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TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

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TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

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Cosine redirects here. For the similarity measure, see Trigonometric functions have a wide range of uses includ-

Cosine similarity. ing computing unknown lengths and angles in triangles

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also (often right triangles). In this use, trigonometric func-

tions are used, for instance, in navigation, engineering,

and physics. A common use in elementary physics is

B

A resolving a vector into Cartesian coordinates. The sine

and cosine functions are also commonly used to model

periodic function phenomena such as sound and light

waves, the position and velocity of harmonic oscillators,

V U C sunlight intensity and day length, and average tempera-

ture variations through the year.

UV BC In modern usage, there are six basic trigonometric func-

si n tions, tabulated here with equations that relate them to

UT BA one another. Especially with the last four, these rela-

TV AC

cos

tions are often taken as the denitions of those functions,

but one can dene them equally well geometrically, or by

TU AB other means, and then derive these relations.

UV sin

t an 1 Right-angled triangle denitions

T TV co s

angles, they are similar, so their side lengths are proportional.

Proportionality constants are written within the image: sin , cos

, tan , where is the common measure of ve acute angles.

They relate the angles of a triangle to the lengths of its

sides. Trigonometric functions are important in the study

of triangles and modeling periodic phenomena, among

many other applications.

The most familiar trigonometric functions are the sine,

cosine, and tangent. In the context of the standard unit

circle (a circle with radius 1 unit), where a triangle is

formed by a ray starting at the origin and making some

angle with the x-axis, the sine of the angle gives the length

of the y-component (the opposite to the angle or the

rise) of the triangle, the cosine gives the length of the x-

component (the adjacent of the angle or the run), and the

tangent function gives the slope (y-component divided by A right triangle always includes a 90 (/2 radians) angle, here

the x-component). More precise denitions are detailed labeled C. Angles A and B may vary. Trigonometric functions

below. Trigonometric functions are commonly dened as specify the relationships among side lengths and interior angles

ratios of two sides of a right triangle containing the angle, of a right triangle.

and can equivalently be dened as the lengths of various

line segments from a unit circle. More modern deni- The notion that there should be some standard correspon-

tions express them as innite series or as solutions of cer- dence between the lengths of the sides of a triangle and

tain dierential equations, allowing their extension to ar- the angles of the triangle comes as soon as one recognizes

bitrary positive and negative values and even to complex that similar triangles maintain the same ratios between

numbers. their sides. That is, for any similar triangle the ratio of

1

2 1 RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE DEFINITIONS

+ , and 2 depicted on the unit circle (top) and

as a graph (bottom). The value of the sine repeats itself

apart from sign in all four quadrants, and if the range of

is extended to additional rotations, this behavior repeats

periodically with a period 2.

The trigonometric functions are summarized in the fol-

lowing table and described in more detail below. The an-

gle is the angle between the hypotenuse and the adjacent

line the angle at A in the accompanying diagram.

The sine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the op-

posite side to the length of the hypotenuse. The word

comes from the Latin sinus for gulf or bay,[1] since, given

a unit circle, it is the side of the triangle on which the

angle opens. In our case:

opposite

sin A =

hypotenuse

The cosine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the

Top: Trigonometric function sin for selected angles , ,

+ , and 2 in the four quadrants.

Bottom: Graph of sine function versus angle. Angles from the

top panel are identied.

mains the same. If the hypotenuse is twice as long, so are

the sides. It is these ratios that the trigonometric functions

express. An illustration of the relationship between sine and its out-of-

phase complement, cosine. Cosine is identical, but /2 radians

To dene the trigonometric functions for the angle A, start out of phase to the left; so cos A = sin(A + /2).

with any right triangle that contains the angle A. The three

sides of the triangle are named as follows: adjacent side to the length of the hypotenuse, so called

because it is the sine of the complementary or co-angle,

The hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle, the other non-right angle.[2] Because the angle sum of a

in this case side h. The hypotenuse is always the triangle is radians, the co-angle B is equal to /2 A;

longest side of a right-angled triangle. so cos A = sin B = sin(/2 A). In our case:

The opposite side is the side opposite to the angle we

are interested in (angle A), in this case side a. adjacent

cos A =

hypotenuse

The adjacent side is the side having both the angles

of interest (angle A and right-angle C), in this case The tangent of an angle is the ratio of the length of

side b. the opposite side to the length of the adjacent side: so

called because it can be represented as a line segment

In ordinary Euclidean geometry, according to the triangle tangent to the circle, that is the line that touches the cir-

postulate, the inside angles of every triangle total 180 cle, from Latin linea tangens or touching line (cf. tangere,

[3]

( radians). Therefore, in a right-angled triangle, the two to touch). In our case:

non-right angles total 90 (/2 radians), so each of these

angles must be in the range of (0,/2) as expressed in in- opposite

terval notation. The following denitions apply to angles tan A =

adjacent

in this 0 /2 range. They can be extended to the full set

of real arguments by using the unit circle, or by requiring Tangent may also be represented in terms of sine and co-

certain symmetries and that they be periodic functions. sine, that is:

3

opposite

the angle of the line segment and tells its vertical

sin A hypotenuse opposite rise when the length of the line is 1.

tan A = = adjacent

=

cos A adjacent

hypotenuse 2. Cosine is second, run is second meaning that Co-

sine takes the angle of the line segment and tells its

These ratios do not depend on the size of the particular

horizontal run when the length of the line is 1.

right triangle chosen, as long as the focus angle is equal,

since all such triangles are similar. 3. Tangent combines the rise and run meaning that

The acronyms SOH-CAH-TOA (soak-a-toe, sock- Tangent takes the angle of the line segment and tells

a-toa, so-kah-toa) and OHSAHCOAT are com- its slope; or alternatively, tells the vertical rise when

monly used trigonometric mnemonics for these ratios. the line segments horizontal run is 1.

1.2 Cosecant, secant, and cotangent verting between the two ways of telling the slant of a line,

i.e., angles and slopes. (The arctangent or inverse tan-

The remaining three functions are best dened using gent is not to be confused with the cotangent, which is

the above three functions, and can be considered their cosine divided by sine.)

reciprocals. While the length of the line segment makes no dierence

The cosecant csc(A) or cosec(A), is the reciprocal of for the slope (the slope does not depend on the length of

sin(A); i.e. the ratio of the length of the hypotenuse to the slanted line), it does aect rise and run. To adjust and

the length of the opposite side; so called because it is the nd the actual rise and run when the line does not have a

secant of the complementary or co-angle: length of 1, just multiply the sine and cosine by the line

length. For instance, if the line segment has length 5, the

run at an angle of 7 is 5 cos(7)

1 hypotenuse h

csc A = = = .

sin A opposite a

2 Unit-circle denitions

The secant sec(A) is the reciprocal of cos(A); i.e. the

ratio of the length of the hypotenuse to the length of the

adjacent side: Fc

excsc H ot

cvs A

G

csc tan

1

cr

1 hypotenuse h sin

d

sec A = = = . arc

cos A adjacent b

C

It is so called because it represents the line that cuts the O cos versin D exsec E

circle (from Latin: secare, to cut).[4]

The cotangent cot(A), ctg(A) or ctn(A), is the reciprocal sec

of tan(A); i.e. the ratio of the length of the adjacent side

to the length of the opposite side; so called because it is B

the tangent of the complementary or co-angle:

All of the trigonometric functions of the angle can be con-

structed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O.

1 adjacent b

cot A = = = . The six trigonometric functions can also be dened in

tan A opposite a

terms of the unit circle, the circle of radius one centered

at the origin. While right-angled triangle denitions per-

1.3 Mnemonics mit the denition of the trigonometric functions for an-

gles between 0 and /2 radians, the unit circle denition

Equivalent to the right-triangle denitions, the trigono- extends the denitions of the trigonometric functions to

metric functions can also be dened in terms of the rise, all positive and negative arguments.

run, and slope of a line segment relative to horizontal. The The equation for the unit circle is

slope is commonly taught as rise over run or rise/run.

The three main trigonometric functions are commonly

taught in the order sine, cosine, tangent. With a line x2 + y 2 = 1.

segment length of 1 (as in a unit circle), the following

mnemonic devices show the correspondence of deni- Let a line through the center O of the circle, making an

tions: angle of with the positive half of the x-axis. The line

4 3 ALGEBRAIC VALUES

y 3 sine

Quadrant II Quadrant I

cosine

tangent

2

cosecant

Science All

secant

1 cotangent

x

Quadrant III Quadrant IV

-3

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

sin, cosec sin, cosec ted), Secant (dotted), Cotangent (dotted)

tan, cot + tan, cot 3 Algebraic values

mnemonic "all science teachers (are) crazy lists the functions

which are positive from quadrants I to IV.[5] This is a variation

on the mnemonic "All Students Take Calculus".

coordinates are cos() and sin() respectively.

Consider the right triangle whose vertices are the point A,

the center of the circle O, and the point C of the x-axis,

that has the same x-coordinate as A. The radius of the

circle is equal to the hypotenuse OA, and has length 1, so

sin() = y/1 and cos() = x/1.

For angles greater than 2 or less than 2, one simply

continues to rotate around the circle; sine and cosine are

thus periodic functions with period 2:

cos = cos ( + 2k) , The unit circle, with some points labeled with their cosine and

sine (in this order), and the corresponding angles in radians and

for any angle and any integer k. This period of a full

degrees.

circle (that is, 2 radians or 360 degrees) is the smallest

period of the sine and the cosine.

The algebraic expressions for sin(0), sin(30), sin(45),

Above, only sine and cosine were dened directly by the sin(60) and sin(90) are

unit circle, but other trigonometric functions can be de-

ned either from sine and cosine by

1 2 3

0, , , , 1,

sin cos 1 2 2 2

tan = , cot = = ,

cos sin tan respectively. Writing the numerators

as square

roots

1 1 of consecutive natural numbers ( 0

, 1

, 2

, 3

, 4

sec = , csc = , 2 2 2 2 2

cos sin ) provides an easy way to remember the values. Such [6]

or as signed lengths of line segments (see the gure, which simple expressions generally do not exist for other angles

shows also other trigonometric functions that are no more which are rational multiples of a straight angle.

in use) For an angle which, measured in degrees, is a multiple of

The primitive periods of the secant and the cosecant are three, the sine and the cosine may be expressed in terms

a full circle, i.e. 2 radians or 360 degrees, and the prim- of square roots, as shown below. These values of the sine

itive periods of the tangent and the cotangent is only a and the cosine may thus be constructed by ruler and com-

half-circle, i.e. radians or 180 degrees. pass.

5

For an angle of an integer number of degrees, the sine Algebraic expressions can be deduced for other angles of

and the cosine may be expressed in terms of square roots an integer number of degrees, for example,

and the cube root of a non-real complex number. Galois

theory allows to prove that, if the angle is not a multiple

of 3, non-real cube roots are unavoidable. 1

3

z

For an angle which, measured in degrees, is a rational sin 1 =

3

z

,

number, the sine and the cosine are algebraic numbers, 2i

which may be expressed in terms of nth roots. This re-

where z = a + ib, and a and b are the above algebraic

sults from the fact that the Galois groups of the cyclotomic

expressions for, respectively, cos 3 and sin 3, and the

polynomials are cyclic.

principal cube root (that is, the cube root with the largest

For an angle which, measured in degrees, is not a rational real part) is to be taken.

number, then either the angle or both the sine and the

cosine are transcendental numbers. This is a corollary of

Bakers theorem, proved in 1966.

4 Series denitions

3.1 Explicit values

sin(x)

f(x)

Main article: Trigonometric constants expressed in real

radicals

are as follows:

-2 - 2

6 2

sin 15 = cos 75 =

4

51

sin 18 = cos 72 =

4

10 2 5 The sine function (blue) is closely approximated by its Taylor

sin 36 = cos 54 = polynomial of degree 7 (pink) for a full cycle centered on the

4 origin.

5 + 1

sin 54 = cos 36 =

4

10 + 2 5

sin 72 = cos 18 =

4

6+ 2

sin 75 = cos 15 = .

4

From these, the algebraic expressions for all multiples of

3 can be computed. For example:

( ) ( ) ( )

2 1 3 5+ 5+ 1+ 3 10 2

sin 3 = cos 87 =

16

30 6 5 5 1 Animation for the approximation of cosine via Taylor polynomi-

sin 6 = cos 84 = als.

8

10 + 2 2 5 5 Trigonometric functions are analytic functions. Using

sin 9 = cos 81 =

8 only geometry and properties of limits, it can be shown

that the derivative of sine is cosine and the derivative of

10 2 5 + 3 + 15

sin 84 = cos 6 = cosine is the negative of sine. One can then use the theory

8 of Taylor series to show that the following identities hold

( ) ( ) ( ) [7]

2 1+ 3 5+ 5 1 3 for real

10 all 2 numbers x. Here, and generally in calculus,

sin 87 = cos 3 = . measured in radians.

all angles are

16

6 4 SERIES DEFINITIONS

2.5

U2n x2n (1)n E2n x2n

cos(x)

p0(x)

sec x = =

2 p1(x) n=0

(2n)! n=0

(2n)!

p2(x)

p3(x) 1 5 61 6

1.5 p4(x) = 1 + x2 + x4 + x + , for|x| < .

p5(x) 2 24 720 2

1

(1)n 22n B2n x2n1

cot x =

0.5

n=0

(2n)!

1 1 2 5

= x1 x x3 x , for0 < |x| < .

0

3 45 945

-0.5

When the series for the tangent and secant functions are

-1 expressed in a form in which the denominators are the

corresponding factorials, the numerators, called the tan-

-1.5

-10 -5 0 5 10 gent numbers and secant numbers respectively, have a

combinatorial interpretation: they enumerate alternating

cos(x) together with the rst Taylor polynomials pn (x) = permutations of nite sets, of odd cardinality for the tan-

n k x2k gent series and even cardinality for the secant series.[9]

k=0 (1) (2k)!

The series itself can be found by a power series solution

of the aforementioned dierential equation.

From a theorem in complex analysis, there is a unique

x 3

x 5

x 7 analytic continuation of this real function to the domain of

sin x = x + + complex numbers. They have the same Taylor series, and

3! 5! 7!

so the trigonometric functions are dened on the complex

(1)n x2n+1 numbers using the Taylor series above.

=

n=0

(2n + 1)!

There is a series representation as partial fraction ex-

x2 x4 x6 pansion where just translated reciprocal functions are

cos x = 1 + + summed up, such that the poles of the cotangent function

2! 4! 6!

and the reciprocal functions match:[10]

(1)n x2n

=

n=0

(2n)!

The innite series appearing in these identities are

N

1

cot(x) = lim .

convergent in the whole complex plane and are often N

n=N

x+n

taken as the denitions of the sine and cosine functions

of a complex variable. Another standard (and equiva- This identity can be proven with the Herglotz trick.[11]

lent) denition of the sine and the cosine as functions of Combining the (n)th with the nth term lead to absolutely

a complex variable is through their dierential equation, convergent series:

below.

Other series can be found.[8] For the following trigono-

metric functions: 1 2x 1 (1)n 2x

cot(x) = + , = + .

x n=1 x2 n2 sin(x) x n=1 x2 n2

U is the nth up/down number,

B is the nth Bernoulli number, and 4.1 Relationship to exponential function

E (below) is the nth Euler number. and complex numbers

It can be shown from the series denitions[12] that the sine

U2n+1 x2n+1

tan x = and cosine functions are respectively the imaginary and

(2n + 1)!

n=0 real parts of the exponential function of a purely imagi-

(1)n1 22n (22n 1)B2n x2n1 nary argument. That is, if x is real, we have

=

n=1

(2n)!

1 2 17 7

= x + x3 + x5 + x + , for|x| <cos.x = Re(eix ) , sin x = Im(eix ) ,

3 15 315 2

(1)n+1 2(22n1 1)B2n x2n1 and

csc x =

n=0

(2n)!

1 7 3 31 5

= x1 + x + x + x + , eix<=|x|cos

for0 <x.+ i sin x .

6 360 15120

7

cos(x + iy) = cos x cosh y i sin x sinh y .

This exhibits a deep relationship between the complex

sine and cosine functions and their real (sin, cos) and hy-

perbolic real (sinh, cosh) counterparts.

pictured, and the range values are indicated at each point

by color. Brightness indicates the size (absolute value) of

the range value, with black being zero. Hue varies with

argument, or angle, measured from the positive real axis.

(more)

ing with the 2D orthogonal components of the unit circle, sine and

5 Denitions via dierential equa-

cosine (using = t). tions

Both the sine and cosine functions satisfy the dierential

ei equation:

1 y = y .

That is to say, each is the additive inverse of its own sec-

ond derivative. Within the 2-dimensional function space

sin() V consisting of all solutions of this equation,

cos() the sine function is the unique solution satisfying the

initial condition (y (0), y(0)) = (1, 0) and

the cosine function is the unique solution satisfying

the initial condition (y (0), y(0)) = (0, 1) .

dent, together they form a basis of V. This method of

dening the sine and cosine functions is essentially equiv-

sin() is the imaginary part of ei and cos() is its real part. alent to using Eulers formula. (See linear dierential

equation.) It turns out that this dierential equation can

be used not only to dene the sine and cosine functions

The latter identity, although primarily established for real but also to prove the trigonometric identities for the sine

x, remains valid for every complex x, and is called Eulers and cosine functions.

formula.

Further, the observation that sine and cosine satises y

Eulers formula can be used to derive most trigonometric = y means that they are eigenfunctions of the second-

identities from the properties of the exponential function, derivative operator.

by writing sine and cosine as:

The tangent function is the unique solution of the nonlin-

ear dierential equation

eix eix eix + eix

sin x = , cos x = .

2i 2 y = 1 + y2

It is also sometimes useful to express the complex sine satisfying the initial condition y(0) = 0. There is a very

and cosine functions in terms of the real and imaginary interesting visual proof that the tangent function satises

parts of their arguments. this dierential equation.[13]

8 6 IDENTITIES

the path of the unit circle and constitute a special argu-

(sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1.

ment to the sine and cosine functions. In particular, only

sines and cosines that map radians to ratios satisfy the

Other key relationships are the sum and dierence for-

dierential equations that classically describe them. If

mulas, which give the sine and cosine of the sum and

an argument to sine or cosine in radians is scaled by fre-

dierence of two angles in terms of sines and cosines of

quency,

the angles themselves. These can be derived geometri-

cally, using arguments that date to Ptolemy. One can also

produce them algebraically using Eulers formula.

f (x) = sin(kx),

then the derivatives will scale by amplitude. sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y,

Sum

cos (x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y,

Dierence

cos (x y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y.

Here, k is a constant that represents a mapping between

units. If x is in degrees, then

These in turn lead to the following three-angle formulae:

k= .

180

sin (x + y + z) = sin x cos y cos z + sin y cos z cos x + sin z cos y cos x

This means that the second derivative of a sine in degrees cos (x + y + z) = cos x cos y cos z cos x sin y sin z cos y sin x sin z

does not satisfy the dierential equation

When the two angles are equal, the sum formulas reduce

to simpler equations known as the double-angle formu-

y = y lae.

but rather

sin (2x) = 2 sin x cos x,

cos (2x) = cos2 x sin2 x = 2 cos2 x 1 = 1 2 sin2 x.

y = k 2 y.

The cosines second derivative behaves similarly. When three angles are equal, the three-angle formulae

simplify to

This means that these sines and cosines are dierent func-

tions, and that the fourth derivative of sine will be sine

again only if the argument is in radians.

sin(3x) = 3 sin x 4 sin3 x.

cos(3x) = 4 cos3 x 3 cos x.

6 Identities These identities can also be used to derive the product-

to-sum identities that were used in antiquity to transform

Main articles: List of trigonometric identities and Proofs the product of two numbers into a sum of numbers and

of trigonometric identities greatly speed operations, much like the logarithm func-

tion.

Many identities interrelate the trigonometric functions.

Among the most frequently used is the Pythagorean

identity, which states that for any angle, the square of 6.1 Calculus

the sine plus the square of the cosine is 1. This is easy to

see by studying a right triangle of hypotenuse 1 and ap- For integrals and derivatives of trigonometric functions,

plying the Pythagorean theorem. In symbolic form, the see the relevant sections of Dierentiation of trigonomet-

Pythagorean identity is written ric functions, Lists of integrals and List of integrals of

trigonometric functions. Below is the list of the deriva-

tives and integrals of the six basic trigonometric func-

sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 tions. The number C is a constant of integration.

9

tables have been available for as long as trigonometric

f (x) f (x) f (x)functions

dx have been described (see History below), and

sin x cos x cos x +wereC typically generated by repeated application of the

cos x sin x sin x +half-angle

C and angle-addition identities starting from a

tan x sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x ln |cos x| +known

C value (such as sin(/2) = 1).

cot x csc2 x = (1 + cot2 x) ln |sin x| + C

sec x sec x tan x ln |sec x + tan x| +Modern

C computers use a variety of techniques.[15] One

csc x csc x cot x ln |csc x + cot x| +commonC method, especially on higher-end processors

with oating point units, is to combine a polynomial

or rational approximation (such as Chebyshev approxi-

6.2 Denitions using functional equations mation, best uniform approximation, and Pad approx-

imation, and typically for higher or variable precisions,

In mathematical analysis, one can dene the trigonomet- Taylor and Laurent series) with range reduction and a

ric functions using functional equations based on prop- table lookupthey rst look up the closest angle in a

erties like the dierence formula. Taking as given these small table, and then use the polynomial to compute

formulas, one can prove that only two real functions sat- the correction.[16] Devices that lack hardware multipliers

isfy those conditions. Symbolically, we say that there ex- often use an algorithm called CORDIC (as well as re-

ists exactly one pair of real functions sin and cos such lated techniques), which uses only addition, subtraction,

that for all real numbers x and y, the following equation bitshift, and table lookup. These methods are commonly

holds:[14] implemented in hardware oating-point units for perfor-

mance reasons.

For very high precision calculations, when series expan-

cos(x y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y sion convergence becomes too slow, trigonometric func-

tions can be approximated by the arithmetic-geometric

with the added condition that mean, which itself approximates the trigonometric func-

tion by the (complex) elliptic integral.[17]

Main article: Exact trigonometric constants

0 < x cos x < sin x < x for 0 < x < 1.

Other derivations, starting from other functional equa- Finally, for some simple angles, the values can be easily

tions, are also possible, and such derivations can be ex- computed by hand using the Pythagorean theorem, as in

tended to the complex numbers. As an example, this the following examples. For example, the sine, cosine and

derivation can be used to dene trigonometry in Galois tangent of any integer multiple of /60 radians (3) can

elds. be found exactly by hand.

Consider a right triangle where the two other angles are

equal, and therefore are both /4 radians (45). Then the

7 Computation length of side b and the length of side a are equal; we can

choose a = b = 1. The values of sine, cosine and tangent

The computation of trigonometric functions is a compli- of an angle of /4 radians (45) can then be found using

cated subject, which can today be avoided by most peo- the Pythagorean theorem:

ple because of the widespread availability of computers

and scientic calculators that provide built-in trigonomet-

ric functions for any angle. This section, however, de- c = a2 + b2 = 2 .

scribes details of their computation in three important

contexts: the historical use of trigonometric tables, the Therefore:

modern techniques used by computers, and a few impor-

tant angles where simple exact values are easily found.

The rst step in computing any trigonometric function is sin = sin 45 = cos = cos 45 = 1 = 2 ,

range reductionreducing the given angle to a reduced 4 4 2 2

angle inside a small range of angles, say 0 to /2, us-

ing the periodicity and symmetries of the trigonometric sin 4 1 2 2

functions. tan = tan 45 = = = = 1.

4 cos 4 2 1 2

Main article: Generating trigonometric tables To determine the trigonometric functions for angles of

/3 radians (60) and /6 radians (30), we start with an

Prior to computers, people typically evaluated trigono- equilateral triangle of side length 1. All its angles are /3

metric functions by interpolating from a detailed table of radians (60). By dividing it into two, we obtain a right

10 8 INVERSE FUNCTIONS

8 Inverse functions

/6 /6

The trigonometric functions are periodic, and hence not

1 injective, so strictly they do not have an inverse func-

1

tion. Therefore, to dene an inverse function we must

3/2

restrict their domains so that the trigonometric function

is bijective. In the following, the functions on the left are

dened by the equation on the right; these are not proved

identities. The principal inverses are usually dened as:

/3 rad /3 rad arcsin x = y sin y = x 2 y 2

arccos x = y cos y = x 0y

arctan x = y tan y = x 2 < y < 2

Computing trigonometric functions from an equilateral triangle arccot x = y cot y = x 0<y<

arcsec x = y sec y = x 0 y , y = 2

arccsc x = y csc y = x 2 y 2 , y = 0

triangle with /6 radians (30) and /3 radians (60) an-

1 1

gles. For this triangle, the shortest side is 1/2, the next The notations sin and cos are often used for arcsin and

largest side is 3/2 and the hypotenuse is 1. This yields: arccos, etc. When this notation is used, the inverse func-

tions could be confused with the multiplicative inverses of

the functions. The notation using the arc-" prex avoids

1 such confusion, though arcsec for arcsecant can be con-

sin = sin 30 = cos = cos 60 = , fused with "arcsecond".

6 3 2

Just like the sine and cosine, the inverse trigonometric

functions can also be dened in terms of innite series.

3

cos = cos 30 = sin = sin 60 = , For example,

6 3 2

( ) 3 ( ) ( )

1 3 1 z 1 3 z5 1 3 5 z7

tan = tan 30 = cot = cot 60 = = . arcsin z = z+ + + + .

6 3 3 3 2 3 24 5 246 7

These functions may also be dened by proving that they

are antiderivatives of other functions. The arcsine, for

7.1 Special values in trigonometric func- example, can be written as the following integral:

tions

z

1

There are some commonly used special values in trigono- arcsin z = dx, |z| < 1.

metric functions, as shown in the following table. 0 1 x2

Analogous formulas for the other functions can be found

at inverse

trigonometric

5

functions. Using the complex

Radian 0 12 8 6 4logarithm,

3 one can

12 generalize

2 all these functions to com-

Degree 0 15 22.5 30 45plex

60

arguments:75 90

6 2 2 2 1 2 3 6+ 2

sin 0 4 2 2 2 2 4 1

6+ 2 2+ 2 3 2 1 6 2 ( )

cos 1 4 4 iz +0 1 z 2 ,

2 z = i log

2 2

2 arcsin

tan 0 2 3 21 3

1 3 2 + 3( )

3

3z = i log z + 21 ,

cot 2+ 3 2 + 1 3 1 arccos 2 3 0 z

3

sec 1 6 2 22 2 2 3 3 2 2 16 + (21 iz

)

arctan

log 2 1

csc 6+ 2 2 2+ 2 2 2 2 3 3z = 26i 1 + iz

.

[18]

The symbol here represents the point at innity on the

projectively extended real line, the limit on the extended In an inner product space, the angle between two non-zero

real line is + on one side and - on the other. vectors is dened to be

9.2 Law of cosines 11

x, y

angle(x, y) = arccos . The law of cosines (also known as the cosine formula or

x y

cosine rule) is an extension of the Pythagorean theorem:

c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C,

Main article: Uses of trigonometry

or equivalently,

of crucial importance in trigonometry, mainly because of a2 + b2 c2

the following two results. cos C = .

2ab

In this formula the angle at C is opposite to the side c.

9.1 Law of sines This theorem can be proven by dividing the triangle into

two right ones and using the Pythagorean theorem.

The law of sines states that for an arbitrary triangle with

The law of cosines can be used to determine a side of

sides a, b, and c and angles opposite those sides A, B and

a triangle if two sides and the angle between them are

C:

known. It can also be used to nd the cosines of an angle

(and consequently the angles themselves) if the lengths of

sin A sin B sin C 2 all the sides are known.

= = = ,

a b c abc

where is the area of the triangle, or, equivalently,

9.3 Law of tangents

= = = 2R,

sin A sin B sin C

where R is the triangles circumradius. The following all form the law of tangents[19]

AB AC BC

tan ab tan ac tan b

2 = ; 2 = ; 2 =

A+B a+b A+C a+c B+C b+

tan tan tan

2 2 2

The explanation of the formulae in words would be cum-

bersome, but the patterns of sums and dierences, for the

lengths and corresponding opposite angles, are apparent

in the theorem.

Main article: Law of cotangents

If

1

function. = (s a)(s b)(s c)

s

It can be proven by dividing the triangle into two right and

ones and using the above denition of sine. The law of

sines is useful for computing the lengths of the unknown

sides in a triangle if two angles and one side are known. a+b+c

This is a common situation occurring in triangulation, a s = 2

technique to determine unknown distances by measuring

two angles and an accessible enclosed distance. then the following all form the law of cotangents[20]

12 10 HISTORY

A sa B sb C sc

cot = ; cot = ; cot =

2 2 2

It follows that

A B C

cot cot cot

2 = 2 = 2.

sa sb sc

In words the theorem is: the cotangent of a half-angle

equals the ratio of the semi-perimeter minus the opposite

side to the said angle, to the inradius for the triangle.

(top) when added. All the basis functions have nodes at the nodes

of the sawtooth, and all but the fundamental (k = 1) have addi-

An animation of the additive synthesis of a square wave with an tional nodes. The oscillation seen about the sawtooth when k is

increasing number of harmonics large is called the Gibbs phenomenon

In the animation of a square wave at top right it can be

The sine and the cosine functions, for example, are used

seen that just a few terms already produce a fairly good

to describe simple harmonic motion, which models many

approximation. The superposition of several terms in the

natural phenomena, such as the movement of a mass at-

expansion of a sawtooth wave are shown underneath.

tached to a spring and, for small angles, the pendular mo-

tion of a mass hanging by a string. The sine and cosine

functions are one-dimensional projections of uniform cir-

cular motion. 10 History

Trigonometric functions also prove to be useful in the

study of general periodic functions. The characteristic Main article: History of trigonometric functions

wave patterns of periodic functions are useful for model-

ing recurring phenomena such as sound or light waves.[21]

While the early study of trigonometry can be traced to

Under rather general conditions, a periodic function f(x) antiquity, the trigonometric functions as they are in use

can be expressed as a sum of sine waves or cosine waves today were developed in the medieval period. The chord

in a Fourier series.[22] Denoting the sine or cosine basis function was discovered by Hipparchus of Nicaea (180

functions by , the expansion of the periodic function 125 BC) and Ptolemy of Roman Egypt (90165 AD).

f(t) takes the form:

The functions sine and cosine can be traced to the jy

and koti-jy functions used in Gupta period Indian astron-

omy (Aryabhatiya, Surya Siddhanta), via translation from

f (t) = ck k (t). Sanskrit to Arabic and then from Arabic to Latin.[23]

k=1

All six trigonometric functions in current use were known

For example, the square wave can be written as the in Islamic mathematics by the 9th century, as was the law

Fourier series of sines, used in solving triangles.[24] al-Khwrizm pro-

duced tables of sines, cosines and tangents. They were

( ) studied by authors including Omar Khayym, Bhskara

4 sin (2k 1)t II, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Jamshd al-Ksh (14th cen-

fsquare (t) = .

2k 1 tury), Ulugh Beg (14th century), Regiomontanus (1464),

k=1

13

Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1400) made early strides

in the analysis of trigonometric functions in terms of All Students Take Calculus a mnemonic for re-

innite series.[25] calling the signs of trigonometric functions in a par-

ticular quadrant of a Cartesian plane

The terms tangent and secant were rst introduced in

1583 by the Danish mathematician Thomas Fincke in his Aryabhatas sine table

book Geometria rotundi.[26]

Bhaskara Is sine approximation formula

The rst published use of the abbreviations sin, cos, and

tan is by the 16th century French mathematician Albert Generalized trigonometry

Girard.

Generating trigonometric tables

In a paper published in 1682, Leibniz proved that sin x is

not an algebraic function of x.[27] Hyperbolic function

Leonhard Euler's Introductio in analysin innitorum List of periodic functions

(1748) was mostly responsible for establishing the ana-

lytic treatment of trigonometric functions in Europe, also List of trigonometric identities

dening them as innite series and presenting "Eulers Madhava series

formula", as well as the near-modern abbreviations sin.,

cos., tang., cot., sec., and cosec.[28] Madhavas sine table

A few functions were common historically, but are now Polar sine a generalization to vertex angles

seldom used, such as the chord (crd() = 2 sin(/2)),

the versine (versin() = 1 cos() = 2 sin2 (/2)) Proofs of trigonometric identities

(which appeared in the earliest tables[28] ), the haversine

Versine for several less used trigonometric func-

(haversin() = 1/2versin() = sin2 (/2)), the exsecant

tions

(exsec() = sec() 1) and the excosecant (excsc()

= exsec(/2 ) = csc() 1). Many more relations

between these functions are listed in the article about

trigonometric identities. 13 Notes

[1] Oxford English Dictionary, sine, n.2

11 Etymology [3] Oxford English Dictionary, tangent, adj. and n.

The word sine derives[29] from Latin sinus, meaning

bend; bay, and more specically the hanging fold of [5] Heng, Cheng and Talbert, Additional Mathematics,

the upper part of a toga", the bosom of a garment, page 228

which was chosen as the translation of what was in-

[6] Ron Larson, Ron (2013). Trigonometry (9th ed.). Cen-

terpreted as the Arabic word jaib, meaning pocket gage Learning. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-285-60718-4.

or fold in the twelfth-century translations of works Extract of page 153

by Al-Battani and al-Khwrizm into Medieval Latin.[30]

The choice was based on a misreading of the Arabic [7] See Ahlfors, pages 4344.

written form j-y-b (), which itself originated as a

[8] Abramowitz; Weisstein.

transliteration from Sanskrit jv, which along with its

synonym jy (the standard Sanskrit term for the sine) [9] Stanley, Enumerative Combinatorics, Vol I., page 149

translates to bowstring, being in turn adopted from

[10] Aigner, Martin; Ziegler, Gnter M. (2000). Proofs from

Ancient Greek string.[31]

THE BOOK (Second ed.). Springer-Verlag. p. 149. ISBN

The word tangent comes from Latin tangens meaning 978-3-642-00855-9.

touching, since the line touches the circle of unit radius,

[11] Remmert, Reinhold (1991). Theory of complex functions.

whereas secant stems from Latin secans cutting

Springer. p. 327. ISBN 0-387-97195-5. Extract of page

since the line cuts the circle.[32]

327

The prex co-" (in cosine, cotangent, cosecant) is

found in Edmund Gunter's Canon triangulorum (1620), [12] For a demonstration, see Eulers formula#Using power se-

ries

which denes the cosinus as an abbreviation for the si-

nus complementi (sine of the complementary angle) and [13] Needham, Tristan. Visual Complex Analysis. ISBN 0-19-

proceeds to dene the cotangens similarly.[33] 853446-9.

14 14 REFERENCES

[14] Kannappan, Palaniappan (2009). Functional Equations Robert of Chester's 1145 translation of the tables of

and Inequalities with Applications. Springer. ISBN 978- al-Khwrizm

0387894911.

See Merlet, A Note on the History of the Trigonometric

[15] Kantabutra. Functions in Ceccarelli (ed.), International Symposium on

History of Machines and Mechanisms, Springer, 2004

[16] However, doing that while maintaining precision is non- See Maor (1998), chapter 3, for an earlier etymology

trivial, and methods like Gals accurate tables, Cody and crediting Gerard.

Waite reduction, and Payne and Hanek reduction algo- See Katx, Victor (July 2008). A history of mathematics

rithms can be used. (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson. p. 210 (sidebar). ISBN 978-

0321387004.

[17] Brent, Richard P. (April 1976). Fast Multiple-Precision

Evaluation of Elementary Functions. J. ACM. 23 (2): [31] See Plofker, Mathematics in India, Princeton University

242251. doi:10.1145/321941.321944. ISSN 0004- Press, 2009, p. 257

5411. See Clark University.

See Maor (1998), chapter 3, regarding the etymology.

[18] Abramowitz, Milton and Irene A. Stegun, p.74

[32] Oxford English Dictionary

[19] The Universal Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Pan Ref-

erence Books, 1976, page 529. English version George [33] OED. The text of the Canon triangulorum as recon-

Allen and Unwin, 1964. Translated from the German ver- structed may be found here

sion Meyers Rechenduden, 1960.

erence Books, 1976, page 530. English version George 14 References

Allen and Unwin, 1964. Translated from the German ver-

sion Meyers Rechenduden, 1960. Abramowitz, Milton and Irene A. Stegun,

[21] Stanley J Farlow (1993). Partial dierential equations Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formu-

for scientists and engineers (Reprint of Wiley 1982 ed.). las, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, Dover, New

Courier Dover Publications. p. 82. ISBN 0-486-67620- York. (1964). ISBN 0-486-61272-4.

X.

Lars Ahlfors, Complex Analysis: an introduction to

[22] See for example, Gerald B Folland (2009). Convergence the theory of analytic functions of one complex vari-

and completeness. Fourier Analysis and its Applications able, second edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

(Reprint of Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole 1992 ed.). Ameri- New York, 1966.

can Mathematical Society. pp. 77. ISBN 0-8218-4790-

2. Boyer, Carl B., A History of Mathematics, John Wi-

ley & Sons, Inc., 2nd edition. (1991). ISBN 0-471-

[23] Boyer, Carl B. (1991). A History of Mathematics (Second 54397-7.

ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. ISBN 0-471-54397-7, p.

210. Gal, Shmuel and Bachelis, Boris. An accurate ele-

mentary mathematical library for the IEEE oating

[24] Owen Gingerich (1986). Islamic Astronomy. 254. Sci-

entic American: 74. Archived from the original on point standard, ACM Transactions on Mathematical

2013-10-19. Retrieved 2010-07-13. Software (1991).

[25] J J O'Connor and E F Robertson. Madhava of Sangama- Joseph, George G., The Crest of the Peacock: Non-

grama. School of Mathematics and Statistics University European Roots of Mathematics, 2nd ed. Penguin

of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 2007-09-08. Books, London. (2000). ISBN 0-691-00659-8.

[26] Fincke biography. Retrieved 15 March 2017. Kantabutra, Vitit, On hardware for computing ex-

ponential and trigonometric functions, IEEE Trans.

[27] Nicols Bourbaki (1994). Elements of the History of

Computers 45 (3), 328339 (1996).

Mathematics. Springer.

Maor, Eli, Trigonometric Delights, Princeton Univ.

[28] See Boyer (1991).

Press. (1998). Reprint edition (February 25, 2002):

[29] The anglicized form is rst recorded in 1593 in Thomas ISBN 0-691-09541-8.

Fale's Horologiographia, the Art of Dialling.

Needham, Tristan, Preface" to Visual Complex

[30] various sources credit the rst use of sinus to either Analysis. Oxford University Press, (1999). ISBN

0-19-853446-9.

Plato Tiburtinus's 1116 translation of the Astron-

omy of Al-Battani O'Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson, Trigonometric

Gerard of Cremona's translation of the Algebra of functions, MacTutor History of Mathematics

al-Khwrizm archive. (1996).

15

Sangamagramma, MacTutor History of Mathemat-

ics archive. (2000).

MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. (2002).

cessed 21 January 2006.

15 External links

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), Trigonometric

functions, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer,

ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

GonioLab Visualization of the unit circle, trigono-

metric and hyperbolic functions

16 16 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

16.1 Text

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16.2 Images 17

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