You are on page 1of 19

Stress-Strain

Stress, strain
Youngs modulus
Constitutive relation
Plain stress
Plain strain
Stress concentration;
prestress (extra
torque to bolts)
150 litre Super insulated
Stress-life ice box [ -21 to -18 deg C
Gain < 3 deg C ]
Strain measurement
MATERIAL CHRACTERISATION

ISOTROPIC: Same properties in all directions: [eg,


metals]

ANISOTROPIC: Material properties different in all the


directions [ FRP- fiber reinforced plastics- with resins and
fibers oriented in random directions]

ORTOTROPIC: Special case of Anisotropy- Properties in


particular directions are same throughout material and
same in its perpendicular direction. [ composites]
Nominal stress: (conventional stress,
engineering stress ; P/A (A: initial area)]

True stress Load/Ar (Ar: reduced area )

Nominal stress << True stress


STRESSES

1. AXIAL --STRESS

2. BENDING-- STRESS

3. SHEAR (NORMAL) STRESS

4. SHEAR (TORSION)- STRESS

5. COMBINED STRESSES
******* [ IMPACT ANALYSIS- DROP TEST ON PRODUCTS]
EQUATIONS OF EQUILLIBRIUM

x xy xz
X 0
x y z

y yx yz
Y 0
y x z

z zx zy
Z 0
z x y
Plane strain
Geometry and loading
do not vary
significantly in the
longitudinal direction

z , xz , yz 0
x 1 0 0 0 x
1 0 0 0
y y
z E 1 0 0 0 z


xy (1 )(1 2 ) (1 2 ) / 2 0 0 xy
yz (1 2 ) / 2 0 yz

zx (1 2 ) / 2 zx
Principal Stresses
Combined loading: types

AXIAL LOAD AND TORSION

AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING

BENDING AND TWISTING


AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING

Maximum normal STRESS : xx = P/A+(6M/Ab)

(eccentric loading: xx =(P/A+Mx.y/Ixx+My.x/Iyy)

Shear stress :xy= maximum normal stress/2


Mohrs Circle
Principal Stresses Maximum and minimum shear stress
( X Y ) 1
1 ( x y ) 2 4 xy
2
max,min
1
( x y ) 2 4 xy
2
2 2 2

( X Y ) 1 Principal plane (-ve, clock 2


2 ( x y ) 2 4 xy
2
tan
2 2 wise)
x y
Mohr circle diagram applied to the case (a) and leading
to the principal stresses (c) . Another possible
representation of the same state of stress (a) or (c).
Von-Mises Stress

1
e ( 1 2 ) ( 2 3 ) ( 3 1 )
2 2 2

2
e = Equivalent stress ( or Von-Mises stress)

1 2 3 = Principal stresses
Mohrs Circle
Principal Stresses Maximum and minimum shear stress
( X Y ) 1
1 ( x y ) 2 4 xy
2
max,min
1
( x y ) 2 4 xy
2
2 2 2

( X Y ) 1 Principal plane (-ve, clock 2


2 ( x y ) 2 4 xy
2
tan
2 2 wise)
x y
APPLICATION OF MOHRS CIRCLE

1. STRESSES AT ANY PLANE

2. STRAINS AT ANY PLANE

3. MOMENT OF INERTIA AT ANY PLANE