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Local Shear Load 4 Settlement Test at Greater Depth Surface Test 5 B^ = B for a Square or Circular Footing.76) Adapted from Vesic (1973) JSMFD. and rough empirical relationship between bearing capacity factors or � and values of standard penetration resistance N. B^ = 2BL/(B+L) for a Rectangular Footing. C. degrees Curves showing the relationship between bearing-capacity factors and �. �. General Shear Load Relative Depth of Foundation D/B^ 1 Local Shear Punching Shear General Shear Settlement 2 Ultimate Load 3 B. 99(SMI) Very loose Loose Medium 140 130 120 N Very Dense Dense 10 20 30 40 50 Bearing Capacity Factors. ASCE. Adapted from Peck.Load Settlement Relative Density of Sand.2 0. blows/ft 0 .8 1. Nr and Nq 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 Nr Nq 60 Angle of Internal Friction.6 0.0 A. Punching Shear Modes of Bearing Capacity Failure (76) Modes of Failure of Model Footings in Chattahoochee Sand (20. as determined by theory.4 0. Dr 0 0 0. Hanson & Thornburn (1974) Standard Penetration Resistance N.

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Blows/Foot 80 120 160 200 Effective Overburden Pressure.0 0 20 SPT N Value (Blows/30cm) 40 60 80 100 Vertical Stress. �` (kg/cm2) vo Dr = 80% 1 2 Dr = 40% 3 Gibbs & Holtz (1957) Peck & Bazaraa (1969) Marcuson & Bieganousky (1976) Schultze & Melzer (1965) Fig. 47. Empirical correlations between standard penetration resistance and relative density for cohesionless soils. Kips/Square Foot 2 DR = 100 % (Bazaraa) 4 DR = 100 % (Gibbs and Holtz) 6 Points omitted in this area 8 Dry Cohesionless Soil Submerged Coarse Cohesionless Soil 10 Results of Standard Penetration Tests for Very Dense Sands Adapted from Peck & Bazarra (1969) . (1977) 9th ICFMFE 0 0 40 N. Adapted from Ladd et al.

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7 0.1 (5/82) p 7.6 0.45 0.5 0.2 1.0 0.25 0.35 Porosity.65 0.8 0.3 0. n 0.5 0.2 0.25 0.75 0.68) Dry Unit Weight (� ).149 .55 0.1 .4 0.55 0. PCF D 1.Angle of Internal Friction Vs Density (For Coarse Grained Soils) 45 �` Obtained from effective stress failure envelopes approximate correlation is for cohesionless materials without plastic fines Angle of Internal Friction �`(Degrees) 40 Rela t en ive D sity 100% 75% GW 35 ML SW GP 50% Material Type 30 nge in this ra d SP SM an 0 25% 25 20 75 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 (G = 2.9 0.45 0.2 0.4 0.35 0.15 Correlations Of Strength Characteristics For Granular Soils Adapted from NAVFAC DM-7.1 1.3 0. e 0.15 Void Ratio.

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