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1/2, 2010

prediction of surface roughness in end milling of

aluminium under MQL machining

K. Sundara Murthy

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Jayam College of Engineering and Technology,

Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu, India

E-mail: profksm@gmail.com

I. Rajendran*

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology,

Udumalai Road, Pollachi, Tamilnadu, India

E-mail: irus_rajendran@yahoo.co.in

*Corresponding author

Abstract: The aim of this study is to find the influence of cutting parameters

on surface roughness and optimum conditions for better surface quality in end

milling of aluminium 6063 under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). The

most important parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate are

considered. Taguchi experimental design method is applied to conduct the

experiments. This study also attempts to develop models to predict surface

roughness. Multiple regression and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques

are applied to predict the surface roughness. The results of the prediction

models are quite close with experiment values. ANOVA is carried out and the

influence of cutting parameters on surface roughness is found. The feed rate is

the most dominant factor in influencing surface roughness. The results also

show that the highest cutting speed, medium feed rate and medium depth of cut

produces lowest surface roughness. This study provides the optimum cutting

conditions for end milling of aluminium 6063 under minimum quantity

lubrication machining.

artificial neural network; ANN; multiple regression; end milling; Taguchi

method; minimum quantity lubrication; MQL.

Rajendran, I. (2010) A study on optimisation of cutting parameters and

prediction of surface roughness in end milling of aluminium under MQL

machining, Int. J. Machining and Machinability of Materials, Vol. 7,

Nos. 1/2, pp.112128.

in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jayam College of Engineering

and Technology, Dharmapuri, India. He received his Bachelors in Mechanical

Engineering from Madras University, India in 2000 and his Masters in

CAD/CAM from Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India in 2002. He

has published eight papers in national and international conferences and

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 113

His research interests include machining studies, CAD/CAM, mechatronics,

CIM and robotics. He is a Life Member of the Indian Society for Technical

Education (ISTE).

Engineering, Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology,

Pollachi, India. He received his BE in Mechanical Engineering and ME in

Engineering Design from the College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna

University, Chennai, India, in 1991 and 1994, respectively, and his PhD in

composite leaf spring from PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India, in

2001. His research interests include composite materials, design optimisation,

finite element analysis, machining and vibration analysis. He organised

international and national conferences in the area of materials and mechanical

engineering.

1 Introduction

In manufacturing techniques, metal cutting is one of the most important processes. Lee

and Lin (2000) and Hayajneh et al. (2007) considered milling is the primary and most

widely used metal cutting process in manufacturing industry. The challenging and

competitive global market demands the manufacturing industries for high quality

products with low cost. Surface roughness is one of the prominent factors in assessment

of quality of products. The selection of cutting conditions is absolutely necessary in a

machining process. Aggarwal and Singh (2005) indicated that for economic machining

operations, optimum cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut

should be selected. They also reviewed various optimisation techniques including latest

techniques like fuzzy logic, scatter search technique, genetic algorithm, Taguchi

technique and response surface methodology. Surface roughness influences on functional

aspects like reflection, friction, wear, etc. Shibendu Shekhar (2006) pointed out that the

formation of surface finish is a complex mechanism and the necessity of simulation

system to predict the surface finish.

Many researchers attempted to model a system to predict the surface roughness.

Suresh et al. (2002) used surface response methodology to estimate the surface roughness

and genetic algorithm to optimise the mathematical model. Samanta et al (2008)

presented surface roughness prediction models using soft computing techniques artificial

neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS).

El-Mounayri et al. (2003) utilised particle swarm optimisation (PSO) technique for

modelling surface roughness in end milling. Daniel Kirby et al. (2004) developed

in-process surface roughness prediction system using multiple regression technique for

turning operation. Sidda Reddy et al. (2008) build surface roughness prediction model in

both multiple regression and artificial neural network. Kumanan et al. (2008) proposed

two different hybrid intelligent techniques, adaptive ANFIS and radial basis function

neural network-fuzzy logic (RBFNN-FL) for the prediction of surface roughness in end

milling. Yang and Chen (2001) adopted Taguchi parameter design to find the optimum

surface roughness performance with a particular combination of cutting parameters in an

end milling operation.

114 K. Sundara Murthy and I. Rajendran

Huang and Chen (2001) developed a model to predict in-process surface roughness

during turning operation using multiple regressions. Abdullah et al. (2008) computed

surface roughness analytically and found the sensitivity of cutting parameters on surface

roughness. Bagci and Aykut (2006) applied Taguchi optimisation method for optimum

surface roughness for CNC face milling. Say and Bouzid (2005) predicted surface

roughness for up-face milling analytically and verified experimentally. Karpat and Ozel

(2007) proposed a neural network model with dynamic-neighbourhood particle swarm

technique to solve multi objective optimisation problem like minimising surface

roughness and maximising tool life. The literature review shows that there is a lesser

amount of investigations made on optimisation and prediction of surface roughness under

MQL machining. This study determines the optimum cutting condition for minimum

surface roughness and the influence of cutting parameters on the surface roughness in end

milling of aluminium under MQL machining. The surface roughness is also predicted

using multiple regressions and ANN and the results are evaluated.

Waviness Lay

(direction of

dominant pattern)

Roughness

Roughness

spacing

Waviness Profile

Spacing

2 Surface roughness

The Figure 1 given by British Standard (1972) describes the terminologies used to

identify surface characteristics. Roughness is produced by surface forming process. It can

be defined as mean height of closely spaced peaks and valleys in a sample length or

arithmetic value of the departure of the profile from centreline along the sampling length

and denoted by Ra. Ozcelik et al. (2005) expressed the roughness by mathematical

equation,

1L

Ra = y ( x) dx (1)

L0

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 115

where

Ra The arithmetic average deviation from the mean line

y The ordinate of the profile curve

L Sampling length of specimen

The Figure 2 presented by Bajic et al. (2008) describes factors influencing surface

roughness.

Machining

Parameters

Process Kinematics

Cooling fluids

Cutting Tool

properties stepover

Tool material

Depth of cut

Runout error Tool angle

Tool shape

Feed rate

Nose radius Cutting speed Surface

Roughness

Acceleration

Work Piece Diameter

work piece

length Vibrations

Hardness

Chip formation

cutting force zone

Work varation

piece

Cutting

phenomena

3 Taguchi method

Taguchi method helps in designing a product or process with the objective of building

quality into it.

Zhang et al. (2007) presented the sequential steps of Taguchi design and are shown in

Figure 3. The Taguchi design procedure is grouped under system design, parameter

design and tolerance design. In system design, technical knowledge is utilised to

determine the initial design which gives the desired functional performance. Parametric

design step determines the optimum nominal values of the design parameters. In the

tolerance design, the suitable tolerances for the parameters are identified. Arun et al.

(2006) indicated orthogonal array (OA) and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio are the two

116 K. Sundara Murthy and I. Rajendran

significant tools used in Taguchi method. Orthogonal arrays are factorial designs and

help to determine the main factor effects in a small number of experimental trials. S/N

ratio is an indicator of quality and help to evaluate the effect of design parameters on

products performance. The term signal expresses the desirable value of output

parameter, i.e., mean and the term noise express the undesirable value which means

standard deviation of output parameter. The output parameter denotes the experimental

values. Taguchi method provides efficient and experiment based model to optimise the

design parameters.

System Design levels of the design factors

(OA)

Run Experiments

Confirmation runs

Tolerance Design by Tightening the Tolerance of the

Significant Factors

The cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are three cutting parameters influencing the

surface roughness significantly. Astakhov (2006) pointed out that the selected factors

should have direct influence on objective or response and the levels of the factors must be

able to set and maintained accurately during the entire experiments. In this research work,

three parameters were considered and in each parameter, three levels were selected and

listed in Table 1. The three levels of factors were limited by the capacity of the machine

and based on work material, machine rigidity and material removal rate.

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 117

A Cutting speed (m/min) 14 27 47

B Feed rate (mm/min) 15 28 50

C Depth of cut (mm) 0.8 1.2 1.4

The experiments were conducted on vertical milling machine. The work material was

extruded aluminium 6063 and test specimen dimensions were 100 mm70 mm50 mm.

End milling operation was carried out under the cutting environment of MQL. The

vegetable oil Coolube 2210 EP was applied as coolant in MQL. An oil mist lubricator

was used to supply the oil mist at cutting point. The mist lubricator consists of reservoir

to store the lubricant, mixing chamber to mix air and lubricant and pipe lines to carry the

compressed air to mixing chamber and to carry the mixture of lubricant and air to cutting

point. The lubricant enters the mixing chamber in drops due to air pressure. The

pressurised air (0.3 MPa) which enters the mixing chamber through a separate line makes

the lubricant drops smaller and carries it to cutting point. The flow rate of the mist is

maintained at 0.3 MPa.

HITACHI AHUL1020R-3 indexable end mill tool of 20 mm was used. Carbide insert

JDMT100308R was used as cutting insert. Three inserts were used in tool holder. The

tool material is JS4140. Coating material on the insert is JX1020 and coating type is

PVD. The geometry and dimensions of tool holder and insert given by Hitachi (2007) are

shown in Figures 4 and 5 respectively,

where

D = 20 mm, L = 110 mm, l = 9 mm, l1 = 30 mm, l2 = 80 mm, d = 20 mm and

A = 11 mm, B = 6.1 mm, T = 3.5 mm, R = 0.8 mm.

118 K. Sundara Murthy and I. Rajendran

Air compressor

Table 2 Taguchi L9 OA

Exp. no. A B C

1 1 1 1

2 1 2 2

3 1 3 3

4 2 1 2

5 2 2 3

6 2 3 1

7 3 1 3

8 3 2 1

9 3 3 2

The experimental set-up is shown in Figure 6. The surface roughness was measured by

Mitutoyo SJ-201P surface roughness tester. Fractional factorial orthogonal arrays are

experimental designs that require only small number of experimental trials to help

discover main factor effects. Bagchi (1993) recommended that for the factors 24 and

three levels in each factor, the standard L9 OA can be used. Atil and Uner (2000) also

mentioned that the design of experiments provides fewer numbers of necessary

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 119

experiments than full factorial design and listed the orthogonal arrays for different factor

levels. So the L9 (33) orthogonal array was selected in this study. The experimental layout

of L9 OA is shown in Table 2. The total degrees of freedom (DOF) of cutting parameters

is eight. The output considered in this study was surface roughness. Multiple regression

and artificial neural networks are used to predict the surface roughness. Then the

predicted values are compared with experimental values to validate the prediction

models. ANOVA was applied to determine the influence of cutting parameters on surface

roughness.

machining process. Multiple regression analysis and ANN techniques were used to

predict the surface roughness.

roughness from earlier days. Bhattacharyya et al. (1970) predicted surface roughness

using regression analysis. Still, it is one of the commonly used techniques in predicting

the surface roughness. Sidda Reddy et al. (2008) applied the multiple regression analysis

to determine the relationship between the predictor variables and criterion variables.

The proposed regression equations is,

y=0+1X1+2X2+3X3 (2)

where

y = criterion variable (surface roughness)

X1, X2 and X3 = predictor variables (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut)

0, 1, 2 and 3 = regression coefficients

The general regression model can be written in matrix notation as,

y=X+ (3)

The solution for the regression coefficients are given by,

b = ( X X ) 1 X y (4)

compute regression coefficients and these coefficients were used to estimate the surface

roughness. The computed values of regression coefficients are given in the Table 3. The

predicted surface roughness values using regression equation is compared with

experimental values and shown in Table 4.

120 K. Sundara Murthy and I. Rajendran

Coefficients Values

0 1.69452

1 8.5003E-03

2 8.5781E-03

3 1.9167E-01

Experiment number Experimental values (m) Predicted values (m) Error (%)

1 1.693 1.551 8.39

2 1.343 1.586 18.09

3 1.800 1.736 3.56

4 1.260 1.364 8.25

5 1.490 1.437 3.56

6 1.763 1.741 1.25

7 1.233 1.155 6.33

8 1.303 1.382 6.06

9 1.463 1.494 2.12

ANN is one of the most widely used artificial intelligent techniques and has been

successfully employed in optimisation, prediction, image processing, etc. Rajasekaran

and Viyalalakshmi (2006) defined ANN as a data processing system consisting of a large

number of simple highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired

by the structure of the cerebral cortex of the brain. A multilayer network with back

propagation learning algorithm was used in this model. The multilayer model of the

network is shown in Figure 7.

The multi layer ANN model consists of input, hidden and output layers. The topology

and training parameters are given in Table 5. The net input transferred to activation

function is computed by

N

net j = xi wij (5)

j =0

where

xi= ith input, N = number of inputs

wij = weight attached to the link connecting ith input neuron and jth hidden neuron.

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 121

The sigmoidal activation function is applied in this ANN model. Its output is given by,

(

f net j = ) 1

( neti + )

(6)

1+ e

W ij W ij

1

1

X1

Y1

2

2

X2

P

N

Xn

Yp

m

Parameters Values

Number of input neurons 3

Number of hidden layers 2

Number of neurons in each hidden layer 5

Number of output neuron 1

Momentum factor 0.9

Learning rate 0.6

Number of iterations 160000

The cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are three parameters given to input layer. In

this model, the inputs and outputs are normalised to gain better results. To train the ANN

model, six data sets are used. To test the ANN model, five data sets are used. A program

written in C language is used to train, test and predict the surface roughness values. The

results predicted by the developed ANN model are compared with experimental values

and errors are shown in Table 6. From the results, it is clear that the developed model is

trained well and possesses the capability to predict new outcomes from the past trends.

122 K. Sundara Murthy and I. Rajendran

S. no. Cutting

Feed rate Depth of

speed Predicted Experimental Error (%)

(mm/min) cut (mm)

(m/min)

1 14 50 1.4 1.82397 1.80000 1.33

2 27 15 1.2 1.28804 1.26000 2.23

3 47 15 1.4 1.25446 1.23333 1.71

4 47 28 0.8 1.31846 1.30333 1.16

5 47 50 1.2 1.41383 1.46333 2.56

Machining tests were conducted as per the experimental plan given in the Table 2. The

surface roughness was measured in three places over the length of 50 mm. The average

values of surface roughness and S/N ratios are given in Table 7. Arun et al. (2006)

pointed out that the ANOVA can be used to decompose the total variability and to

quantify the effect of parameters on the quality characteristic. So ANOVA was carried

out to find the influence of cutting parameters on the surface roughness. Since the desired

quality characteristic is the smaller the better, S/N ratios are computed by the following

equation given by Zhang et al. (2007).

1 n 2

S / N ratio = 10 log y ij (7)

n i =1

where

yij = response for each trial run and n = number of runs.

Table 7 Experimental values of surface roughness

S/N ratio

number 1 2 3 Average

1 1.8 1.64 1.64 1.69 4.5834

2 1.22 1.21 1.58 1.34 2.5918

3 1.79 1.8 1.81 1.80 5.1055

4 1.3 1.21 1.27 1.26 2.0112

5 1.57 1.46 1.44 1.49 3.4701

6 1.89 1.8 1.6 1.76 4.9471

7 1.16 1.34 1.2 1.23 1.8385

8 1.06 1.47 1.38 1.30 2.3795

9 1.39 1.41 1.59 1.46 3.3232

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 123

roughness and is given in the Table 8. F ratio test have been performed to find the

significance of cutting parameters. At 95% confidence level F2, 8 = 4.46. The calculated

value of the F ratio of feed rate and cutting speed is more than the tabulated value. This

shows the feed rate is highly significant and the cutting speed is significant on roughness.

It shows that the highest value of contribution percentage (42.47%) is for feed rate. So

the feed rate is the most influencing parameter on surface finish. The cutting speed

(29.80%) is having more influence on surface roughness than the depth of cut (21.15%).

The contribution percentage is also illustrated in the Figure 8.

The S/N ratio and roughness response at each level is reported in Tables 9 and 10.

From the result it clears that the feed rate is the most influencing factor and cutting speed

is the next one.

freedom

Cutting

3.803316393 2 1.9016582 4.5354898 29.80

speed

Feed rate 5.419815936 2 2.709908 6.4631804 42.47

Depth of cut 2.699774663 2 1.3498873 3.2195062 21.15

Error 0.838567945 2 0.419284 - 6.57

Total 12.76 8 100

Error

6.57%

Cutting speed

Depth of cut 29.80%

21.15%

Feed rate

42.47%

124 K. Sundara Murthy and I. Rajendran

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Max-min Rank

Cutting speed 4.09 3.48 2.51 1.58 2

Feed rate 2.81 2.81 4.46 1.65 1

Depth of cut 3.97 2.64 3.47 1.33 3

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Max-min Rank

Cutting speed 1.61 1.50 1.33 0.28 2

Feed rate 1.40 1.38 1.68 0.30 1

Depth of cut 1.59 1.35 1.51 0.24 3

Figure 9 illustrates the S/N ratio and roughness responses for each parameter at each

level. The Figure 9(a) shows that the increase in cutting speed decreases surface

roughness. The highest cutting speed produces lowest surface roughness. Whenever the

feed rate is increased from 15 mm/min to 28 mm/min the surface roughness decreases

slightly but when it is varied from 28 mm/min to 50 mm/min, it increases the surface

roughness significantly. The Figure 9(b) shows that the medium (28 mm/min) feed rate

produces lowest surface roughness. Depth of cut is also having significant influence on

surface roughness. The Figure 9(c) indicates that whenever the depth of cut is increased

from 0.8 mm to 1.2 mm, the surface roughness is decreased. But further rise in depth of

cut causes increase in roughness.

Figure 9 Response graphs for each parameter, (a) Parameter: cutting speed; (b) Parameter: feed

rate; and (c) Parameter: depth of cut

0 1.7

Level1 Level2 Level3

-1 1.6

Surface roughness

S/N ratio

-2 1.5

-3 1.4

-4 1.3

-5 1.2

(a)

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 125

Figure 9 Response graphs for each parameter, (a) Parameter: cutting speed; (b) Parameter: feed

rate; and (c) Parameter: depth of cut (continued)

0 2

Level1 Level2 Level3

Surface roughness

-1 1.6

S/N ratio

-2 1.2

-3 0.8

-4 0.4

-5 0

(b)

0 2

Level1 Level2 Level3

-1 1.6

-2 1.2

-3 0.8

-4 0.4

-5 0

(c)

7 Confirmation runs

After finding the optimum cutting parameters for minimum surface roughness it is

verified by confirmation runs. Confirmation run is the last step in parameter design

suggested by Taguchi. Five tests were conducted at cutting speed 47 m/min, feed rate 28

mm/min and depth of cut 1.2 mm which are the optimum cutting conditions determined

in this work. The results of confirmation runs are given in Table 11. The mean of surface

roughness of confirmation runs is 1.198 m which is the lowest surface roughness value.

Hence, the confirmation runs reveal that the determined optimum cutting conditions

produces optimum surface roughness.

126 K. Sundara Murthy and I. Rajendran

1 1.21

2 1.20

3 1.18

4 1.21

5 1.19

Mean 1.198

8 Conclusions

This study has presented the investigations on the effects of cutting parameters on surface

roughness during end milling of aluminium 6063 under MQL cutting condition.

Experiments were conducted and the surface roughness was measured. Prediction of

surface roughness was made by regression analysis and ANN techniques. The predicted

values are compared with experimental values to validate the models. ANOVA was

applied and percentage contribution of each parameter on surface roughness was found.

From this study, the following conclusions can be made.

During end milling of aluminium 6063 under MQL machining, the feed rate is the

dominant factor in influencing surface roughness. Cutting speed is the next

influencing factor. Depth of cut is having least influence on surface roughness when

compare with feed rate and cutting speed.

The highest cutting speed (47 m/min), medium feed rate (28 mm/min) and medium

depth of cut (1.2 mm) produces lowest surface roughness.

The developed multiple regression model gives satisfactory results in many

predictions.

The ANN model predicted the surface roughness for MQL cutting condition with an

accuracy of 2.56%. The results attained from ANN model gives better agreement

with experimental values than multiple regression.

In this study, MQL machining is employed which is the best choice to eliminate or

reduce the adverse impacts of cutting fluids. By minimising the utilisation of cutting

fluids, the machining cost can be reduced.

Moreover, the coolant used in MQL is vegetable oil which is biodegradable,

non-toxic and non-hazardous. So MQL provides effective, economical and

environmental friendly machining solution.

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Unijet Corporation, Coimbatore, India for providing facilities

to carry out this research work.

A study on optimisation of cutting parameters 127

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