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Building Technology

FLEA 2013 Review

UAP-Dubai Chapter
The primary difference between concrete and cement is that concrete is a
composite material made of water, aggregate, and cement. Cement is a very
fine powder made of limestone and other minerals, which absorbs water and
acts as a binder to hold the concrete together. While cement is a construction
material in its own right, concrete cannot be made without cement. The two
terms often are incorrectly used interchangeably, but concrete and cement
are distinctly separate products

Concrete is a composite material composed of coarse granular material (the

aggregate or filler) embedded in a hard matrix of material (the cement or
binder) that fills the space among the aggregate particles and glues them

Cement -


Portland Cement made from materials which must contain the proper

Portland Cement made from materials which must contain the proper
proportions of lime, silica, alumina and iron components
White Portland cement same materials as normal Portland except in
Masonry Cement designed to produce better mortar than that made with
normal Portland cement or with a lime-cement combination
Air-entraining Portland Cement small amounts of this is added to the
clinker and ground with it to produce air-entraining cements, effective use
for resistance to severe frost
Oil Well Cement special Portland cement used for sealing oil wells.
Waterproofed Portland Cement normally produced by adding a small
amount of stearate, usually calcium or aluminum to the cement clinker
during the final grinding
Pozzolan Cement- naturally occuring material that can be mixed with
cement as an extender
Types of Aggregates Used in Concrete:

Aggregate sand, gravel crushed stone, cinder, crushed furnace slag, burned
clay, expanded vermaculite, and perlite.
Sand found in riverbends, free of salt and must be washed.
Fine aggregate smaller than diameter stones.
Course aggregate bigger than diameter stones.

Concrete Mixes:

Class AA - 1:1 :3 - concrete under water, retaining walls

Class A - 1:2:4 - footings, columns, beams, RC slabs
Class B - 1:2 :5 - slab on fill, non-bearing walls
Class C - 1:3:6 - concrete plant boxes, etc.
Mixture class Proportion Cement in bag sand gravel
40kg 50kg cu.m cu.m
class AA 1 : 1 1/2 : 3 12 9.5 0.5 1.0
class A 1:2:4 9.0 7.0 0.5 1.0
class B 1 : 2 1/2 : 5 7.5 6.0 0.5 1.0
class C 1:3:6 6.0 5.0 0.5 1.0

Strength of Mixture
a. Class AA - 4000 PSI
b. Class A - 3500 PSI
c. Class B - 3000 PSI
d. Class C - 2500 PSI
Sample Problem:

1. What type of Slope Protection / Retaining Structure is widely used for a

straight vertical cut soil portion that is limited to a height of 20 (6.0 meters)?

a. T-type Cantilevered Retaining Wall b. Gabions

c. Counterfort Retaining Wall d. L-type Cantilevered

Retaining Wall
1.A Estimate the Concrete needed considering the maximum height
allowable for this retaining wall 200mm thick x 6000mm wide with a footing of
300mm thick x 6400mm long x 1200mm wide

1.B Identify the Class, drying time and psi to be achieved.


1. What type of Slope Protection / Retaining Structure is widely used for a

straight vertical cut soil portion that is limited to a height of 20 (6.0
T-type Cantilevered Retaining Wall

1.A Estimate the Concrete needed considering the maximum height allowable
for this retaining wall 200mm thick x 6000mm wide with a footing of 300mm
thick x 6400mm long x 1200mm wide.

For Wall: 80 bags of 40kg Cement

115.20 cu.m. of Sand
230.40 cu.m. of Gravel

For Footing: 3 bags of 40kg Cement

3.456 cu.m. of Sand
6.912 cu.m. of Gravel
Strength of Mixture
a. Class AA - 4000 PSI b. Class A - 3500 PSI
c. Class B - 3000 PSI d. Class C - 2500 PSI
Control of Concrete Mixes:

Slump Test when freshly mixed concrete is checked to ensure that the
specified slump is being attained consistently. A standard slump cone is 12
inches high (0.30) and 8 inches (0.20) in diameter at the bottom and 4 inches
(0.10) on top which is open on both ends.

Compressive Strength Test common quality-control test of concrete, based

on 7 and 28 day curing periods.

Concrete Additives materials often added to the concrete or applied to the

surface of freshly placed concrete to produce some special result.

Accelerators an admixture which is used to speed up the initial set of

concrete. Such a material maybe added to the mix to increase the rate of
early-strength development for several reasons.
Retarders to delay or extend the setting time of the cement paste in

Air-entraining agents air-entrained concrete contains microscopic bubbles

of air formed with the aid of a group of chemical called surface active agents,
materials that have the property of reducing the surface tension of water
intended for use when better resistance to frost action is concerned.

Concrete Hardeners applied on concrete surface to increase hardiness and


Two Types of Concrete hardeners:

Chemical Hardeners liquids containing silicofluorides or fluosilicates and a
wetting agent which reduces the surface tension of the liquid and allows it to
penetrate the pores of the concrete more easily.
Fine Metallic Aggregate are specially processed and graded iron particles
which are dry-mixed with Portland cement, spread evenly over the surface of
freshly floated concrete, and worked into the surface by floating.
Water Reducing Admixtures material used to reduce the amount of water
necessary to produce a concrete of given consistency or to increase the slump
for a given water content.

Damproofers materials used to reduce or stop the penetration of moisture

through the concrete. Reduces permeability.
Concrete Products made of lightweight and heavyweight materials for use in
exterior and interior load-bearing walls, firewalls, curtain and panel walls,
partitions etc.

Concrete Block:
Hollow load-bearing concrete block an 8 x 8 x 16 will approximately
weigh 40 to 50 lb. Made with heavyweight aggregate and 25 to 35 lb. when
made with lightweight aggregate.
Solid load bearing block defines as one having a core area of not more than
25 percent of the gross cross-sectional area.
Hollow; non-load bearing concrete block one in which the core area
exceeds 25 percent of the cross-sectional area.

Concrete building tile

Concrete brick
Concrete building tile
Concrete brick

Common Sizes:
4 x 8 x 16 for non-load bearing partitions
6 x 8 x 16 for load bearing walls

Hand made backyard industry
Machine made commonly sold
Steam cured manufactured by big and nationally known factories for load
bearing walls. Usually specified for government and multi-storey buildings.

Cellular Concrete Blocks lightweight block which is outstanding in thermal

and sound insulation qualities. Basic ingredients are cement-made from silica-
rich sand and lime-water, and aluminum powder.
FOUNDATION SYSTEMS (Deep and Shallow Foundation)

The foundation system transfers the

lateral loads on the superstructure to the
The horizontal component of these
lateral forces is transferred largely
through a combination of soil friction on
the bottom of footings and the
development of passive soil pressure on
the sides of footings and foundation
walls. Foundation systems are classified
into two broad categories ---
shallow foundations and deep foundations
SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS - Shallow or spread foundations are employed when
stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near the ground
Combined footings. supporting two or
more columns. This type of footing is used
where it is not possible to center the
footing beneath its supported column as
in the case of columns located at or very
near the property line. In such case, the
nearest interior column is selected and
a combined footing constructed under
both columns.
Cantilevered footings. This type of
footing may be
used in place of a combined footing under
the same
conditions. In this type of construction,
the footings
of the exterior and interior columns are
connected by
a tie-beam or strap which is so extended
to support
the exterior column. The top of the beam
or strap is
usually placed level with the top of the
Continuous footings. These
may be:
(1) supporting a line of
(2) supporting all of the
columns by
strips at right angles to
each other.
Mat or Raft Foundations
Mat foundations, like continuous footings
are used on soil of low bearing power
where there
is a tendency towards unequal settlement
due to unequal loading of soil. In this type
foundation all parts of the foundation are
so tied together so that they will act as
one and
assist each other in keeping level and
plumb. Mat foundations may be divided
into the
following general classes:
Flat slabs of plain or reinforced concrete

Beams or girders with a slab underneath

Beams or girders with a slab on top

DEEP FOUNDATIONS - Deep foundations are employed when the soil
underlying a shallow foundation is unstable or of inadequate soil bearing
capacity. They extend down through unsuitable soil to transfer building
loads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or dense sand and
gravel well below the superstructure. The types of deep foundations are
pile and caisson foundations.

required to build upon a compressible soil
saturated with water and of considerable
depth, the most practicable method of
obtaining a solid and enduring foundation
buildings of moderate height is by driving
wooden piles
CONCRETE PILES Concrete piles, either plain or reinforced, possess many
advantages over wooden piles and, in general, can be used in all places
where wooden piles can be driven.

Pre-cast Piles These are usually moulded

in a yard or at the site allowed to cure for
4 weeks
before using
Cast-in-place piles
Steel piles

Composite Piles
Caissons are cast-in-place, plain or reinforced concrete piers formed by
boring with a large auger or excavating by hand a shaft in the earth to a
suitable bearing stratum and filling the shaft with concrete.
Tied Columns. These are columns with longitudinal bars and lateral ties. The
ratio of the effective cross-sectional area of vertical reinforcement to the
gross column area should not be less than 1% nor more than 8%, and should
consist of at least 4 bars of a minimum size of #5. Lateral tiles shall be at
least 3/8 (10 mm) diameter and shall be spaced apart not over than 16 bar
diameters, 48 tie diameters, or the least dimension of the column.
Spiral Columns. These are columns with
longitudinal bars and closely spaced
continuous spiral hooping. For spiral
columns, the ratio of the area of the
vertical reinforcement to the gross
column area shall not less than 1% nor
more than 8%. The minimum number of
bars shall 6, and the minimum bar size
shall #5.
DOWEL BARS Dowel bars are short bars used to
transfer the stress at the bottom
of the columns to the footings.
When dowel bars are used, there
should be at least one dowel bar
for each column bar. The total
cross-sectional area of dowels
should not be less than the cross-
sectional area of longitudinal
reinforcement in the column.
The dowels shall extend into the
column and into the pedestal or
footing not less than 50 bars
diameter for plain bars or 40
diameters for deformed
In general, there are four types of
reinforced-concrete floors systems:
1. One way solid slab and beam
2. One way joist slab or Ribbed slab
3. Two way solid slab and beam
4. Two way waffle slab
5. Two way flat plate
6. Two way flat slab
Probably the most commonly used type or reinforced concrete construction
consists of a solid slab supported by two parallel beams, the beams framing
into girders, and the girders in turn framing into columns. The reinforcement
slabs runs in one direction only, from beam to beam,hence the slab is known
as one-way slab.
Minimum protective covering for slab reinforcement is 20mm ().
When a floor panel is square or nearly so, having beams or walls on four sides, it
is generally economical to use two sets of reinforcing bars placed at right angles
to each other. These bars in two directions transfer the loads to the four
supporting beams or walls. Slabs thus reinforced are known as two way slabs or
slabs supported on four sides.
A beam may be defined as a structural member, resting on supports usually
at its ends, which supports transverse loads. The loads that act on the
beam, as well as the weight of the beam itself, tend to bend rather than
lengthen or shorten it. A girder is a term applied to a beam that
supports one or more smaller beams, as concentrated loads.
Beams may be classified as:

a. Simple beams. These are beams having a single span with a support at each
end, there being no restraint at the supports.
b. Cantilever beams. These are beams that are supported at one end only, or
they may be that portion of beams projecting beyond one of its supports.
c. Continuous beams. These are beams resting on more than two supports.
The term semi-continuous is also frequently used in reinforced-concrete. It
refers to a beam having two spans with little or no restraint at the two
extreme ends of the beam. The end span of a continuous beam, where little
or restraint is provided at the end support, is referred to as a semi-continuous

An allowance of 1-1/2 (38 mm) for fireproofing is made outside the

reinforcement on each side of the beam, and there is also allowance for #3