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HISTORY OF MOUNT PINATUBO ERUPTION

Long ago Mount Pinatubo is already the home of the aetas. The word pinatubo could mean "fertile place
where one can make crops grow", or could mean "made to grow", in Sambal and Tagalog, which may
suggest a knowledge of its previous eruption in about 1500 AD. There is a local oral tradition suggestive
of a folk memory of earlier large eruptions.

Timeline of Eruption

On March 15, 1991, a succession of earthquakes were felt by villagers.


April 2, the volcano awoke minor eruptions occurring near the summit along a 1.5 km (0.93 mi)
long fissure and continued over the next few weeks.
Radiocarbon dating of charcoal found in old volcanic deposits revealed the last three major
explosive eruption periods about 5500, 3500 and 500 years ago. It showed that much of the
surrounding plains were formed by lahar flood deposits from previous eruptions.
After May 28, the amount of SO2 being emitted decreased substantially leading to a pressure
build-up in the magma chamber and a high likelihood of violent explosive eruptions.
The first magmatic eruptions occurred on June 3, and the first large blast on June 7 generated
ash columns 7 km (4.3 mi) high.
The formal evacuations were ordered for the 10 km 40 km zones from April 7 June 15.
On June 12 marked the beginning of a new, more violent phase of the eruption.
*So basically from April 2 June 12 continuos ang eruption and yung government ay nagsagawa
ng study and precautions sa impending eruption.
The final massive eruption of Mount Pinatubo began on June 15. It caused numerous major
earthquakes due to the collapse of the summit of Mount Pinatubo and the creation of
a caldera 2.5 km (1.6 mi) in diameter, reducing the peak from 1,745 m (5,725 ft) to 1,485 m
(4,872 ft). The eruption produced high-speed avalanches of hot ash and gas, massive lahar
floods and huge clouds of superheated volcanic material hundreds of kilometers across.
On the same day, Typhoon Yunya, locally named Diding, struck the central Luzon. The typhoon
rains mostly obscured the eruption, but measurements showed that ash was ejected to 34 km
(21 mi) high by the most violent phase of the eruption.. Pyroclastic surges poured from the
summit, reaching as far as 16 km (9.9 mi) away from their origin point. Typhoon rains mixed
with the ash deposits caused a messy rain of mud and massive lahars.
The volcanic column from the crater covered an area of some 125,000 km2 (48,000 sq mi),
bringing total darkness to much of Central Luzon.
A reported 847 people were killed by the eruption, mostly by roofs collapsing under the severe
weight of accumulated volcanic matter, a hazard amplified by the simultaneous arrival of
Typhoon Yunya.
The 1991 caldera afterwards filled with water from annual monsoon rains and a crater
lake, Lake Pinatubo, was formed.