of a race
can really improve their endurance and performance. But I think usually, the amount
you take for stomach acidity is a good amount.

Sarah: You can buy vitamin K online called Thorne Research, that's good stuff. 1
drop is 1 milligram, we're talking about 1 drop a day of this stuff, it's pretty potent.

Caller 4: You say 1 drop a day?

Sarah: Yea, Peat recommended 1-10 drops a day of Vit K.

Andrew: So let's talk about vitamin d again; many different processes are supported
by adequate vitamin d exposure, and we've talked about vitamin D in relation to
calcification, and how it can offset it or correct calcium deposition in the wrong

Peat: One of the things that is currently being studied is the so called activated
vitamin D1, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which is the kind that you make when
you're deficient in calcium or vitamin d. And it seems to have bad effects. And the
anti aging protein, klotho, suppresses the formation of that activated stuff. So, taking
a vitamin D and calcium are having a similar effect as that anti aging protein.

Andrew: So, this klotho protein... it's only been discovered since 1998?

Peat: Some time like that.

Andrew: It's a beta-glucuronidase, right?

Peat: Yeah. And no-one really understands that yet, apparently (how it works).
They just know some of the side-effects.

Andrew: But it's important as an anti aging compound then?

Peat: Yeah. And they're doing experiments with mice, increasing the production of
it makes them live extra long. Like 30% longer to have an extra dose of that protein.
But since you can do some of the same things with fructose, niacinamide, baking
soda and so on.

Sarah: Let's talk about some good foods sources of niacinamide.

Peat: Liver, milk, cheese, eggs, tortillas

Sarah: Coffee?

Peat: Yea, dark-roast coffee is a very good source, of also magnesium, which works
against phosphate with calcium.

Sarah: How many milligrams of niacinamide is in a cup of coffee?

Peat: I figured that I was getting with the dark-roast coffee, I could get close to
40mg a day just from the coffee, drinking several cups.

Andrew: As far as the perspective of calcium and phosphate intake balance, people
who eat foods high in phosphate should be attentive in consuming adequate
calcium; and it has nothing to do with siding with meat eating or vegetarianism.
Calcium and Vit D intake is very important in controlling hardening of the arteries.

Peat: Whenever you eat the high-phosphate foods like meats or nuts, if you're
constantly having some sugar along with it fructose in the intestine increases the
resistance of the intestine to taking up phosphate. So, it's like a phosphate blocker in
the intestine, while a phosphate loss promoter in the kidneys.

Sarah: Good sugar sources are honey, fruit, milk, saccharose etc. Those are good
sources of sugar, having in them fructose or lactose (which has similar actions to

Peat: It's sort of equivalent to protecting against the high iron content of meat, by
having some coffee at the same meal. But if you put sugar in the coffee, then you're
protecting against the phosphate too.

Sarah: And protecting your adrenal glands from lowered blood sugar.

Peat: Mmhm.

Andrew: All these things they never talk about that are actually good for you.
Obviously, the saturated animal fats, lots of milk, calcium, cheese,our ancestors
had this figured out for thousands of years. Were coming back now from where we
came from. Thank you so much for your time Dr Peat.

Peat: Thank you.