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GRD Journals- Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 7 | June 2017

ISSN: 2455-5703

Study on Marble Powder as Partial Replacement


of Cement in Concrete
Gopi R
M. E (Structural Engineering)
Department of Civil Engineering
Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu , India

Mrs. Kaleeswari. G Dr. Dhanalakshmi. G


Assistant Professor Professor & Head
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu , Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu ,
India India

Abstract
Marble powder has been identified as a low costing material with the potential to redress the problem. The specimen has been
prepared and tested for the strength with partial replacement of marble powder and cement in concrete The Compressive strength,
Split Tensile strength, Flexural strength and Modulus of elasticity of Concrete can be increased with addition of marble powder to
0%,5%,10%,15%,20% and 25% replace by weight of cement. Tests are conducted on cubes and cylinders to test the strength of
concrete with the time periods of 7th, 14th and 28th days. The production of cheaper and more durable concrete using this marble
powder can solve to some extent the ecological and environmental problems. This paper provides a scope for more research which
is required to design consistent and durable concrete with this powder.
Keywords- Marble Powder, Replacement, Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength

I. INTRODUCTION
Waste management is typically dealt depending on the type of waste, quantity of waste generated and the degree of associated
problems with the environment. It is believed that recycling of industrial wastes is technically economical and also has several
environmental benefits. Wastes from the industries can be used as the constituents of concrete by replacing or partially replacing
the cement or aggregates which makes it cost effective and also conserves the natural resources.
Concrete is the important material in construction other than steel and timber and its main constituents are cement, sand,
fine and coarse aggregates, and water. But, one of the greatest environmental concerns in construction industry are the production
of cement which emits large amount of co2 to the atmosphere. It is estimated that production of one ton of clinker/cement releases
equally one ton of co2. Therefore, the past two decades of research is diverted primarily in making concrete without cement or at
least partially in low or high volumes, replacing cement by suitable alternatives like fly ash, silica fume, ground granulated blast
furnace slag, rice husk ash. China, India, united states of America is the order of countries having largest cement consumption.

II. MATERIAL STUDY AND TEST RESULTS

A. General
The main constituents of concrete are procured from local resources and their physical properties and applicable chemical
composition are determined. The cement used is OPC 53 grade. River sand from locally available sources Thirukovilur river sand
is used as fine aggregate. Blue granite jelly of maximum size 20mm is used as coarse aggregate. Potable water is recommended
for mixing the constituents for making concrete. The aggregates both fine and coarse are sieved through the set of standard sieves
as per the standard procedure and results of the sieve analysis are presented in table 1.
Table 1: Results of sieve analysis
Total % passing fractions of
Aggregates
S.No. Test sieves
Fine Coarse
1 80 mm - 100
2 40 mm - 100
3 20 mm - 75
4 10 mm (12.5mm) 98.3 -

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Study on Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete
(GRDJE/ Volume 2 / Issue 7 / 014)

5 4.75 mm 91.8 -
6 2.36 mm 74.2 -
7 1.18 mm 45 -
8 600 micron 12.2 -
9 300 micron 4.7 -
10 150 micron 1.5 -

Fig. 1: Constituent materials of concrete

B. Concrete Mix Proportions


Based on the data, a mix design for M30 grade concrete is made and the replacement of cement with marble powder by 0%, 5%,
10%, 15%, 20% and 25% is considered. The proportions of the basic constituents of concrete for all the six mix ratios are presented
in table 3.
Table 2: Properties of concrete constituents
Values for
S. NO Properties
Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate
1 Fineness 8.16% - -
2 Specific Gravity 3.15 2.61 2.63
3 Consistency 33% - -

4 Initial Setting time 33 - -

5 Final setting time 125 - -


6 Fineness modulus - 2.66 6.93
7 Grading zone - II -
8 Maximum size - 2.36 20mm
9 Impact value - - 19.12
10 Crushing value - - 5.26%
Table 3: The Proportions of the basic constituents of concrete
Material ratio and quantity (kg/m3)
Mix No Properties
Cement Marble powder Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate water
Ratio 1 0 1.57 2.56 .45
1
Quantity 426.67 0 671.87 1092.92 192
Ratio 0.95 0.05 1.57 2.56 .45
2
Quantity 405.34 21.33 671.87 1092.97 192
Ratio 0.9 0.10 1.57 2.56 .45
3
Quantity 384 42.66 671.87 1092.97 192
Material ratio and quantity (kg/m3)
Mix No Properties
Cement Marble powder Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Water
Ratio 0.85 0.15 1.57 2.56 .45
4
Quantity 362.67 64 671.87 1092.92 192
Ratio 0.8 0.20 1.57 2.56 .45
5
Quantity 341.34 85.33 671.87 1092.92 192
Ratio 0.75 0.25 1.57 2.56 .45
6
Quantity 319 106.67 671.87 1092.92 192

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Study on Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete
(GRDJE/ Volume 2 / Issue 7 / 014)

III. TEST ON WORKABILITY


There are totally six different concrete mix ratios based on the various percentage replacement of cement with marble powder. For
each and every mix of concrete workability tests are conducted. The required materials are weigh-batched and mixed along with
water to make wet concrete and with the samples of such fresh concrete; the following workability tests are conducted.
1) Slump test
2) Compaction factor test
Table 4: Results of workability tests
Cement replacement (%) by
S.No Workability Test By Cement Concrete (0%) marble powder in concrete
5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
1 Slump (mm) 75 72 69 62 59 51
2 Compaction Factor 0.913 0.9 0.893 0.89 0.888 0.873

A. Evaluation of Strength Properties

1) Compressive Strength Test


Compression test is the most common test conducted on hardened concrete, partly because most of the desirable characteristic
properties of concrete are qualitatively related to its compressive strength. The compression test is carried out on cubes and
cylinders. The 150mm size cube specimens and cylinders of size 300mm height and 150mm diameter shall be used as per IS 516-
1959 using a calibrated compression testing machine of 2000KN. By placing the specimen the load is applied and the failure load
is noted.
Table 5: Result of compressive strength test
S. No Replacement Compressive Strength (N/mm2)
Mp 7 Days 14 Days 28 Days
1 0% 25.72 27.61 38.94
2 5% 25.57 28.34 41.71
3 10% 25.72 31.09 42.72
4 15% 27.75 31.25 44.62
5 20% 26.59 29.93 42.81
6 25% 26.45 29.93 42.15

Fig. 2: Comparison of compressive strength

2) Split Tensile Test


Split tensile strength of concrete is usually found by testing concrete cylinder of size 150mm 300mm. The specimens are tested
for its strength as per IS: 516-1959 using a calibrated compression testing machine of 2000KN
Table 6: Results of tensile strength test
S. No Replacement Tensile Strength (N/mm2)
Mp 7 Days 14 Days 28 Days
1 0% 3.37 3.7 4.49
2 5% 3.61 3.75 4.67
3 10% 3.84 4.35 4.86
4 15% 4.12 4.67 5.13
5 20% 3.93 4.58 4.86
6 25% 3.75 4.53 4.72

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Study on Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete
(GRDJE/ Volume 2 / Issue 7 / 014)

Fig. 3: Comparison of split tensile strength

B. Flexural Strength of Concrete


Flexural strength is the one of the measure of tensile strength of concrete. It is the ability of a beam to resist failure in bending. It
is measured by loading un-reinforced beam or prism of size 100100500mm
Table 7: Results of the flexural strength test
Cement replacement (%) by
S.No Properites Cement Concrete (0%) marble powder in concrete
5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
1 Flexural Strength (MPa) 5.68 5.56 5.92 6.28 5.83 5.14

IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

A. General
The analysis of the characteristics of concrete namely the workability, strength and durability are made based on the fundamental
study initiated to arrive at the feasibility and suitability of using marble powder as a partial replacement material by 0, 5, 10, 15,
20 and 25% weight of cement in M30 grade concrete. Experimentation performed and the conclusions are derived as presented
here.

1) Workability
It is observed from the test results that the compactor factor increased with the increase in the level of replacement up to 15% and
thereafter decreased for further higher level of replacement.
But, he slump value decreased with the increase in the level of replacement.

2) Strength
Generally, the compressive strength at 7, 14 and 28 days is increasing with the increase in the replacement level of cement with
marble powder up to 15% replacement at which the compressive strength 14.53% higher compared to conventional concrete.
Generally, the tensile strength at 7, 14 and 28 days is increasing with the increase in the replacement level of cement with
marble powder up to 15% replacement at which the tensile strength 14.25% higher compared to conventional concrete.
The modulus of concrete increases up to 20% replacement level and the maximum is recorded for 15% replacement level
and is found 7.1% more than the conventional concrete.

REFERENCES
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