Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the

listeners. The art and science of public speaking, especially in a North American competitive environment, is also known as forensics. The word 'forensic' is an adjective meaning "of public debate or argument." The word is derived from the Latin forensis, meaning "of the forum." The sense of the word "forensic" that means "pertaining to legal trials" dates from the 1600s (Oxford English Dictionary) and led to the use of the word "forensics" in reference to legal evidence. In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining.

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If you mean "kinds of speeches that are delivered to an audience," then the one system of classification uses the following general goals: 1. to entertain -- the speech that has no purpose other than to get the audience's attention and to hold it; 2. to inform -- the speech that seeks to convey to the audience some information, understanding, or skill; 3. to persuade: (a) to convince the audience of the correctness of an intellectual position (uses mostly logical arguments); (b) to stimulate the audience to change attitudes or values (uses mostly emotional arguments); (c) to actuate the audience to take some course of action (uses both logical and emotional arguments). Here are some examples of how those types of speeches can be used with one topic: photography. 1. to entertain the audience with an account of how you lost your camera, went through a series of adventures while looking for it, and eventually found that your cat had dragged into the hall closet and was repeatedly setting off the flash unit with its paw. 2. to inform the audience of the comparative features of film cameras and digital cameras. 3. (a) to convince the audience that paying for some specific features of a camera is a wise investment; (b) to stimulate the audience to value photographic art as highly as we generally value graphic art; to actuate the audience to pay more attention to the skill and art of taking family and vacation pictures.
A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. A study analyzed quantitatively the effectiveness of public communication as practiced by college students in an introductory speech course. The aim of the study was to test empirically the principles of rhetorical theory on which the teaching of beginning public speaking is commonly based. The study investigated the relationship of mode of delivery--extemporaneous and manuscript-to effectiveness in public communication. Twenty-four samples of extemporaneous and manuscript taped speeches given by undergraduate students were analyzed by students in a communication theory course. Results indicated a significant relationship between the mode of delivery chosen by the speaker and the criteria on which the speech was evaluated. Credibility of the speaker, adaptation to the audience, the use of delivery techniques, and total effectiveness of the communication had a greater significant relationship to the mode of delivery than to organization of ideas and development of ideas. Results also showed a significant relationship between the mode of delivery chosen by the speaker and the positive effectiveness of his/her communication. Most of the speeches ranked superior in every criterion were delivered in the extemporaneous mode. Results seem to indicate that if a student speaker chooses the extemporaneous mode, he/she has a better chance of becoming a successful speaker. (Seven tables of data are included; 16 references are attached.)

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource.

A study tested those theories upon which instruction and curriculum in speech and public communication are based. The study investigated the relationship of mode of delivery on ratings of individual speech characteristics as well as the relationship of these perceptions of effectiveness in a public communication setting. Twenty-four videotapes of undergraduate college students delivering 5-minute speeches in an introductory speech class were selected for the study, half of which used the extemporaneous mode, and the other half, the manuscript mode. Twenty-four student evaluators (communication majors chosen from an elective course in communication theory) evaluated the 24 speeches. Results indicated that there was a significant relationship between the mode of delivery chosen by the speaker and the criteria on which the speech was evaluated. Ratings of these factors more frequently fell into the superior category when the mode of delivery was extemporaneous. Results also showed that the characteristics evaluated do not contribute equally to perceptions and related ratings of effectiveness. On the basis of simple bivariate correlations, delivery and speaker credibility would appear to bear the strongest relationship to perceived effectiveness. The more refined regression analysis, moreover, indicated that the prediction equation that can be generated from the data would weight delivery most heavily. (Eight tables of data are included; 16 notes are attached.)

What are the different ways I can choose to deliver my speech? The four popular delivery styles to making presentations are: extemporaneous delivery, manuscript delivery, memorized delivery, and impromptu delivery. Extemporaneous delivery style: This speaking style is carefully planned and rehearsed with the intent to sound spontaneous and conversational. Therefore, notes are bullet reminders of important points to jog the memory and are used only when needed. Memorized delivery style: This speaking style is carefully planned and rehearsed in the same manner that actors prepare for their parts on stage. The script is memorized word for word and delivered accordingly. The speaker who chooses this style should have dramatic training to sound natural as well as to be able to handle mental blocks. Manuscript delivery style: This speaking style entails the use of a written script that is read word for word by the speaker. To be effective the speaker must have training as a speech reader (to look and sound as if s/he is not reading) and as a speech writer (to develop speeches using language appropriate for speaking and listening. Such language is easy on the speaker’s lips and listener’s ears. Impromptu delivery style: This speaking style is the most challenging that entails a spur of the moment organization of ideas that the speaker will present. The impromptu speaker needs to be knowledgeable and experienced and confident as a presenter. It is highly recommended that you select the kind of delivery style that tends to

be warm and inviting as well as prepared. This style is the extemporaneous delivery style.

Public Speakers have four choices when it comes to the manner in which they deliver their material. Generally speaking, the extemporaneous mode (speaking conversationally from prepared notes) is the most appropriate for classroom speaking. For the sake of comparison, all four modes are described below. Impromptu: spontaneous, unrehearsed manner of speaking. Advantages for the speaker include a natural and spontaneous feel, a large degree of eye contact with the audience, and the opportunity to respond to audience feedback. Disadvantages include a lack of organization, increased anxiety, insertion of verbal fillers such as "um," "you know," and the inability to include prepared visual aids such as graphs and charts. Manuscript:the speech is written out completely and read aloud to the audience. Two advantages to this mode are that the language may be planned carefully and the speaker has an exact record of the speech. However, the speaker is afforded limited eye contact with the audience and is not likely to be aware of audience feedback. The speech may sound stilted and monotonous due to the written style of the speech. We often write in lengthy, complex sentences that do not translate well into oral style. Memorized: the speech is written out and committed to memory.Two advantages to this method of delivery are that it allows the speaker to have full eye contact with the audience and the wording of the speech can be carefully planned. The disadvantages are many: forgetting one idea can lead to forgetting the rest of the speech; the speaker cannot adapt to feedback from the audience; it requires a large investment of time; and it is likely to sound "memorized" and stilted. Extemporaneous: speaking from prepared notes in a conversational manner. By far the best choice for most academic and professional presentations, this mode allows the speaker ample time to prepare. He or she can include stats, quotes, graphs, and other audiovisual aides in the presentation. The presence of a key word outline provides security, yet allows flexibility in the presentation. The speaker may establish eye contact with the audience and therefore has the opportunity to respond to audience feedback. One drawback is that if the speaker is not adequatley rehearsed, he or she may falter in the presentation. Rehearsal is essential.

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