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Engineering Standard

SAES-A-103 6 September 2011


Discharges to the Marine Environment
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................. 2
2 Conflicts and Deviations................................ 2
3 References..................................................... 2
4 Design and Operation.................................... 4
5 Sampling and Verification............................. 10
6 Definitions..................................................... 11

Table A - Effluent Discharge Limitations(1)........ 15


Table B - Recommended Analytical Methods
for Compliance Testing......................... 17

Appendix I.......................................................... 18
Appendix II......................................................... 19
Appendix III......................................................... 20
Appendix IV........................................................ 22

Previous Issue: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016


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Primary contact: Fadlalla, Yusef Hassan on 966-3-8760423

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2011. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

1 Scope

1.1 This Standard defines the minimum mandatory operating requirements


governing direct discharges into the marine environment, from existing new and
modified Saudi Aramco facilities whether they are onshore or offshore.
This includes temporary or permanent platforms. The discharges include treated
sanitary effluents, industrial wastewater, cooling water, brine discharges, solid
waste, discharges from offshore drilling and workover operations, and any other
types of direct discharges into the marine environment.
Note: The marine environment lies between the highest spring tide level onshore and
the international maritime boundary of Saudi waters offshore.

1.2 This Standard shall apply to all marine vessels operating within Saudi territorial
waters.
Note: Refer to Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code (SASC-S-09) Marine Department
Operating Instructions, and MARPOL 73/78 Convention for compliance
requirements and standards covering marine vessels.

2 Conflicts and Deviations

2.1 Any conflicts between this standard and other applicable Saudi Aramco
Engineering Standards and Procedures (SAESs and SAEPs), specific Corporate
General Instructions (GIs), Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code (SASC), Materials
System Specifications (SAMSSs), Standard Drawings (SASDs), or industry
standards, codes, and forms shall be resolved in writing by the Company through
the Manager, Environmental Protection Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

2.2 This standard does not conflict with Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code (SASC-S-09)
and MARPOL 73/78 Convention covering marine vessels. Any conflict
between this standard and the most recent government General Environmental
Regulations (GER) or Saudi government-ratified regional or international
standards or regulations, requires compliance with the most restrictive.

2.3 Direct all requests to deviate from this standard in writing to the Company, who
shall follow internal company procedure SAEP-302 and forward such requests to
the Manager, Environmental Protection Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

3 References

The selection of methods, procedures, technologies, equipment, vessels, and facilities to


implement the requirements of this standard shall comply with the latest edition of the
references listed below, unless otherwise noted.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

3.1 Saudi Aramco Documents

Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures


SAEP-302 Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a
Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement
SAEP-327 Disposal of Wastewater from Cleaning, Flushing,
and Hydrostatic Tests
SAEP-339 Marine Dredging and Landfilling Approval and
Permitting

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-A-104 Wastewater Treatment, Reuse and Disposal
SAES-S-007 Solid Waste Landfill Standard

Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code


SASC-S-02 Sanitary Wastewater and Sewerage Systems
SASC-S-03 Solid Waste Landfill Standard
SASC-S-09 Marine Vessels

Saudi Aramco General Instructions


GI-0002.400 Offshore Oil Spill Contingency Plan
GI-0002.402 Leak and Spill Reporting - Red Sea
GI-0002.404 Leak and Spill Reporting - Arabian Gulf
GI-0430.001 Waste Management

3.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works


Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation, Standard Methods
for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Edition, 2005

American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards -
Section 11, Water and Environmental Technology, 2008-2009

3.3 Government Documents and Standards

General Environmental Regulations (GER) and Rules for Implementation in the


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME),
2004.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Document No. 1409-01, Environmental Protection Standards (General


Standards), Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration
(MEPA), presently Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME).
(Note: This document is incorporated and referenced in Appendix-1 of the GER.)

Royal Commission Environmental Regulations, Volume 1 Royal Commission


for Jubail and Yanbu (RCJY), 2004

3.4 Regional and International Protocols

Protocol concerning Marine Pollution resulting from Exploration and


Exploitation of the Continental Shelf, Regional Organization for the Protection
of the Marine Environment (ROPME), 1989

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as


modified by the Protocol of 1978 and six Annexes relating thereto, International
Maritime Organizations Marine Pollution Convention, MARPOL 73/78.

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and


Other Matter, 1972 and 1996 Protocol Thereto, otherwise known as the London
Convention.

United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (see Article 145 Protection
of the Marine Environment)

Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden
Against Pollution from Land-based Sources (also known as the Jeddah
Convention), (PERSGA) 1982

Protocol Concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and


Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, PERSGA (1982)

4 Design and Operation

4.1 Design of Wastewater Treatment Equipment

New and modified facilities shall comply with SAES-A-104 (Wastewater


Treatment, Reuse and Disposal) for design criteria of wastewater treatment
equipment.

4.2 Discharges from Existing Facilities

4.2.1 Existing facilities shall comply with the point-of-discharge standards in


the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) Document No.
1409-0, also referenced in Appendix 1 of the GER (see requirements in

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Table A). They shall also comply with the Regional Organization for the
Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) Protocol, the Saudi
Aramco Sanitary Code, and, if applicable, the Royal Commission for
Jubail and Yanbu Requirements. Except in cases where only
comminution and disinfection is required (as indicated in Section
4.2.4.2), the facility is only required to comply with the coliform bacteria
and residual chlorine concentration standards in Table A, and those
restrictions outlined in 4.2.4.5.

4.2.2 No discharge into the marine environment is allowed in the Jubail and
Yanbu Royal Commission Area, except for untreated once-through
cooling water (see Royal Commission Environmental Regulations,
Volume 1 Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu) unless approval of
the General Supervisor EED is given and a permit for the discharge is
issued by the RCJY.

4.2.3 Under no circumstances shall hazardous waste be discharged to the


marine environment.

4.2.4 Limitations on Sewage and Wastewater Discharges from Offshore


Facilities

4.2.4.1 Sewage to be discharged to the marine environment from an


offshore facility or marine vessel located less than 4 nautical
miles from land and manned by less than 10 people, shall be
comminuted and disinfected. A sewage treatment plant is not
required. Exceptions to this disinfection requirement will be
considered on a case-by-case basis and only granted if
approved by the General Supervisors of EED and ECD. Defer
to MARPOL 73/78 for marine vessels, if more stringent.

4.2.4.2 Sewage to be discharged to the marine environment from an


offshore facility or marine vessel located less than 4 nautical
miles from land and manned by 10 or more people, shall have a
sewage treatment plant approved by the General Supervisor,
Environmental Engineering Division, the Environmental
Compliance Division, and meeting all design criteria in
SAES-A-104. Defer to MARPOL 73/78 for marine vessels, if
more stringent.

4.2.4.3 Sewage to be discharged to the marine environment from a


facility or marine vessel which is located more than 4 nautical
miles from land, and manned by less than 10 people, shall be
comminuted but does not need to be disinfected. A sewage

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

treatment plant is not required. Defer to MARPOL 73/78 for


marine vessels, if more stringent.

4.2.4.4 Sewage to be discharged to the marine environment from a


facility or a marine vessel which is located greater than 4
nautical miles from land, and manned by 10 or more people,
shall be comminuted and disinfected. A sewage treatment
plant is not required. Defer to MARPOL 73/78 for marine
vessels, if more stringent.

4.2.4.5 Sewage and wastewater discharges shall not produce visible


floating solids or cause discoloration of the surrounding water.

4.2.4.6 Grey water to be discharged directly to the marine environment


from accommodation platforms in offshore GOSPs shall be
disinfected. Grey water can be discharged without treatment,
on a case by case basis, with the approval of the General
Supervisors of EED and ECD.

4.2.5 Limitations on Solid Waste Discharges

4.2.5.1 No discharge of rubbish or trash is allowed, including but not


limited to plastics, paper products, glass, metal, or crockery.

Disposal of food waste from offshore facilities into the sea is


prohibited closer than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.

4.2.5.2 Offshore domestic waste shall be brought onshore for treatment


and disposed of per GI-0430.001 Waste Management and
SASC-S-03, Solid Waste Landfill Standard.

Food waste may be discharged from offshore platforms into the


sea 12 nautical miles or more from the nearest land, but only
after comminution. Disinfection is not required. Comminuted
food waste shall be capable of passing through a screen with
openings no greater than 25 millimeters.

4.3 Discharges from New and Expanded Facilities

4.3.1 New and expanded facilities shall comply with the point-of-discharge
standards promulgated by the Presidency of Meteorology and
Environment (PME in Document No. 1409-01 (see Table A) ), and also
referenced in the GER as Appendix-1; and revisions, except as specified
below. They shall also comply with the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code,
the RCJY standards, and with the Regional Organization for the
Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) Protocol. The most

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

stringent point-of-discharge standards should apply. Except in cases


where only comminution and disinfection is required (as indicated in
Section 4.2.4.2), the facility is only required to comply with the
coliform bacteria and residual chlorine concentration standards in
Table A, and those restrictions outlined in 4.2.4.5.

4.3.2 New and expanded facilities shall comply with SAES-A-104


(Wastewater Treatment, Reuse and Disposal) for design criteria of
wastewater treatment equipment.

4.3.3 New and expanded facilities located offshore shall comply with the
limitations on sewage and solid waste discharges in Section 4.2.

4.3.4 New and expanded facilities which are located in areas governed by the
Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu shall comply with the
Standards promulgated for those areas, or the Standards herein;
whichever are more stringent. Royal Commission boundary maps are
attached (see Appendices I & II).

4.3.5 New and modified facilities shall incorporate Best Practical Technology
(BPT) at the time of design, for control of discharges to the marine
environment.

4.3.6 Facility operators are required to submit an operating plan, in the form
of an Operations Instruction Manual (OIM), to the General Supervisor,
Environmental Engineering Division and Environmental Compliance
Division to obtain approval for discharge requirements and limitations.

4.3.7 Dilution of wastewater with water of a better quality shall not be


acceptable as a primary method of treatment to comply with the point-
of-discharge standards. The point of compliance is the discharge of the
treatment system before any dilution water is added.

4.3.8 The General Supervisor, Environmental Engineering Division shall


determine salinity and turbidity requirements for discharging
wastewater directly to the marine environment on a case-by-case basis.
Temperature requirements shall also be determined on a case-by-case
basis, with approval from PME, if required.

4.3.9 The General Supervisor, Environmental Engineering Division with


input from the Coordinator, Environmental Coordination Division shall
determine the necessity of more restrictive point-of-discharge limits in
biologically unique or highly sensitive areas, and recreational areas.
The General Supervisor, Environmental Compliance Division shall
provide input in areas where there is a danger to public health.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

4.3.10 Adverse effects of discharges to the marine environment, such as


mudline scour, sediment mobilization and redistribution, and habitat
deterioration shall be avoided. The General Supervisor, Environmental
Engineering Division shall determine the necessity for the use of BAT
or more restrictive point-of-discharge limits, to ensure that impacts to
the local oceanography and ecology are minimal.

4.4 Slop Reception Facilities

All marine loading and unloading facilities are required to provide slop
reception facilities.

4.5 Discharges from Drilling and Workover Operations in the Arabian Gulf and the
Red Sea

4.5.1 Limitations on Drilling Waste Discharges in the Arabian Gulf

4.5.1.1 No discharge of Oil-Based Drilling Fluid or Alternative


Oil-Based Drilling Fluid shall be allowed as per the ROPME
Protocol Concerning Marine Pollution Resulting from
Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf.

4.5.1.2 Drill cuttings shall not be discharged at water depths less than
15 m (45 feet). Drill cuttings shall not be discharged above or
on the sea surface. The discharge point of the cuttings shall
be 15 feet or greater below the surface of the water. In any
case, the discharge shall not take place in areas designated as
biologically sensitive (see Section 4.5.3). Drill cuttings
produced at depths less than 15 m shall be contained and
transported for disposal on land, or re-injected in place.

4.5.1.3 Drill cuttings produced when Water-Based Drilling Fluid has


been used shall not be discharged where they will have a
detrimental impact on habitats (e.g., seagrass, algal, and coral)
designated as biologically sensitive. The potential for impacts
on sensitive areas, from drill cuttings disposal, will be
determined on a case-by-case basis by the General Supervisor,
Environmental Engineering Division.

4.5.1.4 Oil-Based Drilling Fluids (OBM) shall not be used in drilling


operations without consulting with EED/EPD. If an exception
is made and Oil-Based Drilling Fluid is used, with the prior
approval of the General Supervisor/EED, the cuttings shall be
effectively cleaned using Best Available Technology (BAT)
to reduce the oil concentration, if practicable, to 15 mg/L (or

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

15 ppm) before being discharged. The discharge shall not


produce an oil sheen at the water surface. If a sheen is
produced, it should not extend beyond 100 m radius from the
discharge point.

4.5.1.5 Drill cuttings produced when Alternative Oil-Based Drilling


Fluids such as mineral oils have been used shall not be
discharged unless the drilling fluid has been determined to be
non-toxic. The numerical limit of 30,000 ppm is the pass/fail
standard for toxicity of unused and used drilling muds
(Appendix III). Toxicity bioassay test results shall be
reviewed by the General Supervisor, Environmental
Engineering Division before discharge will be allowed. In the
absence of toxicity biassay test results, the cuttings will be
considered to be contaminated with oil-based drilling fluids;
hence non-compliant (see ROPME Protocol).

4.5.1.6 Water-based drilling fluid shall not be discharged if it contains


persistent systemic toxins (see 4.5.3). Toxicity shall be
determined based on bioassay tests as specified in Section
4.5.5. Toxicity bioassay test results shall be reviewed by the
General Supervisor, Environmental Engineering Division
before discharge will be allowed. In the absence of toxicity
biassay test results, the fluid and the cuttings produced when
water based muds are used will be considered to be
contaminated with persistent systemic toxins.

4.5.2 Limitations on Drilling Waste Discharges in the Red Sea

4.5.2.1 No discharge of Oil-Based Drilling Fluid or Alternative


Oil-Based Drilling Fluid shall be allowed in shallow
(0-100 m) or deep (100+ m) water.

4.5.2.2 Drilling wastes shall not be discharged in shallow water or


1 km from biologically sensitive habitats. Drilling wastes
shall be contained and transported for disposal on land, or
re-injected in place.

4.5.2.3 Drilling wastes produced in deep water or farther than 1 km


from biologically sensitive habitats shall be contained and
transported for disposal on land. If an exception is made, with
the prior approval of the General Supervisor/EED, drill
cuttings may be discharged on site, after effective treatment to
reduce the oil concentration to 15 mg/L (or 15 ppm).
The cuttings shall not contain systemic toxins. The discharge

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

point of the cuttings shall be 15 feet or greater below the


surface of the water.

4.6 Discharges from Pipeline Hydrotest Operations

Disposal of hydrotest water into the marine environment shall be in accordance


with SAEP-327.

4.7 Discharges from Dredging and Landfilling Operations

Discharge of dredge spoils or discharges associated with landfilling operations


shall be in accordance with SAEP-339, Marine Dredging and Landfilling
Approval and Permitting.

4.8 Discharges from Workover Flaring Operations

The concentration of oil spilled during offshore well workover flaring operation
shall not exceed 15 ml/L nor produce a sheen at the water surface at the edge of
the mixing zone (the radius of the mixing zone depends on depth, but cannot
exceed 100 m) (see Appendix IV).

5 Sampling and Verification

5.1 The proponent organization shall be responsible for providing information


specified by the General Supervisor, Environmental Compliance Division for
determining compliance of a facility with the point-of-discharge standards on a
case-by-case basis.

5.2 Facilities are required to measure, at point of discharge of treated sanitary


wastewater, daily effluent residual chlorine and pH and monthly effluent total
coliform bacteria; and maintain records onsite.

5.3 Facilities are required to comply with discharge monitoring guidelines stipulated
in Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code (SASC-S-2).

5.3.1 Discharges that are only comminuted are excluded from the requirement
of effluent measurements under 5.2. However, visual checks should be
recorded to ensure compliance with 4.2.4.5.

5.3.2 Discharges that are comminuted and disinfected should be sampled for
pH, Chlorine, and Coliform bacteria as per 5.2 above.

5.3.3 Offshore facilities with STPs will be inspected, and their effluents
sampled by EPD staff to monitor sanitary wastewater parameters as with
onshore marine discharge STPs. Facilities are still required to monitor
pH, Chlorine and Total Coliform as per 5.2 above these facilities.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

5.4 The General Supervisor, Environmental Compliance Division shall validate the
discharge parameters data to determine the compliance status of facilities.

5.5 All analytical methods shall be as specified in Table B.

6 Definitions

Alternative Oil-Based Drilling Fluid: drilling fluid in which the oil-water emulsion
phase contains greater than or equal to 10% of low aromatic content mineral oil or other
alternative low toxicity synthetic oils.

Best Available Technology (BAT): a term used with regulations on limiting and
mitigating pollutant discharges into the marine environment. Ideally, the concept
prescribes acquisition of the best state of the art technology available, regardless of cost.
In practice the use of cost aspect should be taken into account.

Best Practical Technology (BPT): a term used by PME indicating pollution control
technology which will provide acceptable performance in meeting approved standards,
but does not reflect the most advanced technology available. BPT is typically used in
the control of conventional pollutants which are normally found in sanitary, industrial
and/or similar wastewaters.

Biologically Sensitive Area: value-based designation of ecoystem services provided


by marine habitats. Determination is based on productivity or rate of biomass
production (e.g., seagrass), biodiversity, fisheries potential, structural complexity
(e.g., reefs), importance as refuges for threatened or endangered species, and aesthetic
and recreational potential.

Domestic Waste: household waste material which cannot be recycled, composted,


reused or disposed by other means.

Drill Cuttings: formation material excavated during well drilling operations, forming a
component of drilling waste.

Drilling Fluid: drilling fluid, often referred to as muds or drilling muds in the oil
industry, is a circulationg fluid used in rotary drilling to perform any or all of the
various functions required in drilling operations (API).

Drilling Muds: See Drilling Fluid.

Drilling Waste: liquid and solid waste produced during well drilling operations;
composed of drill cuttings, drilling fluids or muds, water, and all additives therein.

Facility: any installation which may be a source of pollution or environmental


deterioration. Installations include, but are not limited to, onshore plants and their
outfalls, offshore platforms, jackup barges, and drill rigs).

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

GOSP: Gas Oil Separation Plant.

Grey Water: Sanitary wastewater other than that containing medical waste, kitchen
waste or human excrement (from toilets and urinals); discharged from any appliance or
fixture such as showers, sinks, or bath water.

Hazardous Waste: waste material or a mixture of waste having chemical, biological or


radiological properties capable of producing adverse effects on health, safety, or the
environment. Such material may be flammable, toxic, reactive, corrosive, oxidizing,
carcinogenic, or a compressed gas.

Industrial Wastewater: Wastewater resulting from industrial processes and


manufacturing operations such as factories, processing plants, repair and cleaning
establishments, and refineries.

Marine Environment: sea and intertidal zone area.

Marine Vessels: All new and existing Saudi Aramco owned vessels or any vessels on
hire, leased or sub-leased, to Saudi Aramco: to include but not limited to, supply or taxi
boats, tugs, offshore drilling rigs, jack-up barges, work barges, and other special
purpose vessels.

MEPA: the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Defense & Aviation, Meteorology
and Environmental Protection Administration established under Royal Decree No.
7/M/8903, dated 21/4/1401 H (25 February 1981) [presently known as the Presidency
of Meteorology and Environment (PME)].

Modified Facility: this is any facility where major expenditure of funds occurs for
equipment addition or replacements, or when a change in the operation or design of the
facility results in an increase in the discharge of wastes. For the purpose of this
definition, any replacement of equivalent kind and capacity is not considered a
modification.

Nautical Mile: equivalent to 1.85 km.

New Facility: a facility which receives executive management final project approval
after the issuance date of this standard.

Oil-Based Drilling Fluid: drilling fluid in which the base fluid is a petroleum product
such as diesel.

Persistent Systemic Toxins: systemic toxins that are not decomposed or transformed.

PME: Presidency of Meteorology and Environment.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
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Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Point-of-Discharge: facility wastewater discharge point into receiving water, after


treatment but prior to the addition of any dilution water. PME prescribes that the edge
of the mixing zone for the point of discharge effluent should not impinge on the lowest
tidal level in the area. The point of discharge should be reasonably accessible to
sampling and located as such to minimize water quality impacts to the greatest extent
possible.

Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu: a jurisdictional authority that administers
activities within the defined areas of Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah and Madinat Jubail
Al-Sinaiyah (see Appendices I & II).

Rubbish: non-putrescible domestic and commercial solid waste constituents, e.g.,


paper, plastic, glass, tin cans, and wood.

Sanitary Wastewater: wastewater generated from domestic activities. Sources


include, but not limited to, toilets, sinks, showers.

Sewage: wastewater in the form of:


i) Drainage and other waste from any form of toilet, urinal or water closet;
ii) Drainage from medical premises such as dispensary or sick bay, via wash-basins,
wash-tubs and drains located in such premises;
iii) Other wastewaters when mixed with significant quantities of the drainage defined
above.

Systemic Toxins: toxins that affect the entire body or many organs rather than
a specific site (e.g., potassium cyanide).
Toxic Substance: any substance which may result in death, disability and distress to
man, or death, distress, and damage to marine life; whether by direct contact, inhalation,
ingestion, or absorption.

Toxicity Bioassay: a test (e.g., LC50) that establishes the acceptable concentration of a
contaminant in water, or in the aqueous phase of contaminated sediment, that protects
pelagic or benthic organisms from direct toxicity.

Trash: similar to rubbish but primarily consists of paper, cardboard and wood.

Wastewater: any liquid waste containing water, whether freshwater or seawater.

Water-Based Drilling Fluid: drilling fluid that has water as the continuous phase;
which may contain alkalies, salts, surfactants, organic polymers in colloidal states,
droplets of emulsified oils, and various insoluble substances, such as barite and clay.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
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Types of water-based drilling fluids include, but not limited to, spud muds, lime muds,
gypsum muds, non-diperserd polymer muds, and salt water muds.

Revision Summary
6 September 2011 Major revision.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
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Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Table A Effluent Discharge Limitations(1)


(PME vs. Royal Commission for Jubail & Yanbu Limits)
PME (2) Jubail RCER 2004 (3) Yanbu RCER 2004 (4)
Maximum Maximum
Allowable Mo. Average Mo. Average
Parameter (5) Allowable Allowable
Effluent Level Effluent Level Effluent Level
Effluent Level Effluent Level
Physio-Chemical Pollutants
Floatables None Nil Nil Nil Nil
pH (units) Allowable Range 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9
Total Suspended Solids (TSS) (mg/l) 15 mg/l 40 mg/l 25 mg/l 40 mg/l 25
Temperature(6) ( C) Case by Case 10 10 Case by Case Case by Case
Turbidity (7) (NTU Maximum) 75 75 50 15 8
Salinity (above ambient) ( ppt) - - - 2.0 1.0
Organic Pollutants (mg/l)
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 25 25 15 25 15
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 150 150 75 150 75
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 50 150 50 150 50
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) 5 10 5 10 5
Total Chlorinated Hydrocarbons 0.1 - - 0.5 0.1
Oil & Grease (8) 8 15 8 15 8
Phenols 0.1 1.0 0.1 1.0 0.1
Inorganic Pollutants (mg/l) 30-day
Average:
Aluminum - 25 15 25 15
Ammonia (total, as Nitrogen) 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0
Arsenic 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.1
Barium - 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0
Cadmium 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.01
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons - 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.1
Chlorine (residual) (9) 0.5 2.0 0.5 0.3 0.2
Chromium (total) 0.1 1.0 0.1 1.0 0.1
Cobalt - 2.0 0.1 2.0 0.1
Copper 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2
Cyanide 0.05 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.05
Dissolved Oxygen - 2 min.(10) 5.(10) 2 min.(10) 5 min.(10)
Fluoride - 25 15 25 15
Iron - 10 5.0 10 5.0
Lead 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.1
Manganese - 1.0 0.2 1.0 0.2
Mercury 0.001 0.005 0.001 0.005 0.001
Nickel 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2
Phosphate (total, as P) (9) 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0
Sulfide - 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.05
Zinc 1.0 5.0 2.0 5.0 1.0
Biological Pollutants 30-day
(MPN/100 ml (11) Average:
Total Coliform 1000 2400 1000 2400 1000

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Table A Effluent Discharge Limitations (Cont'd)

(PME vs. Jubail & Yanbu Royal Commission Limits)


Notes for Table A:
1) Royal Commission Standards shall apply to Saudi Aramco facilities within the Royal Commission jurisdictions.
See Appendices I and II for Royal Commission boundary maps.
2) Limits taken from Section 13 Performance Standards for Direct Discharge; General Environmental Regulations and Rules
for Implementation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Presidency of Meteorology and Environment. The performance
standards shall apply to wastewater at the end of the outfall but before discharge to coastal waters or to any wastewater
channel. Each direct discharge should be adequately dispersed and mixed with the receiving waters. A mixing zone shall be
designed to minimize adverse effects. The adequacy and the area of the mixing zone shall be determined on a case by case
basis by the PME.
3) Limits taken from the Royal Commission Environmental Regulations 2004 (RCER 2004), Table 3C (Water Quality Standards
for Direct Discharge to Coastal Waters - including treated effluent, discharge to the seawater cooling return canal, variance
streams, and surface drainage ditches). For any parameters not identified, specific standards will be determined on a case-
by-case basis.
4) Limits taken from the Royal Commission Environmental Regulations 2004 (RCER 2004), Table 3C (Water Quality Standards
for Direct Discharge to Coastal Waters - including treated effluent, discharge to the seawater cooling return canal, variance
streams, and surface drainage ditches). For any parameters not identified, specific standards will be determined on a case-
by-case basis.
5) See Table B for analytical methods.
6) Differential temperature between seawater cooling intake and seawater cooling outfall. PME will determine the thermal
properties of the discharged water to fit the properties of the receiving water on case by case basis
7) Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Also to be determined on a case-by-case basis; in areas deemed by EED to be biologically
sensitive.
8) Not to exceed 15 mg/l in any individual discharge.
9) Not applicable for wastewater reuse applications or discharge into evaporation ponds.
10) Whereas all other parameters set maximum levels, oxygen depletion is detrimental to organisms such that the mg/l value for
dissolved oxygen is to be considered a minimum value.
11) Most Probable Number.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
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Table B Recommended Analytical Methods for Compliance Testing

APHA-Standard Methods (1)


Parameter ASTM Standards (2)
or Other Approved Method (3)
Physico-Chemical Pollutants
pH D1293-84
Filterable Residue (TDS) Method 2540-B
Non-Filterable Residue Method 2540-D
Temperature Method 2550-B
Turbidity Method 2130-B
Organic Pollutants
Biochemical Oxygen Demand Method 5210-B
Chemical Oxygen Demand Method 5220-C
Total Organic Carbon Method 5310-C
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen D3590-89
Total Chlorinated Hydrocarbons APHA 509 (1)
Oil and Grease Method 5520-C
Phenols Method 5530-D
Non Organic Pollutants
Ammonia as N D1426-89
Arsenic Method 3500-As-B, 3500-As-D
Cadmium Method 3500-Cd-B, 3500-Cd-C
Chlorine (Residual) Method 4500-CI-B, 4500-CI-I, 4500-CI-G
Chromium Method 3500-Cr-B, 3500-Cr-C
Copper Method 3500-Cu-B, 3500-Cu-C
Cyanide (Total) Method 4500-Cn-E
Dissolved Oxygen Method 4500-O-G
Lead Method 3500-Pb-B, 3500-Pb-C
Mercury Method 3500-Hg-B
Nickel Method 3500-Ni-B, 3500-Ni-C
Phosphate (Total as P) D515-88
Sulfide Method 4500-S2-E
Sulfite Method 4500-SO3-B
Zinc Method 3500-Zn-B, 3500-Zn-C
Biological Pollutants
Total Coliform Method 9221-B, 9221-C

Notes:
(1) American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.
(2) American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards.
(3) The Saudi Aramco Research & Development Center shall approve other analytical procedures for environmental
monitoring.
(4) American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

Page 17 of 25
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Appendix I
Jubail and Yanbu Royal Commission
Jubail Boundary

ARABIAN
GULF

JUBAIL ROYAL
COMMISSION BOUNDARY
UTM ZONE 39

Notes:
1. Coordinate System: UTM (Zone39)/Int. Spheroid (1985 Horizontal Adjustment)
2. Information shown was compiled from data furnished by the royal commission. Saudi
Aramco Land Division, and Saudi Aramco Surveying Services Division Records. No
survey of this site has been made by Saudi aramco Surveying Services Dvision.

Page 18 of 25
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
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Appendix II

Jubail and Yanbu Royal Commission


Yanbu Boundary

Notes:
3. Coordinate System: UTM (Zone37) Saudi Arabia National Grid
4. Information shown was compiled from data furnished by the royal commission.
Saudi Aramco Land Division, and Saudi Aramco Surveying Services Division
Records. No survey of this site has been made by Saudi aramco Surveying Services
Division.

Page 19 of 25
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
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Appendix III
PASS/FAIL Standard and Sampling Protocol
for Toxicity Assessment of USED and UNUSED Drilling Muds
WMU/EED/EPD
Note: Before undertaking to use of Safra Oil in offshore applications the following conclusions from the EIA
for drill cuttings disposal in Manifa (KFUPM, 2009) must be taken into consideration:

It is advised to use only Water Based Mud (WBM) types such as HydroGuard or Performax instead
of Safra Oil mud (OBM) for drilling activities in Manifa. Safra Oil Mud contains several chemical
components which are highly toxic to marine organisms inhabiting both in the water column and
sediment.

Following is the recommended Environmental Protection Department (EPD) pass/fail limits and sampling
protocol for the assessment of toxicity of used and unused water-based drilling muds in offshore operations.

Background
In order to meet pass/fail criteria, water-based muds (WBM) used for Saudi Aramco offshore drilling and
workover operations must be maintained clean without any traces of diesel oil or any toxic materials.
Degreasers, paints, casing thread cleaners, rust removers, rig wash additives, motor oil, as well as
many other additives are very toxic chemicals. Trace amounts of these chemicals in the drilling mud will
kill the Mysid shrimp in the LC50 test (Ezzat and Buraik, 1997, and references therein). Addition of
approved alternative oil additives such as Safra* oil to water-based muds does not in itself constitute a
waiver for offshore disposal without testing for toxicity. Safra oil is an Enhanced Mineral Oil (US EPA
classification) which is an aliphatic, low aromatic, hydrocarbon distillate. The measure of Mysid shrimp
toxicity* for pure (unused/without additives) Safra oil is 180,000 ppm; which warrants classification of
Safra oil, under US EPA guidelines, as practically non-toxic. However, toxicity tests, in 1995, on
three mud preparations from Zuluf indicated toxicity levels which did not meet US EPA toxicity
standards (< 30,000 ppm) for offshore disposal. The US EPA has set a numerical limit of three
percent (30,000 ppm) on the toxicity of drilling fluids to be discharged to sea. In 2003, EPD was made
aware that additives (including diesel) are added to mud formulations before use, and that may explain
the toxicity test failures in 1995. Used or unused preparations of WBM, with or without Safra oil, must
meet toxicity testing limits set forth in the following section.

Recommendations

The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) recommends the following:


Use the US EPA numerical limit of 30,000 ppm as pass/fail standard for toxicity of unused
water-based mud preparations and used drilling muds.
Samples to be analyzed must include those from the initial fluid make up, if and when fluid
formulations are changed during a drilling operation, and at the end of the drilling operation.
Unused drilling mud formulations and used muds to be tested shall be collected from active field
systems.
Samples of drilling muds are to be taken for analysis from underneath the shale shaker.
Should drilling extend beyond 1 month, drilling mud samples must be taken for analysis once
every month until the completion of the drilling operation.
The criteria above apply to every well to be drilled on single or multiple well platforms, and for
every platform within an active field system.

Page 20 of 25
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

APPENDIX III (CONTD)

* Based on the US EPA 96-hr LC50 Acute Toxicity Test. The 96-hour Acute Toxicity Test, a standard
test adapted from the US EPA protocol** allows drilling engineers to assess the potential
environmental impact of drilling fluid discharges and compare toxicity data for field muds (Ezzat and
Buraik, 1997).

** Suspended Particulate Phase (SPP) Toxicity Test. Appendix 2 to Subpart A of Part 435 - Drilling
Fluids Toxicity Test (US EPA)

PASS/FAIL STANDARD AND SAMPLING PROTOCOL


FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF USED AND UNUSED DRILLING MUDS

Sampling Protocol:

No. of Samples Sampling Drill


Muds to be Sampled Pass/Fail Frequency
Standard Sites
Initial Fluid Makeup 1 per well 180,000 ppm All wells* At start of drilling
As necessary if
Interm. Fluid Makeup* 1 per well 180,000 ppm All wells* formulation during
drilling.
At end of drilling or once
Used Drilling Muds every month if a well
1 per well All wells*
30,000 ppm drilling extends beyond
one month

* In an active field system

References:

Ezzat, A. M. and K.A. Al-Buraik (1997). Environmentally Acceptable Drilling Fluids for Offshore Saudi
Arabia. Society of Petroleum Engineers; SPE 37718 (1997).

KFUPM (2009). Environmental Impact Assessment for Drill Cuttings Disposal at Manifa. Center for
Environment and Water, KFUPM Research Institute, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Page 21 of 25
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Appendix IV
Excerpts from PME Draft Document
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia National Environmental Standard
Ambient Water Quality
Mixing Zones
a) The operator or facility will establish zones of influence from discharges which are exempt from these
standards but are however, subject to the requirements of the industrial and municipal wastewater standards.

b) The following requirements apply in relation to a mixing zone in a receiving water body:
i) the zone of influence or mixing zone shall be designed in order to minimise the impact on the environment,
however the absolute maximum size of a mixing zone shall be determined on a case by case basis using
the methodology in Appendix C and limited to a maximum 100 m radius;
ii) acutely toxic conditions should not be reached within a mixing zone; where tested, Methods must be in
accordance with 40 CFR Part 136 Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants;
Whole Effluent Toxicity Test Methods; USEPA.
iii) mixing zones should not impinge on sensitive areas, such as coral reefs, recreational areas or important
spawning or nursery areas for aquatic organisms;
iv) neighboring mixing zones should not merge or overlap;
v) no mixing zone should impinge the mean low water spring (MLWS) shoreline; and
vi) materials should not be discharged that settle and cause harmful or objectionable deposits; the growth of
undesirable aquatic life; or result in the dominance of nuisance species.
vii) Alternative mixing zone areas may on a case by case basis be agreed by the Competent Agency to
represent areas that have been designated as sites of significant economic importance (SSEI).
viii) An application for a SSEI variation must be made using the official form in Appendix D and will be
supported by evidence justifying the award of a temporary permit. The significance of this evidence will be
determined by the Competent Agency only.

c) Should an operator determine that the methodology specified in Appendix C is technically unachievable at a
specific locality, they must produce a study to confirm the best achievable mixing zone dimensions available
using BAT.

d) The method for carrying out this assessment must be approved in advance by the Competent Agency.
This study must also make an assessment of the impact the new mixing zone will have upon the environment
and be submitted to the Competent Agency.
Article III Classification of Water Bodies
Water Body Classification
a) The classification a waterbody receives determines the environmental quality objectives (EQOs) that apply
to that water body (criteria for EQOs specified in Appendix B.
b) All water bodies must be classified either as fresh surface water, groundwater, or coastal water.
The definition of each of these water-bodies is set out in Appendix A.
c) All coastal water shall be sub-divided into the following usage related classifications by the Competent
Agency (as set out in Appendix A) for the purposes of monitoring ambient water quality:
i) marine;
ii) high value; or
iii) industrial.
d) Coastal waters can be further classified into being primary or secondary recreational zones if they meet
the criteria, also set out in Appendix A.

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Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
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Appendix IV (Contd)
Changes in Classifications
a) The Competent Agency can amend usage zones following their initial classification at any time.
b) It is the responsibility of the Competent Agency to make any changes to usage zone classifications
known to affected persons, facilities and operators so that the classification protects those sensitive
receptors affected.
c) Where the Competent Agency is of the opinion that any coastal area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia:
i) is of special interest by reason of its flora, fauna or geological or physiographical features; or
ii) is of special character or exemption,
the Competent Agency shall update their central usage records and amend their monitoring and
analysis programme accordingly.
d) The Competent Agency is obligated to verify the usage zone classification every 10 years. Verification
activities will vary depending on the development of the local area during the intermittent time and
changes in environmental conditions. In doing this the Competent Agency shall show due diligence in
the verification process.

Classification of Water Bodies


1 According to the requirements of Article III 2, all water bodies must be classified according
to the type of water and use. This appendix sets out the criteria for classifying usage zones.

Sub-
Classification Code Definition
division
Water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore
Groundwater - A
spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations.
This includes all fresh waters on the ground and includes
Fresh surface
- B water within rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, wetlands,
water
marshes, wadis and man made reservoirs.
Coastal waters are those that are under the jurisdiction of
KSA (the territorial coastal waters being 12 international
nautical miles (22.2 kilometres) of the shoreline). The sub-
Coastal water Marine C1
division marine is the default when the coastal water body
does not meet the criteria for high-value or industrial,
detailed below.
Areas of coastal water shall be classified as high value if
they are designated as locally, nationally or internationally
Coastal water High value C2 protected areas by any Concerned Agency (this includes
but is not limited to the Competent Agency, ROPME,
NCWCD and PERGSA).
Water bodies shall be classified as industrial if they are
adjacent to terrestrial zones that are classified as industrial
through local or national planning regulation. The extent of
the aquatic environment classified as industrial will
Coastal water Industrial C3 represent a seaward extension of the terrestrial boundary
provided that it does not impinge upon high areas classified
as C1 or C2. Furthermore, industrial ambient conditions will
extend no more than a 500 meter radius from the edge of
any mixing zone.

Page 23 of 25
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
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Appendix IV (Contd)

Calculation of Mixing Zones1 in the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

C1 Red Sea and Gulf Mixing Zones [Screening Model]

SDave = Horizontal extent of mixing zone

Where:
Dave = average water depth at outfall location2 3

XS = refer to table D1.

Table C1 Red Sea S Values

S Example of Habitat/Area Type


2 High-value area
5 Marine classified area
8 Industrially classified area

Table C2 Arabian Gulf S Values4

S Example of Habitat/Area Type


4 High-value area
8 Marine classified area
12 Industrially classified area

Notes:
This method represents the basic screening model for defining the maximum horizontal extent
of a mixing zone.
Where modelling shows that the maximum extent of the mixing zone is unachievable,
the Competent Agency must be consulted for approval on a case by case basis.
The maximum horizontal extent of the mixing zone radius will be 100 m at any time.

1
Method adapted from Jirka et al (2004). Published by the European Water Association.
2
Average depth applies where diffusion technology is utilised for discharge and must be measured at 10m increments along the
length of the diffusion apparatus. Otherwise, the depth at the end of the outfall applies.
3
For the gulf a correction factor of +10 is applied to depth to take account of local bathymetry.
4
These values are adjusted to accommodate for the conditions in the Arabian Gulf (i.e., shallow waters)
4
Horizontal radius

Page 24 of 25
Document Responsibility: Environmental Standards Committee SAES-A-103
Issue Date: 6 September 2011
Next Planned Update: 6 September 2016 Discharges to the Marine Environment

Appendix IV (Contd)
Table C3 A Look Up Table Showing the Radius of a Mixing Zone
for Given Values of S and Dave for the Red Sea and Gulf of Arabia

Red Sea Depth (m) 2 5 8 Arabian Gulf Depth (m) 4 8 12


Mixing zone radius5 Mixing zone radius
5 or less 10 25 40 5 or less 20 40 60
6 12 30 48 6 24 48 72
7 14 35 56 7 28 56 84
8 16 40 64 8 32 64 96
9 18 45 72 9 36 72 100
10 20 50 80 10 40 80
11 22 55 88 11 44 88
12 24 60 96 12 48 96
13 26 65 100 13 52 100
14 28 70 14 56
15 30 75 15 60
16 32 80 16 64
17 34 85 17 68
18 36 90 18 72
19 38 95 19 76
20 40 100 20 80
21 42 21 84
22 44 22 88
23 46 23 92
24 48 24 96
25 50 25 100
26 52 26
27 54 27
28 56 28
29 58 29
30 60 30
31 62 31
32 64 32
33 66 33
34 68 34
35 70 35
36 72 36
37 74 37
38 76 38
39 78 39
40 80 40
41 82 41
42 84 42
43 86 43
44 88 44
45 90 45
46 92 46
47 94 47
48 96 48
49 98 49
50 100 50

5
Horizontal radius

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