You are on page 1of 11

Pharmacology

TAC Workshop
February 2010

simon.collins@i-Base.org.uk
Definitions

Pharmacology:
study of drugs

Pharmacokinetics (PK):
study of how drugs behave in
a living person (or animal)
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
Using graphs
Graphs can show you information in a concentrated way.

There are usually 2 -axis. In this example drug concentration is


measured on one axis and time is measured on the other.

x
x x
Drug concentration x
x x
x
x
xx
x x x
x
0

www.i-Base.info
Time TAC workshop: February 2010
dose
Using graphs
Graphs can show you information in a concentrated way.

There are usually 2 -axis. In this example drug concentration is


measured on one axis and time is measured on the other.

x Information can then be


x x plotted on the graph.
Drug concentration x
Each x tells you the drug
x x concentration at a specific
x
x time.
xx
x x x
x
0

www.i-Base.info
Time TAC workshop: February 2010
dose
Drug absorption
After taking a drug, levels peak quickly and then slowly drop as the
drug is broken down and metabolised by the liver and/or kidneys.

Every drug has its own drug absorption curve

Drug concentration

www.i-Base.info Time TAC workshop: February 2010


dose
Drug absorption
C max = the maximum concentration - usually reach after a few hours
T max = the time taken to reach the maximum concentration

C Max

Drug concentration

0
T Max Time
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
dose
Drug absorption
T 1/2 (half life) = time taken for C max to drop in half
It takes 5 x T 1/2 for a drug to be eliminated from the body

C Max

Drug concentration

0
T Max Time
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
dose T 1/2
Drug absorption
T 1/2 (half life) = time taken for C max to drop in half
It takes 5 x T 1/2 for a drug to be eliminated from the body

C Max
AUC describes the total drug
concentration over time.

Drug concentration

AUC = Area Under Curve

0
T Max Time
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
dose T 1/2
Drug absorption.2
When you take another doses of a drug, it boosts the level again.
Each dose taken on time makes sure that you keep above a mimimum level

C Max

Drug
concent
ration
C Min or C tough

Time
www.i-Base.info
dose TAC workshop: February 2010
dose dose
www.i-Base.info

Drug levels and resistance


The target drug level needs to be above the MEC to avoid resistance and
not so high as to cause side effects

Increased risk of side effects

MEC =
MEC Minimum
Effective
Increased risk of resistance
Concentration
0

dose dose TAC workshop: February 2010


dose dose
www.i-Base.info

Drug levels and resistance.2


If you miss a dose or are late drug levels can drop to a level where
resistance can occur

MEC
(Minimum
Effective
Concentration Increased risk of resistance
0

dose Missed Late dose TAC workshop: February 2010


dose
dose dose