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PART 2 The eleventh and twelfth ribs arent attached to

the costal arch.. Since theyre not linked to the


THE THORAX sternum, theyre called floating ribs.
commonly known as the chest.

BONES The ribs, sternum and costal cartilages form an


expandable container for the lungs and heart. This large
The bones of the thorax are the thoracic
opening, formed on each side by the costal arch and the
vertebrae, the twelve pairs of ribs, and the
last two ribs, is called the inferior or lower thoracic
sternum.
aperture.
Connecting the upper ten pairs of ribs to the
sternum are the costal cartilages. Its almost completely filled in by the diaphragm,
The first rib is quite small. Like all the ribs, its which separates the thorax from the abdomen.
angled downward from back to front.
From the first rib to the third, the thorax widens The much smaller opening above, thats formed by the
in the shape of a dome, to about two thirds of manubrium, the first ribs, and the first thoracic vertebra, is
its full width. called the superior of upper thoracic aperture .
From the third rib to the seventh the thorax
typical rib, the sixth rib
widens a little further, in the shape of a cone.
From the seventh rib to the twelfth, the thorax rib is thin and flat, and curved in the form of a
narrows slightly, and the ribs become very much spiral..
shorter. At the back there are two thickenings, the head
and the tubercle, which are separated by the
Sternum
neck.
commonly known as the breast-bone, consists of The curvature of the rib is interrupted by this
three parts: the manubrium, the body, and the angle, which marks the insertion of the iliocostalis.
xiphoid process, or xiphisternum. At the front, the end of the rib is hollowed out,
The manubrium is attached to the body of the for the attachment of the costal cartilage.
sternum by a cartilaginous joint, at which a little The outer aspect of the rib is smoothly curved.
movement is possible. Its inner aspect is marked on the underside by
Theres a slight angle between the manubrium this groove, in which the intercostal vessels and
and the body, the sternal angle, thats easy to nerve run.
palpate, as is the upper border of the the rib articulates with the adjoining vertebrae at
manubrium. two points, the head, and the tubercle.
The head of the rib has two articular facets. The
costal cartilages two facets articulate with the vertebral bodies
above, and below, to form the costovertebral joint
form a series of flexible, springy links between
.
the ribs and the sternum.
This surface on the tubercle of the rib articulates
The first costal cartilage articulates with the
with the tip of the transverse process, to form the
manubrium;
costo-transverse joint.
the second one articulates with the joint between
o These two joints are synovial joints. They
the manubrium and the body; permit the movements of the rib that
the third to the sixth or seventh costal cartilages occur in respiration.
articulate with the body.
The joints between the ribs and the vertebrae are
costo-chondral junctions held together by ligaments,.The strongest of these
are the radiate ligament here, and the superior
where the cartilages join the ribs. costo transverse ligament.

Costal arch first rib

The lowest four costal cartilages, the seventh, a landmark structure where the thorax becomes
eighth, ninth, and tenth, join on to one another in continuous with the neck.
series, forming the costal arch. most tightly curved of all the ribs.
the broadest of the ribs.
Infrasternal angle When seen from the side, its upper border lies
The angle between the two costal arches is in a plane thats about 30 from the horizontal
called the infrasternal angle. when seen from in front its flat upper surface
slopes downward, also at about 30.
The xiphoid process projects downwards in the
infrasternal angle, where it can easily be palpated. The costal cartilage of the first rib articulates
with the manubrium of the sternum not at the
Floating Ribs top, but lower down at its broadest part.
The first costal cartilage is short and massive.
hardly permits any movement, so the two first Below, the pleura is reflected off the chest wall,
ribs, together with the manubrium, move up and and onto the diaphragm, and off the diaphragm,
down together as one solid arch. onto the mediastinum.
Above, the pleura fills in the gap thats created
CLAVICLE by the curvature of the first rib.
medial end - articulates with the highest point on highest part of the pleura, known as the dome or
the manubrium, forming the sterno-clavicular joint. cupola of the pleura. Here it is, seen from the
outside.
Its easy to palpate the clavicle.
o When seen from the side, the dome of
The first rib is difficult to palpate. That's because
the pleura is level with the proximal end
it lies both below and behind the clavicle, and
of the first rib.
also because theres a thick layer of muscle in
o When the pressure inside the chest is
front of it.
raised, the pleura rises well above the
The lateral end of the clavicle articulates with this
first rib.
projection on the scapula, the acromion, forming
the acromio-clavicular joint. left pleural cavity
SCAPULA is similar, except that the heart, enclosed here
within the pericardium, projects into it.
capable of a wide range of movement, upward
and downward, and also forward and backward Pleura
around the chest wall.
layer of smooth tissue which covers the outside
REVIEW OF BONES of the lung is also pleura.
Here are the thoracic vertebrae, and the ribs. Heres the Visceral Pleura
head of the rib, the tubercle, the neck, and the angle.
Heres the costovertebral joint, and the costo transverse All the way round the pleural cavity, the two
joint Here are the costal cartilages, heres the costal arch, layers of pleura touch, with nothing between them
heres the sternum the manubrium, the body, and the except a thin film of fluid. The layer that covers
xiphoid process. The upper thoracic aperture and the the lung is called the visceral pleura
lower thoracic aperture. Heres the clavicle, the scapula,
the sterno-clavicular joint, and the acromioclavicular joint . Parietal Pleura

PLEURAL CAVITY, PLEURA the layer that lines the cavity is called the parietal
pleura.
important layer of tissue which lines the thoracic
wall on the inside - the pleura **The two layers of pleura, the parietal, and the visceral,
are continuous with each other here, around the hilum of
DIAPHRAGM the lung.

forms an almost complete partition between the Each lung occupies a completely sealed space. Its
thorax and the abdomen. volume can never be greater or less than the volume of
the pleural cavity. When the volume of the cavity is
THORACIC CAVITY increased, whether by downward movement of the
diaphragm, or by forward and upward movement of the
Looks like one continuous space.
ribs, the parietal pleura exerts a pull on the visceral
In reality its divided into two separate cavities by
pleura, the lung expands, and we breathe in. When the
a partition, the mediastinum, which extends from
volume of the cavity is decreased, the lung is
the vertebral bodies behind, to the sternum in compressed, and we breathe out.
front .
o The heart, the great blood vessels, the MUSCLES
esophagus, and the trachea are
contained within the thickness of the Intercostals
mediastinum.
The muscles between them are the intercostals
PLEURAL MEMBRANE
Diaphragm
glistening layer of smooth lining tissue is the
pleura, also called the pleural membrane. Its a thin, continuous sheet of muscle, with fibers
that converge from all around the circumference,
forms a complete lining for this cavity, which is
to insert on this flat tendon, the central tendon of
called the pleural cavity.
the diaphragm.
the pleura is reflected off the vertebral bodies
The diaphragm arises from a line that goes right
and onto the mediastinum. Here behind the
around the inside of the lower thoracic aperture,
sternum the pleura continues round, onto the
with one interruption
front of the chest wall.
The line of attachment of the diaphragm goes
from here on the back of the sternum, along the
inside of the costal arch, and round to the tip of upward and forward movement of the anterior
the twelfth rib. chest wall.
Between the twelfth rib and the body of the
second lumbar vertebra, the diaphragm arises on scalene muscles
each side from the fascia which overlies the two
which assist in inspiration by raising the first and
big muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. (1)
second ribs.
quadratus lumborum, and (2) psoas major muscles.
anterior scalene muscle arises from the anterior
**FOR SECOND PRACS : Three important
tubercles of the transverse processes from C3 to
structures pass through the diaphragm: the
C6. It inserts here on the first rib.
esophagus, and the two main blood vessels of
middle scalene muscle arises from the posterior
the lower half of the body, the inferior vena
tubercles of the transverse processes from C2 to
cava, and the descending aorta. This is the
C6, and inserts here on the first rib.
opening for the inferior vena cava, the vena caval
posterior scalene muscle arises from the posterior
foramen. This is the opening for the esophagus,
tubercles, from C4 to C6, and inserts down here,
the esophageal hiatus. This is the opening for the
on the second rib.
aorta . On each side of these two openings
theres a thickening of the diaphragm called a The action of the scalene muscles raises the first
crus, the plural of which is crura . The left crus and second ribs, and the manubrium, in deep
inspiration.
arises all the way down here, on the body of L2
. The right crus arises even further down, on L3. principal muscles that produce expiration: the internal
The two crura arch over the aortic opening, intercostals, and the muscles of the abdominal wall.
forming the median arcuate ligament. Fibers of
the two crura cross over, to surround the internal intercostals
esophageal hiatus.
When the diaphragm contracts, the whole sheet lie just beneath the external ones
of muscle, together with the central tendon, moves Each internal intercostal runs from here on the rib
downward, expanding the lungs, and causing us below, to here on the rib above.
to breathe in. As the diaphragm contracts, the extend from the angles of the ribs behind, to the
structures below it, the contents of the upper end of the intercostal spaces in front.
part of the abdominal cavity are pushed The fibers of the internal intercostals run forward,
downwards, which leads to this bulging of the from below, upward.
abdominal wall when we take a quiet breath in. As the force is applied, the ribs move
When were at rest and breathing quietly, downwards. As the ribs move downwards , their
inspiration is produced almost entirely by the ends, together with the sternum move backwards.
downward pull of the diaphragm, with little or no The action of the internal intercostals moves the
movement of the ribs. In quiet expiration, the anterior chest wall downwards and backwards.
upward, return movement of the diaphragm is
muscles of the abdominal wall
produced passively by elastic forces, notably by
elastic contraction of the lungs themselves. They have two important effects.
When were breathing vigorously, the diaphragm o raise the intra abdominal pressure, and
is pushed upward actively by contraction of the so push the diaphragm up.
muscles of the abdominal wall. These raise the o abdominal wall muscles pull the lower
pressure in the abdomen, forcing the upper ribs downward, assisting the action of the
abdominal organs, and the diaphragm, upward. internal intercostals.
principal muscles that produce inspiration, the external Rectus abdominis muscles
intercostals, and the scalene muscles.
On either side of the midline are the rectus
external intercostal muscles
abdominis muscles, which go from the fifth, sixth
thin sheets of muscle, that connect each rib to its and seventh ribs, down to the pubis.
neighbor. Between the rectus muscles in front, and the
Each external intercostal runs from here on the posterior abdominal wall behind, there are three
rib above, to here on the rib below. sheets of muscle one inside the other.
o the innermost, is the transversus
They extend from the tubercles of the ribs behind,
abdominis.
round to the middle of the costal cartilages in
Its fibers run horizontally, the
front.
uppermost ones go from the
The fibers of the external intercostals run forward,
lowest four ribs, to insert on this
from above, downward.
sheet of tendon which goes to
When we apply a pulling force in the direction of
the midline.
the external intercostal fibers, the ribs move
o Outside transversus is the internal oblique
upwards. As the ribs move upwards, their ends,
Its fibers arise from the iliac
together with the sternum, move forwards. So
crest and fan out in many
the action of the external intercostals produces an
directions, the highest ones
inserting on the lowest three Each posterior intercostal artery passes along the
ribs. deep aspect of an internal intercostal muscle, in
o Outside the internal oblique is the company with an intercostal vein and nerve. It
external oblique. stays close to the lower border of the rib
It arises from the lower seven
ribs, and inserts partly on the azygos vein
iliac crest, partly into this broad
arching over the right main bronchus, and joining
tendinous sheet, the external
the superior vena cava.
oblique aponeurosis.
begins below the diaphragm and runs up along
The most important contribution that the the right side of the vertebral column.
abdominal wall muscles make to the movements receives blood from the posterior and lateral parts
of respiration is in the powerful action of forced of the chest wall.
expiration, as in coughing or sneezing. On the right side, the posterior intercostal veins
Unimportant: levators of the ribs and the serratus empty directly into it.
posterior muscles on the outside, and the On the left side, the posterior intercostals empty
into these two hemi-azygos veins which in turn
transversus thoracis and innermost intercostal muscles on empty into the azygos.
the inside.
NERVES
thorax
phrenic nerve
also forms the foundation from which the upper
extremity arises. is the motor and sensory nerve of the diaphragm.

REVIEW OF PLEURAL CAVITY AND MUSCLES Vagus

Heres the parietal pleura, and the visceral pleura. Heres provides the parasympathetic supply for all the
the pleural cavity, and the mediastinum. Heres the dome organs of the thorax and abdomen.
of the pleura. Heres the diaphragm, the right and left The courses of these two nerves are similar: they
crus, the vena caval foramen, the esophageal hiatus, the both start in the neck, run downward in the
aortic opening. mediastinum, and pass through the diaphragm.
It lies behind and between the internal jugular
Here are the external intercostals muscles, the scalene vein and the common carotid artery.
muscles, anterior, middle, and posterior, the internal It passes in front of the subclavian artery.
intercostals. Lastly here are the rectus abdominis, On the right side only, the vagus gives off this
transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and external branch, the recurrent laryngeal, which curls
oblique muscles. around the artery and passes upwards to the
larynx.
BLOOD VESSELS
phrenic nerve
Aorta
Passes behind the subclavian vein, which has
part of the aorta that lies within the thorax is been divided here, and runs downward in the
called the thoracic aorta. mediastinum in front of the root of the lung,
three parts, the ascending aorta, the arch, and close to the superior vena cava and right atrium.
the descending aorta. phrenic nerve passes through the diaphragm.
On the left side, the course of the phrenic nerve
internal thoracic artery
is similar: in its course in the mediastinum it
runs downward and forward over the dome of the passes over the aorta, the pulmonary trunk, and
pleura, and passes behind the first costal the left ventricle.
cartilage.
intercostal nerves
After passing behind the first rib, which is here
each one runs down the inside of the chest wall, direct continuation of the anterior rami of the
just lateral to the sternum, in front of the thoracic spinal nerves.
transversus thoracis muscle. give motor innervation to the intercostal muscles,
Its branches supply the anterior chest wall. Its and sensory innervation to the chest wall.
distal continuation, known as the superior They run closely with the intercostal blood
epigastric artery, supplies the upper part of the vessels, which have been removed in this
anterior abdominal wall dissection.
Posterior Intercostal Artery REVIEW OF BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES
On each side the descending aorta gives off this Heres the ascending aorta, the arch of the aorta, and
series of posterior intercostal arteries, one for the descending aorta. Heres the brachiocephalic artery,
each of the intercostal spaces except the first the right subclavian, the right common carotid, the left
two
common carotid, and the left subclavian arteries. Heres The surface of the lung is formed by the visceral
the internal thoracic artery. pleura. The visceral pleura covers the lung
completely, except here at the hilum, where it
Here are the subclavian veins, the internal jugular veins, becomes continuous with the parietal pleura.
the brachiocephalic veins, the superior vena cava, the Taking a close look at the edge of the lung we can
inferior vena cava, the azygos vein, and the hemi- azygos see the alveoli, the tiny air spaces where gas
veins. exchange occurs. The'yre opening progressively as
we slowly inflate the lung.
Heres the phrenic nerve, and the vagus nerve, and in
the chest, the vagus nerve, and the phrenic nerve; and two separate pleural surfaces, parietal and visceral.
the recurrent laryngeal nerve on the right, and on the left.
Here are three of the intercostal nerves. Here's the The two surfaces are normally in close sliding contact
sympathetic trunk, aramus communicans, and a splanchnic with nothing between them except a film of serous
nerve. fluid.
The parietal pleura that lines the chest wall is
BREAST attached to the inner aspect of the ribs.
The visceral pleura covering the lung slides just
From above down the breast extends from about
beneath it.
the level of the second rib, to the sixth rib.
When we puncture the parietal pleura, we break the
From side to side, it extends from the edge of
seal between it and the underlying lung. The lung, no
the sternum, to about the midaxillary line. This
longer pulled outward, collapses as air enters the
prolongation of the breast behind is called the
pleural cavity
axillary tail.
The function of the lungs as organs of gas exchange
pigmented area is the areola. It surrounds the
depends on our ability to breathe in and out. In this,
nipple, which is the point at which the lactiferous
the lungs themselves are passive: their shape and
ducts emerge.
volume conform from moment to moment to the
consists largely of fat
shape and volume of the cavity they're in.
lies directly in front of the fascia that covers the
When the diaphragm contracts and moves down, and
pectoralis major muscle.
when the intercostal muscles move the front of the rib
Beneath the areola, the lactiferous ducts - heres
cage upward and forward, then the volume of the
one of them - converge on their separate
thorax increases, the lungs expand, and air is drawn
openings on the nipple.
into the lungs. When these movements are reversed,
the lungs are squeezed into a smaller space, and air
is blown out.
THE LUNGS AND ESOPHAGUS
Trachea
The thorax, the two pleural cavities that lie within it, and the
structures that produce respiratory movement. Its upper end is continuous with the cricoid cartilage.
ends here, where it divides into the two main, or
A large part of each lung lies behind the heart. principal bronchi.
The lung extends from the ribs in front, to the ribs The principal bronchi begin to branch as they enter
behind, and from the dome of the pleural cavity, down the lung, first into lobar, then segmental branches.
to the diaphragm. The corrugated appearance of the trachea comes
With each breath in, and each breath out there's an from the series of c-shaped cartilages that strengthen
increase and a decrease in the volume of the lungs. its wall and keep it open. In between them, the
The space between the two lungs is occupied by the tracheal wall is soft, so that the trachea is highly
heart and great blood vessels. flexible
Each lung has three surfaces. The medial or
mediastinal surface is marked by the hilum where the
bronchi and blood vessels enter; the concave inferior
surface rests on the diaphragm; and the large convex
costal surface faces the rib cage.
Each lung is divided by deep fissures into lobes. The
right lung has a superior lobe, a middle lobe, and an
inferior lobe. The left lung has only a superior and an
inferior lobe.
The fissures that separate the lobes extend all the
way round onto the mediastinal surfaces. The space
between the posterior parts of the lungs is occupied
by the vertebral bodies.
The two lungs are separated by the mediastinum, the
midline partition that's occupied largely by the heart
and great vessels, and also by fat and lymph nodes,
and in childhood the thymus gland.