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Engineering Department

Magnetic attract magnetic materials but not non-magnetic materials. Magnetism is a non-

contact force (acts at a distance)

MAGNETISM

- The ability to attract iron and steel. The knowledge of magnetism goes back to the

Ancient Greeks who realized that a certain rock (Iodestone) attracted pieces of iron.

When the hang a piece of this material, it rotates until it is pointing in a north-south

direction of the earth.

- Magnets are named after the town magnesia (a district in Thessaly) in Lydia, Asia Minor

where the Iodestone was mined in ancient times. Natural permanents were called

Lodestone (magnetic, 3 4) after Iodestar (or guiding star). Lodestone was first

permanent magnetic material to be identified and studied. The regions near the ends of

a magnet are called its poles.

Magnetic Materials:

Iron

Steel

Nickel

Cobalt

PROPERTY

1. Ferromagnetic

- If materials such as cobalt, nickel or iron are put near a magnet they begin to act like

another magnet.

- Ferromagnetic materials are characterized by spontaneous magnetism that exists in the

absence of a magnetic field. They can retain the ability to attract metals (particularly

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

those belonging to ferrous family) even after the magnetic field that induced magnetism

to it has been removed. Iron is a soft ferromagnetic material. This means it will become

- magnetized very easily, but quickly loses its magnetic properties if the magnetized force

is removed. Steel is more difficult to magnetize, but once it is magnetized, it retains its

magnetic properties for a long time. Steel is called a hard ferromagnetic material.

2. Diamagnetic

- Have the ability to slightly repel magnetic field. Faraday discovers these materials in

1845. He found that bismuth and glass are repelled from magnetic fields.

3. Paramagnetic

- Also discovered by Faraday. He noted that some substances clearly not permanent

magnets are nevertheless attracted by magnetic fields and these materials are named

paramagnetic.

MAGNET

A magnet is any object that has a magnetic field. It attracts ferrous objects like pieces of iron,

steel, nickel and cobalt. One of the most common magnets - the bar magnet - is a long,

rectangular bar of uniform cross-section that attracts pieces of ferrous objects. The magnetic

compass needle is also commonly used. The compass needle is a tiny magnet which is free to

move horizontally on a pivot. One end of the compass needle points in the North direction and

the other end points in the South direction.

The end of a freely pivoted magnet will always point in the North-South direction. The end that

points in the North is called the North Pole of the magnet and the end that points South is

called the South Pole of the magnet. It has been proven by experiments that like magnetic

poles repel each other whereas unlike poles attract each other.

The region around a magnet where a magnetic force can be felt is called the magnetic

field.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

The magnet field is strongest at the poles of a magnet.

Like poles repel

N S

N S

N S

S N

MAGNETIC FIELD

Magnetic field is the space surrounding a magnet, in which magnetic force is exerted. If a bar

magnet is placed in such a field, it will experience magnetic force. However, the field will

continue to exist even if the magnet is removed. The direction of magnetic field at a point is the

direction of the resultant force acting on a hypothetical North Pole placed at that point.

The magnetic field is represented using magnetic field lines (lines of force , flux lines) that show

the shape, direction and strength of the field.

When current flows in a wire, a magnetic field is created around the wire. From this it has been

inferred that magnetic fields are produced by the motion of electrical charges. A magnetic field

of a bar magnet thus results from the motion of negatively charged electrons in the magnet.

Magnetic fields are produced by electric currents, which can be macroscopic currents in wires,

or microscopic currents associated with electrons in atomic orbits. The magnetic field () is

defined in terms of force on moving charge in the Lorentz force law. The interaction of

magnetic field with charge leads to many practical applications. Magnetic field sources are

essentially dipolar in nature, having a north and south magnetic pole.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

FLUX DENSITY ()

It is given by the flux passing per unit area through a plane at right angles to the flux. It

is measured in Wb/2

= = H = H

Direction of the magnetic field at any point is defined as the direction of motion of a change

particle on which the magnetic field would not exert force.

Magnitude of the magnetic field vector is proportional to the force acting on the moving

charge, the magnitude of its velocity and the angle between velocity and magnetic field. Unit is

the Tesla or Gauss

SI CGS ENG

Just as an electric field is described by drawing the electric lines of force, in the same way, a

magnetic field is described by drawing the magnetic lines of force. When a small north

magnetic pole is placed in the magnetic field created by a magnet, it will experience a force.

And if the North Pole is free, it will move under the influence of magnetic field. The path traced

by a North magnetic pole free to move under the influence of a magnetic field is called a

magnetic line of force. In other words, the magnetic lines of force are the lines drawn in a

magnetic field along which a north magnetic pole would move.

The direction of a magnetic line of force at any point gives the direction of the magnetic force

on a north pole placed at that point. Since the direction of magnetic line of force is the direction

of force on a North Pole, so the magnetic lines of force always begin on the N-pole of a magnet

and end on the S-pole of the magnet. A small magnetic compass when moved along a line of

force always sets itself along the line tangential to it. So, a line drawn from the South Pole of

the compass to its North Pole indicates the direction of the magnetic field.

The magnetic lines of force originate from the North Pole of a magnet and end at its

South Pole.

The magnetic lines of force come closer to one another near the poles of a magnet but

they are widely separated at other places.

The magnetic lines of force do not intersect (or cross) one another.

When a magnetic compass is placed at different points on a magnetic line of force, it aligns

itself along the tangent to the line of force at that point.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

Magnetic Flux () - It is the number of magnetic lines of forces in a magnetic field.

- Weber- SI unit of magnetic flux equal to 108 lines or Maxwell. 1Wb = 1x108 Maxwell

Conversion

vacuum.

The phenomena of magnetism and electromagnetism are dependent upon a certain property

of the medium called its permeability. Every medium is supposed to possess two

permeabilities:

Absolute permeability,

Relative permeability,

For measuring relative permeability, vacuum or free space is chose as the reference

medium. It is allotted an absolute permeability of vacuum with reference to itself is

unity. Hence, for free space,

Absolute permeability, = 4x107 Henry/meter, constant 33

Relative permeability, = 1

Now, take any medium other than vacuum. If its relative permeability, as compared to

vacuum is , then its abs. permeability is = =

- Field strength at any point within a magnetic field is numerically equal to the

force experienced by a N-pole of one Weber placed at that point.

- It should be noted that the field strength is a vector quantity having both

magnitude and direction.

- mmf (magnetomotiveforce) per unit length of path of the magnetic flux. It is

also called as the magnetizing force or the magnetic gradient

OERSTED- cgs unit of magnetic field strength equal to gilbert per centimeter.

AT/m SI unit for H

1 oersted = 79.577 AT/m

H= where: r distance

N- Number of turns

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

b. Long Solenoid

H=

c. Circular Coil

H= where: r radius

d. Square Coil

H= where: a distance from the corner

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. A solenoid 30cm long is wound with 300turns. What is the value of its field strength

inside the solenoid, when the coil is carrying a current of 2 Amperes?

2. If a current of 5A flows through a long wire of radius 0.004 meter, what is the intensity

of magnetic field produced 0.02 meter away from the surface of the wire?

3. A flat circular coil with 40 loops of wire has a diameter of 32 cm. What current must

flow in its wires to produce a field of 3.0x 104 Wb/2 ?

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

MAGNETIC FORCES

FORCE ON A CHARGE

quantitative terms by the introduction of the electric force. The simplest case to

consider is the force between two points charges (charges with a negligible size)

v velocity in m/s

MAGNETIC FIELD

The magnetic force on a charged particle depends on the relative orientation of the

particle's velocity and the magnetic field.

A magnetic force cannot change the speed of a charged particle, only its direction.

When a charged particle enters a uniform magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to

that field, its motion is continuously changed by the magnetic force

A current consists of many small charged particles running through a wire. If immersed

in a magnetic field, the particles will be experience a force; they can transmit this force

to the wire through which they travel.

The force on a section of wire of length L carrying a current I through a magnetic field B

is

F= (Dynes) where: Gauss

F= ( ) where: lines

.

L length in in/ft

Because forces are easy to measure, it is the force exerted on a current-carrying wire which is

used to define the SI unit of current, the ampere.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

FORCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL CONDUCTORS

Current in the same direction. The field strength in the space between the conductors is

decreased due to the two fields there being in the opposition to each other. Hence, the

two conductors are attached towards each other.

Current in the opposite direction. The field strength is increased in the space between

the two conductors due to the two fields being in the same direction there. Because of

the lateral repulsion of the lines of force, the two conductors expensive a mutual force

of repulsion.

F= where: - constant permeability, const 33

- relative permeability

- length in meter (m)

F= I current in amperes (A)

d distance between two conductors

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. An armature conductor 12cm long moves right angle to the magnetic flux of 1.20 Tesla

and carrying 5A. What is the force experienced by the conductor?

2. Two straight parallel wires 2m long and 3mm apart carries a current of 8A in opposite

direction. Calculate the force between these conductors?

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

3. A coil of moving instrument is wound with 250 turns of wire. The flux density in the gap

is 0.085 Tesla and the effective length of the coil side in the air gap is 5cm. Find the force

doing acting on each coil side when carrying current of 60mA? In Dynes.

The Lorentz Force Law can be used to describe the effects of a charged particle moving in a

constant magnetic field.

In an open right hand, the direction of the four fingers points to the direction of the magnetic

field, the thumb pointing perpendicular to the four fingers points to the direction of the

magnetic force in a positive charge is in the direction in which your open palm would push.

1. The force is perpendicular to both the velocity (v) of the charge (q) and the magnetic

field (B)

2. The magnitude of the force F=qvBsin where is the angle<180 degrees between the

velocity and the magnetic field. This implies that the magnetic force on a stationary

charge or a charge moving parallel to the magnetic field is zero.

3. The direction of the force is given by the right hand rule. The force relationship above is

in the form of a vector product.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

B Magnetic field (Wb/2 (Tesla) Max/2 (Gauss) lines/2

F Force N Dynes

Whenever, a current carrying conductor comes under a magnetic field, there will be force

acting on the conductor and on the other hand, if a conductor is forcefully brought under a

magnetic field, there will be an induced current in that conductor. In both of the phenomenons,

there is a relation between magnetic field, current and force. This relation is directionally

determined by Fleming Left Hand rule and Fleming Right Hand rule respectively. 'Directionally'

means these rules do not show the magnitude but show the direction of any of the three

parameters (magnetic field, current, force) if the direction of other two are known. Fleming Left

Hand rule is mainly applicable for electric motor and Fleming Right Hand rule is mainly

applicable for electric generator. In late 19th century, John Ambrose Fleming introduced both

these rules and as per his name, the rules are well known as Fleming left and right hand rule

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

Fleming Left Hand rule

It is found that whenever a current carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, a force

acts on the conductor, in a direction perpendicular to both the directions of the current and the

magnetic field. In the figure it is shown that, a portion of a conductor of length L placed

vertically in a uniform horizontal magnetic field strength H, produced by two magnetic poles N

and S. If i is the current flowing through this conductor, the magnitude of the force acts on the

conductor is, F = BIL

magnetic field, there will be an induced current in it. If this conductor gets forcefully moved

inside the magnetic field, there will be a relation between the direction of applied force,

magnetic field and the current. This relation among these three directions is determined by

Fleming Right Hand Rule This rule states "Hold out the right hand with the first finger, second

finger and thumb at right angle to each other. If forefinger represents the direction of the line

of force, the thumb points in the direction of motion or applied force, then second finger points

in the direction of the induced current.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. Using the right hand rule, find the direction of the missing information in the diagram

2. Each of the lettered dots shown in the figure represents an electric charge of 5C

moving at speed 3x10^6 m/s in the direction shown. Determine the magnetic force

(magnitude and direction) acting one each charges due to the 0.15 Tesla magnetic fields

that points in the positive y-direction?

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

TORQUE ON A FLAT COIL IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD

When a current carrying loop is placed across a magnetic field, it has the tendency to be

rotated either clockwise or counter-clockwise dependent on the direction of the magnetic field

and the current. Its direction of rotation is determined using the right hand rule.

Before considering the mathematical nature of the forces on currents in magnetic fields it is

worth just looking at the simple magnetic field diagrams that give rise to these effects. These

are shown in Figure 1. (a) is the field between two magnets, (b) the field due to a current in a

straight wire and (c) the resulting field if they are put together. This last field is known as the

"catapult" field because it tends to catapult the wire out of the field in the direction shown by

the arrow.

plane of the coil

SAMPLE PROBLEM

1. A rectangular loop 10cm high and 5cm wide is placed in magnetic field of 0.01 Tesla.

If the loop contains turns and carries a current of 50mA. What is the torque on it?

Assume that the face of the loop is parallel to the field? Given 250 turns.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT

- A system of magnetic conductors which magnetism maybe established upon

the application of magnetomotive force (mmf)

an electric current through a number of turns of a wire produces it

RELUCTANCE (R)

- Property of material that opposes flux flow. It is equal to the ration of the

mmf in a magnetic circuit to the magnetic flux through any cross section of

the magnetic circuit.

R= =v units: AT/Wb; Gilbert/Max

Where:

Relative permeability

1

v reluctivity ; the reciprocal of permeability =

= 79.577 106

P==

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

FLUX ( )

coil or magnet.

.

= = =

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. A certain laminated steel core has a permeability of 3000. The length is 5cm and the

cross sectional area is 2sq.m. What is the reluctance?

2. A magnetic circuit consists of silicon steel of 3000 permeability and air gap. The length

of the steel core is 10cm and the air gap is 2cm. Both have the same cross section of 1.5

sq.cm. A current of Ampere flows through the windings to produce 2351 Maxwell flux.

How many turns are there in the coil?

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

3. A solenoid has 250 turns. What is the magnetomotive force (mmf) in Gilbert when the

current is 0.12 Amp?

4. A coil with 900 turns is wound over a magnetic core with a reluctance of 10000 AT/Wb.

If a current of 2A is passed through the coil, determine the flux density inside the coil?

UNITS

A 2 2

0 Const 33 1

- -

H AT/m Oersted

R AT/Wb Gilbert/Max

mmf AT Gilberts

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

ENERGY STORED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD

The energy stored in a magnetic field is equal to the work needed to produce a current through

the inductor.

When a conductor carries a current, a magnetic field surrounding the conductor is produced.

The resulting magnetic flux is proportional to the current. If the current changes, the change in

magnetic flux is proportional to the time-rate of change in current by a factor called inductance

(L). Since nature abhors rapid change, a voltage (electromotive force, EMF) produced in the

conductor opposes the change in current, which is also proportional to the change in magnetic

flux. Thus, inductors oppose change in current by producing a voltage that,in turn, creates a

current to oppose the change in magnetic flux; the voltage is proportional to the change in

current.

Due to energy conservation, the energy needed to drive the original current must have an

outlet. For an inductor, that outlet is the magnetic fieldthe energy stored by an inductor is

equal to the work needed to produce a current through the inductor.

W = R W = (LA) [ ] W =

R Reluctance

L Inductance

I Current

FARADAYS LAW

A law that states an electrical field is induced in any system in which a magnetic field is

changing with time.

coil or current changes, an emf is induced in it.

FARADAYS SECOND LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. The magnitude of the

induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages.

INDUCED EMF it is the voltage generated by a conductor or coil moving in magnetic field.

e=N

where: e induced emf (Volt)

N number of turns

- rate of change of flux (Weber per second)

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

INDUCED EMF

A voltage can be developed in a wire by moving the wire across a magnetic field so that

flux cutting results (Faradays Principle)

e = Lv sin

e = L

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

a velocity 590m/s to a region of flux density 1 Tesla?

2. A magnetic coil produces 100,000 Maxwells with 2000 turns and with a current of 2

Amp. The current is cut-off and the flux collapses in 0.01sec. What is the average

voltage that will appear across the coil?

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

3. The flux density emanating from a pole of a generator is 20,000 Gauss. A conductor

one meter long cuts the flux perpendicularly at a speed of 40m per second. What

voltage is developed?

INDUCTANCE

changing magnetic flux. it is also a circuit element, typically a conducting coil, in which

emf is generated by electromagnetic induction.

Self Inductance the ratio of emf produced in a circuit by self induction to the rate of

change of current producing it, expressed in Henries (H)

L= L= L=

0 - permeability of free space (const 33, 4 107 Henry per meter

- relative permeability of the core used

A cross sectional are of the magnetic path( square meter)

N number of turns

flux (Weber)

I Current (Ampere)

- mean length of the magnetic path (meter)

R reluctance of the magnetic path (AT/Weber)

Mutual Inductance the ratio of emf in a circuit to the corresponding change of current

in a neighboring circuit. Measures the mutual induction between two magnetically

linked circuits, given as the ratio of the induced emf to the rate of charge of current

producing it, measured in Henries (H)

M= M=

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

Series Coil with mutual inductance

Series aiding sources of electromotive force (emf) which give the ability to the current

to flow in the same direction.

= 1 + 2 + 2M

Series opposing sources of electromotive force (emf) which give the ability to the

current to flow in opposite direction.

= 1 + 2 - 2M

Parallel aiding this is where connected coils increasing the total equivalent

inductance.

2

= 1+ 2

1 2 2

Parallel opposing this is where connected coils decreasing the total equivalent

inductance compared to coils that have zero mutual inductance.

2

= 1+ 2

1 2 + 2

M Mutual inductance

M=

k=

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. Two coils in a network are positioned such that there is 80% coupling between them. If

the inductance of one coil is 20mH and the inductance of the other coil is 16mH. Find the

mutual inductance?

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

2. A current of 2 Amp through a coil sets up flux linkages of 4Wb-turns. What is the

inductance of the coil?

3. Two coils of inductance 1 = 1.16 mH, 2 = 2 mH are connected in series. Find the total

energy stored when the steady current is 2 Amp?

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

ENERGY CONVERTION

GRADING RUBRIC FOR PROBLEM SET

InstructorName:_____________________ Date:_______________________

Completeness All components All components One or more No genuine

are present are present, but components are attempt at a

and complete some are missing, or all complete

somewhat components are solution.

incomplete. severely

incomplete.

Correctness All components At least one At least one Multiple

are completely component component contains major errors,

correct. contains a minor a major error. or an entirely

error. incorrect

response.

Style A professional, Minor issues of Major tone or Exceedingly

polished tone tone, voice, presentation issues. terse, sloppy,

and format are spelling, or otherwise

maintained punctuation, or unpolished

throughout the formatting.

writing.

solution.

Clarity All components Occasional or Truly confusing Exceedingly

are clear, minor issues of writing that can only confusing

organized, and clarity, causing be interpreted with writing.

easy to follow. confusion that significant effort.

can be overcome

by careful

reading and

charitable

interpretation by

the reader.

Precision No meaningful Occasional or Major precision Severely

ambiguity. minor issues of errors that cause underspecified

precision, meaningful instructions,

causing ambiguity in the definitions,

meaningful interpretation of the claims, or

ambiguity that solution, which can arguments

can be overcome only be resolved

by charitable with difficulty (if at

interpretation by all)

the reader.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

DIRECTION: On a long plain bond paper copy and solve the following problems

completely. Use engineering lettering and use straight edge for figures. Failure to follow

direction will get your work rejected.

1. The force acting on a pole of 3Wb is 12N. The magnetic intensity of the magnetic field is

__.

2. A wire 12cm long and carrying a current of 30A is placed in between the pole face of a

magnet whose magnetic flux density is 0.9 Tesla. If the wire is inclined at an angle

60degrees from the plane of the magnetic field, what is the force exerted on the wire?

3. The reluctance of a non-magnetic circuit is 12 units. How much flux will be set up if

surrounded by a coil 600 turns carrying a current of 3A.

4. The relative permeability of a certain silicon steel is 4500. A certain magnetic loop

consists of a silicon steel of 10cm square, 20cm long and an air gap of cm. What is the

reluctance of the magnetic circuit?

5. A coil with 900 turns is wound over a magnetic core with a reluctance of 10,000 AT/Wb.

If a current of 0.5A is pass through the coil, how much is the magnetic flux that the coil

generates?

6. A given magnetic circuit has a magnetic field intensity of 400AT/m. If the length of the

magnetic path is doubled maintaining the same magnetomotive force, how much is the

new magnetic field intensity?

7. A magnetomotive force is supplied by a current of one ampere through 100 turns. The

magnetic circuit consists of a steel core of 1000 permeability, 10cm long and 4 sq. cm.

area and an air gap one cm long. What is the field intensity at the air gap?

8. A non magnetic ring having a cross sectional area of 10 cm2 is uniformly wound with 300

turns of a given wire. If a current of 1A is passed through the coil, 2.4Wb of flux is

generated inside the ring. Determine the average diameter of the ring.

9. A coil with 250 turns is wound over a 200cm a cylindrical iron core whose relative

permittivity is 250. If a current of 2A is pass through the coil, determine the flux density

in the core.

10. A toroidal core with a mean circumference of 100cm and a cross sectional area of

10cm2 is wound with 500 turns of wire. What current would be required to generate a

flux of 1 mWb in the core. Assume the core has a relative permeability of 800.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

11. A magnetic ring (relative permitivitty=800) has a mean radius of 10cm and a cross

sectional area of 5cm2. An air gap measuring 1.5mm is cut in the ring. Determine the

required mmf in order to produce a flux of 0.25mWb in the air gap.

12. A magnetic ring with a mean diameter of 25cm and a cross sectional area of 5cm 2 is

wound with a coil of 600 turns. An air gap 4mm is made by cutting a section of the ring.

A current of 10A is passed through the coil. Determine the energy stored in the air gap.

Assume relative permittivity of the ring to be 1000.

13. How much is the inductance of a coil that induces 500V when the current changes at the

rate of 5mA in 2s?

14. The energy (Wo) stored in a coil is dependent in the inductance (L) of the coil and the

current flowing. If the inductance were doubled with the same current flowing, what

would be the resulting stored energy?

15. A 6.0 H coil whose resistance is 12 ohms is connected in series with a 24 ohms resistor

and to a 144 V battery and a switch. The switch is closed at t=0. Determine the energy

stored in the magnetic field at steady state.

Engr. Noemi Q. Guerra

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