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fd'kksjkoLFkk %

LokLF;] iks"k.k ,oa f'k{kk


,d lkekftd ifjn`';

ifjizs{; fuekZ.k
izf'k{k.k ekM~;wy

ekuokf/kdkj tufuxjkuh lfefr


www.pvchr.asia
ifjisz{;
fuekZ.k
fd'k izf'k{k.k
k
Lok sjkoLF
LF; kk % ekM~;wy
] iks"k
,d
.k ,
lkek oa f'
ftd k{kk
ifjn
`';

ekuokf/kdkj tufuxjkuh lfefr


www.pvchr.asia
ifjisz{; fuekZ.k izf'k{k.k ekM~;wy
fd'kksjkoLFkk % LokLF;] iks"k.k ,oa f'k{kk ,d lkekftd ifjn`';

izdk'kd

ekuokf/kdkj tufuxjkuh lfefr (PVCHR)


tufe= U;kl (JMN)

lg;ksx
fd'kksjkoLFkk %
LokLF;] iks"k.k ,oa f'k{kk
,d lkekftd ifjn`';

ifjisz{; fuekZ.k
izf'k{k.k ekM~;wy

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS


fo"k;&lwph
- v/;k; ist - v/;k; ist
la- la- la- la-
1- fd'kksjkoLFkk % vFkZ ,oa fodkl 1&5 2 fu"kspu
1 fd'kksjkoLFkk 3 cPps dk cukuk
2 fd'kksjkoLFkk dk vFkZ 4 ekgokjh p
3 fodkl dh voLFkk,a 5 fir`lkk o tuu
4 fd'kksjkoLFkk dh fofk;k ,oa y{k.k
8- ckykf/kdkj % cky 'kks"k.k ,oa cky fookg 38&41
2- fd'kksjkoLFkk dh leL;k, 6&12
1 D;k fd'kksjkoLFkk leL;k gS \ 9- lkekftd fyaxHksn o ukjhokn 42&49
2 fd'kksjkoLFkk dh lkekU; Hkzkafr;k 1 lkekftd fyaxHksn
3 fd'kksjkoLFkk dh vko';drk,a 2 fir`lkk
3 ukjhokn
3- fd'kksjkoLFkk dh vfHk#fp;ksa dh fo'ks"krk, 13&14 4 vkSjr gh vkSjr dh nq'eu

4- fd'kksjkoLFkk f'k{kk ,oa ;kSu f'k{kk 15&17 10- f'k{kk ds ek/;e 50&56
1 fd'kksjkoLFkk f'k{kk t#jh D;ksa \ 1 vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k
2 fd'kksjkoLFkk ,oa ;kSu f'k{kk 2 vukSipkfjd f'k{k.k
3 f'k{kk vkSj lk{kjrk esa vUrj
4 ckfydk f'k{kk
5- fd'kksjkoLFkk%,d ruko ,oa la?k"kZe; fLFkfr 18&20
1 ruko ,oa la?k"kZ dh fLFkfr esa v/;kid dh Hkwfedk
11- f'k{k.k f;k esa lh[kuk % vFkZ ,oa Lo#i 57&64
1 vFkZ ,oa Lo#i
6- fd'kksjkoLFkk % LokLF; ,oa iks"k.k 21&31
2 lh[kuk rFkk ifjiDou
1 lae.k dk QSyuk
3 lh[kus ds dkj
2 O;fxr LoPNrk
4 lh[kus dh fof/k;k
3 ?kj rFkk okrkoj.k dh LoPNrk
5 lh[kus ds fu;e rFkk d{kk esa mldh mi;ksfxrk
4 larqfyr vkgkj
5 [kwu dh deh ,oa jksdFkke
6 fd'kksfj;ksa dh Hkkstu ;kstuk 12- O;fRo fodkl 65&72
1 O;fRo dk i;kZ;
2 O;fRo ds fu/kkZjd
7- fd'kksjkoLFkk o tuu ra= 32&37
3 k;M dk O;fRo lEcU/kh fl)kUr
1 tuu ra=

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS i


izLrkouk
ekuokf/kdkj tufuxjkuh lfefr fiNys dbZ o"kksZ ls nfyr] oafpr vkSj vYila[;d leqnk; ds cPpks ds
chp f'k{kk dk;Ze lapkfyr dj jgh gSA blds lkFk gh laLFkk fd'kksj o fd'kksfj;ksa ds LokLFk vf/kdkj ds fy,
yxkrkj dbZ o"kksZ ls dk;Z dj jgh gS bl nkSjku mUgsa LokLF; laca/kh tkudkjh nsrs gq, muds fy, ,d LoLF;
okrkoj.k rS;kj djus dk dk;Z djrh gSA blh dM+h esa yksxks rd viuh ckr lgt vkSj ljy Lo#i esa igqpkus ds
fy, laLFkk us LokLF; Vsfuax eSuqvy ds :i esa bldk fuekZ.k fd;kA ftlls T;knk ls T;knk fd'kksj o fd'kksfj;ksa dks
bl mez esa vkus okyh LokLF; lEcaf/kr leL;kvks dk fujkdj.k fd;k tk ldsA
tSlk fd ge lHkh tkurs gS fd fd'kksjkoLFkk ckydksa ,oa ckfydkvksa ds fy, mez dk cgqr gh laosnu'khy
vkSj egRoiw.kZ le; gksrk gS] tc os cPps ls cM+s gksus dh rjQ c<+ jgs gksrs gSaA ,sls esa muesa vk jgs 'kkjhfjd ekufld
cnykoksa ds lkFk lkeatL; cSBuk ,d pqukSrh gksrh gS oagh ekrk firk ds fy, Hkh ;g cM+h pqukSrh gksrh gS os fdlh
dkj fd'kksjksa dks bl cnykoksa ds lUnHkZ esa tkudkjh ns ldsaA 'kkjhfjd ifjorZu ds eqs ij 'keZ ladksp ds dkj.k ,d
pqIih cuh jgrh gS ftlls vko';d tkudkjh ge le; jgrs vius fd'kksjksa dks ugh ns ikrs gSaA ftlls fofHkUu dkj
dh pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS vkSj budk nks"k ge cnyrs ifjos'k dks nsdj bfrJh le> ysrs gSaA O;Ld
ges'kk vkt dk vius le; ls rqyuk djrs gSa] ge vk jgs pqukSfr;ksa dks le>us ds ctk, dsoy mudh vkykspuk
djrs gSaA ysfdu ;g Hkh fcydqy lR; gS fd ge fd'kksjksa ds vanj vk jgs 'kkjhfjd ekufld ifjorZuksa dks le>s fcuk
muds fodkl esa viuk ;ksxnku ugh ns ldrs gSaA blfy, fd'kksj o fd'kksfj;ksa rd lgh LokLF; tkudkfj;ksa dks
igqpkus ds fy, bl LokLF; eSuqvy dk fuekZ.k laLFkk }kjk fd;k x;k gSA
fofnr gks fd laLFkk bu fd'kksj fd'kksfj;ksa ds chp xq.kokkiw.kZ 'kS{kf.kd xfrfof/k lapkfyr dj bUgsa f'k{kk ds
eq[; /kkjk ls tksM+us ds lkFk lkFk bUgsa cky Hkkxhnkjh o cky usr`Ro ds fy, l{ke cukus dk Hkh ;kl djrh gSA lkFk
gh viuh ckr j[kus ,oa viuh leL;kvks dks fpfUgr djus o ml ij lkewfgd cgl ds lkFk&lkFk igy dj [kqn
viuk fu.kZ; ysus ds fy, cky iapk;rks dk xBu fd;k tgk cPps ,d ukxfjd ds rkSj ij ckykf/kdkj ij la?k"kZ [kM+k
fd;s vkSj vius vf/kdkjksa ds fr ltx o laosfnr gq,] ftlls os vius cky vf/kdkj ds lkFk lkFk ekuoh; xfjek
,oa xfjekiw.kZ thou thus dh rjQ vxzlj gq,A laLFkk ;g vk'kk djrh gS fd blh dkj ;g LokLF; eSuqvy Hkh bUgsa
enn igqpk;sxkA
bl eSuqvy fuekZ.k esa laLFkk }kjk fd'kksj fd'kksfj;ksa dks nh tk jgh tkudkfj;ksa vkSj f'k{k.kksa ds fy, vU;
laLFkkvks tSls efgyk lek[;k dh l[kh] lg;ksfxuh] lyksuh o vU; iqLrdksa dk Hkh v/;;u fd;k x;k ftlls ;g
eSuqvy cukus esa enn feyh gSA blds fy, laLFkk bUgsa /kU;okn nsrs gq, budh vkHkkjh gSA VkVk VLV~l ds vkfFkZd
lg;ksx ls bl eSuqvy dks rS;kj djus esa lgk;rk izkIr gqbZ gSA
bl eSuqvy esa f'k{kk] LokLF;] iks"k.k] tsaMj] dkuwu o fd'kksjkoLFkk ds lHkh i{kksa ij ppkZ dh x;h gSA vk'kk gS
fd bl eSuqvy ij vk/kkfjr tkudkfj;k ifjs{; fuekZ.k dk;Z'kkykvks esa fd'kksj fd'kksfj;ksa dks ,d lkFkZd o
ftEesnkj ukxfjd cukus esa Hkh lQy gksxhA
Jqfr ukxoa'kh
eSusftax VLVh
ekuokf/kdkj tufuxjkuh lfefr@tufe= U;kl

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS ii


fd'kksjkoLFkk % vFkZ ,oa fodkl
fd'kksjkoLFkk
fd'kksjkoLFkk efgyk ds thou dh lokZf/kd egRoiw.kZ voLFkk gksrh gSA bl voLFkk esa og ;kSou dh ngyht
ij gksrh gSA ckY;koLFkk rFkk ;kSou ds chp dh voLFkk gksus ds dkj.k fd'kksjkoLFkk efgyk ds ekufld] HkkoukRed
rFkk euksoSKkfud fodkl dh n`f"V ls vR;ar ifjorZu'khy gksrh gSA ;fn ekuo lalk/ku fodkl ds ms'; ls pyk,a
tkus okys fodklkRed dk;Zeksa esa fd'kksfj;ksa dks 'kkfey u fd;k tk, rks lokaZxh.k cky fodkl dk n`f"Vdks.k
misf{kr jg tkrk gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk euq"; ds thou dk clardky ekuk x;k gSA ;g dky ckjg ls mUuhl o"kZ rd jgrk gS] ijarq
fdlh&fdlh O;fDr esa ;g ckbZl o"kZ rd pyk tkrk gSA ;g dky Hkh lHkh izdkj dh ekufld 'kfDr;ksa ds fodkl
dk le; gSA Hkkoksa ds fodkl ds lkFk&lkFk ckyd dh dYiuk dk fodkl gksrk gSA mlesa lHkh izdkj ds lkSan;Z dh
#fp mRiUu gksrh gS vkSj ckyd blh le; u,&u, vkSj ps&ps vkn'kksZa dks viukrk gSA ckyd Hkfo"; esa tks dqN
gksrk gS] mldh iwjh :ijs[kk mldh fd'kksjkoLFkk esa cu tkrh gSA
fd'kksj voLFkk 'kkjhfjd ifjiDork dh voLFkk gSA bl voLFkk esa cPps dh gf;ksa esa n`<+rk vkrh gS( Hkw[k
dkQh yxrh gSA dkeqdrk dh vuqHkwfr ckyd dks 13 o"kZ ls gh gksus yxrh gSA bldk dkj.k mlds 'kjhj esa fLFkr
xzafFk;ksa dk lzko gksrk gSA vr,o cgqr ls fd'kksj ckyd vusd izdkj dh dkeqd f;k, vuk;kl gh djus yxrs gSaA
tc igys igy cM+s yksxksa dks bldh tkudkjh gksrh gS rks os pkSad ls tkrs gSaA vk/kqfud euksfo'ys"k.k foKku us
ckyd dh fd'kksj voLFkk dh dkeps"Vk dks LokHkkfod crkdj] vfHkHkkodksa ds vdkj.k Hk; dk fujkdj.k fd;k gSA ;s
ps"Vk, ckyd ds 'kkjhfjd fodkl ds lgt ifj.kke gSaA fd'kksjkoLFkk dh LokFkZijrk dHkh&dHkh izkS<+ voLFkk rd
cuh jg tkrh gSA fd'kksjkoLFkk dk fodkl gksrs le; fd'kksj dks vius gh leku fyax ds ckyd ls fo'ks"k izse gksrk
gSA ;g tc vf/kd izcy gksrk gS] rks lefyaxh dkef;k, Hkh gksus yxrh gSaA ckyd dh lefyaxh dkef;k,
lkekftd Hkkouk ds izfrdwy gksrh gSa] blfy, og vkReXykfu dk vuqHko djrk gSA vr% og lekt ds lkeus fuHkhZd
gksdj ugha vkrkA lefyaxh izse ds neu ds dkj.k ekufld xzafFk euq"; esa iSjkuksb;k uked ikxyiu mRiUu djrh
gSA bl ikxyiu esa euq"; ,d vksj vius vkidks vR;ar egku O;fDr ekuus yxrk gS vkSj nwljh vksj vius gh
lkfFk;ksa dks 'k=q :i esa ns[kus yxrk gSA ,slh xzafFk;k fgVyj vkSj mlds lkfFk;ksa esa Fkha] ftlds dkj.k os nwljs jk"Vksa
dh mUufr ugha ns[k ldrs FksA blh ds ifj.kkeLo:i f}rh; fo'o;q) fNM+kA
dkeokluk ds fodkl ds lkFk&lkFk euq"; ds Hkkoksa dk fodkl Hkh gksrk gSA fd'kksj ckyd ds Hkkoksn~osx
cgqr rhoz gksrs gSaA og vius izse vFkok J)k dh oLrq ds fy, lHkh dqN R;kx djus dks rS;kj gks tkrk gSA bl dky esa
fd'kksj ckydksa dks dyk vkSj dfork esa yxkuk ykHkizn gksrk gSA ;s dke ckyd dks lektksi;ksxh cukrs gSaA
fd'kksj ckyd lnk vlk/kkj.k dke djuk pkgrk gSA og nwljksa dk /;ku viuh vksj vkdf"kZr djrk pkgrk
gSA tc rd og bl dk;Z esa lQy gksrk gS] vius thou dks lkFkZd ekurk gS vkSj tc blesa og vlQy gks tkrk gS
rks og vius thou dks uhjl ,oa vFkZghu ekuus yxrk gSA fd'kksj ckyd ds Mhax ekjus dh izo`fk Hkh vR;f/kd gksrh
gSA og lnk u, u, iz;ksx djuk pkgrk gSA blds fy, nwj&nwj rd ?kweus esa mldh cM+h #fp jgrh gSA fd'kksj
ckyd dk ckSf)d fodkl i;kZIr gksrk gSA mldh fparu 'kfDr vPNh gksrh gSA blds dkj.k mls i;kZIr ckSf)d dk;Z
nsuk vko';d gksrk gSA fd'kksj ckyd esa vfHku; djus] Hkk"k.k nsus rFkk ys[k fy[kus dh lgt #fp gksrh gSA vr,o
dq'ky f'k{kd bu lk/kuksa }kjk fd'kksj dk ckSf)d fodkl djrs gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 1


fd'kksj ckyd dh lkekftd Hkkouk izcy gksrh gSA og lekt esa lEekfur jgdj gh thuk pkgrk gSA og
vius vfHkHkkodksa ls Hkh lEeku dh vk'kk djrk gSA mlds lkFk 10] 12 o"kZ ds ckydksa tSlk O;ogkj djus ls] mlesa
}s"k dh ekufld xzafFk;k mRiUu gks tkrh gSa] ftlls mldh 'kfDr nqcZy gks tkrh gS vkSj vusd izdkj ds ekufld
jksx mRiUu gks tkrs gSaA
ckyd dk thou nks fu;eksa ds vuqlkj fodflr gksrk gS] ,d lgt ifjiDork dk fu;e vkSj nwljk
lh[kus dk fu;eA ckyd ds leqfpr fodkl ds fy,] gesa mls tYnh&tYnh dqN Hkh u fl[kkuk pkfg,A
lh[kus dk dk;Z vPNk rHkh gksrk gS tc og lgt :i ls gksrk gSA ckyd tc lgt :i ls viuh lHkh
ekufld voLFkk, ikj djrk gSA rHkh og LoLFk vkSj ;ksX; ukxfjd curk gSA dksbZ Hkh O;fDr u rks ,dk,d
cqf)eku gksrk gS vkSj u ijksidkjh curk gSA mldh cqf) vuqHko dh o`f) ds lkFk fodflr gksrh gS vkSj
mlesa ijksidkj] n;kyqrk rFkk cgknqjh ds xq.k /khjs&/khjs gh vkrs gSaA mldh bPNkvksa dk fodkl fed gksrk
gSA igys mldh U;wu dksfV dh bPNk, tkxzr gksrh gSa vkSj tc budh leqfpr :i ls r`fIr gksrh gS rHkh
mPp dksfV dh bPNkvksa dk vkfoHkkZo gksrk gSA ;g ekufld ifjiDork ds fu;e ds vuqlkj gSA ,sls gh
O;fDr ds pfj= esa LFkk;h ln~xq.kksa dk fodkl gksrk gS vkSj ,slk gh O;fDr vius dk;ksZ ls lekt dks LFkk;h
ykHk igqpkrk gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk dh ifjHkk"kk&
fd'kksjkoLFkk 'kCn vaxzsth Hkk"kk ds Adolescence 'kCn dk fganh i;kZ; gSA Adolescence 'kCn dk mo
ysfVu Hkk"kk ls ekuk x;k gS ftldk lkekU; vFkZ gS c<+kuk ;k fodflr gksukA ckY;koLFkk ls izkS<+koLFkk rd ds
egRoiw.kZ ifjorZuksa tSls 'kkjhfjd] ekufld ,oa vYickSf)d ifjorZuksa dh voLFkk fd'kksjkoLFkk gSA oLrqr%
fd'kksjkoLFkk ;kSokukjEHk ls ifjiDork rd o`f) ,oa fodkl dk dky gSA 10 o"kZ dh vk;q ls 19 o"kZ rd dh vk;q ds
bl dky esa 'kkjhfjd rFkk HkkoukRed :i ls vR;f/kd egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu vkrs gSaA dqN euksoSKkfud bls 13 ls 18
o"kZ ds chp dh vof/k ekurs gSa] tcfd dqN dh ;g /kkj.kk gs fd ;g voLFkk 24 o"kZ rd jgrh gSA
ysfdu fd'kksjkoLFkk dks fuf'pr vof/k dh lhek esa ugha cka/kk tk ldrk gSA ;g vof/k rhoz xfr ls gksus okys
'kkjhfjd ifjorZuksa fo'ks"kr;k ;kSu fodkl ls izkjaHk gksdj iztuu ifjiDork rd dh vof/k gSA fo'o LokLF; laxBu
ds vuqlkj ;g xkS.k ;kSu y{k.kksa ;kSokukjEHk ds izdV gksus ls ysdj ;kSu ,oa iztuu ifjiDork dh vksj vxzlj gksus
dk le; gS tc O;fDr ekufld :i ls izkS<+rk dh vksj vxzlj gksrk gS vkSj og lkekftd o vkfFkZd f"V ls
vis{kkr vkRefuHkZj gks tkrk gS ftlls lekt esa viuh ,d vyx igpku curh gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk rhoz 'kkjhfjd HkkoukRed vkSj O;ogkj ifjorZuksa dk dky gSA ;g ifjorZu 'kjhj esa mRiUu gksus
okys dqN gkjeksal ds dkj.k vkrs gSa ftuds ifj.kke Lo#i dqN ,d xzafFk;ka ,dk,d lf; gks tkrh gSA ;s lc
ifjorZu ;kSu fodkl ds lkFk lh/ks tqM+s gq, gSa D;ksafd bl vof/k esa xkS.k ;kSu y{k.kksa ds lkFk&lkFk cgqr egRoiw.kZ
'kkjhfjd ifjorZu gksrs gSaA fd'kksj ckr&ckr esa viuh vyx igpku dk vkxzg djrs gSa vkSj ,d cPps dh rjg
ekrk&firk ij fuHkZj jgus dh vis{kk ,d izkS<+ dh rjg Lora= jguk pkgrs gSaA os vius ekrk&firk ls FkksM+k nwjh
cukuk 'kq: dj nsrs gSa vkSj vius le vk;q lewg Pear Group esa gh vf/kdrj le; O;rhr djus yxrs gSaA
;kSu&mtZfLork ds dkj.k os foijhr fyax dh vksj vkdf"kZr gksrs gSaA bl izdkj fd'kksjkoLFkk dk ekuo thou esa ,d
fof'k"V LFkku gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 2


fodkl dh voLFkk,a
fd'kksjkoLFkk ds rhu pj.k gSa&
d iwoZ fd'kksjkoLFkk
[k ewy fd'kksjkoLFkk
x fd'kksjkoLFkk dk vafre pj.k
;gk ;g /;ku nsus ;ksX; gS fd fodkl fu/kkZfjr fu;ekuqlkj gh ugha gksrk blh dkj.k rhuksa pj.k ,d&nwljs
dh lhekvksa dk mYya?ku djrs gSaA
d iwoZ fd'kksjkoLFkk
fodkl dh ;g voLFkk fd'kksjkoLFkk dk izkjafHkd pj.k gSA iwoZ fd'kksjkoLFkk ds bl pj.k esa 'kkjhfjd
fodkl vpkuda >ydrk gSA ;g ifjorZu fHkUu fd'kksjksa esa fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj ls gksrk gSA bl le; Vkaxksa vkSj
Hkqtkvksa dh yEch gM~fM;ksa dk fodkl rhozrk ls gksrk gSA fd'kksj dh yEckbZ 8 ls 9 bap rd izfro"kZ c<+ ldrh gSA
fyaxHksn ds dkj.k yEckbZ vf/kd c<+rh gSA bl le; fd'kksj rhoz lkekftd fodkl vkSj vius esa xfr'khy ;kSu
fodkl dk vuqHko djrs gSaA os vius leo; lewgksa esa tkus dh ps"Vk djrs gSaA bl Lrj ij I;kjs nksLrksa dk gh egRo
jg tkrk gSA fd'kksj vius&vius fyax ls lEcfU/kr lewgksa dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA ;kSu lEcfU/kr lksp ,oa ;kSu izn'kZu
bl Lrj ij izkjaHk gks tkrk gSA dqN vfHkHkkod bl lkekU; O;ogkj dks Lohr ugha djrs vkSj fd'kksjksa dks nks"kh
Bgjkrs gSaA fodkl ds bl pj.k esa 'kkjhfjd ifjorZu ls fd'kksj izk;% ?kcjk tkrs gSaA os lkekftd lkaLfrd lhekvksa
vkSj ;kSu bPNkvksa ds e/; larqyu cukus dk iz;kl djrs gSaA
[k ewy fd'kksjkoLFkk
fd'kksjkoLFkk dk ;g pj.k 'kkjhfjd] HkkoukRed vkSj ckSf/kd {kerkvksa ds fodkl dks n'kkZrk gSA bl pj.k esa
;kSu y{k.kksa dk fodkl tkjh jgrk gS rFkk iztuu vax] 'kqk.kq mRiUu djus esa l{ke gks tkrs gSaA bl le; fd'kksj
vius dks vfHkHkkodksa ls nwj j[kus dk iz;kl djrs gSaA og izk;% vkn'kZoknh curs gSa vkSj ;kSu ds fo"k; esa tkus dh
mudh #fp fujarj c<+rh jgrh gSA fd'kksj ds fodkl dk ;g pj.k iz;ksx vkSj lkgl ls Hkjk gksrk gSA izR;sd fd'kksj
vius ls foijhr fyax vkSj leo; lewgksa ls lEcU/k j[kuk pkgrk gSA fd'kksj bl pj.k esa lekt esa vius vfLrRo dks
tuuk pkgrk gS vkSj lekt dks viuk ;ksxnku nsuk pkgrk gSA fd'kksj dh ekufldrk bl fLFkfr esa vkSj vf/kd
tfVy cu tkrh gSA mldh Hkkouk xgjh vkSj ?kfu"V gks tkrh gS vkSj muesa fu.kZ; ysus dh 'kfDr mRiUu gks tkrh gSA
x fd'kksjkoLFkk dk vafre pj.k
fd'kksjkoLFkk ds bl pj.k esa viz/kku ;kSu y{k.k Hkyh izdkj ls fodflr gks tkrs gSa vkSj ;kSu vax izkS<+
dk;Zdyki esa Hkh l{ke gks tkrs gSaA fd'kksj lekt esa viuh vyx igpku vkSj LFkku dh vkdka'kk j[krk gSA mudh
;g igpku ckgjh nqfu;k ds okLrfod n`'; ls vyx gh gksrh gSA bl le; mudk leo; lewg de egRo j[krk gS
D;ksafd vc fe=ksa ds p;u dh izo`fr vf/kd gksrh gSA
fd'kksj bl le; vius thou ds y{; dks le{k j[krk gSA gkykafd vkfFkZd :i ls og dbZ o"kksZa rd
vfHkHkkod ij gh fuHkZj djrk gSA bl pj.k esa fd'kksj lgh o xyr ewY;ksa dh igpku djrk gS rFkk mlds vUnj
uSfrdrk bR;kfn Hkkoukvksa dk fodkl gksrk gSA bl le; fd'kksj viuk Hkfo"; cukus ds fy, fpfUrr gksrs gSaA
mi;qDr dk;Z ds fy, os vfHkHkkodksa ,oa lekt dk leFkZu pkgrs gSa rkfd muds }kjk visf{kr dk;ksZa dk lEiknu gksA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 3


fd'kksjkoLFkk dh izo`fr;ka ,oa y{k.k&
ekuo fodkl dh pkj voLFkk,a ekuh x;h gSa cpiu] fd'kksjkoLFkk] ;qokoLFkk vkSj kS<koLFkk ;g fodkl
'kkjhfjd] ekufld vkSj lkekftd :i esa gksrk jgrk gSA fd'kksjkoLFkk lcls vf/kd ifjorZu'khy vof/k gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk ds fuEufyf[kr egRoiw.kZ y{k.k bldh vU; voLFkkvksa ls fHkUurk dks izdV djrs gSa&
d& 'kkjhfjd ifjorZu& fd'kksjkoLFkk esas rhozrk ls 'kkjhfjd fodkl vkSj ekufld ifjorZu gksrs gSaA fodkl dh
izf;k ds dkj.k vaxksa esa Hkh ifjorZu vkrk gS] tks O;fDrxr iztuu ifjiDork dks izkIr djrs gSaA budk lh/kk lEcU/k
;kSu fodkl ls gSA
[k& euksoSKkfud ifjorZu& fd'kksjkoLFkk ekufld] HkkSfrd vkSj HkkoukRed ifjiDork ds fodkl dh Hkh voLFkk
gSA ,d fd'kksj] NksVs cPps dh rjg fdlh nwljs ij fuHkZj jgus dh vis{kk] izkS<+ O;fDr dh rjg Lora= jgus dh bPNk
izdV djrk gSA bl le; fd'kksj igyh ckj rhoz ;kSu bPNk dk vuqHko djrk gS] blh dkj.k foijhr fyax ds izfr
vkdf"kZr jgrk gSA bl voLFkk esa fd'kksj ekufld ruko ls xzLr jgrk gS ;g voLFkk vR;ar laosnu'khy ekuh x;h
gSA
x& lkekftd ,oa lkaLfrd ifjorZu&
fd'kksjksa esa lkekftd ,oa lkaLfrd esytksy ds QyLo:i dqN vkSj ifjorZu Hkh vkrs gSaA lkekU;r% lekt
fd'kksjksa dh Hkwfedk dks fuf'pr :i esa ifjHkkf"kr ugha djrkA QyLo:i fd'kksj ckY;koLFkk vkSj izkS<+koLFkk ds e/;
vius dks vleatl dh fLFkfr esa ikrs gSaA mudh euksoSKkfud vko';drkvksa dks lekt }kjk egRo ugha fn;k tkrk]
blh dkj.k muesa ks/k] ruko ,oa O;xzrk dh izo`fr;ka mRiUu gksrh gSaA fd'kksjkoLFkk esa vU; voLFkkvksa dh vis{kk
mRrstuk ,oa HkkoukRedrk vf/kd izcy gksrh gSA
O;ogkfjd ifjorZu
mi;qDr ifjorZuksa ds dkj.k fd'kksjksa ds O;ogkj esa fuEu y{k.k mtkxj gksrs gSa&
v LorU=rk&
'kkjhfjd] ekufld vkSj lkekftd ifjiDork dh izf;k ls xqtjrs gq, fd'kksjksa esa Lora= jgus dh izo`fr
tkxzr gksrh gSA ftlls os vius vki dks izkS<+ lekt ls nwj j[kuk izkjaHk djrs gSaA vk/kqfud ;qx dk fd'kksj vyx :i
ls gh viuh laLfr dk fuekZ.k djuk pkgrk gS ftls mi laLfr dk uke fn;k tk ldrk gSA ;g milaLfr
/khjs&/khjs lekt esa fo|eku ewy laLfr dks izHkkfor djrh gSaA
c igpku
fd'kksj gj Lrj ij viuh vyx igpku cukus ds fy, la?k"kZ djrs gSaA os viuh igpku cuk, j[kus ds fy,
fyax Hksn rFkk vius dks vU; ls mPp ,oa ;ksX; n'kkZus ds iz;kl esa gksrs gSaA
l /kfu"Brk
fd'kksjkoLFkk ds nkSjku dqN vk/kkjHkwr ifjorZu gksrs gSaA ;s ifjorZu vf/kdrj ;kSu laca/kksa ds {ks= ds gksrs gSaA
fd'kksjksa esa vpkud foijhr fyax ds izfr #fp mRiUu gksrh gSA os vkd"kZ.k ,oa izse ds e/; varj Li"V ugha dj ikrs A
n leo; lewgksa ij fuHkZjrk
viuh igpku o LorU=k dks cuk, j[kus ds fy,] fd'kksj vius ekrk&firk ds HkkoukRed ca/kuksa dks R;kx
dj vius fe=ksa ds lkFk gh jguk ilan djrs gSaA ijUrq lekt yM+ds&yM+fd;ksa ds LorU= esytksy dks Lohr ugha
djrkA fd'kksjksa dk izR;sd oxZ vius fyax ls lEcfU/kr ,d vyx lewg cukdj vyx esa jguk ilan djrk gSA bl

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 4


rjg dh xfrfof/k;k mUgsa leo; lewgksa ij fuHkZj jgus ds fy, izksRlkfgr djrh gSA ;gha ls gh os vius ifjofrZr
O;ogkj ds izfr leFkZu ,oa Lohfr izkIr djrs gSaA
u cqf)erk& ckSf)d {kerk dk fodkl Hkh fd'kksjksa ds O;ogkj ls iznf'kZr gksrk gSA muesa rF;ksa ij vk/kkfjr
lksp&le> o rdZ'khy fu.kZ; ysus dh {kerk mRiUu gksrh gSA bu lHkh dkj.kksa ls muesa vkRekuqHkwfr dk fodkl gksrk
gSaA
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa O;ogkj -
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa cPps cM+ksa dh rjg O;ogkj djuk 'kq: djus yxrs gS] mUgsa ekrk firk dh ckr] mudh
n[kyankth vPNh ugha yxrhA ckgj ?kweuk] ckgj dk [kkuk] fe=ksa ds lkFk ckgj jguk] bR;kfn ckrsa vke gksrh tk
jgha gSaA gesa vius cPpksa dh dfe;ksa dks utjankt ugha djuh pkfg, fdUrq lkFk gh ;s ckr vo'; /;ku nsuh gksxh dh
ge vius cPpksa dh f'kdk;r nwljksa ls u djsa] nwljk vkneh vkidk viuk ugha gS] oks vkids gVrs gh vkidk etkd
cuk,xk vkidh dksbZ enn ugha djsxk vkSj nwljh rjQ vkidk cPpk vkidk fo'okl [kksrk tk;sxkA fd'kksjkoLFkk ds
cPpksa dk cgqr /;ku j[kuk iM+rk gSA fdUrq muls fe=or O;ogkj djds vki Lo;a dks muds LFkku ij j[k dj ns[kks
dh vkius ml mez esa D;k fd;k Fkk fQj vki muls mEehns yxk;saxsA nwljs ds cPpksa dh [kwfc;k vius cPps esa u <wa<s
cfYd vius cPps dh [kwfc;ksa dks fu[kkj dj yk;sA
cPps oks Qwy gksrs gS tks dh thou ds cxhps esa lojrsa gSa] fQj oks Qwy xqykc dk gks ;k fQj lwjteq[kh lqanj
rks nksuksa fn[krs gS rks fQj ge vius cPps dh rqyuk nwljs cPpksa ls D;ksa djs\ fd'kksjkoLFkk ,d ,slh voLFkk gksrh gS
tgk cPps u rks NksVs esa fxus tkrs gSa vkSj u gh cM+s esaA gesa lcls igys 'kq: ls vFkkZr~ cpiu ls tc cPpk ?kqVuksa ij
pyuk lh[krk gS rc ls gh mldh NksVh&NksVh ckrksa ij /;ku j[kuk pkfg,] cPpk gS rks ft djsxk gh fdUrq gesa
la;e ls /;ku j[kdj gh mldh ft dks iwjh djuh pkfg,A
D;ksafd vknr dh 'kq#vkr ogha ls gksrh gS fQj cPps ds cM+s gksus ds lkFk mUgsa thou ds gj lgh xyr dh
igpku djokuh pkfg,A mUgsa tSls oks cM+s gksa rHkh mUgsa vuq'kkflr thou dk rjhdk crk,a] lkFk gh Lo;a gh
vuq'kklu esa jgsaA ;fn ge Lo;a vius ls cM+ksa dks tokc nsaxs rks cPpk ogh lh[ksxk ,oe~ ckn esa iyV dj tokc nsxk
tks fd gesa vPNk ugha yxrk vkSj ge 'kq: gks tkrs gS fd cPps rks gekjk lqurs gh ughaA
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa izos'k ds igys gh gesa cPpksa dks nqfu;knkjh ds ckjs esa /khjs&/khjs crkuk pkfg, fd mudk
efLr"d fodkj gksus ls iwoZ gh gesa muds efLr"d dk fodkl djuk pkfg,A ;fn muds efLr"d esa ldkjkRed lksp
'kq: ls cSB x;h rks mudk thou nwljksa dks Hkh jkS'kuh nsxkA gesa mudh Hkkoukvksa dks le>uk pkfg,A fdlh Hkh pht+
dk fuokj.k naM ugha gksrk bls ges'kk /;ku j[kuk pkfg;sA ;s fd'kksjkoLFkk unh dh rst+ osx dh ygj ds leku gksrh
gS ftlesa cgqr la;e ds lkFk rSjuk iM+rk gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 5


fd'kksjkoLFkk dh leL;k,
(Problems of Adolescence)
fd'kksjkoLFkk ,d ,slh laosnu'khy vof/k gS tc O;fDrRo esa cgqr egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu vkrs gSaA os ifjorZu
brus vkdfLed vkSj rhoz gksrs gSa fd muls dbZ leL;kvksa dk tUe gksrk gSA ;|fi fd'kksj bu ifjorZuksa dk vuqHko
rks djrs gSa ij os izk;% bUgsa le>us esa vleFkZ gksrs gSaA vHkh rd muds ikl dksbZ ,slk lzksr miyC/k ugha gS ftlds
ek/;e ls os bu ifjorZuksa ds fo"k; esa oSKkfud tkudkjh izkIr dj ldsaA fdUrq mUgsa bu ifjorZuksa vkSj fodkl ds ckjs
esa tkudkjh pkfg,] blfy;s os blds fy, ;k rks le&vk;q lewg dh enn ysrs gSa] ;k fQj xqejkg djus okys oks lLrs
lkfgR; ij fuHkZj gks tkrs gSaA xyr lwpuk,a feyus ds dkj.k os vDlj dbZ Hkzkafr;ksa dk f'kdkj gks tkrs gSa ftlls
muds O;fDrRo fodkl ij dqizHkko iM+rk gSA
fd'kksjksa dks blfy;s Hkh leL;k,a vkrh gS D;ksafd os foijhr fyax ds izfr ,dk,d tkxzr #fp dks Bhd ls
le> ugha ikrs A ek cki ls nwj gVus dh izo`fr vkSj le&vk;q lewg ds lkFk xgu esy&feyki Hkh muds eu esa la'k;
vkSj fpark iSnk djrk gSA fdUrq ifjtuksa ds mfpr ekxZn'kZu ds vHkko esa mUgsa le&vk;q lewg dh gh vksj mUeq[k gksuk
iM+rk gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk dh viuh dqN fo'ks"k leL;k, gSa ftuij Hkh izdk'k Mkyuk vko';d gSA ,sls rks
fd'kksjksa esa 'kkjhfjd fopyu physical deviation ,oa 'kkjhfjd nks"k physical defects] tSls
nkr] n`f"V ,oa Jo.k dh leL;k rks vke gksrh gS] ijarq blls gVdj Hkh dqN leL;k, gSa ftuij f'k{kk
euksoSKkfudksa dk fo'ks"k /;ku x;k gSA bu leL;kvksa ls f'k{kd Hkh HkyhHkkfr voxr gksrs gSa] D;ksafd bu
leL;kvksa dk lh/kk izHkko cPpksa dh 'kSf{kd miyfC/k ij iM+rk gSA bu leL;kvksa esa fuEukafdr izeq[k gSa&
1 Ldwy esa lek;kstu laca/kh leL;k, Problems relating to adjustments in school& izk;%
fd'kksjksa dks Ldwy esa f'k{kdksa ,oa vius lkfFk;ksa ds lkFk mfpr lek;kstu dh leL;k dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA dqN
f'k{kd :f<+oknh izfr conservative nature ds gksrs gSa vkSj oxZ esa fd'kksjksa ds lkFk dkQh l[rh ls is'k vkrs
gSaA os mUgsa fdlh izdkj dh Lora=rk nsus ls budkj dj nsrs gSa vkSj ,d ckyd le>dj mudks dHkh&dHkh 'kkjhfjd
naM physical punishment Hkh ns cSBrs gSaA ,slh voLFkk esa fd'kksjksa dks lek;kstu adjustment djus esa
dkQh fnDdr gksrh gS vkSj muds lkeus dbZ leL;k, mRi gks tkrh gSaA bruk gh ugha] ;g Hkh ns[kk x;k gS fd
Ldwy dk ikBe syllabus ewyr% lS)kafrd theoretical gksrk gS vkSj yM+ds ,oa yM+fd;ksa dh muesa eqf'dy
ls fdlh rjg dh lgHkkfxrk participation gks ikrh gSA oxZ esa pqipki mu ikBekas ij Hkk"k.k lquuk muesa
furkar cu mRi djrk gS vkSj mudh leL;kvksa dks c<+k nsrk gSA
2 ikfjokfjd laca/kksa ,oa lkekftd lek;kstu ls lacaf/kr leL;k Problems relation to family
relationship and social adjustment& fd'kksjksa dh nwljh leL;k ikfjokfjd laca/kksa ,oa lkekftd
lek;kstu ls lacaf/kr gSA vDlj ns[kk x;k gS fd fd'kksj ,oa fd'kksfj;k fdlh Hkh lkekftd dk;Ze esa Lora= gksdj
Hkkx ysuk pkgrs gSa ftldh vuqefr ekrk&firk ls izk;% ugha feyrh gSA bldk ifj.kke ;g gksrk gS fd muesa rFkk
ekrk&firk esa ruko c<+rk gS vkSj ikfjokfjd la?k"kZ rhoz gks tkrk gSA flEilu Simpson, 1989 ds vuqlkj tks
O;fDr fd'kksjkoLFkk esa viuk ?kj NksM+dj pys tkrs gSa mlds ihNs dbZ dkj.kksa esa ikfjokfjd la?k"kZ family
friction ,d iz/kku dkj.k ekuk x;k gSA bruk gh ugha] ikfjokfjd la?k"kZ jgus ls fd'kksjksa dks vius fodklkRed
dk;ksZa developmental tasks dks iwjk djus esa ekrk&firk ls mfpr fn'kk&funsZ'k ugha fey ikrk gSA blls

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 6


mudh leL;k, vkSj Hkh tfVy gks tkrh gSaA ikfjokfjd la?k"kZ dk izHkko fd'kksjksa ds vU; nwljs rjg ds laca/kksa esa Hkh
ck/kk mRi dj nsrk gSA tSls flEilu Simpson, 1989 us vius v/;;u esa ik;k fd ftu fd'kksjksa dks
ikfjokfjd la?k"kZ dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS] mudk lek;kstu Ldwy vf/kdkfj;ksa] lkfFk;ksa ,oa ikl&iM+ksl ds yksxksa
ls Hkh rukoiw.kZ tense gksrk gS vkSj bl rjg mudh leL;k vkSj Hkh tfVy gks tkrh gSA
3 ;kSu O;ogkj ls lacaf/kr leL;k Problems relating to sex behaviour& fd'kksjkoLFkk esa ;kSu
O;ogkj ls lacaf/kr leL;k Hkh rhoz ,oa rh{.k gksrh gSA 'kkjhfjd ifjiDork physical maturity ds dkj.k muds
;kSu vaxksa dk fodkl rks iwjk gks tkrk gS ijarq muesa euksoSKkfud ifjiDork psychological maturity ds
vHkko esa ;kSu O;ogkj ls lacaf/kr dbZ leL;k, mRi gks tkrh gSaA fd'kksfj;k 'kknh ls igys xHkZorh gks tkrh gSa vkSj
fd'kksj mudk mkjnkf;Ro [kqydj vius da/ks ij vuSfrd le>dj ysus ls budkj dj nsrs gSaA leL;k bruh xaHkhj
gks tkrh gS fd fd'kksfj;ksa ds lkeus vkRegR;k suicide ds vykok dksbZ jkLrk ugha jg tkrk gSA vxj os fdlh <ax
ls bl leL;k dk lek/kku dj Hkh ysrh gSa] fQj Hkh os lekt dh utj esa bruk fxj tkrh gSa fd mudk ekufld ,oa
lkekftd fodkl vlaHko gks tkrk gSA ,sls fd'kksjksa dh Hkh lkekftd izfr"Bk lekIr gks tkrh gSA bl leL;k ds
lek/kku ds fy, ;g furkar vko';d gS fd fd'kksjksa dks ;kSu f'k{kk sex education nh tk,A
4 uSfrd O;ogkj ls lacaf/kr leL;k Problem relating to moral behaviour& vdlj ns[kk x;k
gS fd fd'kksj vius fy, ,d vR;ar gh vokLrfod mPp ekud unrealistic highstandard fu/kkZfjr dj ysrs
gSa ftUgsa os vdlj ugha dj ikrsA blls muesa nks"kHkko guilt-feeling mRi gksrk gS vkSj vusd rjg dh leL;k,
mRi gks tkrh gSaA bruk gh ugha] v/;;uksa esa ;g Hkh ns[kk x;k gS fd fd'kksj nwljksa ds fy, Hkh vokLrfod mPp
ekud fu/kkZfjr dj ysrs gSa vkSj tc nwljs yksx mls iwjk ugha dj ikrs] rks os muls yM+us&>xM+us yxrs gSa vkSj bl
rjg muesa lkekftd lek;kstu ls lacaf/kr leL;k, mRi gks tkrh gSaA dqN fd'kksj ,sls gksrs gSa ftUgsa ;g irk ugha
gksrk gS fd fdl rjg ds fu;eksa dk mUgsa ikyu djuk pkfg, rFkk dqN ,sls fd'kksj gksrs gSa tks ;g lh[k gh ugha ikrs
gSa fd lgh D;k gS rFkk xyr D;k gSA bu nksuksa rjg ds fd'kksjksa esa uSfrd leL;k, rks mRi gksrh gh gSa] lkFk gh lkFk
muesa lkekftd lek;kstu social adjustment dh leL;k Hkh mRi gks tkrh gSA
5 O;kolkf;d lek;kstu ls lacaf/kr leL;k Problem relating to occupational
adjustment& fd'kksjkoLFkk ,d ,slh voLFkk gksrh gS tgk O;fDr vius Hkfo"; future ds ckjs esa dqN
ifj;kstuk planning cukus ds fy, l{ke gks tkrk gSA og Hkfo"; esa dkSu&lk O;olk; pqusxk] bl ij vdlj
lksprk jgrk gSA ijarq] tc og ;g ns[krk gS fd vusd o;Ld vPNh rkyhe ikus ds ckotwn fdlh vPNs O;olk; dks
pquus esa vleFkZ jgs] rks muesa ?kksj dqaBk frustration gksrh gS vkSj og fonzksgh rebellious gks tkrk gS vkSj
lekt ,oa vius ifjokj ds fy, ,d leL;k cu tkrk gSA
6 fokh; leL;k Financial problem& fd'kksjksa dks fokh; leL;k dk Hkh lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA vius
lkfFk;ksa ds chp fof'k"Vrk cuk, j[kus ds fy, os ;g Hkh vko';d le>rs gSa fd os vf/kd ls vf/kd #i;k iSlk [kpZ
djds lkFkhx.k dks izHkkfor djsaA ,d vksj rks mudh ;g bPNk gksrh gS] ijarq nwljh vksj muds eu esa ckj&ckj ;g
iz'u mBrk jgrk gS fd brus lkjs iSls dgk ls vk,xsA ekrk&firk ls mUgsa bruk #i;k&iSlk ekxuk vPNk ugha
yxrk gS rFkk budk viuk dqN lzksr source gksrk ugha gSA urhtru] mUgsa rhoz fokh; leL;kvksa ds chp
Mwcrs&mrjkrs jguk iM+rk gSA
7 eknd oLrqvksa ds lsou dh leL;k Problem of drug use& vktdy fd'kksjksa esa eknd oLrqvksa ds

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 7


lsou ls lacaf/kr leL;k dkQh xaHkhj gks xbZ gS vkSj ,slk ns[kk tk jgk gS fd cgqr ls fd'kksj viuh Hkksyh&Hkkyh
ftanxh dks bl vkx esa >ksadrs tk jgs gSaA bu eknd oLrqvksa esa xktk] vQhe] ekfjtqvkuk marijuana] dksdhu
cocaine] ckjfcVqjsV barbiturate vkfn vf/kd iz;ksx esa yk, tkrs gSaA euksoSKkfud v/;;uksa ls ;g lkfcr gks
x;k gS fd bu eknd oLrqvksa ds lsou dk klkRed izHkko detrimental effect gksrk gS tks muesa lkekftd]
vkfFkZd] uSfrd] 'kSf{kd ,oa ikfjokfjd leL;k, mRi dj mUgsa lnk ds fy, ncksp ysrk gSA eSjhgqvkuk rFkk gsYFk
Marihuana and Health, 1989 ,oa Cye Blum, 1988 }kjk Ldwy esa mu fd'kksjksa ij tks eknd oLrqvksa
ds O;luh gks x, Fks] fd, x, v/;;u ls bldh iqf"V gksrh gSA
8 vkRegR;k dh leL;k Problem of suicide& v/;;uksa ls ;g Hkh Li"V gqvk gS fd fd'kksjksa esa vkRegR;k
dh leL;k izcy gksrh gSA fLeFk Smith, 1975 ds v/;;u ds vuqlkj fd'kksjksa dh e`R;q dk nwljk iz/kku dkj.k
;gh vkRegR;k gSA jkWu rFkk lkYl Ron and Solls, 1977 rFkk ost Wenz, 1990 ds v/;;uksa ds vuqlkj
vf/kdrj fd'kksj rFkk fd'kksfj;k] tks vkRegR;k dj ysrs gSa ;k djus dk iz;kl djrs gSa] muesa eanu depression]
fiz; oLrq dks [kks nsuk] lkekftd foyxko social isolation] ikfjokfjd la?k"kZ] Ldwy esa yxkrkj vlQyrk
tSlh leL;k, ns[kus dks feyrh gSaA f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa us fd'kksjkoLFkk dh vkRegR;k dks bruh vf/kd xaHkhjrk ls
fy;k gS fd mUgksaus f'k{kdksa dks ,sls fd'kksjksa dh igpku dj muds fy, vyx ls dqN ekxZn'kZu guidance djus
dh fo'ks"k O;oLFkk ij cy Mkyk gSA
bl rjg Li"V gS fd fd'kksjksa esa dbZ rjg dh leL;k, gksrh gSa ftuij f'k{kdksa }kjk fo'ks"k /;ku
nsus dh t:jr gSA tc rd fd'kksj ,slh leL;kvksa ls f?kjk jgsxk] mudh 'kSf{kd miyfC/k
educational achievement ds pk gksus dk dksbZ iz'u ugha mBrk gSA
D;k fd'kksjkoLFkk leL;k gS\
vkids thou esa reke rjg dh ifjfLFkfr;ka vkrh gSaA /;ku j[ksa fd oks flQZ ifjfLFkfr;ka gh gksrh gSaA vc
buesa ls dqN dks vki laHkky ikrs gSa vkSj dqN dks laHkky ugha ikrsA ftl fLFkfr dks vki laHkky ugha ikrs] mls vki
,d leL;k ekuus yxrs gSa] ctk; blds fd vki mls flQZ ,d fLFkfr ds rkSj ij ns[krs vkSj mls laHkkyus ds fy,
[kqn dks rS;kj djus dh dksf'k'k djrsA rks dSls djsa [kqn dks rS;kj\ vxj vki Hkh ,d fd'kksj cPps ds ekrk ;k firk
gSa ;k vkidk cPpk fd'kksjkoLFkk dh rjQ c<+ jgk gS rks vki flQZ ikap ckrksa dk [;ky j[ksa] ;g voLFkk u dsoy
vkids cPps ds fy, cfYd vkids fy, Hkh lq[kn vglkl cu ldrh gSA
1& muds vPNs nksLr cusa
vxj vki ,d fd'kksj dh utj ls ftnaxh dks ns[ksa rks muds Hkhrj ftanxh jkst cny jgh gSA pwafd fd'kksj
cgqrs rsth ls c<+ jgs gSa] blfy, muds vklikl ds yksx ml o`f) dks le> ikus esa l{ke ugha gksrsA vkerkSj ij
nknk&nknh ;k ukuk&ukuh bu cPpksa ds izfr T;knk yxko vkSj izse j[krs gSaA bldh otg gS fd os phtksa dks ,d
FkksM+h nwjh ds lkFk ns[k jgs gksrs gSaA fd'kksjkoLFkk esa vki /khjs&/khjs vius gkWjeksu ds o'k esa vk tkrs gSaA tcfd cq<+kis
dk eryc gS fd vki gkjeksUl ds fu;a=.k ls ckgj fudyus yxrs gSaA blfy, cqtqxZ yksx fd'kksjksa dh ekufldrk
dks FkksM+k le> ikrs gSaA ysfdu tks e/; vk;q ds gksrs gSa] mu yksxksa dks fd'kksjksa dh ekufldrk ds ckjs esa vf/kd
tkudkjh ugha gksrhA vxj ,sfrgkfld n`f"V ls Hkh ns[kk tk, rks e/; vk;q ges'kk ls ,d Hkzfer ekufldrk dk
f'kdkj jgh gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk ds dbZ igyw gksrs gSaA igyh pht] mudh izfrHkk ;k cqf) gkjeksuksa }kjk lapkfyr gksus yxrh

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 8


gSA vpkud mudks iwjh nqfu;k dkQh vyx lh utj vkus yxrh gSA vHkh rd muds vklikl tks yksx gksrs gSa] oks
vpkud mudks L=h vkSj iq#"k ds :i esa utj vkus yxrs gSa] ;kuh fyax&Hksn ds izfr oks vf/kd lpsr gks mBrs gSa vkSj
bl otg ls foijhr fyax ds fr mudk #>ku gksus yxrk gSA ;g vius vki esa ,d cM+k cnyko gSA ekrk&firk dks
;g le>us dh dksf'k'k djuh pkfg, fd fd'kksjksa ds fy, ;g fLFkfr ubZ gS vkSj oks mlls rkyesy cSBkus dh dksf'k'k
dj jgs gSa vkSj mudks dksbZ leL;k vkrh gS rks os blds ckjs esa vkils ckr djsaxsA ysfdu vf/kdrj ekrk&firk vius
cPpksa ds ckjs esa ckrs djus yxrs gSa] blfy, os cspkjs vius fy, nwljs nksLr cukrs gSaA pwafd muds nksLr Hkh mlh
voLFkk vkSj ekufldrk ls xqtj jgs gksrs gSa] mudh csrqdh lykg gh nsrs gSaA csgrj fLFkfr rks ;g gS fd vxj mUgsa
dksbZ leL;k gS rks oks vkids ikl vk,aA
vxj vki muds vPNs fe= gSa rks os vkids ikl t:j vk,axs] D;ksafd tc Hkh mUgas dksbZ leL;k gksxh rks os
LokHkkfod :i ls ,d nksLr dks ryk'ksaxsA blfy, vkidh iwjh dksf'k'k gksuh pkfg, fd de mez ls gh vki muds
lcls vPNs nksLr cusa] vkSj de ls de rc rd cus jgsa tc rd oks 18 ls 20 lky ds u gks tk,aA nksLrh dk ;g
Hkjkslk vkidks vftZr djuk gksxkA ;g egt blfy, ugha gksxk] D;ksafd vkius mUgsa iSnk fd;k gSA mUgsa iSnk djus ds
pyrs vkidks ekrk&firk dh mikf/k rks fey xbZ gS] ysfdu nksLr dh ughaA bl pht dks gkfly djus ds fy,
vkidks jkst ftEesnkjh Hkjk O;ogkj djuk gksxkA
2&mUgsa ftEesnkj cuk,a
vki vius fd'kksjksa ds lkFk fucVus dh dksf'k'k u djsa] cfYd [kqn dks muds fy, ges'kk miyC/k j[ksaA mUgs
gj pht ;k dke ds fy, ftEesnkj cuk,aA dHkh bruh fgEer fn[kk,a fd de ls de ,d eghus viuh iwjh ru[okg
mUgsa lkSai nsa vkSj mUgsa ?kj pykus dh ftEesnkjh ns nsaA vkidks cM+s iSekus ij cnyko fn[ksxkA vxj vki okdbZ vius
cPps ds lkFk dqN djuk pkgrs gSa rks vkidks mUgsa vius foLrkj dk ekSdk nsuk pkfg,] D;ksafd ;gh rks oks Hkh djus dh
dksf'k'k dj jgs gSaA ,slk ugha gS fd bl le; flQZ mudk 'kjhj gh c<+ jgk gS] cfYd crkSj balku mudh {kerk Hkh
c<+ jgh gSA blfy, muds ml foLrkj dks jksdus dh ctk; vkidh dksf'k'k ml foLrkj dks c<+kok nsus dh gksuh
pkfg,A
vxj vki bl foLrkj dks jksdus dh dksf'k'k djsaxs rks vkidks cgqr T;knk ijs'kkuh dk lkeuk djuk iM+sxkA
vxj vkidk csVk gS rks vkidh leL;k ,d rjg dh gksxh] ysfdu vxj vkidh csVh gS rks vkidks nwljh rjg dh
leL;k dk lkeuk djuk iM+sxkA ;g dHkh er lksfp, fd cPpksa dks jksduk ;k dkcw djuk muds thou dks fu;af=r
djus dk mfpr rjhdk gS ]ftEesnkjh mUgsa jkLrs ij j[ksxhA tSlk fd vki ,d eghuk viuk iSlk mUgsa nsa vksj muls
dgsa fd vki Nqh ij gSa vkSj mUgsa ?kj pykuk gSA vxj vkidks Mj gS fd og bl iSls dks ckgj tkdj dgha mM+k nsaxs]
rks fpark er dhft,] tks fnDdr vkidks vk,xh ogh fnDdr mudks Hkh vk,xhA mUgsa Hkh de ls de ,d eghus ds
fy, bl gkykr ls xqtjus nhft,A cs'kd] vki vius ikl dqN vyx ls iSlk j[k ldrs gSa] ysfdu mUgsa Hkh vglkl
gksus nhft, fd vxj vkt mUgksaus lkjk iSlk mM+k fn;k rks dy lqcg uk'rk Hkh ugha fey ik,xkA blfy, lM+d ij
;k ckgj fudy dj cPps dks gdhdr dk vglkl djkus vkSj fl[kkus ls csgrj gksxk fd mUgsa bldk vglkl ?kj ds
Hkhrj ,d lqjf{kr ekgkSy esa djk;k tk,A
3& muds vlgk;iu dks c<+k p<+kdj u is'k djsa
vkids cPps cM+s gks dj fd'kksj gks jgs gSaA ;g ekSdk [kq'kh dk gSA ysfdu vki muds c<+us ls ijs'kku gSaA
nqHkkZX; ls ge 'kS'kokLFkk vkSj cpiu dk Lrqfrxku djrs gS] tcfd gdhdr esa oks thou dh vlgk; voLFkk,a gSaA
tc cPps NksVs gksrs gS] rks oks vlgk; gksrs gSa vkSj gj pht ds fy, vkidh rjQ ns[krs gSaA vkidks cPps peRdkfjd

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 9


utj vkrs gSa] D;ksafd os vlgk; gksrs gSaA eku yhft, dksbZ cPpk vkids lkeus vkdj vkils dgs fd vki dkSu gksrs gS
eq>s dqN dgus okys] rks gks ldrk gS fd vkidks og cPpk vPNk u yxsA ysfdu cPps ;g loky djus esa 14&15
lky yxk nsrs gSaA
cpiu thou dk ,d vlgk; nkSj gksrk gS] tgka vki fdlh nwljs dh enn vkSj lg;ksx ds fcuk jg gh ugha
ldrsA vxj vki cpiu dk xq.kxku djrs jgsaxs rks vki thou Hkj vlgk; cus jgsaxsA pwafd yksx cPpksa ds cpiu ds
brus vknh gks pqds gksrs gSa fd tc ;gh cPps fd'kksjkoLFkk esa igqapdj vius iSj ij [kM+s gksuk 'kq: djrs gSa rks mUgsa ;g
ckr vPNh ugha yxrhA
vxj vki ml f[ky jgs vkSj rktxh ls Hkjs thou ds fy, dksbZ egRoiw.kZ O;f cuuk pkgrs gSa rks vkidks
viuh lhek ugha r; djuh pkfg,A nwljs 'kCnksa esa dgsa rks gj o vius O;fRo dh vgfe;r dk vglkl ugha
djkuk pkfg,A tc cPpk f'k'kq Fkk vkSj og ?kqVuksa ds cy pyrk FkkA rks vki Hkh mlds lkFk ?kqVus ds cy pyrs FksA
vc ogh cPpk vxj fd'kksj cudj >wyuk pkgrk gS rks vkidks Hkh mlds lkFk >wyus ds fy, rS;kj jguk pkfg,A
ysfdu vc Hkh vxj vki mlds lkFk ?kqVus ds cy pyuk pkgsaxs rks mldh blesa dksbZ #fp ugha gksxhA tokuh vkSj
tks'k ls Hkjs gq, fd'kksjksa dks oSls ekrk&firk gkL;kLin utj vkrs gSa tks vc Hkh muds lkFk ?kqVus ds cy pyus dh
bPNk j[krs gSaA
4& mu ij vf/kdkj er trkb,] mUgsa 'kkfey dhft,
lcls igys rks bl fopkj dks NksM+ nhft, fd cPps ds thou ij vkidk vf/kdkj gSA vxj vki ,slk lksprs
gSa rks fd'kksjkoLFkk esa vkus ds ckn os vkidks vius rjhds ls crk,axs fd muds thou ij vkidk gd ugha gS] ;s fd'kksj
flQZ vkidks bruk gh crkus dh dksf'k'k dj jgs gSa] ysfdu vki budh bl ckr dks gte djus ds fy, rS;kj ugha gSaA
fdlh nwljs ds thou ij vkidk dksbZ gd ugha gSA vxj dksbZ nwljk thou vkids lkFk jgus dk QSlyk djrk gS rks
[kq'kh eukb,] ;g vius vki esa ,d 'kkunkj pht gSA fQj pkgs oks vkids ifr gksa] iRuh gks ;k cPpsA bldh vgfe;r
lef>, fd mUgksaus thou esa vkus ds fy, vkidks tfj, ds :i esa pquk ;k thou thus ds fy, vkids lkFk vkus dk
QSlyk fd;kA blfy, vki fdlh Hkh rjg ls mu ij vf/kdkj ugha tek ldrsA vxj vki vHkh ;g ckr ugha le>s
rks vkidks ;g ckr rc le> esa vk,xh] tc vki ejsaxs ;k tc os ejsaxsA vkidk mu ij ekfydkuk gd ugha gS] ysfdu
cs'kd vkidks mUgsa viuh ftanxh esa lkFk ysdj vkSj 'kkfey djds pyuk pkfg,A
5&vius fy, dqN dhft,
vxj ge okdbZ vius cPpksa dk csgrj ikyu iks"k.k djuk pkgrs gSa rks lcls igys gesa ;g ns[kuk pkfg, fd
ge vius fy, D;k dj ldrs gSaA tks yksx vHkh ekrk&firk cuuk pkgrs gSa ;k cuus okys gSa] mUgsa ,d NksVk lk iz;ksx
djuk pkfg,A mUgsa vkjke ls cSB dj vkRefo'ys"k.k djuk pkfg, fd D;k pht mudh thou esa Bhd ugha gS vkSj
D;k muds thou ds fy, csgrj gksxkA blesa mu phtksa ij xkSj ugha djuk pkfg,] tks ckgjh nqfu;k ls lacaf/kr gS]
D;ksafd blesa mUgsa ckgjh yksxksa dk lg;ksx ysuk iM+sxkA mUgsa flQZ vius ls tqM+s igyqvksa ij xkSj djuk pkfg,A mUgsa
ns[kuk pkfg, fd D;k vxys rhu eghus esa os vius esa cnyko yk ikrs gSaA
vxys rhu eghus ds Hkhrj viuh fdlh pht ij elyu vius O;ogkj] cksyh] dke djus ds rjhds ;k vknrksa
esa vki lq/kkj yk ikrs gSa rks vki vius csVs ;k csVh dks foosdiw.kZ rjhds ls laHkkyus ds fy, rS;kj gSaA vxj ,slk ugha gS
rks vkidks nwljksas dh lykg vkSj lq>ko ls cPps ikyus gksaxsA gkykafd bl ekeys esa lykg tSlh dksbZ pht ugha gksrhA
blesa gjsd cPps dk vPNh rjg ls fujh{k.k vkSj ij[k djds ns[kuk gksrk gS fd ml cPps ds lkFk D;k fd;k tk
ldrk gS vkSj D;k ughaA vki ,d tSlh pht gj cPps ds lkFk ugha dj ldrs] D;ksafd gj cPps esa ,d vyx thou]
,d vyx rjhds ls ?kfVr gks jgk gSA
izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 10
fd'kksjkoLFkk dh lkekU; Hkzkafr;k
(Some Popular Fallacies about Adolescence)
euksfoKku ds bfrgkl ls ;g irk pyrk gS fd fd'kksjkoLFkk ds ckjs esa izFke ec) ,oa oSKkfud v/;;u
e'kgwj euksoSKkfud th0 ,l0 gkWy G S Hall }kjk 19 oha 'krkCnh ds vafre dqN o"kksZa esa izkjaHk fd;k x;kA muds
v/;;u ds iwoZ fd'kksjkoLFkk ds ckjs esa dqN lkekU; Hkzkafr;k fallacies Fkha tks dkQh izpfyr FkhaA buesa dqN
Hkzkafr;k vkt Hkh lekt esa dkQh izpfyr gSa ftudk o.kZu fuEukafdr gS&
1 fd'kksjksa dk 'kkjhfjd :i&jax physical appearance csesy gksrk gSA ,slk yksxksa dk er gS fd budk
'kkjhfjd :i&jax u rks ,d ckyd ds leku gksrk gS vkSj u gh ,d o;Ld adult ds leku gksrk gSA vr%]
fd'kksjkoLFkk dks yksx ,d cs<axh voLFkk ekurs gSaA
2 fd'kksjksa esa ;kSu leL;k, bruh rhoz gksrh gSa fd mudk vf/kdrj le; blh esa O;rhr gksrk gSA vk/kqfud v/;;uksa
ls ;g lkfcr gks x;k gS fd ;g /kkj.kk Bhd ugha gS gkykfd ;g ckr vo'; gS fd muesa ;kSu ifjiDork sex
maturation vk tkus ls ;kSu laca/kh fo"k;ksa dh vksj >qdko c<+ tkrk gSA
3 fd'kksjksa esa vkked izo`fk aggressive tendency vf/kd gksrh gSA ,sls yksxksa dk er gS fd ckr&ckr esa os
nwljksa ds izfr vkkedrk aggressiveness fn[kkrs gSaA vk/kqfud euksoSKkfudksa ds v/;;u ls ;g Hkh Li"V gks
x;k gS fd tc rd fd'kksjksa esa rhoz dqaBk frustration ugha mRi gks tkrh gS vkSj tc rd os ;g ugha le> ysrs gSa
fd dqaBk dk lzksr vuqi;qDr inappropriate ,oa xyr gS] muesa vkked izo`fk vlkekU; <ax ls ugha ns[kh tkrh
gSA
4 fd'kksjksa esa nwjnf'kZrk foresightedness dh deh gksrh gSA yksxksa dk er gS fd fd'kksj flQZ vius orZeku ds
ckjs esa gh fdlh <ax ls lksp ikrs gSa] mUgsa vius Hkfo"; dh u rks dksbZ fpark jgrh gS vkSj u gh mlds ckjs esa os ltx gh
jgrs gSaA xslsy Gesell, 1954 ds v/;;u ds vuqlkj lHkh fd'kksjksa esa ,slh ckr ugha ns[kus dks feyrh gSA fuEu
lkekftd&vkfFkZd Lrj ds ifjokj ls vk, fd'kksjksa esa ls dqN esa ,slh izo`fk ns[kus dks feyrh gSA
5 fd'kksjkoLFkk esa fodkl development rsth ls gksrk gSA vk/kqfud fodklkRed euksfoKkuh
developmental psychologists ;g ekurs gS fd fodkl ,d lrr izf;k continuous process gS
vkSj thou dh fdlh fo'ks"k voLFkk esa] tSls fd'kksjkoLFkk adolescence esa] Hkh ;g viuh lkekU; xfr ls pyrh
jgrh gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk dh vko';drk,
(Needs of Adolescence)
fd'kksjkoLFkk dh dqN ,slh vko';drk, gSa ftuij f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa us fo'ks"k /;ku fn;k gSA tgk rd
fd'kksjksa dh 'kkjhfjd vko';drkvksa physical needs dk iz'u gS] os ckydksa ,oa o;Ldksa dh 'kkjhfjd
vko';drkvksa ds vuqdwy gSaA ;gk rd fd muds lkekftd ,oa O;fDrRo dh vko';drk, social personality
needs Hkh o;Ldksa ds gh leku gSaA fQj bl voLFkk dh dqN vko';drk, needs ,slh gS tks vf/kd fof'k"V
specific ,oa izcy gksrh gSaA ,slh vko';drk, fuEukafdr gSa&

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 11


1 izfr"Bk ;k inoh dh vko';drk Need for prestige& fd'kksjksa ds fy, lcls egoiw.kZ vko';drk
izfr"Bk ;k viuh fof'k"V inoh status cuk, j[kus dh gSA fd'kksj ges'kk ;g dksf'k'k djrs gSa fd os vius lkfFk;ksas
ds lewg esa ,d fof'k"V inoh ;k izfr"Bk cukdj j[ksa vkSj mUgsa lekt ds vPNs yksxksa ls mfpr lEeku fey ldsA og
o;Ld ds O;ogkj ds leku O;ogkj djuk pkgrs gSa vkSj ckY;koLFkk ds s O;ogkjksa ls nwj jguk pkgrs gSaA vf/kdrj
fd'kksjksa esa vius lkfFk;ksa ds chp fof'k"V inoh ;k izfr"Bk cuk, j[kuk ekrk&firk rFkk f'k{kdksa dh utjksa esa izfr"Bk
ikus ls Hkh pk gksrk gSA f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa tSls Cys;j] tksUl rFkk flEilu Blair, Jones and Simpson,
1985 ds vuqlkj ftu fd'kksjksa dks vius lkfFk;ksa ds lewg esa fof'k"V izfr"Bk feyrh gS rFkk lkFk gh lkFk f'k{kdks esa
Hkh mudh ,d fo'ks"k igpku gksrh gS] rks ,sls fd'kksjksa esa fdlh izdkj dh vuq'kklukRed leL;k disciplinary
problem gksus dh laHkkouk ugha gksrh gSA
2 Lora=rk dh vko';drk Need for independence& Lora=rk dh vko';drk fd'kksjksa dh nwljh
izeq[k vko';drk gksrh gSA og ?kj esa ,d vyx dejs esa lksuk] i<+uk&fy[kuk ,oa jguk vf/kd ilan djrk gS rkfd
og Bhd <ax ls Lora= gksdj vius fopkjksa ,oa fparu dks fn'kk iznku dj ldsA og ftanxh dks vius <ax ls thuk
pkgrk gSA og ;g ugha ilan djrk fd Ldwy esa vkdj mlds ekrk&firk mldh 'kSf{kd miyfC/k;ksa dk dqN
vk[kksa&ns[kk fooj.k izkIr djsa rFkk Ldwy vf/kdkfj;ksa ls iwNrkN djsa( D;ksafd bls og cpdkuk le>rk gS vkSj blls
mldh Lora=rk ds Hkko dks Bsl igqprh gSA fd'kksjksa dh Lra=rk dh vko';drk dh pje lhek ml le; ns[kus dh
feyrh gS tc os vius iSjksa ij [kM+k gksus ds fy, /ku dekus ij mrk: gks tkrs gSaA euksoSKkfud v/;;uksa ls ;g Li"V
gks x;k gS fd tc f'k{kd oxZ fd'kksjksa ds lkFk ,d o;Ld ds :i esa O;ogkj djrs gS] rks blls muesa vkRe&lEeku
rks c<+rk gh gS] lkFk gh lkFk Lora=rk dh Hkkouk vkSj Hkh etcwr gksrh gSA
3 ftanxh ds n'kZu dks larq"V djus dh vko';drk Need for satisfying the philosophy of
life& fd'kksjkoLFkk esa O;fDr vius fy, ,d Li"V thoun'kZu fuf'pr djus dh vko';drk eglwl djrk gSA og
lR;] /keZ ,oa vkn'kZ ideals ds ckjs esa rjg&rjg ds iz'uksa ij Hkh fopkj djuk izkjaHk dj nsrk gSA izslh] jkWfcUlu
rFkk dwyj Pressy, Robinson and Cooler, 1990 ds v/;;u ls ;g irk pyrk gS fd fd'kksjkoLFkk esa
/kkfeZd ifjorZu ,oa fdlh vkanksyu esa Hkkx ysus dh izo`fk rhozre gksrh gSA Ldwy esa f'k{kd fd'kksjksa dks lekt ds
n'kZu philosophy ds vuqdwy viuh ftanxh ds n`f"Vdks.k outlook dks fodflr djus esa dkQh enn dj
ldrs gSaA
4 ;kSu vko';drk Sex needs& fd'kksjksa esa ;kSu vko';drk sex needs Hkh ,d izeq[k vko';drk gksrh
gSA bl voLFkk esa fd'kksj ,oa fd'kksfj;k ySafxd :i ls ifjiDo sexually mature gks tkrs gSa vkSj mudh
vfHk#fp ,d nwljs esa c<+ tkrh gSA mUgsa ;kSu laca/kh fo"k;ksa ij fNidj vius foijhrfyafx;ksa ls ckrphr djus esa
dkQh vkuan vkrk gSA ;kSu f;kvksa tSls laHkksx] gLreSFkqu musturbation vkfn esa dkQh vkuan vkrk gSA fdUls
Kinsey, 1948 }kjk fd, x, v/;;u ls ;g irk pyk gS fd 15 lky dh mez gksrs&gksrs 95% fd'kksj fu;fer
:i ls ySafxd f;kvksa ds fy, lf; gks tkrs gSa vkSj os ;kSu f;kvksa esa vizkfrd lk/kuksa dk [kqydj iz;ksx djuk
izkjaHk dj nsrs gSA izk;% fd'kksj viuh ySafxd leL;kvksa sexual problems ds lek/kku ds fy, b/kj&m/kj
yqd&fNidj yksxksa ls iwNrkN djuk izkjaHk dj nsrs gSaA ,slh voLFkk esa fd'kksjksa dks Ldwy esa mfpr ;kSu f'k{kk sex
education nsdj mUgsa bu leL;kvksa ls fucVus esa dkQh enn dh tk ldrh gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 12


fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;ksa dh fo'ks"krk,
(Characteristics of Adolescent Interests)
vfHk#fp interest dk laca/k /;ku attention ls dkQh gSA bokUl Evans, 1978 ds vuqlkj]
fdlh ifjfLFkfr ;k leL;k ij /;ku j[kus dh f;k dks vfHk#fp dgk tkrk gSA fd'kksjksa esa dbZ rjg dh
vfHk#fp;ksa dh iz/kkurk ns[kh xbZ gSA fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;k muds ;kSu sex] cqf) intelligence] ?kjsyw
okrkoj.k] lkfFk;ksa dh vfHk#fp] lkekftd lewg esa mldh inoh status] ifjokj ds lnL;ksa dh vfHk#fp vkfn ij
fuHkZj djrh gSA euksoSKkfud v/;;uksa ls ;g irk pyk gS fd fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;ksa dh dqN lkekU; fo'ks"krk,
common characteristics gksrh gSa tks fuEukafdr gSa&
1 fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;ksa esa fLFkjrk de ikbZ tkrh gS Adolescent interests are less stable&
,slk irk pyk gS fd 13&15 o"kZ dh vk;q esa fd'kksjksa esa tks vfHk#fp;k fodflr gksrh gSa] os LFkk;h ugha gksrhaA izR;sd
u;h pht] u;h Msl fMtkbu] lkbfdy dh ubZ fMtkbu vkfn esa mudh vfHk#fp gks tkrh gSaA ijarq] dqN eghuksa ds
ckn mudh ,slh vfHk#fp;k lekIr gksdj mldh txg ,slh vfHk#fp mRi gks tkrh gS ftlesa rqyukRed :i ls
fLFkjrk vf/kd gksrh gSA 18&19 o"kZ dh vk;q esa fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;k vf/kd LFkk;h gks tkrh gSaA
2 fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;k rsth ls foLrkfjr gksrh gSa Adolescent interests expand quickly&
fd'kksjksa esa dqN vfHk#fp;k rks ,slh gksrh gSa tks ckY;koLFkk childhood ls pyh vkrh gSa vkSj dqN ubZ vfHk#fp;k
mRi gksrh gSaA bl voLFkk esa os O;kolkf;d phtksa esa vfHk#fp] jk"Vh; ,oa varjjk"Vh; leL;kvksa esa vfHk#fp
fn[kkuk izkjaHk dj nsrs gSaA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS D;ksafd fd'kksjkoLFkk esa mudh ckSf)d] lkekftd ,oa laKkukRed
fodkl conceptual development vf/kd gks tkrk gSA
3 fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;ksa ds ewY; ifjorZu'khy gksrs gSa The values of adolescent interests are
changeable& fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;ksa dh ,d fo'ks"krk ;g Hkh gS fd buds ewY; value ,d leku ugha jgrsA
dHkh rks os mu vfHk#fp;ksa dks vf/kd ewY;oku le>rs gSa ftuesa uohurk vf/kd gksrh gS rks dHkh os mu vfHk#fp;ksa
dks vf/kd ewY;oku le>rs gSa ftuesa gkL; vf/kd gksrk gSA
bl rjg Li"V gS fd fd'kksjksa dh vfHk#fp;ksa dks mudh dqN lkekU; fo'ks"krkvksa ds vk/kkj Hkfo"; ds ckjs esa
lkspuk izkjaHk dj nsrs gSaA fd'kksjksa esa lkekU;r% mu ukSdfj;ksa ds fy, vf/kd rhoza vfHk#fp gksrh gS ftuesa izfr"Bk
prestige rFkk] mPp osru high pay gksA fd'kksfj;ksa esa mu ukSdfj;ksa ds izfr vf/kd #>ku gksrh gS ftuesa
lqj{kk security vf/kd gks rFkk le; dh ikcanh dksbZ [kkl ugha gksA 'kk;n ;gh dkj.k gS fd fd'kksfj;ksa }kjk
f'k{k.k teaching ,oa uflZax nursing dk;ksZa esa vf/kd vfHk#fp fn[kkbZ tkrh gSA ijarq] vc tSls&tSls f'k{kk dk
Lrj c<+rk tk jgk gS rFkk vkfFkZd tkx:drk vkrh tk jgh gS] fd'kksfj;ksa dh bl ijaijkxr vfHk#fp esa Hkh ifjorZu
vkus yxk gS vkSj vc os vU; ftEesokjh okys dk;Z tSls iz'kklfud inkf/kdkjh administrative officer rFkk
tksf[ke okys dk;Z tSls iqfyl vf/kdkjh police officer dh ukSdfj;ksa esa Hkh vfHk#fp fn[kkus yxh gSaA
6 /kkfeZd vfHk#fp Religious interest& fd'kksjksa esa /kkfeZd vfHk#fp Hkh gksrh gSA os /keZ rFkk /keZxzaFkksa ds
ckjs esa rjg&rjg ds iz'u djrs gSa vkSj mudk ,d larks"ktud mkj ikus rd vius dks lf; j[krs gSaA muds iz'u
ls ,slk yxrk gS fd mUgsa /kkfeZd phtksa ,oa mins'kksa ij 'kd doubt gks jgk gSA ijarq] lPpkbZ ;g gksrh gS fd os
brus vf/kd mRlqd jgrs gSa fd mudk mkj ikuk os viuh ,d uSfrd tokcnsgh le>rs gSaA blh vkyksd esa dqN

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 13


euksoSKkfudksa us fd'kksjkoLFkk dks ^/kkfeZd 'kd dh voLFkk* period of religious doubt dgk gSA euksoSKkfud
v/;;uksa ls ;g irk pyk gS fd mu fd'kksjksa esa /kkfeZd vfHk#fp vf/kd gksrh gS ftuds ekrk&firk /kkfeZd fopkj ds
gksrs gSa ;k ftUgsa /kkfeZd mins'k lquus dk vf/kd ekSdk feyk gksrk gSA
7 izfr"Bk ladsr esa vfHk#fp Interest in status symbol& izfr"Bk ladsr status symbol ls rkRi;Z
dqN ,sls dk;ksZa ls gksrk gS ftuds djus ls yksx ;g le>rs gSa fd lacaf/kr O;fDr vU; O;fDr;ksa ls Js"B superior
gSA euksoSKkfud v/;;uksa ls ;g Li"V gks x;k gS fd fd'kksjksa esa izfr"Bk ladsr ls lacaf/kr dk;ksZa esa vf/kd vfHk#fp
gksrh gSA fd'kksjkoLFkk adolescence esa ^izfr"Bk ladsr* }kjk vxzkafdr pkj rjg ds dk;Z functions lEi
gksrs gSa& igyk] blls ;g le>k tkrk gS fd fd'kksj dk lkekftd&vkfFkZd socio-economic Lrj pk gSA
nwljk] fd'kksj miyfC/k;ksa esa ftls lewg Js"B superior le>rk gS] vf/kd ij gSA rhljk] fd'kksj ,d ,sls lewg
ls lacaf/kr affiliated gS ftldh izfr"Bk gS rFkk pkSFkk] fd'kksj dh viuh inoh position lekt esa ,d o;Ld
ds leku gSA fd'kksjksa esa LdwVj pykuk] dkj pykuk] /kweziku djuk] 'kjkc ihuk] eknd oLrqvksa dk lsou djuk]
^izfr"Bk ladsr* ls lac) dk;Z ds dqN mnkgj.k gSaA vejhdu] fd'kksjksa esa blds vykok 'kknh ds igys ;kSu&laca/k
djuk Hkh vk/kqfud lekt esa ,d izfr"Bk ladsr status symbol ekuk tk jgk gSA vr%] bl rjg ds dk;Z esa Hkh
vejhdu fd'kksjksa esa vfHk#fp ikbZ tkrh gSA
bl rjg Li"V gS fd fd'kksjksa esa dbZ rjg dh vfHk#fp;k gksrh gSaA bu vfHk#fp;ksa esa 'kSf{kd vfHk#fp
educational interest] lkekftd vfHk#fp social interest] euksjatukRed vfHk#fp recreational
interest rFkk O;kolkf;d vfHk#fp vocational interest f'k{kk ds n`f"Vdks.k ls vf/kd egoiw.kZ crkbZ xbZ
gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 14


fd'kksjkoLFkk f'k{kk ,oa ;kSu f'k{kk
fd'kksjkoLFkk f'k{kk t:jh D;ksa\
fd'kksjkoLFkk f'k{kk fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fd'kksjkoLFkk ds ckjs esa tkudkjh iznku djus dh vko';drk ds lUnHkZ esa
mHkjh ,d uohu f'k{kk dk uke gSaA fd'kksjkoLFkk tks fd cpiu vkSj ;qokoLFkk ds chp dk ifjorZu dky gS]
fd'kksjkoLFkk dks ekuoh; thou dh ,d i`Fkd voLFkk ds :i esa ekU;rk chloha 'krkCnh ds var esa gh feyk ik;hA
gtkjksa lkyksa rd ekuo fodkl dh dsoy rhu voLFkk,a& cpiu] ;qokoLFkk vkSj cq<+kik gh ekuh tkrh jgh gSA f"k
iz/kku o xzkeh.k laLfr okys Hkkjrh; o vU; lektksa esa ;g /kkj.kk gS fd O;f cpiu ls lh/kk izkS<+koLFkk esa izos'k
djrk gSA vHkh rd cPpksa dks NksVh vk;q esa gh izkS<+ O;fDr;ksa ds mkjnkf;Ro dks le>us vkSj ogka djus ij ck/;
fd;k tkrk jgk gSA ;qod izkS<+ iq:"kksa ds dkedkt esa gkFk caVkrs jgs gSa vkSj yM+fd;ka ?kj dsA cky fookg dh dqizFkk
rks cPpksa dks ;Fkk'kh?kz izkS<+ Hkwfedk esa /kdsy nsrh jgh gSA fookg ls iwoZ ;k fookg gksrs gh cPpksa dks ;g tkus ij ck/;
fd;k tkrk jgk gS fd os izkS<+ gks x, gSaA
ysfdu vc dbZ uohu lkekftd vkSj vkfFkZd /kkj.kkvksa dh otg ls fLFkfr esa dkQh ifjorZu vk x;k gSA
f'k{kk vkSj jkstxkj ds c<+rs gq, voljksa ds dkj.k fookg djus dh vk;q Hkh c<+ x;h gSA T;knk ls T;knk cPpss ?kjksa
vkSj dLcksa ls ckgj fudy dj izkFkfed Lrj ls vkxs f'k{kk izkIr djrs gSaA muesa ls vf/kdrj f'k{kk o jkstxkj dh
[kkst esa 'kgjksa dh vksj iyk;u dj tkrs gSaA ns'k ds vf/kdrj Hkkxksa esa cky fookg dh ?kVuk,a U;wure Lrj ij igqp
x;h gSA yM+fd;ka Hkh cM+h la[;k esa f'k{kk xzg.k dj jgh gSaA
ftlds QyLo:i os Hkh 'kh?kz gh oSokfgd ca/ku esa ca/kuk ugha pkgrhA bl ekufld ifjorZu esa lapkj
ek/;eksa dh Hkh egrh Hkwfedk jgh gSA ,d vksj fookg dh vk;q esa o`f) gks x;h gS vkSj nwljh vksj cPpksa esa csgrj LokLFk
vkSj iks"k.k lqfo/kkvksa ds dkj.k ;kSokukjEHk fu/kkZfjr vk;q ls igys gh gks tkrk gSA bu ifjorZuksa ds dkj.k cpiu vkSj
izkS<+koLFkk esa dkQh varj c<+ x;k gSA bl dkj.k vc O;fDr dh vk;q esa ,d ,slh yEch vof/k vkrh gS tc mls u rks
cPpk le>k tkrk gS vkSj u gh izkS<+ dk ntkZ fn;k tkrk gSA thou ds blh dky dks fd'kksjkoLFkk dgrs gSaA
fd'kksjkoLFkk ,oa ;kSu f'k{kk (Adolescence and Sex Education)
euksoSKkfudksa esa bl ckr dh lgefr gS fd O;fDr esa ;kSu Hkkouk tUe ls gh gksrh gS vkSj 3&4 lky dh mez
ls ;g Bksl :i ysus yxrh gSA 3&4 lky dh de mez esa ;kSu Hkkouk dk :i bl Bksl :i ls fHk gksrk gSA
ckY;koLFkk esa ;kSu Hkkouk vR;f/kd etcwr ,oa ftKklkiw.kZ gks tkrh gS rFkk fd'kksjkoLFkk esa ;g Hkkouk iw.kZ:is.k
ifjiDo gks tkrh gSA v/;;uksa ls ;g Li"V gqvk gS fd ;kSu Hkkouk ckydks ds O;fDrRo fodkl esa ,d egoiw.kZ
Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gSA ;kSu Hkkouk ds vkSfpR; ;k vukSfpR; ls O;fDrRo dk mfpr fodkl ;k kl gksrk ns[kk x;k gSA
pwfd ;kSu Hkkouk dk ego O;fDrRo fodkl esa dkQh gS] vr% f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa us ;kSu f'k{kk tSls
dk;Ze dks vf/kd egoiw.kZ crk;k gS( D;ksafd blls ckydksa esa mfpr ;kSu n`f"Vdks.k mRi djds O;fDrRo dk lgh
fodkl djk;k tk ldrk gSA vc iz'u ;g mBrk gS fd ;kSu f'k{kk ls D;k rkRi;Z gksrk gS\ ;kSu f'k{kk ls rkRi;Z
ckyd ,oa ckfydkvksa dks fyaxh; Hksn ,oa ;kSu ds gj igyw ds ckjs esa lgh&lgh tkudkjh nsdj mlds izfr ,d LoLFk
eukso`fk dk;e djus ls gksrk gS fd os o;LdkoLFkk esa ,d lqanj] rukojfgr] lkekftd ,oa ySfxd thou O;rhr dj
ldsaA cVjQhYM Butterfield, 1979 us vius v/;;u ds vk/kkj ij ;g crk;k gS fd ;kSu f'k{kk ds vHkko esa
fd'kksjksa ,oa fd'kksfj;ksa esa rjg&rjg ds ;kSu dqleatu tSls gLreSFkqu vuko';d ;kSu ruko vkfn fodflr gks tkrs
gSaA euksoSKkfudksa ds chp bl ckr dh lgefr gS fd ;kSu f'k{kk dh 'kq#vkr cpiu ls gh ?kj ij ekrk&firk }kjk
gksuh pkfg,] fQj f'k{kdksa }kjk Ldwy esa Hkh ml ij Li"Vhdj.k gksuk pkfg,A Cys;j] tksUl rFkk flEilu Blair,

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 15


Jones and Simpson, 1962 us ;kSu f'k{kk ij fVIi.kh djrs gq, dgk gS] Ldwy tkuk izkjaHk djus ds igys ls gh
;kSu f'k{kk ?kj ij nh tkuh pkfg,] izkjafHkd Ldwyh o"kksZa elementary school years esa Hkh bls tkjh j[kuk
pkfg, rFkk fd'kksjkoLFkk esa blij Ldwy rFkk ?kj nksuksa esa gh dkQh /;ku fn;k tkuk pkfg,A
mi;qZDr fooj.k ls ;g Li"V gS fd O;fDr dks ;kSu f'k{kk izkjafHkd ckY;koLFkk ;kuh 3&4 lky dh mez ls gh
izkjaHk dj nsuh pkfg,A fQj mkj ckY;koLFkk esa tc ckyd Ldwy tkuk izkjaHk dj nsrk gS] ogk Hkh mUgsa bl <ax dh
f'k{kk nsuh pkfg, vkSj fd'kksjkoLFkk esa Ldwy rFkk ?kj home nksuksa esa gh O;fDr dks ;kSu f'k{kk nh tkuh pkfg,A
vr%] ;kSu f'k{kk dh ppkZ ge ;gk rhu miHkkxksa esa ckVdj djsaxs tks fuEukafdr gSa&
1 izkjafHkd ckY;koLFkk esa ;kSu f'k{kk Sex education in early childhood&
izkjafHkd ckY;koLFkk 2 ls 6 lky dh gksrh gSA ckydksa esa 3&4 ;k fdlh&fdlh esa 5 lky dh mez gks tkus
ij ;kSu laca/kh mRlqdrk mRi gks tkrh gSA bl mez dk ckyd vdlj ek ls ;k firk ls dqN ;kSu laca/kh iz'u iwN
cSBrk gSA tSls cPpk dSls tUe ysrk gS\ xHkZorh ek dk c<+k gqvk mnj ns[kdj og vdlj iwN cSBrk gS& rqEgkjk isV
dSls cM+k gks x;k\ blds Hkhrj D;k gS\ vkfnA bu iz'uksa dk mkj ek dks lgkuqHkwfriwoZd ,oa I;kj ls nsuk pkfg, u
fd MkV&QVdkj dj pqi djk nsuk pkfg,A vdlj ekrk, bu iz'u ds tokc esa fd cPpk dSls tUe ysrk gS ;g dg
nsrh gS fd cPpk dks Hkxoku tUe nsrs gSaA ;g ,d =qfViw.kZ tokc gSA bldk lgh mkj gksxk& cPpk ek ds xHkZ ls
tUe ysrk gSA og ogk dqN eghus rd jgrk gS vkSj tc mls ogk jgus dh t:jr lekIr gks tkrh gS] rks og xHkZ ls
ckgj fudy tkrk gSA Li"V%] blls ckydksa esa tUe ds ckjs esa ,d Li"V laizR;; concept dk fodkl gksxkA
2 mkj ckY;koLFkk esa ;kSu f'k{kk Sex education in later childhood&
mkj ckY;koLFkk 6 ls 12 lky dh gksrh gSA bl voLFkk esa ckyd Ldwy tkuk izkjaHk dj nsrs gS rFkk mUgsa
rjg&rjg ds ikBe i<+k, tkrs gSaA euksoSKkfudksa dk er gS fd bl mez esa ckydksa dks thofoKku dh f'k{kk nsuh
pkfg, ftlesa ;kSu vaxksa dh cukoV ,oa dk;Z dk Li"V o.kZu gksuk pkfg,A bruk gh ugha] mUgsa ;kSu laca/kh f;kvksa
tSls xHkkZ/kku] gLreSFkqu rFkk xHkZikr] 'kqk.kq] vaMk.kq vkfn ds ckjs esa Kku gksuk pkfg,A dqN ,sls ckyd gksrs gSa
fdUgh dkj.kksa ls bl mez esa Hkh Ldwy dk eqg ugha ns[k ikrs gSaA ,sls ckydksa ds ekrk&firk dk QtZ gks tkrk gS fd os
bu lc ;kSu laizR;;ksa ds ckjs esa Li"V Kku nsa rkfd os cM+k gksdj ,d LoLFk nkEiR; thou fcrk ldsaA
3 fd'kksjkoLFkk esa ;kSu f'k{kk Sex education in adolescence& fd'kksjkoLFkk 13 ls 19&20 lky dh gksrh
gS vkSj blesa fd'kksjksa ds ;kSu vax esa bruh ifjiDork vk tkrh gS fd laHkksx fd;k tk ldrk gS rFkk cPps iSnk fd,
tk ldrs gSA vr%] ;g voLFkk ;kSu ds n`f"Vdks.k ls dkQh egoiw.kZ critical gksrh gS vkSj 80% f'k{kd]
ekrk&firk] Nk= ,oa xSj&ekrk&firk non parents ;g ekurs gS fd fd'kksjksa dks mfpr ;kSu f'k{kk Ldwy esa nh
tkuh pkfg,A ;g rF; dsusFk rFkk gs.Mjlu Keneth and Henderson, 1952 ds v/;;u ij vk/kkfjr gSA
bl mez esa fd'kksj dbZ ek/;eksa ls ;kSu ds ckjs esa lwpuk, izkIr djrs gSa ftuesa nksLr] flusek] o;Ld] lkfgR;] MkbZx
vkfn eq[; gSaA vdlj ns[kk x;k gS fd tc bu lzksrksa ls mUgsa xyr ;kSu lwpuk, feyrh gSa vkSj muds ikl mu
lwpukvksa ds lR;kiu dk dksbZ jkLrk ugha gksrk gS] rks fd'kksjksa esa xyr ;kSu vknrsa yx tkrs gSa tks mudh ftanxh dks
lkaosfxd ,oa lkekftd :i ls rukoiw.kZ cuk nsrk gSA fd'kksjksa dks ;kSu f'k{kk dSls nh tk,] bl ij dbZ euksoSKkfudksa
}kjk 'kks/k fd, x, gSaA buesa csdj Baker, 1965] xzq,ucxZ Gruenberg, 1977] ks ,oa ks Crow and
Crow, 1978 ds uke vf/kd e'kgwj gSaA bu yksxksa dk er ;g gS fd&
i ?kj esa ekrk&firk ,oa ifjokj ds vU; o;Ld lnL; dks fd'kksjksa ,oa fd'kksfj;ksa dks cSBkdj fcuk fdlh

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 16


fgpfdpkgV ds ;kSu fo"k;ksa ij ckrphr djuh pkfg, vkSj mfpr mnkgj.k nsdj mUgsa ;kSu fofr rFkk dqizHkkoksa ls
voxr djkuk pkfg, rFkk ;kSu ds izfr ,d LoLFk eukso`fk dk;e djus ds fopkj ls dqN Bksl mnkgj.k Hkh izLrqr
djus pkfg,A
ii Ldwy esa ;kSu f'k{kk nsus ds fopkj ls ;kSu f'k{kk dks Ldwy ds ikBe dk ,d vax cuk nsuk pkfg,A mls
thofoKku] 'kjhj'kkL= physiology] ukxfjd'kkL=] lekt'kkL= tSls fo"k;ksa ds varxZr lfEefyr djds
fd'kksjksa dks bl <ax ls izf'k{k.k nsuk pkfg, fd os ;kSu ds izfr ,d LoLFk eukso`fk fodflr dj ldsA
iii Ldwy esa nh tkusokyh ;kSu f'k{kk dk;Ze dk uke ;kSu f'k{kk ugha gksuk pkfg, cfYd ,d vlkaosfxd
'kh"kZd non-emotional title tSls ^O;fDrxr laca/k*] ^ftanxh lek;kstu* life adjustment dk;Ze ;k
^ikfjokfjd ftanxh* family living dk;Ze vkfn gksuk pkfg,A bldk fo'ks"k Qk;nk ;g crk;k x;k gS fd
blls fd'kksjksa esa fdlh izdkj dh laosxkRed my>u mRi ugha gksrh gS vkSj mudk ;kSu izf'k{k.k Hkh lEi gks tkrk
gSA
iv fd'kksjksa dks ;kSu f'k{kk sex education dqN fo'ks"k cuk, fQYeksa ds ek/;e ls Hkh nh tkrh gSA bl
flyflys esa vesfjdk ,oa Hkkjr esa Hkh dqN ,slh fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k gS ftuds ek/;e ls fd'kksjksa dks mfpr
;kSu f'k{kk nh tk jgh gSA LVsu Strain, 1979 ds vuqlkj ,slh fQYeksa dks fd'kksjksa esa ;kSu ds izfr ,d LoLFk
eukso`fk mRi djus esa dkQh lQyrk feyh gSA
bl rjg ge ns[krs gSa fd fd'kksjksa dks nh tkusokyh ;kSu f'k{kk vR;Ur gh egoiw.kZ gS] ijarq lkFk&gh&lkFk
tfVy HkhA fd'kksjksa esa ;kSu f'k{kk dh egkk vf/kd blfy, ekuh xbZ gS] D;ksafd ;gh og voLFkk gS tgk ls foijhr
fyax ds lkFk O;fDr ;kSu laca/k dk;e dj vius ySafxd thou dh 'kq#vkr djrk gSa

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 17


fd'kksjkoLFkk&,d ruko ,oa la?k"kZe; fLFkfr
(Adolescence- A Period of Storm and Stress)
fd'kksjkoLFkk mez dk og iM+ko gS] tgk u rks cpiuk jg tkrk gS vkSj u gh oSpkfjd ifjiDork vkrh gSA ,sls
esa fd'kksj&fd'kksfj;ksa dks le>kuk&lHkkyuk muds vfHkHkkodksa ds fy, [kklk eqf'dy Hkjk dke gksrk gSA bl ekeys
esa tjk lh pwd fdlh Hkh vfiz; urhts dks tUe nsus ds fy, dkQh gksrh gSA
vdlj cPpksa dh ckr dh tkrh gS ;k fQj cM+ksa dhA mu fd'kksjksa dks izk;% vuns[kk dj fn;k tkrk gS] tks u
NksVksa esa vkrs gSa] u cM+ksa esaA ;kuh rsjg ls mUuhl o"kZ ds chp vkus okys Vhu,tlZ] tks 'kkjhfjd] ekufld ifjorZu ds
nkSj ls xqtj jgs gksrs gSa vkSj ftudh leL;k, my>rh pyh tkrh gSaA dHkh&dHkh os ifjokj ,oa fo|ky; ds fy,
^izkWCye pkbYM* Hkh cu tkrs gSaA
budh leL;k, Hkh fofp= gksrh gSa] elyu] ^eSa vkjg o"kZ dh Nk=k gwA eq>s ,d fotkrh; ;qod ls izse gks
x;k gSA og eq>s pkgrk gS] ijUrq bu fnuksa og fdlh vU; yM+dh dh vksj vkdf"kZr gSA eSa mlds fcuk th ugha
ldrhA vkRegR;k dk fopkj eu esa vkrk gSA* vFkok *eSa rsjg o"khZ; d{kk vkB dh Nk=k gwA eq>s ?kj esa dksbZ I;kj ugha
djrkA ekrk&firk MkVrs&QVdkjrs gSaA i<+kbZ esa eu ugha yxrkA bl o"kZ Qsy gks xbZ gwA ?kj ls Hkkx tkus dk eu
djrk gSA* blh izdkj lkSan;Z] ;kSu&laca/kh iz'u gksrs gSa] ekrk&firk }kjk le; u fn, tkus dh leL;k gksrh gSSA
;s ml mez ds nkSj ds cPps gksrs gSa] ftUgsa ckrphr esa viuh lykg nsus ij ;g dgdj QVdkj fn;k tkrk gS]
^cM+ksa ds chp esa cksyus dh t:jr ugha gS* ;k fQj ^cPps gks cPpksa dh rjg jgksA* dHkh xyrh gks tkus ij f>M+dk
tkrk gS] ^brus cM+s gks x, gks] vDy /ksys Hkj dh ugha* ;k fQj] ^tc eSa rqEgkjs cjkcj dh Fkh] iwjh x`gLFkh esjs ij Fkh*]
oxSjg&oxSjgA cspkjs Vhu ,tlZ ryokj dh /kkj ij pyus dks etcwj gksrs gSaA ,d rjQ dqvk nwljh rjQ [kkbZA
fd'kksjkoLFkk mez dk og nkSj gS tc cpiu fonk ysrk gS vkSj ;qokoLFkk ds }kj [kqyus yxrs gSaA ,sls esa 'kkjhfjd
ifjorZu ls og Lo;a Mjk] lgek lk jgrk gSA yM+fd;k _rqp ds izkjaHk esa ijs'kku jgrh gSa rks yM+ds mx vkbZ
nk<+h&ewNksa ls 'keZ eglwl djrs gSaA var%lzkoh xzafFk;ksa ds QyLo:i mudh ekufld fLFkfr MkokMksy jgrh gSA
foijhr fyax dh vksj LokHkkfod :i ls vkd"kZ.k c<+ tkrk gSA blh mez esa vf/kdrj cPps izse esa my> tkrs gSa tks
okLro esa izse ugha gksrkA fHkUu fyaxh ds izfr mits vkd"kZ.k dks gh os izse ekudj rnuqlkj vkpj.k djus yxrs gSaA
,sls esa i<+kbZ ls th mpV tkuk LokHkkfod gh gSA
fo|ky; esa v/;kidksa }kjk fn[kkbZ xbZ mnklhurk vFkok 'kkjhfjd naM] nksuksa xgjk vlj Mkyrs gSaA
v/;kid fo'ks"k dh vksj vkd"kZ.k ;k }s"k Hkh cgqr LokHkkfod gSA bl mez ds cPpksa dks fo'ks"k HkkoukRed lg;ksx] Lusg
,oa Hkjksls dh vko';drk gksrh gS] rHkh os viuk vkRefo'okl cuk, j[k ikrs gSaA cpiu esa ftl ekj&ihV ,oa
QVdkj dks cPpk lg ys tkrk gS mlh ij fd'kksjkoLFkk esa fHkUu izfrf;k n'kkZrk gSA maM cPps tokc nsus ij mrk:
gks tkrs gSa vksj vareqZ[kh cPps eu gh eu ?kqVus yxrs gSaA ekrk&firk dk vkilh ruko] vkfFkZd lkekftd O;Lrrk]
cPps ds izfr vlfg".kqrk ,oa laoknghurk fd'kksjksa esa jks"k mRiUu djrh gSA ?kj ds okrkoj.k ls mUgsa v#fp gksus yxrh
gSA Qyr% os vf/kd ls vf/kd le; ?kj ls ckgj O;rhr djuk pkgrs gSaA blds fy, os cgkus cukrs gSa] >wB cksyrs gSa
vkSj fdlh Hkh rjg viuh ckr euokuk pkgrs gSaA
fd'kksj yM+ds&yM+fd;ksa dks ekrk&firk dh ckrsa mins'k yxrh gSaA os ekrk&firk ds fopkjksa ls vlger
jgrs gSaA dHkh&dHkh tkucw>dj ekrk&firk dh bPNk ds foijhr dk;Z djrs gSaA cgq/kk blds ihNs mudk /;kukd"kZ.k
gh eq[; ms'; gksrk gSA ;g ,d euksoSKkfud leL;k gSA ftldk gy le>nkjh ls gh fudy ldrk gSA dBksj
dne mBkus ij fd'kksj ?kj ls Hkkxus tSlk vfoosdiw.kZ dne Hkh mBk ysrs gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 18


fd'kksjkoLFkk esa cPps Hkkoqdrk ds o'khHkwr gksdj vkpj.k djrs gSaA ;gh mudk nks"k Hkh gS vkSj xq.k HkhA blh
laosnu'khyrk dks lgh ekxZ fn[kkdj l`tukRed xq.kksa dk fodkl laHko gS] rks ;gh Hkkoqdrk mUgsa fnokLoIuksa dh
nqfu;k esa /kdsy dj iyk;uoknh] vkylh vkSj fudEek cuk nsrh gSA dYiuk'khy gksuk vPNk gS ijarq ;FkkFkZ dh
tehu NksM+dj dYiuk ds cknyksa esa mM+rs fd'kksj LoIu Hkax gksus ij grk'k gks tkrs gSaA ,sls esa yM+dk gks ;k yM+dh]
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa mUgsa mudh fiz; #fp;ksa esa O;Lr dj nsuk vPNk gksrk gSA #fp ds vuqlkj mUgsa isafVax] xk;u&oknu]
u`R;] ys[ku vkfn fl[kk;k tk ldrk gSA [ksyus ds izfr #>ku j[kus okys fd'kksj&fd'kksjh fo'ks"k [ksy] rSjkdh dk
izf'k{k.k izkIr dj ldrs gSa ftlls mudk 'kkjhfjd O;k;ke gksxkA O;Lr jgus ls eu b/kj&m/kj Hkh ugha HkVdsxkA
le; ds vuqlkj cPps vius {ks= esa fo'ks"kK Hkh cu ldrs gSaA fd'kksjkoLFkk dh ;gh #fp;k ,d fnu mudk O;olk;
cu ldrh gSaA
fd'kksjkoLFkk dh futh leL;kvksa ds vfrfj ;gh og le; gksrk gS tc cPps ds dSfj;j dk iz'u Hkh
lkFk&lkFk [kM+k gksrk gSA egodk{kh vfHkHkkod vius cPpksa ds mTtoy Hkfo"; ds izfr dkQh lrdZ jgrs gSa ftldk
ncko cPps ds dksey eu&efLr"d ij cuk jgrk gSA dSfj;j ds vuq:i d{kk esa fo"k;ksa dk pquko] okafNr fo"k;
feyus dh gkiksg] fo|ky; dk pquko] vfHkHkkodksa dh vk'kk, cPps dks euksoSKkfud :i ls ruko esa j[krh gSaA
fo|ky; ifjlj dk ekgkSy fd'kksjksa dks vkkar fd, jgrk gSA LokFkhZ f'k{kd d{kk/;kiu esa #fp u j[kdj
izkbosV dksfpax ij tksj nsrs gSaA cPpksa dks d{kk esa ckj&ckj viekfur djrs gSaA os dksfpax u ysus ij Qsy dj nsus dh
/kedh Hkh nsrs gSaA tkx:d vfHkHkkod fo|ky; ds v/;kidksa ls izkbosV dksfpax fnyokus esa #fp ugha j[krsA ,sls esa
cPpk D;k djs\?kj vkSj fo|ky; dh bl rukruh dk ,d nq"ifj.kke ;g Hkh gksrk gS fd cPpk Ldwy tkuk gh can dj
nsrk gSA Ldwy dk le; fdlh laxh&lkFkh ds lkFk ikdZ esa ;k flusek gkWy esas fcrkdj ?kj ykSV vkrk gSA QyLo:i
d{kk esa fiNM+ tkrk gSA ,d ckj i<+kbZ esa fiNM+us ij og cjkcj fiNM+rk pyk tkrk gSA rc vfHkHkkod ijs'kku gksrk
gSA
Vhoh ds fofHkUu pSuyksa ds ek/;e ls fd'kksj cgqr dqN tku le> ysrk gSA ,M~l ls cpko gsrq fn, x,
foKkiuksa dk nqcZy i{k ;g gS fd cPps NksVh vk;q esa gh ;kSu laca/k ,oa leySafxdrk ds fo"k; esa dqN&dqN le>us
yxrs gSaA ;g vk/kh&v/kwjh tkudkjh [krjukd lkfcr gksrh gSA ftKklk ds lek/kku gsrq os o;Ld iqLrdsa i<+rs gSa
vkSj Hkzfer gksrs gSaA blh le; cM+h mez dh efgykvksa vkSj iq#"kksa dh vksj Hkh vkd"kZ.k c<+rk gS] rFkkdfFkr
vkVh&vady ds tky esa Qldj ;kSu vuqHko izkIr djus dk jksekap varr% fd'kksjksa ds fy, Xykfu] ghu Hkkouk]
vijk/k cks/k ,oa euksoSKkfud xzafFk;ksa dk dkj.k curk gSA
Hkkjrh; lekt mUeq ;kSu ppkZ ds fy, vuqdwy ugha gSA fons'kh pSuyksa ij fn[kkbZ xbZ MsV leL;k] pqacu]
vkfyaxu] firk&iq=h ds e/; iq#"k fe= ,oa efgyk fe= laca/kh ppkZ, gekjs e/;eoxhZ; lekt esa izpfyr ugha gSaA
;kSu f'k{kk ij vHkh fopkj foe'kZ gh py jgk gSA
;g ,d euksoSKkfud lR; gS fd fd'kksjkoLFkk esa cPps Lo;a dks cgqr le>nkj le>rs gSa vkSj viuh rqyuk
esa vfHkHkkodksa dks ew[kZA ;gh dkj.k gS fd os vfHkHkkodksa ls >wB cksyrs gSa] cgkus cukrs gSa vkSj blh dkj.k os izk;%
foifk esa Hkh Ql tkrs gSaA Mhax gkduk] c<+k p<+kdj dguk mudh vknr cu tkrh gSA dqN cPps rks var rd viuk
ijh{kkQy vfHkHkkodksa dks ugha fn[kkrs] izkIrkdksa dks feVkdj vad c<+k ysuk] vfHkHkkod ds gLrk{kj cuk ysuk muds
fy, lk/kkj.k lh ckr gksrh gSA cPps ,slk eklwe psgjk cukdj nks"k Nqik ys tkrs gSa fd muds v/;kid vkSj fizalhiy
rd /kks[kk tkrs gSa] fQj vfHkHkkodksa dks /kks[kk nsuk rks vke ckr gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa ruko o dqBk Hkh ns[kh tkrh gSA cgq/kk bldk dkj.k mPp egokdk{kk] bZ";kZ vkSj {kerk ls
vf/kd vis{kk ik;k x;k gSA vfHkHkkod vius cPpksa ls <sj lkjh vis{kk, j[krs gSaA cPps tSls jsl ds ?kksM+s gks x,] ftUgsa
izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 19
izFke vkuk gh gSA cPps Hkh vk'kkfUor jgrs gSa vkSj vlQy gksus ij vkRegR;k vFkok ?kj ls Hkkxus tSlk vfoosdh dne
mBk ysrs gSaA
vkt dk lekt lakafr dky ls xqtj jgk gSA iqjkuh ekU;rk, VwV jgh gSa] ubZ cuus dh izf;k esa gSaA iqjkus ewY;
VwV jgs gSa] u, vHkh cu ugha ik, gSaA ,sls lekt esa tgk dFkuh vkSj djuh esa fojks/kkHkkl ik;k tkrk gS] fdlh ,d dk;Z ds
vyx&vxy ifj.kke fudyrs gSa] fd'kksjksa dk Mxexkuk LoHkkfod gSA
,slh fLFkfr esa muesa lqj{kk dh Hkkouk txkus dk dk;Z ifjokj ,oa fo|ky; nksuksa vksj ls gksuk pkfg,A cPps ij
Hkjkslk djuk pkfg, ftlls og vki ij vkSj Lo;a vius ij fo'okl dj ldsA xyrh ij naM vo'; feyuk pkfg,
ysfdu mlds fy, lq/kkjkRed rFkk ldkjkRed #[k viukuk pkfg,A
fd'kksj&fd'kksfj;k Hkkoqd gksrs gSa] laosnu'khy gksrs gSa vkSj muesa Hkjh gksrh gS vikj tkZA bl tkZ dk lqni;ksx
gksuk pkfg,A ms';ijd o jkstxkjijd f'k{kk gksuh pkfg, ftlesa lq[kn Hkfo"; dh xkjaVh gksA
ruko ,oa la?k"kZ dh fLFkfr esa v/;kid dh Hkwfedk
fd'kksjksa dk tks'k [kjks'k vdlj maMrk] vgadkj esa vkSj izpyuksa dks rksM+us ds :i esa mHkjrk ns[kk x;k gSA dHkh
rks ;g fofr v'yhy NsM+[kkfu;ksa rd tk igqprh gSA xq#tuksa dk dkZO; gS fd bl vk;q ds ckydksa ds fy, ,d vk[k
I;kj dh vkSj nwljh lq/kkj dh j[kh tk;A I;kj dh blfy, fd muds lkFk vkReh;rk] ?kfu"Brk cuh jgs] ijk;siu tSlk
fojks/kkHkkl mRiUu u gksus ik;s vkSj lq/kkj dh Vs<+h vk[k blfy, fd muds mHkjrs gq, nks"k] nqxqZ.kksa ij fu;a=.k LFkkfir
fd;k tk ldsA ;g dk;Z bruh dq'kyrk ls gksuk pkfg, fd u lkai ejs u ykBh VwVs] fd'kksj leh{kk lqudj HkM+dus u
yxsaA dgus dk rkRi;Z gS fd mls dM+kbZ ds lkFk dgs fcuk lh/ks jkLrs ij ugha yk;k tk ldrkA ek= uezrk viukus ls rks
os ckr dks glh etkd esa Vky nsrs gSa vkSj ml xyrh dh xaHkhjrk ugha le>rs vkSj dbZ ckj rks myVs fp<+us fp<+kus yxrs
gSaA cqf)ekuh blh esa gS fd chp dk jkLrk fudkyk tk; vkSj fojks/k] vkks'k c<+k, fcuk lq/kkj dk ms'; iwjk gks tk;A
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa uSfrd f'k{kk nh{kk dh leL;k cM+h Vs<+h gSA bls vdsys v/;kid ;k vfHkHkkod gy ugha dj
ldrsA nksuksa gh yM+kbZ >xM+s vkSj maMrk ls Mjrs gSaA le>kus cq>kus esa os viuh gsdM+h fn[kkrs gSa vkSj cxkor djus ij
mrk: gksrs gSaA dksbZ ,slk dM+k naM Hkh ugha fn;k tk ldrk ftlls mudk Hkfo"; fcxM+s vkSj cnukeh gksA ,slh n'kk esa
v/;kidksa vkSj vfHkHkkodksa dks fey tqydj gh jkLrk fudkyuk pkfg,A nksuksa ds chp ikjLifjd ijke'kZ gksrk jgs vkSj
,slk jkLrk fudyrk jgs fd yM+ds ckxh u gksus ikosaA mUgsa le>kus cq>kus ls ysdj fdlh dke dk usr`Ro Hkh nsuk pkfg,A
oLrqr% maMrk usrkfxjh dh vkdk{kk ls mHkjrh gS vkSj nwljksa ds eqdkcys vius dks Js"B fl) djus ds fy, fd'kksj dqN u
dqN ViVkx djrs gSaA ,sls fd'kksj ds lkeus mu egkekuoksa ds pfj= fo'ks"k:i ls j[kus pkfg, ftUgksaus viuh izfrHkk dks
vkn'kZ LFkkfir djus ;k yksdksi;ksxh egoiw.kZ dke djus esa yxk;k vkSj vUrr% lkekU; yksxksa dh rqyuk esa vlkekU; Hkh
cus vkSj ;'kLoh Hkh dgyk;sA izfrHkk dks ,d nq/kkjh ryokj dh rjg le>us dk iz;Ru djuk pkfg, ftldk nq#i;ksx
gksus ij euq"; x;k xqtjk gks tkrk gS] cnuke gksrk gS vkSj naM Hkqxrrk gSA blds foijhr] ftUgksaus izfrHkk dk lqni;ksx
fd;k os vkxs c<+s] ps cus vkSj fljekSj dgyk;sA ,sls fd'kksj dh izfrHkk vkSj egRokdk{kk ;fn Js"Brk dh fn'kk esa eksM+h
tk lds rks os vkxs pydj dqN ,sls dke Hkh dj ldrs gSa tks muds fy, gh ugha lewps lekt ds fy, mi;ksxh fl) gksa
vkSj cM+Iiu dk vf/kdkjh cuk;saA izfrHkk nq/kkjh ryokj gS] og xyr ekxZ ij py iM+s rks viuk vkSj nwljksa dk fouk'k Hkh
djrh gS fdUrq ;fn og mPp iz;kstuksa esa yx iM+s rks ,slk dke dj xqtjrh gS tks loZ= iz'kalk izkIr djs vkSj ml O;f
dks ;'kLoh&euLoh cuk;sA ,sls yksxksa ls fuiVuk]rks Vs<+h [khj ij ;fn mUgsa v/;kid vkSj vfHkHkkod jpukRed <ax ls
lq/kkjsa rks mudk lq/kkjuk dfBu Hkh ugha gksrkA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 20


fd'kksjkoLFkk LokLF; ,oa iks"k.k
lae.k dk QSyuk
fd'kksfj;ksa dks crk;sa fd ey esa jksxksa ds dhVk.kq ;kfu jksxk.kq ekStwn gksrs gSaA 'kkSp ds ckn jksxk.kq gekjh
vaxqfy;ksa ij gh cus jgrs gSaA ;fn ;s jksxk.kq 'kjhj esa izos'k dj tkrs gSa rks ;g laHkkouk gksrh gS fd ge fdlh lae.k
ds dkj.k chekj iM+ tk;saA jksxk.kqvksa dks u"V djus ds fy, flQZ ikuh i;kZIr ugha gSA gesa lkcqu dh t:jr gksrh gSA
lkcqu gekjh vaxqfy;ksa ls T;knkrj jksxk.kqvksa dks gVk nsrk gSA
;s jksxk.kq brus NksVs gksrs gSa fd ge mudks viuh vka[kksa ls ugha ns[k ldrs gSaA 'kkSp ds ckn] ey esa jgus okys
jksxk.kq gekjh vaxqfy;ksa ij vk ldrs gSaA gesa ;g ugha lkspuk pkfg, fd gekjs gkFk lkQ gSa D;ksafd geus mudks ikuh
ls lkQ fd;k gSA flQZ ikuh i;kZIr ugha gSaA vxj gesa viuh vaxqfy;ksa ij ekStwn jksxk.kqvksa dks u"V djuk gS rks gesa
lkcqu vo'; bLrseky djuk pkfg,A ugha rks] ge jksxk.kqvksa dks vius ihus ds ikuh] vius Hkkstu vkfn esa QSyk nsaxsA
,d ckj tc jksxk.kq gekjh vaxqfy;ksa ls gekjs ihus ds ikuh esa vk tkrs gSa rc ml ikuh dks ihus okyk ifjokj dk dksbZ
Hkh lnL; chekj gks ldrk gSA
cgqr lkjh chekfj;ksa dk dkj.k gS gekjs 'kjhj esa jksxk.kqvksa dk izos'k gksukA ;s jksxk.kq xans gkFkksa ls cgqr tYnh
gekjs 'kjhj esa izos'k dj tkrs gSaA vius ns'k esa gj lky cgqr lkjs cPps vfrlkj ds dkj.k ej tkrs gSaA oSKkfudksa dk
vuqeku gS fd 'kkSp ds ckn lkcqu ls gkFk /kksus dk O;ogkj viukdj muesa ls de ls de vk/ks cPpksa dks ekSr ds eqg esa
tkus ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA ;g vuqeku gS fd yxHkx 50 Qhlnh yksx 'kkSp ds ckn vius gkFkksa dks lkcqu ls ugha
/kksrs gSaA
O;fDrxr LoPNrk
O;fDrxr LoPNrk dk vFkZ O;fDr dh viuh LoPNrk o lQkbZ gSA blds vUrxZr vius 'kjhj ds fofHkUu vaxksa tSls
dku] ukd] vk[k] cky] gkFk] iSj] tuu vax vkfn dh lQkbZ vkrh gSA
O;fDrxr LoPNrk ls ykHk%
? chekjh de gksrh gSA
? chekjh de gksus ls iSls dh cpr gksrh gSA
? LoLFk O;fDr vf/kd dke dj ldrk gSA
? LoLF; O;fDr pqLr] nq#Lr rFkk [kq'k fn[krk gSA
gj fnu dh O;fDrxr LoPNrk bl izdkj dh tk ldrh gS%
? fnu esa nks ckj lqcg lksdj mBus ds ckn vkSj jkr dks lksus ls igys nkr lkQ djukA
? vk[kksa dks fnu esa nks ckj lkQ ikuh ls /kksukA ;fn dkty yxkrs gSa rks ;g vko';d gS fd mls lkQ gkFkksa ls
yxk;sA
? jkst diM+s cnyukA
? izfrfnu lkQ ikuh ls ugkukA
? grs esa nks ckj rsy yxkdj lj /kksukA
? le;&le; ij uk[kwu dkVukA
? lHkh vaxksa dks lko/kkuhiwoZd lkQ djukA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 21


L=h iq#"k nksuksa dks gh tuu vaxksa dh [kklrkSj ij lQkbZ djuh pkfg;sA
?
iq#"kksa rFkk fd'kksjksa dks ugkrs le; fyax dh <hyh peM+h dks ij f[kldkdj lkQ djuk pkfg;s ugha rks
?
blesa lQsn lzko LeSXek tek gks dj ?kko gks ldrk gSA

'kkSp %
'kkSp ds ckn lQkbZ ls lkcqu@jk[k ls gkFk /kksukA
?
'kkSp /kksrs le; lnSo gkFk vkxs ls ihNs dh vksj ys tk;sa ihNs ls vkxs ys tkus ij cgqr lkjh Nwr dh chekfj;ka
?
gksus dh lEHkkouk jgrh gSA
? 'kkSp lnSo lkQ&lqFkjh txg ij gh tkuk pkfg,A ftuds ?kj esa 'kkSpky; ugha gSa vkSj og ?kj ls ckgj eSnku
esa tkrh gksa rks ges'kk xM~<k [kksndj 'kkSp djsa rFkk mlds ckn mls feh ;k pwus ls <d nsaA
?kj rFkk okrkoj.k dh LoPNrk%
?kj dh lQkbZ ds dqN dke rks ge jkst djrs gSaA tSls] >kMwW] iksaNk yxkuk@fyiuk] crZu lkQ djuk] /kwy
>kM+uk] jlksbZ dh lQkbZ vkfnA dqN dke ,sls Hkh gSa] tks fnuksa] grksa] eghuksa ;k lkyksa esa fd;s tkrs gSaA ?kj dh lQkbZ
ds dkeksa dks ge fuEu izdkj ckV ldrs gSa&
d jkst dh lQkbZ&>kMwW yxkuk] iksaNk yxkuk] fyiuk] fcLrj >kM+uk] ukyh lkQ djuk vkfnA
[k lkIrkfgd lQkbZ& fcLrj cnyuk] tkM+ksa esa fcLrj /kwi esa Mkyuk] tkyk lkQ djuk] jlksbZ ds fMCcs lkQ
djukA
x ekfld lQkbZ& ukfy;ksa o dqvksa esa nok Mkyuk] jlksbZ ds vuktksa esa /kwi yxokuk vkfnA
?k okf"kZd lQkbZ&?kj dh iqrkbZ] ?kj dh ejEer djokuk] ijns /kksuk@ cnyuk] NIij Bhd djuk vkfnA
[kkuk cukus dh txg rFkk Hkkstu lkexzh dh lQkbZ cgqr gh vko';d gSA ,d lqUnj vyx&vyx rjg ds
u, midj.kksa& pht+ksa ls lth jlksbZ] ftldh vyekfj;ksa esa j[ks elkyksa ds fMCcksa esa iqjkuk lkeku [kjkc gks jgk gS]
og ns[kus esa lqUnj gks ldrh gS] ij LoLFk ugha gksxhA ijUrq ,d lk/kkj.k o vke midj.kksa okyh og jlksbZ] ftlesa
LoPNrk gS] ftldh lQkbZ le;&le; ij gksrh jgh gks] tks gok vkSj izdk'k;qDr gks] vo'; gh LoLFk o lqUnj
yxsxhA
?kj ds ckgj dh LoPNrk%
?kj ds lkFk gh lkFk ?kj ds vklikl dh lQkbZ dh ftEesnkjh Hkh gekjh gh gS] D;ksafd ;fn ge viuk ?kj iwjh
rjg lkQ djds ?kj ds ckgj dwM+k Qsad nsaxs rks og xUnxh nqckjk /khjs&/khjs ?kj esa vk tk;sxh vkSj ;g xanxh vius
lkFk cgqr lh chekfj;k ys vkrh gSA
?kj ls fudys dwM+s dks ,d txg bdV~Bk djds xko ds ckgj cuk;s x;s /kwjs dwM+s dk xM~<k ;k dwM+snku esa
gh Qsaduk pkfg,A
xko esa xzke iapk;r dh rjQ ls dwM+k bdV~Bk djus dk LFkku fuf'pr gksrk gSA lc yksxksa dks ;g dksf'k'k
djuh pkfg;s fd xkWo ds yksxksa dks le>k dj dwM+k flQZ mlh LFkku ij QsdsaA
dwM+s dks bDV~Bk djus dk mfpr rjhdk%
,d LFkku ij ,d cM+k xM~<k [kksn fy;k tk;s vkSj mlh esa dwM+k MkysaA tc og xM~<k Hkj tk;s rks mls

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 22


<ddj mlds cxy esa ,d u;k xM~<k [kksn ysaA dqN eghus ckn iqjkus xM~<s esa vPNh [kkn vk tk;sxh] tks [ksrh ds
dke vk ldsxhA
xko dh xfy;ksa esa ;k ukfy;ksa esa ;fn ikuh #drk gS] rks mldh lQkbZ Hkh djsaA xUns o Bgjs gq;s ikuh esa
vusdksa laked jksx iyrs o QSyrs gSa tks iwjs xko ds fy, cgqr gkfudkjd gksrs gSaA viuh&viuh xyh dks lkQ
j[kus ds fy;s iwjs xko ds lg;ksx dh vko';drk gksrh gSA FkksM+h lh lko/kkuh cjrdj ge xko dks cM+h&cM+h
leL;kvksa] eysfj;k] isfp'k tSls jksxksa ls cpk ldrs gSaA
? blds fy, ;s dke djus gksxsa%
? ;fn lEHko gks rks xko dh lM+dksa o ukfy;ksa dks pank ;k Jenku ls iDdh cuok ysa rkfd cjlkrh o ?kjksa ls
fudyk ikuh fcuk #ds xkao ds ckgj fudy tk;sA
? vius&vius ?kjksa ls fudyus okyh ukfy;ksa dks xfy;ksa esa ;w gh [kqyk u NksM+saA
? lks[krs xM~<s cuk;saA
? ukfy;ksa esa #ds@tesa ikuh esa xsesDlhu o feV~Vh ds rsy dk fNM+dko cjkcj djsaA ;g dhVuk'kd dh rjg
dke djrk gSA
? ukfy;ksa esa dwM+k&djdV u QsadsaA
? xkao esa ihus dk ikuh T;knkrj dq,sa rFkk gS.MiEi ls ysrs gSA blfy;s dq,sa rFkk gS.MiEi dh lQkbZ Hkh t:jh
gSA
1- Cyhfpax ikmMj ih-,p-lh- ls ysdj eghus esa ,d ckj ;fn dq, esa Mkyk tk;s rks ikuh lkQ o ihus ;ksX; cuk jgrk
gSA
2- dq, esa diM+s u /kks;s tk,aA
3- dq, dks xUnxh ls cpk;saA
4- ;fn dq, ij ugkuk gks rks vyx gVdj ugk,a rkfd xUnk ikuh dq, esa u tk;sA
fuEu rjg ls gS.MiEi dh lQkbZ j[ksa %
1- gS.MiEi ds vklikl xUnk ikuh ugha tek gksuk pkfg;sA
2- ikuh ds fudkl ds fy, iDdh ukyh gksuh pkfg;s ftlls ikuh dk teko u gksA
3- ukyh dk ikuh lks[rk xM~<k tks nwj ij fLFkr gks esa tkuk pkfg,A
4- xUns LFkkuksa] ukfy;ksa ds ikl yxs gS.MiEiksa ds ikuh ihus ls ge chekj gks tkrs gSA
?kj ds ckgj dh LoPNrk ds fy, lkewfgd :i ls dksf'k'k djuh pkfg,A xzke iapk;r esa ;g eqk iapk;r
lnL;ksa dh lgkr;k ls mBk;k tk ldrk gSA xzke iapk;r fodkl dk;ksZ ds fy, fu/kkZfjr /kujkf'k ls ukfy;k] lks[rk
xM~<k gS.MiEi@dq, dh txr dk fuekZ.k] dq, dh lQkbZ djokbZ tk ldrh gSA
larqfyr vkgkj
ftl vkgkj esa gekjs >aMs ds rhuksa jaxksa okys [kkus ds lkeku 'kkfey gksrs gSa] og vkgkj larqfyr vkgkj gksrk
gSA jkst ds [kkus esa gekjs >aMs ds rhu jaxksa esa izR;sd jax ds de ls de ,d nks [kk| inkFkZ 'kkfey gksus pkfg,A
fofHkUu nkysa] vadqfjr pus] Qy] gjh iksnkj vkSj vU; lfCt;ka] jksVh] pkoy] nw/k] ngh vkSj bu tSls vU; [kk|
inkFkZ gekjs [kkus esa 'kkfey gksus pkfg,A

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 23


gekjs 'kjhj dks Hkkstu ,oa iks"kd rRoksa dh ,d U;wure cqfu;knh vko';drk gksrh gSA bl vko';drk dks
iwjk djus ds fy, gekjs >aMs ds rhu jax okys [kk| inkFkksZa dk Hkkstu esa 'kkfey djuk t:jh gSA
Hkkjrh; /ot ds rhu jax dh if;ksa esa fn[kk;s x;s [kk| inkFkksZa dh igpku vkSj jaxksa ds vuqlkj mudh
lwph

dslfj;k rFkk mlls feyrs tqyrs jaxksa okys [kk| inkFkZ%


ewax] elwj] lHkh nkysa vkSj Qyh] VekVj] uhacw] xktj] lhrkQy] iihrk] vke] larjk] gekjs jkst ds [kku&iku
esa bu jaxksa dk de ls de ,d [kk| inkFkZ t:j 'kkfey gksuk pkfg,A
lQsn%
Tokj] cktjk] xsgw tSls vuktksa dk vkVk] pkoy] ngh] nw/k] phuh] ewyh] vkyw vkfn dk lQsn jax gksrk gSA
nw/k] ngh] vkyw tSls Hkkstu gekjs [kkus dk ,d t:jh fgLlk gksus pkfg,A
gjk%
gjh iksnkj lfCt;ka tSls esFkh] ikyd] ewyh dh ikh] pkSykbZ] lse] Qfy;ka] QwyxksHkh] f'keyk fepZ tSlh
lfCt;ka bl jax dh gksrh gSaA gekjs jkst ds [kku&iku esa bl jax dh de ls de ,d lCth 'kkfey gksuh pkfg,A

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 24


Hkkstu ds vko';d ro vkSj muds dk;Z
ikSf"Vd dk;Z izkfIr ds lk/ku deh ls gksus okys jksx
rRo
1- ksVhu 'kjhj dks cM+k djuk] ekal] eNyh] v.Mk] dysth] nw/k o nw/k cPpksa dh o`f) :duk] nLr]
VwVs rRoksa dks cukuk] ls cuh phtsa] nkysa] vukt] lks;kchu] nkn&[kkt ,fDtek] cky [kqjnqjs o
chekfj;ksa ls cpkuk A esos] ewxQyh vkfnA VwV tkuk] fnekx ij vlj] xHkZ ds
f'k'kq ds fodkl ij vlj] detksjh]
FkdkoV vkfnA
2- dkckst
Z 'kfDr nsukA Hkkstu esa vukt phuh] xqM+] 'kgn] nkysa o detksjh] otu de gksuk] 'kjhj dh
dkcksZ gkbMs Lokn c<+kukA lfCt;k tSls& vkyw] 'kdjdUn] o`f) /kheh iM+ tkuk] ewNkZ vk tkuk]
V ftehdUn] pqdUnj vkfn] xUuk o vaxwj dCt gksukA
Hkh blds vPNs lk/ku gSaA
3- olk 'kfDr nsukA chtksa ds rsy& tSls ewa xQyh] fry] detksjh] otu de gksuk] FkdkoV]
fpdukbZ ?kqyu'khy foVkfeu ukfj;y] lks;kchu vkfn dk rsy] ?kh] Ropk ds jksx gksukA
nsuk tSls&foVkfeu lw[ks esos tSls&ewx
W Qyh] fry] dktw]
,-Mh-bZ-ds- cknke] v[kjksV vkfn
4- foVkfeu vk[kksa dh jks'kuh eNyh dk rsy] v.Mk] dysth] ?kh] jrkSa/kh ;k jkr dk va/kkiu] pedrh
^,*% c<+kuk] jrkSa/kh vkfn eD[ku] nw/k o nw/k ls cuh phtsa] gjh] /kwi esa ls va/ksjh txg ij vkus ls
chekfj;ksa ls cpkuk A yky o ihyh lfCt;k o Qy tSls&ewyh dkQh le; rd dqN fn[kkbZ ugha
ds iks] pkSykbZ ] ikyd] esFkh] xktj] nsrkA vk[ksa nq%[kuk] iqryh /kq a/kyh
VekVj] iihrk] vke] lhrkQy vkfnA gksukA
foVkfeu gf;ksa rFkk nkrksa dh eNyh dk rsy] ?kh] eD[ku] nw/k o nw/k cPpksa esa fjdsV~l& gf;k detksj
^Mh*% etcwrh ds fy, ls cus inkFkZ] lw[ks esos] lqcg ds lw;Z dh gksuk] cPps dh Vkxsa fdlh Hkh rjg
vko';d] xHkZorh fdj.ks vkSj gjh iksnkj lfCt;k vkfn ls eqM+ tkrh gSa cPpk Bhd rjg ls
fL=;ksa o nw/k fiykus py ugha ikrk gS gYds ls fxjus ls
okyh ekrkvksa ds fy, gf;k cgqr tYnh VwV tkrh gSaA
mi;ksxhA vksLVh;ks eysf'k;k&xHkZ orh fL=;k
bldk f'kdkj gks tkrh gSaA gf;ksa esa
dS fY'k;e dh deh gks tkrh gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 25


foVkfeu L=h o iq#"k ds xsgw ds d.k] rsy] lks; kchu] ewaxQyh] L=h o iq#"k ds iztuu vaxksa dk
bZ iztuu vaxksa dks ukfj;y vkfnA dk;Z Bhd ls ugha gksrk o nksuksa dh
LoLFk j[kuk o tuu 'kfDr de gks tkrh gSA
mudh 'kfDr dks
dk;e j[kukA
foVkfeu 'kjhj esa pksV yxus gjh ikhnkj lfCt;k tS ls& ikyd] esFkh 'kjhj esa dHkh Hkh pksV yxus ij
ds ij ;k dV tkus ij vkSj QwyxksHkh ds iks] v.Ms dh tnhZ] [kkl rkSj ij f'k'kq esa jDr dk cguk
cgrs gq, jDr dks xsgw dk pksd j vkfnA ;k cUn u gksuk] xHkZorh fL=;ksa dk
jksd ukA xHkZorh rFkk xHkZikr gks tkukA
nw/k fiykus okyh
ekrkvksa ds fy,
vko';dA
foVkfeu 'kjhj ds dkckst
Z o [kehj] vd qfjr nkysa] fNyds okyh nkysa] lw[kh csjh&csjh& Hkw[k u yxuk]
ch olk ls 'kfDr iznku pksdj lfgr vkVk] rkts Qy o ekufld larqyu fcxM+uk] vxksa dk
dkEiysDl djus esa rFkk bUgsa lfCt;k] nw/k o nw/k ls cuh phtsa] gjh leUo; vPNh rjg u gksuk] 'kjhj
ipkus esa lgk;dA iksnkj lfCt;k vkfnA detksj gks tkukA
xhyh csjh&csj h& 'kjhj esa ikuh Hkjuk
o lwtu vkuk] gksBksa dk QVuk o
jDr cguk] eqg ds dksuksa dk QVuk]
thHk dk lwtuk] QVuk rFkk nnZ
djuk] ukd ds nksuksa vksj QVuk
vkfnA
foVkfeu Ropk [kky rFkk vkoyk] ve:n] VekVj] uhcw] larjk o LdohZ& elwM+ksa esa nnZ] lwt u] iho
lh elwM+ksa dks LoLFk nwljs [ks jlnkj Qy] cUnxksHkh] fepZ] HkjukA nk r <+hys iM+us ij fxj
j[kus ds fy, gjh iksnkj lfCt;k] tSls&'kyte] ewyh tkukA nLr yxuk] thHk esa Hkh nnZ
vko';dA o lgtu ds iks] vdq fjr nkysaA gksuk] lwtu vkuk o yky iM+ukA
[kfut gf;ksa dks o nkrksa nw/k o nw/k ls cus inkFkZ] gjh iksnkj gf;k detksj gksuk o tYnh VwVus
yo.k dks cukuk o lfCt;k ikyd] pkSj kbZ] rkts Qy o dk [krjk gksuk] xHkZorh ;k /kk=h
dSfY'k;e 'kkjhfjd f;kvksa dks nwljh lfCt;k] v.Mk] ek l] eNyh] iku nw/ k fiykus okyh efgykvksa ij
cuk, j[kuka esa yxus okyk pwuk vkfnA vf/kd vlj] cPpksa dk fodkl /khek
iM+uk rFkk gf;ksa vkSj nkrksa dk
Bhd rjg ls u cuuk o jhdsV~l gks
tkukA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 26


Yksgk 'kjhj esa gheksXyksfcu dysth] xqnsZ] v.Ms dh tnhZ] ekWl] ,uhfe;k&jax ihyk iM+uk] detksjh
yky jDrd.k cukuk eNyh] gjh iksnkj lfCt;k] ikyd] vkuk] tYnh Fkd tkuk o yky jDr
esFkh] pkSjkbZ vkfn] lw[ks esos] nkys o dksf'kdkvksa dh ek=k esa deh vkuk o
vU; cktjk o jkxhA mudk vkdkj NksVk o jax ihyk
iM+ukA
vk;ksMhu Fkk;jkWbM xzfUFk ds vk;ksMhu ued] leqnzh eNyh] Qy] Xok;sVj ;k xyd.B] 'kkjhfjd
dk;ksZa ds fy, ty] lfCt;kA xfrfof/k;k] ean iM+ukA fL=;ksa esa xHkZ
vko';d Bgjus esa ijs'kkuh rFkk xHkZ f'k'kq ij
cqjk vljA
ty 'kjhj cukuk] lknk ty] Qyksa ds jl] lwi] 'kcZr] 'kkjhfjd xfrfof/k;ka ean iM+uk] xqnksZ a
'kkjhfjd rkieku pk;] dkQh] nw/k] vkfnA ij cqjk vlj] otu de gksuk]
cuk, j[kuk] futZyhdj.k ikuh dh deh gksuk
'kkjhfjd xUnxh dks
fudkyuk] rRoksa dks
?kqyu'khy cukuk]
'kkjhfjd vaxksa dk
cpko o rRoksa dks
,d LFkku ls nwljs
LFkku rd ys tkukA

[kwu dh deh D;k gS\


ge lHkh tkurs gSa fd gekjs [kwu dk jax yky gksrk gSA [kwu dk ;g yky jax] [kwu dh yky jDr df.kdkvksa
esa ik;s tkus okys gheksXyksfcu ds dkj.k gksrk gSA ge lkal ds }kjk tks vkWDlhtu vius 'kjhj ds vanj ysrs gSa og
gheksXyksfcu ds }kjk 'kjhj ds nwljs vaxksa rd igqprh gSA ;fn 'kjhj esa gheksXyksfcu dh deh gks tk, rks gekjs 'kjhj
ds vaxksa rd de vkWDlhtu igqaprh gSA [kwu esa gheksXyksfcu de gksuk] [kwu dh deh ;k ,uhfe;k dgykrh gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 27


[kwu dh deh gksus ij D;k y{k.k fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa\
? fd'kksfj;ksa esa [kwu dh deh gksus ij T;knkrj ;s y{k.k fn[krs gS%
? og tYnh ls Fkd tkrh gS vkSj FkksM+k lk dke djrs gh gkaQus yxrh gSA
? mls pDdj vkrs gSa vkSj csgks'kh gks ldrh gSA
? mlds iSj] psgjs vkSj isV ij lwtu gks ldrh gSA
? tYnh Fkdus ds dkj.k og i<+kbZ esa /;ku ugha yxk ikrh gSaA
? mldh Hkw[k de gks tkrh gS ;k iwjh rjg ls xk;c gks tkrh gSA
? mldh ihB ds fupys fgLls esa nnZ vkSj ;fn ekgokjh 'kq: gks x;h gS rks ekgokjh ds nkSjku vR;f/kd [kwu
fudyrk gSA
[kwu dh deh ds ifj.kke cgqr uqdlku nk;d gksrs gSa vkSj dbZ lkyksa rd jg ldrs gSa] dHkh&dHkkj rks
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa gq;h [kwu dh deh iwjs thou Hkj cuh jg ldrh gSA [kwu dh deh ls fd'kksjh dh 'kkjhfjd 'kfDr
izHkkfor gks tkrh gS vkSj mldh dke djus dh {kerk de gks tkrh gSA mldk i<+kbZ esa /;ku ugha yxrk gS vkSj og
viuh lgsfy;ksa ls fiNM+ tkrh gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa [kwu dh deh gksus ij] fookg ds ckn xHkkZoLFkk esa cM+h&cM+h ijs'kkfu;kW gks ldrh gSa ftlls ek dh
e`R;q rd gks ldrh gSA izlo ds le; gksus okyh izR;sd 5 ekrkvksa dh e`R;q esa ls ,d dh e`R;q [kwu dh deh ds dkj.k
gksrh gSA [kwu dh deh okyh ekrkvksa ls iSnk gksus okys cPps Hkh de otu ds gksrs gSa vkSj vDlj chekj jgrs gSaA
gekjs 'kjhj esa [kwu dh deh fdu dkj.kksa ls gks ldrh gS\
? Hkkstu esa vk;ju&;qDr [kkn~; inkFkZ dk ekStwn ugha gksukA
? 'kjhj esa vk;ju dk de jg ikukA
? isV esa dhM+s gksukA
? ckj&ckj eysfj;k gksukA
? ekgokjh ds nkSjku vR;f/kd [kwu fudyukA
? cM+s ?kkoksa ;k coklhj ds dkj.k [kwu dh gkfu gksukA
? izlo ds nkSjku cgqr [kwu dh gkfu gksukA
[kwu dh deh dk ,d eq[; dkj.k gekjs jkst ds Hkkstu esa vk;ju&;qDr [kkn~; inkFkksZa dh deh gSA vk;ju&;qDr
vkgkjksa esa gjh lkx&lfCt;k] ve:n] lsc vkSj vU; Qy] puk] ewxQyh] xqM+] nkysa] pqdUnj vkfn gSaA eklkgkjh
Hkkstu tSls fd ekl&eNyh Hkh vk;ju&;qDr gksrs gSaA
vk;ju&;qDr Hkkstu dk iwjk ykHk mBkus ds fy, ;s t:jh gS fd ge vk;ju&;qDr Hkkstu ds lkFk foVkfeu&lh
;qDr vkgkj Hkh ysaA D;ksafd foVkfeu&lh gekjs 'kjhj }kjk vk;ju dks xzg.k fd;s tkus vo'kks"k.k esa lgk;rk nsrk
gSA
foVkfeu&lh ;qDr Hkkstuksa ds lcls vPNs mnkgj.k gSa [kV~Vs Qy tSls VekVj] ve:n] uhacw] larjk] eqlEeh]
vkoyk vkfnA ;fn vki nky ;k gjh lCt+h [kk jgh gSa rks mlesa ,d uhacw fupksM+dj dj [kk;saA blls vkidk 'kjhj
vkids Hkkstu ls T+;knk ls T+;knk vk;ju xzg.k djsxkA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 28


tSlk geus tkuk fd ge vk;ju ;qDr Hkkstu dk iwjk ykHk foVkfeu&lh ;qDr Hkkstu ds lkFk ys ldrs gSaA
oSls gh dqN ,sls Hkkstu gSa tks fd vxj ge vk;ju ;qDr Hkkstu ds lkFk [kk;sa rks og 'kjhj }kjk vk;ju ds xzg.k fd;s
tkus esa deh dj ldrs gSa tSls pk;] dkWQhA vr% gesa Hkkstu ds rqjUr ckn pk;@dkWQh ugha ihuh pkfg,] D;ksafd ;g
vk;ju ds vo'kks"k.k esa ck/kk Mkyrh gSA
1- 'kkdkgkjh vkgkj esa gesa lcls T;knk vk;ju gjh lkx&lfCt;ksa esa feyrk gSA
2- eklkgkjh vkgkj tSls eNyh] eqxkZ] ftxj esa vk;ju dh ek=k T;knk gksrh gSA
3- [kkus ds ckn foVkfeu&lh ;qDr Hkkstu tSls vkoyk] uhacw] VekVj vkfn [kkus ls 'kjhj }kjk vf/kd vk;ju xzg.k fd;k tkrk gSA
4- [kkuk [kkus ds lkFk pk; ihus ls] 'kjhj }kjk vk;ju dk xzg.k fd;k tkuk de gks tkrk gSA
[kwu dh deh dh jksdFkke djus vkSj bl ij dkcw ikus ds vklku mik; gSa&
1- lkIrkfgd :i ls vk;ju dh xkfy;k [kkukA
2- gj jkst vk;ju ;qDr Hkkstu vkSj foVkfeu&lh ;qDr Hkkstu ds lkFk djuk]
3- ,d fnu esa 4 ckj [kkuk [kkuk nks ckj Hkkstu$nks ckj uk'rkA
gj lIrkg Ldwy esa feyus okyh vk;ju dh xksyh [kkus ds lkFk&lkFk] [kwu dh deh dh jksdFkke djus ds fy, vkgkj laca/kh rhu eq[;
vknrsa Hkh Mkyuh t+:jh gSaA
? gj jkst de ls de ,d vk;ju ;qDr Hkkstu vo'; [kk;sa tSls gjh lCth ;k cktjkA
? /;ku j[ksa vk;ju ;qDr Hkkstu ds lkFk foVkfeu&lh ;qDr ekSleh Qy [kk,a tSls% ve:n] uhacw] VekVj] vkaoyk] vkfnA
? ,d fnu esa de ls de 4 ckj [kkuk [kk;sa& nks ckj Hkkstu fnu o jkr esa rFkk nks ckj uk'rk lqcg o 'kke dksA ;g ugha Hkwysa
fd [kkus ls igys vkSj ckn esa ,d ?kaVs rd pk; ugha ihuh gS vkSj [kkuk [kkus ls igys gkFkksa dks lkcqu ls /kksuk gSA
?

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 29


[kk| inkFkksZ esa ykSg rRo vk;ju ,oa foVkfeu&lh dh ek=k
T;knk ls T;knk [kk,a T;knk ls T;knk [kk,

[kk| inkFkZ vk;ju fe-xzk-@100xzk- [kk| inkFkZ foVkfeu&lh fe-xzk -@100xzk-

cktjk 8-0 iRrk xksHkh 124

Tokj 4-1 /kfu;k iRrh 135

lkx 3-9 f'keyk fepZ 137

fpoM+k 20-0 xksHkh 56

puk] ewax] jktek 4-5 vkoyk] 600

lks;kchu 10-4 ve:n 212

/kfu;k iRrh 1-42 uhcw] 39

Ikyd 1-14 eq lEeh 50

ewyh ds iRrs 18-0 larjk 64

Xktj 1-03 djsyk 57

xksHkh 1-23 csj 76

lgtu ds iRrs 220

iihrk 88

VekVj 27

Source: 'Nutritive Values of Indian Foods' by C.Gopalan et.al.National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, 1989.

cgqr ls ifjokjksa esa efgyk,a vkSj yM+fd;k] iq#"kksa ds [kkuk [kkus ds ckn gh [kkuk [kkrh gSa vkSj mUgsa vDlj
cpk&[kqpk [kkuk gh fey ikrk gSA fd'kksfj;ksa dks de ek=k esa Hkkstu fn;k tkrk gS D;ksafd ;g vke /kkj.kk gS fd
iq#"k vkSj yM+ds T;knk esgur djrs gSaA yM+dksa dh rjg fd'kksfj;ksa dks Hkh lgh 'kkjhfjd ,oa ekufld fodkl ds
fy, ikSf"Vd vkSj i;kZIr Hkkstu dh t:jr gSA yM+fd;ksa dks iwjh rjg ls c<+us ds fy, fnu esa 4 ckj HkjisV@i;kZIr
ek=k esa Hkkstu djuk pkfg, D;ksafd 'kjhj dh lgh o`f) vkSj fodkl ds fy, i;kZIr ,oa larqfyr vkgkj cgqr t:jh
gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 30


dqN fo'ks"kKksa us fuEufyf[kr Hkkstu ;kstuk cukbZ gSA /;ku j[ksa fd gesa ,d fnu esa de ls de 4 ckj
[kkuk gSA

fd'kksfj;ksa ds fy, Hkkstu ;kstuk


nSfud vko';drk %
,d fnu esa pkj ckj [kkuk pkfg, ] Hkkstu esa gekjs /ot ds rhuksa jaxksa dk izfrfuf/kRo gksuk pkfg,A
1- izkr%dkyhu uk'rk%
? ,d di nw/k ;k ,d dVksjh nky ;k lCth ;k ,d ekSleh Qy tSls ve:n] dsys vkfn ds lkFk 2 jksVhA
2- nksigj dk Hkkstu%
? 2 jksVhA
? ,d dVksjh nky ;k ,d dVksjh vadqfjr nkysaA
? ,d dVksjh gjh iksnkj lfCt;k ;k nwljh lfCt;kA
3- 'kke 4 ;k 5 cts
? xqM+ ds lkFk ,d eqV~Bh Hkquk puk ;k ewaxQyh ;k ,d ekSleh QyA
4- jkr dk Hkkstu%
? 2 jksVh vFkok 1 ls 2 dVksjh f[kpM+h ;k pkoyA
? ,d dVksjh cslu ls cuh dksbZ pht+ ;k ,d dVksjh nwljh lfCt;k ;k gjh iksnkj lfCt;k ;k ,d dVksjh
nkyA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 31


fd'kksjkoLFkk o tuu ra=
fd'kksjkoLFkk
fd'kksjkoLFkk] ;kuh ,slh voLFkk tc cpiu iwjh rjg ls tkrk ugha vkSj ge iwjh rjg ls cM+s Hkh ugha
gks ikrs gSaA cpiu vkSj o;Ld gksus ds chp dh ;g fLFkfr flQZ 'kkjhfjd rkSj ij gh ugha oju~ HkkoukRed
Lrj ij Hkh cM+h mFky&iqFky iSnk djrh gSA 'kkjhfjd ifjorZu fn[kkbZ nsus yxrs gSaA viuk 'kjhj tSls
vuk;kl gh u;k&u;k lk yxus yxrk gS vkSj gekjk /;ku viuh rjQ f[kapus yxrk gSA dYiukvksa ds tSls
ia[k yx tkrs gSaA yM+ds&yM+fd;ksa dk ,d&nwljs dh vksj ns[kus dk ut+fj;k cny tkrk gSA ,d vkSj
cnyko Li"V rkSj ij ns[kus esa vkrk gS& ?kj&ifjokj vkSj Ldwy ls feyus okyh fgnk;rsa] [kklrkSj ls
yM+fd;ksa ij jksd&Vksd 'kq: gks tkrh gS vkSj mu ij <sj lkjh ikcafn;ka yxus yxrh gSaA lekt vc
yM+ds&yM+fd;ksa dks cPpksa dh rjg u ns[kdj muls vkSjr&enZ dh Hkwfedk dh vis{kk djus yxrk gSA bl
dkj.k vklikl ds yksxksa o pht+ksa ls u;k lkeatL; cSBkuk iM+rk gS tks vklku ugha gksrkA
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa eq[; :i ls iztuu vaxksa dk fodkl gksrk gSA ;s vax iztuu f;k ds fy, rS;kj
gksus yxrs gSaA bl le; 'kjhj esa dqN ,sls gkeksZu cuus yxrs gSa tks ;kSu Hkkouk,a iSnk djrs gSaA blfy,
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa iztuu o ;kSfud LokLF; ds ckjs esa fd'kksj&fd'kksfj;ksa ls ckr djuk cgqr t+:jh gSA
fd'kksjkoLFkk vkSj ifjorZu
fd'kksjkoLFkk esa eq[; :i ls iztuu vaxksa dk fodkl gksrk gSA ;s vax iztuu ds fy, rS;kj gksus yxrs gSaA
bl nkSjku yM+dksa o yM+fd;ksa esa tks 'kkjhfjd ifjorZu gksrs gSa muds dkj.k mudk O;ogkj Hkh cnyus yxrk gS]
ubZ&ubZ Hkkouk,a mHkjus yxrh gSa] rjg&rjg ds fopkj eu esa vkus yxrs gSaA muds eu esa dbZ loky dkSa/kus yxrs
gSaA blh nkSjku mUgsa reke fgnk;rs Hkh feyus yxrh gSa& tks yM+ds&yM+fd;ka lkFk&lkFk [ksyk djrs Fks] mUgsa
vyx&vxy j[kus dh dksf'k'ksa 'kq: gks tkrh gSaA os bu ifjorZuksa ds dkj.k 'kfeZUnk gksrs gSaSA bl mez esa tks loky
mBrs gSa os ,dne u, fdLe ds gksrs gSaA bu ij dksbZ ckr ugha djrkA bu lokyksa dks iwNrs gq, Mj yxrk gS] iwN
fy;k rks MkaV iM+rh gSA MkaV u iM+s rks Hkh bruk rks Li"V gks tkrk gS fd ;s loky iwNuk mfpr ugha gSA rc
pksjh&fNis bu lokyksa ds tokc [kkstus dh dksf'k'ksa gksrh gSaA dHkh tokc feyrk gS] rks dHkh HkVdkoA
fygkt+k ;g fugk;r t+:jh gS fd bu lokyksa ij ppkZ dk ekgkSy cusA tokc ds lh/ks o [kqys jkLrs gksaA ;g
blfy, Hkh cgqr t+:jh gS fd bu iz'uksa dk laca/k iztuu ls gS] tks ,d egRoiw.kZ izf;k gS vkSj ,d ft+Eesnkjh ls
tqM+h gSA
vkf[kj vpkud brus cM+s&cM+s ifjorZu gksrs dSls gSa\ bl loky dk tokc iwjh rjg lkQ ugha gSA ,slk
yxrk gS fd iwjh izf;k dk fu;a=.k gkeksZu var% lzkoh jl ds t+fj, gksrk gSA tUe ls Hkh igys tuu vax dqN
gkeksZu cukus yxrs gSaA L=h esa vaMk'k; ,LVkstu uked gkeksZu cukrs gSa vkSj iq#"k esa vaMdks'k VsLVksLVsjksu uked
gkeksZu cukrs gSaA oSls ;s vax bu gkeksZuksa dh cgqr gh de ek=k cukrs gSa exj bruh ek=k gk;iksFksysel uked ,d
xzafFk dks dkcw esa j[kus ds fy, i;kZIr gksrh gSA mez c<+us ds lkFk gk;iksFksysel fodflr gksrh jgrh gSA ,d le;
,slk vkrk gS tc ,LVkstu vkSj VsLVksLVsjksu dh FkksM+h&lh ek=k gk;iksFksyel dks dkcw esa ugha j[k ikrh gSA ;g
fLFkfr vkrs gh gk;iksFksysel ,d vU; gkeksZu] th-,u-vkj-,p- cukuk 'kq: dj nsrh gSA th-,u-vkj-,p- gkeksZu ih;w"k
xzafFk fiV~;wVjh dks nks vkSj gkeksZu& ,y-,p- vkSj ,Q-,l-,p cukus ds fy, mdlkrk gSA fiV~;wVjh }kjk cuk, x,
,y-,p- vkSj ,Q-,l-,p- gkeksZu vaMk'k; o vaMdks'k dks lf; dj nsrs gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 32


bu gkeksZuksa ds dkj.k vaMk'k; esa nks izeq[k ifjorZu gksrs gSaA igyk rks ;g gksrk gS fd vc vaMk'k; Lo;a nks
gkeksZu& ,LVkstu vkSj izkstsLVsjksu] cukus yxrk gSA ,LVkstu dh ek=k c<+us ls yM+dh ds 'kjhj esa dbZ ifjorZu gksrs
gSaA tSls Lruksa dk fodkl] ;kSukaxksa ds vklikl o cxyksa esa cky mxuk] dwYgs dh gM~Mh dk QSyuk] 'kjhj esa pchZ dk
iqufoZrj.k gksuk oxSjgA ,Q-,l-,p- gkeksZu vaMk'k; esa vaMk.kq ds fodkl dks Hkh izsfjr djrk gSA gkeksZu ds u,
larqyu ds dkj.k xHkkZ'k; esa Hkh ifjorZu gksrs gSa vkSj ekgokjh p 'kq: gks tkrk gSA
nwljh vksj yM+dksa esa bUgha nks gkeksZu& ,Q-,l-,p- vkSj ,y-,p-] dk izHkko vaMdks'k ij iM+rk gSA igyk
vlj rks ;g gksrk gS fd vaMdks'k Lo;a ,d gkeksZu& VsLVksLVsjksu] T+;knk ek=k esa cukus yxrk gSA blh ds vlj ls
yM+dksa esa fd'kksjkoLFkk ls lacaf/kr ifjorZu gksrs gSaA tSls vkokt+ eksaVh gksuk] nk<+h&ewaN fudyuk] ;kSukaxksa ds
vklikl o cxyksa esa cky mxuk oxSjgA blds vykok ,Q-,l-,p- vkSj VsLVksLVsjksu feydj vaMdks'k esa 'kqk.kqvksa
ds fodkl dh f;k Hkh 'kq: djokrs gSaA
jkspd ckr ;g gS fd yM+dk&yM+dh nksuksa ds 'kjhj esa dqN ,d&tSls gkeksZu iSnk gksrs gSa exj muds vlj
vyx&vyx gksrs gSaA gkeksZu dqN jlk;u gksrs gSaA budh fo'ks"krk ;g gksrh gs fd ;s fdlh ,d vax xazfFk esa cudj
[kwu ds ek/;e ls iwjs 'kjhj esa igqaprs gSa exj vlj mlh vax ij djrs gSa ftlds fy, ;s cus gSaA

iztuu ra=
gekjk 'kjhj dbZ ra=ksa ls feydj cuk gSA ;s ra= ,d nwljs ls fey&tqydj] rkyesy ls dke djrs gSaA dksbZ
Hkh ra= iwjh rjg Lora= ;k Lok;k ugha gSA fQj Hkh le>us dh n`f"V ls ge bu ra=ksa dk vyx&vyx v/;;u dj
ldrs gSaA tc ge dgrs gSa fd 'kjhj dk veqd fgLlk ,d ra= gS rks bldk eryc ;g gksrk gS fd ;g vaxksa dk lewg
gS tks fey&tqydj fdlh ,d [kkl dke dks vatke nsrk gSA tSls ikpu ra= esa vkgkj uky ds vykok dbZ lkjh
xzafFk;ka Hkh gksrh gSaA ;s lc feydj Hkkstu dks ipkus dk dke djrh gSaA 'kjhj dk iwjk dke ikpu ra=] 'olu ra=]
j ifjlapj.k ra=] raf=dk ra= vkfn dbZ ra=ksa ds feys&tqys dke dk urhtk gSA
ekuo 'kjhj dks ns[kk tk, rks L=h&iq#"k esa yxHkx 90 Qhlnh ls T+;knk vax ,d leku gksrs gSaA ;g Hkh dgk
tk ldrk gS fd L=h vkSj iq#"k 'kjhj esa vf/kdka'k f;k,a ,d leku gh gksrh gSaA nksuksa gh tc [kkuk [kkrs gSa rks
mldk ikpu gwcgw ,d&leku ikpd jl ,Ut+kbe djrs gSaA blh rjg ips gq, Hkkstu dk vo'kks"k.k j esa gksrk gS]
mUgsa 'kjhj ds fofHk vaxksa rd igqapk;k tkrk gS] ogka mudk vkWDlhdj.k gksrk gS] muls tkZ izkIr gksrh gS]
oxSjg&oxSjgA
L=h vkSj iq#"k ds 'kjhj esa ,d gh ra= esa Li"V Hksn gksrk gSA ;g ra= gS iztuu ra=A nwljs 'kCnksa esa dgsa rks L=h
vkSj iq#"k dk izeq[k varj ;g gS fd iztuu dh izf;k esa os vyx&vyx Hkwfedk,a fuHkkrs gSaA nks Vwd ckr ;g gS fd
fL=;ka xHkZ/kkj.k dj ldrh gSa] iq#"k ughaA
njvly bl 'kkjhfjd varj ds vk/kkj ij reke lkekftd Hksn cuk, x, gSa ftUgsa ge lkekftd fyaxHksn
tsaMj dgrs gSaA ;s lkjs Hksn lkekftd gSa] 'kkjhfjd ;k dqnjrh ughaA ;g t+:j gS fd iztuu esa vyx&vyx Hkwfedk
gksus ds dkj.k L=h vkSj iq#"k dh thou 'kSyh esa dqN ifjorZu visf{kr gSa exj blds vk/kkj ij nksuksa dh lkekftd
Hkwfedk,a loZFkk fHk gksa ;g t+:jh ugha gS vkSj ;g rks dnkfi t+:jh ugha gS vkSj ;g rks dnkfi t+:jh ;k okaNuh;
ugha gS fd L=h vkSj iq#"k dh lkekftd Hkwfedk esa p&uhp ;k xSj&cjkcjh gksA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 33


fu"kspu
bl eqdke ij L=h o iq#"k ds iztuu vaxksa dh ckr ,d lkFk gh dh tk ldrh gSA vaMksRlxZ ds le; ;fn
'kqk.kqvksa dks L=h ds 'kjhj esa igqapk fn;k tk, rks os QkSju gj fn'kk esa rSjus yxrs gSaA ,d L[kyu esa yxHkx 10
djksM+ 'kqk.kq iq#"k ds 'kjhj ls L[kfyr gksrs gSaA laHkksx ds nkSjku bUgsa oh;Z ds :i esa ;ksfu esa NksM+k tkrk gSA ;ksfu
ds jkLrs xzhok esa ls ;s cPpknkuh esa igqaprs gSaA ogka ls ;s vaMokfgfu;ksa esa c<+ tkrs gSaA vaMokfguh esa fdlh ,d 'kqk.kq
vkSj vaMk.kq dk feyu gks tkrk gSA ;nk&dnk ,d lkFk nks vaMk.kq cu tkrs gSaA rc bu nksuksa dk fu"kspu gks ldrk
gSA ,slk gksus ij tqM+oka cPps gks ldrs gSaA ;s tqM+oka cPps ,d&nwljs ls mrus gh fHk gksrs gSa ftrus dksbz Hkh
HkkbZ&cgu gksaxsA ;s nksuksa yM+ds ;k nksuksa yM+fd;ka vFkok ,d yM+dk&,d yM+dh Hkh gks ldrs gSaA fu"kspu ds lkFk
gh vaMk.kq esa fodkl 'kq: gks tkrk gSA bl voLFkk esa bls Hkwz.k dgrs gSaA vkerkSj ij bl Hkzw.k ls ,d cPps dk fodkl
gksrk gS exj dHkh&dHkh vkxs fodkl ls iwoZ ;g nks Hkkxksa esa caV tkrk gS vkSj izR;sd Hkkx vyx&vyx fodflr gksrk
gSA ;s Hkh tqM+oka cPpksa dks tUe nsrs gSaA ,d Hkzw.k ls cus gksus ds dkj.k ;s tqM+ok gwcgw ,d leku gksrs gSaA ,sls tqM+ok ;k
rks nksuksa yM+ds gksaxs ;k nksuksa yM+fd;kaA
rks laHkksx ;k eSFkqu dh f;k ds nkSjku 'kqk.kq L=h 'kjhj esa igqaprs gSa vkSj ;fn ;g f;k vaMksRlxZ ds nkSjku
gqbZ gks] rks vaMk.kq dk fu"kspu gks tkrk gSA blds ckn dh iwjh izf;k L=h 'kjhj esa lai gksrh gSA vFkkZr~ laHkksx f;k
L=h ij ,d yEch ft+Eesnkjh Mky ldrh gSA vc vkxs dh nkLrku ns[ksaA
cPps dk cuuk
fu"ksfpr vaMk vaMokfguh esa vkxs c<+rk gSA cPpknkuh esa igqapus ls igys gh mldk fodkl 'kq: gks tkrk gSA
cPpknkuh esa igqapdj ;g mldh nhokj ls tqM+ tkrk gS vkSj vkxs dk iwjk fodkl ;gha gksrk gSA bl fodkl esa
yxHkx 266 fnu dk le; yxrk gSA pwafd ge xHkkZoLFkk dh fxurh vkf[kjh ekfld lzko ls djrs gSa vkSj vaMksRlxZ
bl lzko ds djhc 14 fnu ckn gksrk gS] blfy, ge dgrs gSa fd xHkkZoLFkk yxHkx 280 fnu ;k 9 ekg dk gksrk gSA
yM+dk ;k yM+dh\
yxHkx lHkh fodflr tarqvksa esa uj vkSj eknk vyx&vyx gksrs gSaA izk;% buds chp lkQ ut+j vkus okys
varj Hkh gksrs gSaA loky ;g mBrk gS fd izfr esa fyax dk fu/kkZj.k dSls gksrk gSA vyx&vyx tarqvksa esa bldk
rjhdk vyx&vyx gksrk gSA tSls dqN tarqvksa esa fu"kspu ds ckn rS;kj vaMs ls uj ;k eknk dqN Hkh cu ldrk gSA
buesa ls D;k cusxk ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj jgrk gS fd vaMs dk vkxs dk fodkl fdl rkieku ij gksrk gSA blh izdkj
ls dqN tarqvksa esa rks ,slk Hkh ns[kk x;k gS fd nks rjg ds vaM+s gksrs gSa& ,d fu"ksfpr o nwljk vfu"ksfprA buesa ls ,d
rjg ds vaMksa ls uj curs gSa] tcfd nwljh rjg ds vaMksa ls eknkA
exj balkuksa esa fyax fu/kkZj.k dk rjhdk dksf'kdk esa mifLFkr xq.klw=ksa ;kuh ksekslkse ds vk/kkj ij gksrk gSA
,d ih<+h ls nwljh ih<+h esa xq.kksa dk gLrkarj.k xq.klw=ksa ds ek/;e ls gksrk gSA balkuksa esa dqy 23 tksM+h xq.klw= gksrs
gSaA izR;sd tksM+h dk ,d lw= ekrk ls vkSj nwljk firk ls izkIr gksrk gSA buesa ls 22 tksfM+;ksa esa rks nksuksa xq.klw= ,d
tSls gksrs gSa exj rsbZloha tksM+h ds nksuksa xq.klw= ,d leku Hkh gks ldrs gSa vkSj vkSj fHk Hkh gks ldrs gSaA ,d dks
rFkk nwljs dks y xq.klw= dgk tkrk gSA bUgsa fyax xq.klw= dgrs gSaA fL=;ksa esa rsbZloha tksM+h ds nksuksa xq.klw= gksrs gSa
tcfd iq#"kksa esa ,d vkSj nwljk y gksrk gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 34


L=h % 22 tksfM+;ka +xx iq#"k % 22 tksfM+;ka +xy

tc tuu dksf'kdk vaMk.kq ;k 'kqk.kq dk fuekZ.k gksrk gS rc muesa izR;sd tksM+h dk dksbZ ,d xq.klw= tkrk gSA rks
vaMk.kqvksa ds ekeys esa]

vaMk.kq&1 22 xq.klw= +x vkSj vaMk.kq&2 22 xq.klw= +x

vFkkZr~ nksuksa vaMk.kq ,d leku gksrs gSaA


ysfdu nwljh vksj 'kqk.kqvksa ds ekeys esa]

'kqk.kq&1 22 xq.klw= +x vkSj 'kqk.kq&2 22 xq.klw= +y


vFkkZr~ 'kqk.kq nks rjg ds gksrs gSaA bUgsa ge x vkSj y 'kqk.kq dg ldrs gSaA

vc fu"kspu ds le; vaMk.kq tks lnSo gksrk gS ds lkFk ;k rks 'kqk.kq dk esy gksxk ;k y 'kqk.kq dkA ;fn
'kqk.kq ls esy gqvk rks rsbZloha tksM+h cusxhA ;g vaMk fodflr gksdj eknk ;kuh yM+dh dks tUe nsxkA nwljh
vksj ;fn y 'kqk.kq ls esy gqvk rks rsbZloha tksM+h y cusxh vkSj bl vaMs ls yM+dk fodflr gksxkA
;kuh ;fn 'kq) tho foKku dh n`f"V ls ns[ksa rks yM+dk&yM+dh cuuk dsoy la;ksx dh ckr gSA fdlh Hkh
iq#"k ds oh;Z esa yxHkx cjkcj ek=k esa vkSj y 'kqk.kq gksrs gSaA buesa ls dkSu&lk 'kqk.kq vaMk.kq dk fu"kspu djsxk]
;g rks iwjh rjg la;ksx dh ckr gSA bl NksVs ls la;ksx dks ysdj bruk cosyk epkuk] ykaNu yxkuk] dgka rd mfpr
gS\
cPps iSnk u gksuk
dbZ ckj naifk cPps iSnk djus esa vleFkZ jgrs gSaA bl ekeys esa Hkh lkjk nks"k efgyk ij Mkyus dh izo`fk gSA
mls cka> oxSjg dguk vke ckr gSA iztuu ra= vkSj iztuu izf;k ds mijks fooj.k ls dbZ ckrsa mHkjrh gS] tks
niafk ds fu%larku jgus ds fy, ftEesnkj gks ldrh gSaA
tSls geus ns[kk fd vaMksRlxZ ds ckn vaMk.kq dqy ,d fnu thfor jgrk gSA ;fn bl nkSjku mldk esy
'kqk.kq ls gks tk, rks Bhd] ojuk og u"V gks tkrk gS vkSj vxyk p 'kq: gks tkrk gSA ;kuh lQy fu"kspu ds fy,
lgh le; ij 'kqk.kq dk igqapuk t+:jh gSA nwljh 'kCnksa esa izR;sd p ds ,d&nks fnu gh ,sls gksrs gSa tc dksbZ L=h
xHkZ/kkj.k dj ldrh gSA
geus ;g Hkh ns[kk fd gkykafd fu"kspu ,d gh 'kqk.kq djrk gS] exj bl f;k dh lQyrk ds fy, djksM+ksa
'kqk.kqvksa dh mifLFkfr t+:jh gksrh gSA ;fn oh;Z esa 'kqk.kq de gSa rks ckr ugha cusxhA
;g Hkh gks ldrk gS fd L=h ds 'kjhj dk van:uh okrkoj.k 'kqk.kqvksa ds fy, ?kkrd gksA ;g Hkh laHko gS fd
vaMk.kq cu gh u jgs gksa ;g Hkh laHko gS fd xHkkZ'k; dk Lrj Hkzw.k dks lgkjk u ns ik jgk gksA bl ekeys esa L=h dh
lsgr vkSj HkkokukRed fLFkfr dk Hkh egRo gksrk gSA vFkkZr~ fdlh naifk dk fu%larku jguk dbZ ckrksa ij fuHkZj djrk
gSA blesa fdlh ,d lkFkh dh fnDdr gks ldrh gS ;k nksuksa dk feyk&tqyk izHkko gks ldrk gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 35


ekgokjh p
;fn ge gj rhu&pkj fnu esa vaMk'k; vkSj xHkkZ'k; dh QksVks [khapsa rks os dqN bl rjg fn[ksaxh fd iwjs ekg esa xzhok
dSls ij&uhps gksrh gSA ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd xzhok esa ls fudyus okyk lzko /kkr dSls cnyrk gSA ifjiDo gksrs gq,
vaMk.kq ds vklikl dksf'kdkvksa dk ,d lewg rS;kj gks tkrk gS ftls iqfVdk dgrs gSaA ;g iqfVdk dqN gkeksZu cukrh gSA
bUgha gkeksZu ds vlj ls vaMksRlxZ ;kuh vaMk'k; ls vaMk.kq ds fudyus ds le; 'kjhj dk rkieku FkksM+k c<+rk gSA iqfVdk
gkeksZu dk ,d vkSj vlj gksrk gSA blh dh otg ls cPpknkuh ;kuh xHkkZ'k; dh nhokj eksVh gks tkrh gS vkSj ogka [kwu dh
lIykbZ c<+ tkrh gSA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS D;ksafd vaMksRlxZ ds lkFk gh ;g laHkkouk cu tkrh gS fd 'kk;n vaMk.kq dk esy
'kqk.kq ls gksdj Hkzw.k rS;kj gksxkA bl Hkzw.k dk vkxs fodkl cPpknkuh dh nhokj ij fVddj gh gksrk gS rFkk fodkl ds
nkSjku bls iks"k.k Hkh cPpknkuh dh nhokj ds t+fj, gh feyrk gSA ;kuh laHkkfor xHkkZoLFkk dh rS;kjh esa cPpknkuh dh nhokj
esa ifjorZu gksus yxrs gSaA
tc vaMk ifjiDo gksdj iqfVdk dks ogha NksM+dj vaMk'k; ls ckgj fudyrk gS rks vaMk'k; ds lehi fLFkr
vaMokfguh dk >kyjnkj eqag mls >sy ysrk gSA ,d ckj 'kq: gksus ij vaMk.kq fudyus dh ;g izf;k L=h ds thou esa dbZ
o"kksZa rd pysxhA yxHkx 45&50 o"kZ dh mez rd gj ekg ,d vaMk.kq ifjiDo gksdj fudyrk gSA oSls nks vaMksRlxZ ds chp
yxHkx 28 fnu dk varjky gksrk gS exj blesa dkQh fofof/krk gks ldrh gSA ;g varjky 21 fnu ls ysdj 35 fnu rd dk
gks ldrk gSA vDlj izfr ekg ,d gh vaMk.kq ifjiDo gksrk gS] exj ;nk&dnk ,d ls T;knk vaMk.kq Hkh rS;kj gks ldrs gSaA
>kyjnkj eqag ls gksdj vaMk.kq vaMokfguh esa vkxs c<+rk gSA
,d laHkkouk ;g gS fd bl vaMk.kq dh eqykdkr 'kqk.kqvksa ls u gksA rc tYnh gh vaMk'k; esa iwjs ekfld p esa
gkeksZu dh ek=kvksa esa Hkh ifjorZu gksrs jgrs gSaA
iwjs le; gkeksZu dk mrkj&p<+ko gksrk jgrk gSA bldk L=h dh 'kkjhfjd f;kvksa] eu%fLFkfr ewM oxSjg ij
vlj gksrk gSA blds vykok ekfld lzko ds nkSjku cPpknkuh esa ejksM+ dh otg ls nnZ gksuk Hkh vke ckr gSA
;s ekfld p ,d ckj 'kq: gksus ds ckn yxHkx 45&50 lky dh mez rd pyrs jgrs gSaA bl nkSjku ;s
rHkh #drs gSa tc xHkZ Bgj tk, ;k dksbZ 'kkjhfjd xM+cM+h gksA 45&50 lky dh mez esa ekgokjh #d tkrh gSA
bls jtksfuo`fk ;k ehuksikWt+ dgrs gSaA blds ckn vaMk'k; dke djuk can dj nsrs gSa vkSj vanj ekStwn lkjs
vifjiDo vaMk.kq u"V gksus yxrs gSaA vaMk'k; vc ih;w"k xzafFk ls feyus okys gkeksZu ladsrksa dk tokc ugha nsrkA
,LVkstu o izkstsLVsjksu ugha cursA gkeksZu esa bu ifjorZuksa ds dkj.k ,d ckj fQj L=h ds 'kjhj o eu% fLFkfr
ewM esa ifjorZu gksrs gSaA [kkl rkSj ls ns[kk x;k gS fd ,LVkstu dh deh ds dkj.k gfM~M;ka det+ksj iM+us yxrh
gSaA

fir`lkk vkSj iztuu


fir`lkkRed O;oLFkk esa ifjokj dk eqf[k;k dksbZ iq#"k gksrk gSA ifjokj ds lHkh lnL;ksa] laifk o vkfFkZd lalk/kuksa
ij mldk fu;a=.k gksrk gSA oa'k Hkh mlh ds uke ls pyrk gSA bl O;oLFkk esa iq#"k dk ntkZ efgyk ls pk gksrk gSA ;gka
efgyk dks iq#"k ds mi;ksx dh oLrq rFkk mldks oa'k c<+kus dk ek/;e Hkj ekuk tkrk gSA dqnjrh rkSj ij tks vkSjr ftl
cPps dks tUe nsrh gS og mldh eka gS] ;g lkQ irk pyrk gSA ysfdu ml cPps dk firk dkSu gS] ;g irk ugha py ikrk
gSA iq#"k dSls lqfuf'pr djs fd ;g cPpk mldk gh gS\ blds fy, fir`lkk us fookg dh laLFkk cukbZ tks eq[; :i ls
efgykvksa dh ;kSfudrk o iztuu ij fu;a=.k j[krh gSA blls ifr dks ekywe jgrk gS fd iRuh ds xHkZ esa mlh dh larku gSA
bl rjg fir`lkk us iztuu dks ,d lkekftd Lo:i ns fn;k gS vkSj mlds lkFk dbZ jhfr&fjokt+] :f<+;ka o ijaijk,a tqM+

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 36


xbZ gSaA dkSu&lh efgyk iztuu dj ldrh gS] dc dj ldrh gS] fdlds lkFk dj ldrh gS] fdl fLFkfr esa iztuu
,d lEekutud dk;Z ekuk tk,xk] bu lcds laca/k esa reke ikcafn;ka o fu;e&dk;ns gSaA iq#"kksa ij Hkh ikcafn;ka
gSaA fookg laLFkk ds ckgj gq, cPpksa dks lkekftd ekU;rk ugha nh tkrh gSA fookg laLFkk ds ckgj iq#"k ;kSfud laca/k
rks cuk ldrs gSa ij oa'k pysxk iRuh ls gqbZ larkuksa ls ghA bl rjg fir`lkkRed O;oLFkk esa vkSjr dh dks[k
lkekftd fu;a=.k dh ,d pht+ cu xbZA
pwafd iztuu 'kq: ls gh ,d jgL; jgk gS] blfy, bls ysdj reke Hkzkafr;ka o va/kfo'okl QSys gq, gSaA pwafd
;g ,d fuf"k) fo"k; gS] blfy, bl ij [kqys :i esa ckrphr ugha gksrh vkSj vf/kdka'k yksx dgh&lquh ckrksa ij gh
fuHkZj jgrs gSaA bldk ,d ifj.kke ;g gksrk gS fd ge vius 'kjhj dh lkekU; f;kvksa dks Hkh fofr;ka eku ysrs gSa
vkSj geesa ls dbZ uhe&gdheksa ds pDdj esa iM+ tkrs gSaA blds vykok dbZ yksx iztuu ra= dks ysdj dbZ
euksxazfFk;ksa ds f'kdkj gks tkrs gSaA bldk ,d dkj.k ;g gS fd iztuu ra= dk laca/k ;kSu Hkkoukvksa ls Hkh gSA
iztuu f;k njvly L=h vkSj iq#"k ds feyu ls laHko gksrh gSA oSls gky gh esa Dyksfuax ds tks iz;kl gq,
gSa] mUgksaus bl ekeys esa dbZ loky [kM+s dj fn, gSaA vHkh rd ge ekurs Fks fd balku o vU; fodflr tarqvksa esa
vySafxd iztuu laHko ugha gSA exj Dyksfuax us bl /kkj.kk dks iyV fn;k gSA vkt Dyksfuax rduhd ds t+fj,
,d vdsyk O;f cPps iSnk dj ldrk gS exj iq#"k dks viuk Dyksu iSnk djus ds fy, L=h dh enn t+:jh gksxhA
vyckk Dyksfuax dks ysdj vHkh brus vxj&exj gSa fd iztuu dh ckr fQygky mlds cxSj gh djuk mfpr
gksxkA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 37


cky vf/kdkj] cky 'kks"k.k ,oa cky fookg

cky vf/kdkj
cPpksa ds vf/kdkj dk vFkZ gS cPpksa dks nh tkus okyh os lgqfy;rsa] ftudk og ekfyd gS ;k mls feyuh gh
pkfg,A fo'o esa cPpksa ds fgr dks /;ku esa j[krs gq;s dqN cky vf/kdkj cuk;s x, gSa] rkfd muds fodkl esa dksbZ ck/kk
u vk;sA
dksbZ Hkh cPpk viuh ethZ ls nqfu;k esa ugha vkrkA mlds ekrk&firk ,d ifjokj@lekt esa mls tUe nsrs
gSaA tUe ds ckn mls thus dk vf/kdkj vius vki fey tkrk gSA ;fn mlds [kkus&ihus] jgus] diM+s rFkk
i<+kbZ&fy[kkbZ vkSj chekj iM+us ij bykt vkfn t:jh ekxksa dks iwjk u fd;k tk;s rks ;g mlds tUetkr vf/kdkjksa
dk guu gSA ;s vf/kdkj mu lHkh cPpksa dks fn, x, gSa] tks 18 o"kZ ls de vk;q ds gSa& os pkgsa fdlh Hkh fyax] izkar]
tkfr ;k /keZ ds gksaA
xzke iapk;r ds lHkh lnL;ksa rFkk lHkh ekrk&firk dks cky vf/kdkjksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh gksuh pkfg;s rkfd
os lHkh cPpksa [kkldj ckfydkvksa dks lHkh vf/kdkjksa&LokLF;] iks"k.k o f'k{kk feyuk lqfuf'pr djk ldsaA
fo'o ds gj cPps dks fuEufyf[kr vf/kdkj feyus gh pkfg;sA

fu.kZ;
lEekfur thou lHkh cPpksa dks vf/kdkj feyuk euksjat u
iks" k.k pkfg;s a [ksyuk
LokLF; vfHkO;fDr
f'k{kk feyuk&tqyuk
I;kj lq;ksX; ukxfjd cuuk
lqj{kk iw.kZ fodkl
fu.kZ;ks esa Hkkxhnkjh

1- cPpksa dks vius ekrk&firk ,oa ifjokj ds lkFk jgus] muls [kqydj ckr djus ,oa mudk I;kj ikus dk vf/kdkj
gSA ifjokj esa 'kkafr] izse o vkilh fo'okl dh Hkkouk gksuk t+#jh gSA vxj ekrk&firk vyx&vyx jg jgs gSa] rks
cPpk viuh ethZ ds vuqlkj muls fey ldrk gS] muds ikl vk tk ldrk gSA cPps dh ethZ ds f[kykQ mls
ekrk&firk ls rc rd nwj ugha fd;k tk ldrk] tc rd blesa cPps dk fgr u gksA
2- lHkh cPpksa dks uke] igpku ,oa jk"Vh;rk ikus dk vf/kdkj gSA
3- cPpksa dks ekjihV] MkV QVdkj vkSj cqjs O;ogkj ls lqj{kk ikus dk vf/kdkj gSA
4- cPpksa dks vius mfpr fodkl ds fy;s lqfo/kk ,oa laj{k.k ikus dk vf/kdkj gSA
5- izR;sd cPps dks fcuk fdlh HksnHkko ds LokLF; lqfo/kk;sa ikus dk vf/kdkj gSA mUgsa larqfyr vkSj HkjisV Hkkstu ysus
,oa Vhdkdj.k dk Hkh vf/kdkj gSA
6- izR;sd cPps dks vko';d lq[k&lqfo/kk okyk thou&Lrj ikus dk vf/kdkj gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 38


7- gj cPps dks izkFkfed f'k{kk ikus dk vf/kdkj gSA mUgsa viuh ;ksX;rkuqlkj mPp f'k{kk Hkh ikus dk vf/kdkj gSA
8- cPpksa dks 'kks"k.k jfgr thou thus dk vf/kdkj gSA u rks mudk Je 'kks"k.k gksuk pkfg, vkSj u gh ;kSu 'kks"k.kA
mUgsa ;g vf/kdkj gS fd gj izdkj ds 'kks"k.k ls mudks nwj j[kk tk;sA
cky 'kks"k.k
cpiu esa cPps ds 'kjhj vkSj eu rFkk cqf) dk fodkl gks jgk gksrk gSa bl dkj.k mudh lqj{kk vkSj ns[kHkky
dh vf/kd t:jr gSA
cPpksa dk vf/kdrj nks rjg ls 'kks"k.k gksrk gS Je 'kks"k.k vkSj ;kSu&'kks"k.kA cPpksa ds cky Jfed cuus ds
ihNs eq[; dkj.k xjhch vkSj vf'k{kk gSA lekt dh uSfrdrk ds iru ds dkj.k cPpksa dk ;kSu 'kks"k.k gksrk gSA
cPpksa dh 'kkjhfjd 'kfDr ls vf/kd dke djkuk rFkk de mez ds cPpksa dks [krjukd ;k tksf[ke okys dkeksa
esa yxkuk voS/k@xSj dkuwuh gSA ns'k esa cM+h la[;k esa cPps dfBu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa jgrs gSaA yxHkx 500000 cPpsa
caxyksj] cacbZ] dydkk] gSnjkckn] dkuiqj dh lM+dksa ij jgrs gSaA bu cPpksa us dHkh fo|ky; dk eqag ugha ns[kkA
cPps bu fLFkfr;ksa ls mcj ldrs gSaA blds fy, vko';drk gS lekt esa tkx:drk dh rFkk dksey vkSj eklwe
cPpksa dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ij lgkuqHkwfriwoZd fopkj djus dhA Hkkjr cky Jfedksa ds fgr ds izfr opuc) gSA dkuwu esa
;g izko/kku gS fd de mez ds cPpksa dks jkstxkj djus ds fy, ck/; ugha fd;k tk;sxkA cPpksa dks blls eqDr jgus
dk vf/kdkj gSA fofHkUu jkstxkjksa ds fy, cPpksa dh U;wure vk;q r; dh xbZ gSA
fdlh cPps dks voS/k ;kSu dk;Z ds fy, Qqlykuk] mlds lkFk tcjnLrh djuk] mlls oS';ko`fk djkuk
xSj&dkuwuh gSA blds f[kykQ U;kf;d dkjokbZ dh O;oLFkk gSA cPpksa dk vigj.k vkSj mudh ethZ ds fcuk mUgsa
dgha Hkstuk o ys tkuk Hkh xSj&dkuwuh gSA yM+fd;ksa ds lkFk ;g ?kVuk;sa fo'ks"k :i ls gksrh gSa mUgsa Qqlykdj ys
tkrs gSa vkSj nwj ds 'kgjksa] jkT;ksa esa csp fn;k tkrk gSA tgk bu ckfydkvksa ls os';ko`fk djokbZ tkrh gSA

de mez esa gq, fookg dk vlj


? fd'kksjh ds fodkl esa 12 ls 18 lky dh mez cgqr vgfe;r j[krh gSA [kqn dh igpku vkSj vkilh fj'rs
fuHkkus vkSj leL;kvksa dks tkuus dh le> blds ckn gh vkrh gSA
? dkuwu ds fglkc ls yM+fd;ksa dh 'kknh dh mez 18 lky vkSj yM+dksa dh 21 lky gSA bldk eryc gS fd
vc os ckfyx gks x, gSa vkSj 'kknh dh ftEesnkfj;k fuHkkus ds dkfcy gSaA 18 lky dk gksus ds ckn mUgsa
,d ftEesnkj ukxfjd ekuk tkrk gS vkSj ernku dk vf/kdkj feyrk gSA
? vkaf'kd :i ls Hkh de mez ds fd'kksj ekrk&firk cPps dh ns[kHkky iw.kZ:i ls ugha dj ldrsA
? 'kkjhfjd fodkl dh tkudkjh ls irk pyk gS fd yM+dh dk 'kjhj 18 lky dh mez ls igys xHkZ ds fy;s
iw.kZ:i ls rS;kj ugha gksrkA dwYgs dh gh dh xksykbZ dk vkdkj tks izlwfr ds fy;s mi;qDr gksrk gS] 18
lky rd curk jgrk gSA ;fn blls igys cPpk iSnk gksrk gS] rks dwYgs dh gh NksVh gksus ds dkj.k cPps
dh iSnkb'k esa #dkoV vk ldrh gS ftlls ek vkSj cPps nksuksa dk thou ladV esa jgrk gSA
? vxj yM+dh 18 lky ls igys xHkZorh gks tkrh gS rks cPpsnkuh ij vf/kd f[kapko@tksj iM+rk gSA ,slk
blfy, gksrk gS fd cPpsnkuh dk fodkl vHkh iw.kZ:i ls rS;kj ugha gksrkA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 39


NksVh mez dh ekrk, de otu ds detksj cPpksa dks tUe nsrh gSaA blls cPpksa ds fLVy oFkZ@ejus ;k
?
chekj 'kkjhfjd o vkaf'kd :i ls detksj iM+us dk [krjk jgrk gS rFkk os Lo;a Hkh detksj gks tkrh gSa
ftlls os viuh vkSj cPps rFkk ifjokj dh ns[kHkky lgh <ax ls ugh dj ikrh gSaA
de mez esa fookg gksus ls fd'kksfj;ksa dh f'k{kk ds volj de@[kRe gks tkrs gSa rFkk lkekftd cfg"dkj
?
Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA
cky fookg&dkuwuh vijk/k

fgUnw fookg vf/kfu;e ds vuqlkj%


? 21 lky ls de mez dk yM+dk vkSj 18 lky ls de mez dh yM+dh ;fn viuh bPNk ls 'kknh djrs gSa] rks mUgsa
15 fnu dh dSn ;k
1000 #i;s rd dk tqekZuk ;k
dSn vkSj tqekZuk nksuksa gks ldrs gSa /kkjk 18
cky fookg vojks/k vf/kfu;e 1929 ;k 2006 ds vuqlkj%
? 18 lky ls ij dk ysfdu 21 lky ls de mez dk yM+dk vxj 18 lky ls de mez dh yM+dh ls 'kknh djrk
gS] rks mls%
15 fnu dh dSn ;k
1000 :i;k rd dk tqekZuk ;k
dSn vkSj tqekZuk nksuksa gks ldrs gSaA /kkjk 3
? 21 lky ls vf/kd mez dk yM+dk vxj 18 lky ls de mez dh yM+dh ls 'kknh djrk gS rks mls%
rhu eghus rd dSn vkSj
tqekZuk Hkh gks ldrk gSA /kkjk 4
cky fookg djokus okys ekrk&firk] fj'rsnkj] fookg djokus okyk iafMr bR;kfn dks Hkh rhu eghus rd
dh dSn vkSj tqekZuk gks ldrk gSA
fdlh efgyk ekrk] ikyd bR;kfn dks bl tqeZ esa dSn ugha fd;k tk ldrk] dsoy tqekZuk Hkjuk iM+sxkA
cky fookg dh f'kdk;r dSls gksxh\
ftl dk cky fookg djok;k tk jgk gks og] ;k mldk dksbZ fj'rsnkj] nksLr ;k tkudkj cky fookg ds ckjs
esa Fkkus esa tkdj iwjh tkudkjh ns ldrk gSA bl ij iqfyl iwNrkN djds] eftLVsV ds ikl fjiksVZ HkstsxhA eftLVsV
ds dksVZ esa dsl pysxk vkSj cky fookg lkfcr gksus ij vijk/kh O;fDr;ksa dks ltk nh tk;sxhA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 40


D;k cky fookg jksdk tk ldrk gS \
gk! ;fn le; ls iqfyl ;k eftLVsV dks tkudkjh fey tk;s] rks eftLVsV 'kknh djokus okys O;fDr;ksa dks
vkns'k ns dj 'kknh jksd ldrs gSaA os O;fDr vxj ;g vkns'k u ekusa] rks mUgsa Hkh %
? rhu eghus rd dh dSn ;k
? 1000 :0 rd dk tqekZuk ;k
? dSn vkSj tqekZuk nksuksa gks ldrs gSa
m+Ttoy LoLFk Hkfo"; ds fy;s yM+dh dh 'kknh dh mez 18 lky rFkk yM+ds dh 21 lky gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 41


lkekftd fyaxHksn vkSj ukjhokn
lkekftd fyaxHksn tsaMj D;k&
vktdy tsaMj 'kCn cgqr i<+us&lquus esa vkrk gS vkSj vDlj bls efgykvksa ds lanHkZ esa ns[kk tkrk gSA bruk
gh ugha dqN yksx tsaMj dk vFkZ fyax ;kuh L=hfyax o iqfYyax ds fy, Hkh djrs gSaA vkb, ns[krs gSa fd vkf[kj fyax
lsDl] ySafxd fHkrk vkSj tsaMj lkekftd fyaxHksn gSa D;k &
fyax&
iSnk gksrs gh f'k'kq ds ckgjh iztuu vax ns[kdj r; gks tkrk gS fd og yM+dh gS ;k yM+dkA iztuu vaxksa ds
vykok cPps&cfPp;ksa ds ckdh vax ;kuh gkFk] iSj] ukd] dku] vka[k vkfn ,d leku gksrs gSaA flQZ iztuu vaxksa esa
varj gksrk gSA ckgj ls ns[ksa rks ,d ds ;ksuh rks nwljs ds f'k'u gksrk gSA xkao gks ;k 'kgj] xjhc gks ;k vehj] Hkkjr gks
;k vejhdk iwjh nqfu;k esa iSnk gksrs gh cPps ds fyax lsDl dh igpku mlds ckgjh iztuu vaxksa ls dh tkrh gSA
fyax ij vk/kkfjr 'kkjhfjd vaxksa o f;kvksa ds varjksa dks ySafxd fHkrk dgrs gSaA
ySafxd fHkrk
;g ySafxd fHkrk egt iztuu vaxksa vkSj muls lacaf/kr vkarfjd lajpukvksa o tSfod f;kvksa rd lhfer
gksrh gSA ySafxd fHkrk izkfrd dqnjrh ;k tSodh; gksrh gSA bls cnyk ugha tk ldrk gkykafd vktdy
vkWijs'ku ds tfj, ;g Hkh laHko gks x;k gS fdarq bl rjg efgyk ls cus iq#"k ;k iq#"k ls cuh efgyk cPps iSnk ugha
dj ldrhA cPps dks tUe nsus esa efgyk&iq#"k nksuksa dh vyx&vyx izdkj dh ysfdu vko';d Hkwfedk gSA buesa
ls dksbZ Hkh vdsys gh izkfrd :i ls cPps dks tUe ugha ns ldrk ;kuh izkfrd :i ls cuh ySafxd fHkrk esa
efgyk&iq#"k nksuksa dk viuk&viuk fof'k"V ;ksxnku gS tks fugk;r t:jh gSA
lkekftd fyaxHksn tsaMj
ySafxd fHkrk dh rqyuk esa lkekftd fyaxHksn tsaMj lekt }kjk cuk;k x;k gS ;g izkfrd dqnjrh ;k
tSodh; ugha gSA ,d vksj lkekftd fyaxHksn iq#"kRo o ukjhRo ds xq.k fu/kkZfjr djrk gS vkSj nwljh vksj ;g Hkh r;
djrk gS fd dksbZ iq#"k ;k efgyk ds fy, mfpr gS ;k vuqfprA lkekftd fyaxHksn dk Lo:i lekt] laLfr vkSj
vkfFkZd gkykr ds fofHk vk;keksa ls izHkkfor gksrk gSA blh dks lkekthdj.k dgk tkrk gSA ge cpiu ls gh bl
lkekthdj.k ds }kjk r;'kqnk Hkwfedkvksa dk u dsoy fuokZg djuk lh[k tkrs gSa cfYd mUgsa vkRelkr Hkh dj ysrs gSaA
tkfgj gS fd ns'k] dky] /keZ o laLfr ds cnyus ls lkekftd fyaxHksn gj txg vyx&vyx :i ysxk vkSj dHkh
,d gh txg ij Hkh fofHk izdkj ls fn[ksxkA mnkgj.k ds fy, Hkkjr esa viuh&viuh i`"BHkwfe ds vuqlkj efgyk,a
lkM+h] lyokj lwV] ygaxk] LdVZ] kWd vkfn igurh gSa vkSj iq#"k iSaV&'kVZ] iStkek&dqrkZ] /kksrh&deht+ vkfnA vc
yM+fd;ka vkSj v/ksM+ efgyk,a Hkh [kkldj 'kgjksa esa] iSaV&'kVZ] dqrkZ] thUl vkfn iguus yxha gSaA ikjaifjd :i ls
efgyk,a yacs cky j[krh gSa vkSj iq#"k NksVsA ysfdu orZeku esa dbZ efgyk,a Hkh NksVs cky j[kus yxh gSa vkSj ogha dqN
iq#"kksa dks yacs cky j[kuk T;knk Hkkrk gSA bu ifjorZuksa ds ckotwn tc r;'kqnk Hkwfedkvksa ls gVdj dksbZ O;f dqN
fcYdqy vyx O;ogkj djrk@djrh gS rks ge izfrf;k djrs gSa pwafd gesa og vViVk yxrk gSA ;g lc lkekftd
fyaxHksn ds dkj.k gS] u fd ySafxd fHkrk ds dkj.kA
lkekftd fyaxHksn us efgyk&iq#"k ds fy, vyx&vyx Hkwfedk,a lqfuf'pr dh gSaA blus iq#"kksa ds fy,
vktknh o laHkkoukvksa dk [kqyk vkleku fn;k rFkk efgykvksa dks iq#"kksa dh v/khuLFkrk o <sjksa fu;e&dk;nsA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 42


lkekftd fyaxHksn vkSj ySafxd fHkrk esa varj
-la- ySfxd fHkrk lkekftd fyaxHksn
1 tUetkr gS lkekftd lksp o ijaijkvksa }kjk fu/kkZfjr gSA
2 izkfrd dqnjrh ;k tS odh; gS lekthdj.k dk ifj.kke gSA
3 lkoZHkkSfed gS lekt] laLfr] ns'k] dky o vkfFkZad gkykr ds vuqlkj
Lo:i cnyrk gSA
4 LFkk;h gS] viokn NksM+dj vLFkk;h gS] cnyk tk ldrk gSA

lekt gh efgyk&iq#"k ds chp Hksn cukrk gS vkSj bUgha ds vk/kkj ij efgykvksa dks iq#"kksa ls derj ntkZ nsrk gSA
izkfrd varjksa esa flQZ iztuu lacaf/kr Hkwfedk,a lqfuf'pr gSaA
vkf[kj] lkekftd fyaxHksn ls efgyk&iq#"k ds chp varj cukus dh t:jr gh D;ksa gqbZ\
;gh rks le>us dh ckr gSA lkekftd fyaxHksn esa iq#"kksa ds ikl lkjh lkk gS og lHkh phtksa dk ekfyd gS&
;gka rd fd efgyk dk HkhA bl lkekftd O;oLFkk dks fir`lkk ;k iq#"k iz/kku O;oLFkk dgrs gSaA
fir`lkk
fir`lkk ,d ,slh lkekftd O;oLFkk gS ftlds varxZr firk ;k dksbZ iq#"k] ifjokj ds lHkh lnL;ksa] laifk
o vU; vkfFkZd lk/kuksa ij fu;a=.k j[krk gS rFkk ogh eqf[k;k ekuk tkrk gSA oa'k ;k [kkunku iq#"kksa ds uke ls pyrk
gSA fir`lkk ;k iq#"k iz/kku lekt O;oLFkk esa iq#"k dk ntkZ vkSjr ls apk gSA og vkSjr dk Lokeh gS] ekfyd gSA
fir`lkk dh ekU;rk gS fd vkSjrksas dks iq#"kksa ds v/khu vkSj muds fu;a=.k esa jguk pkfg,A ;g fopkj/kkjk vkSjrksa dks
iq#"kksa dh laifk dk ,d fgLlk ekurh gSA ;gka rd fd vkSjr ds 'kjhj ij Hkh iq#"kksa dk gd ekuk tkrk gSA og dc
vkSj fdlds lkFk ;kSu laca/k cuk,] dc cPpk iSnk djs] fdlls djs] yM+ds dks tUe ns ;k yM+dh dks rFkk fdrus cPps
iSnk djs& ;s lkjs fu.kZ; ifjokj] lekt o ljdkj ds gksrs gSa mlds vius ughaA lHkh /keZ fir`lkkRed gSa rFkk vkSjrksa
ds lanHkZ esa leku er j[krs gSaA ;gka rd fd cgqr lkjs dkuwu Hkh /keksZa ij vk/kkfjr gSa tSls& fgUnw dkuwu] bLykeh
dkuwu] bZlkbZ dkuwu vkfn ds varxZr fookg] rykd] Hkj.k&iks"k.k o laifk ds vf/kdkj vkrs gSaA bl O;oLFkk esa
vkSjr&enZ ds chp tks xSj&cjkcjh gS og cpiu ls ysdj ejrs {k.k rd Li"V fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA ?kj&ifjokj ds ekeyksa
esa [kklrkSj ij vkSjrksa ls lacaf/kr ekeyksa esa ljdkj ds dkuwuksa ls T;knk lkekftd fu;eksa dk egRo gSA fir`lkkRed
lekt us viuh O;oLFkk dks lqpk: :i ls pykus ds fy, vkSjr&enZ dks dqN vf/kdj o dkZO; fn, gSaA lkekftd]
fyaxHksn dk ifj.kke gS fd iq#"kksa dks fn, x, vf/kdkjksa dk iyM+k efgykvksa ds eqdkcys dgha vf/kd Hkkjh gS] tcfd
dkZO; de gSaA blds Bhd foijhr efgykvksa dks iq#"kksa dh rqyuk esa dgha vf/kd dkZO;ksa dk cks> fn;k x;k gS tcfd
vf/kdkj ukeek= gSaA fir`lkkRed O;oLFkk esa] vkSjr dk viuh dks[k ij Hkh gd ugha gksrkA izfr ds fu;ekuqlkj
ekgokjh 'kq: gksus ds ckn dksbZ Hkh yM+dh eka cu ldrh gS]
ysfdu fir`lkk esa vkSjr ds eka cuus ij 'krZ ;g gS fd 'kknh'kqnk vkSjrsa gh eka cu ldrh gSaA dqaokjh]
fo/kok o rykd'kqnk vkSjr dk eka cuuk uktk;t+ ekuk tkrk gSA vkSjr csVk gh iSnk djs] ;g ncko ifjokj dk gksrk
gSA vkSjr dc] fdlls vkSj fdrus cPps iSnk djs] ;g fu.kZ; ifjokj] lekt o ljdkj dk gSA dks[k vkSjr dh gS ij
mlds fu.kZ; ifjokj] lekt o ljdkj djrh gS] tcfd iq#"k ij ,slh dksbZ 'krZ ugha gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 43


fir`lkkRed lekt O;oLFkk dks etcwr djus o cjdjkj j[kus esa /keksZa dh vge Hkwfedk gSA /keZ]
jhfr&fjokt+ o ijaijkvksa ds t+fj, vkSjrksa ds fnyksfnekx dks bl O;oLFkk us bl rjg <ky fn;k gS fd cxSj xkM+hoku
ds gh ;g xkM+h l/ks&l/kk, o r;'kqnk jkLrs ij pyrh tkrh gSA lekt mlh vkSjr dks vPNh iRuh] eka] cgu o
x`g.kh gksus dk yscy nsrk gS tks fir`lkk ds jhfr&fjokt+ksa] ijaijkvksa ij fcuk dksbZ loky mBk, pqipki vka[k ewandj
mUgsa ekurh jgsA t+jk xkSj dhft,A
? gj /keZ esa vkSjr dk ntkZ iq#"k ls uhps gSA
? djokpkSFk] gjrkfydk rht o fryok pkSFk dk ozr vkSjrsa vius ifr o csVksa dh yEch mez o LoLFk thou ds
fy, djrh gSaA
? 'kknh ds ckn lqgkx fpUg /kkj.k djuk vkSjrksa ds fy, vfuok;Z gS] iq#"kksa ds fy, ughaA ;s fpUg crkrs gSa fd
;g vkSjr fdlh iq#"k dh vekur gSA mls ifr ds vykok vU; fdlh ds lkFk ;kSu laca/k cukus dh NwV ugha
gSA ;fn cykRdkj tSlh ?kVuk vkSjr ds lkFk ?kVrh gS rks vDlj ifr mls NksM+ nsrk gSA /keZ] jhfr&fjokt+ o
ijaijkvksa ds t+fj, ;s lqgkx fpUg vkSjrksa ds eu esa brus xgjs te x, gSa fd buds fcuk mUgsa viuk thou
vlqjf{kr yxus yxrk gSA og vPNh x`fg.kh o ifrozrk vkSjr cuus dh dksf'k'k esa iwjk thou xqt+kj nsrh gSA
? fo/kok gksrs gh lqgkx fpUg csnnhZ ls mrkj fn, tkrs gSaA bruk gh ugha] jaxhu oL= iguus dk gd Hkh Nhu
fy;k tkrk gSA iwoZ esa lrhizFkk dk pyu Fkk] ;g vHkh Hkh cUn ugha gqvk gS ;kuh ifr ds fcuk vkSjr ds
thou ds dksbZ ek;us gh ugha cprs] tcfd iq#"kksa ij mijks fu;e ykxw ugha gksrsA
? vkSjr dks nkg&laLdkj dk gd u gksus ls csVksa dh pkgr o csfV;ksa dh mis{kk c<+h gSA
? ifr ijes'oj gS pkgs og 'kjkch] tqvkjh ;k nwljh vkSjrksa ds ikl tkus okyk gh D;ksa u gksA ifr dSlk Hkh gks
ij vkSjr dk iRuh ds r;'kqnk ekin.Mksa ij MVs jguk mlds vPNh vkSjr gksus dh fu'kkuh gSA
gkykafd mijks mnkgj.k fgUnw /keZ ls lacaf/kr gSa] ysfdu vkxs vki [kaM nks esa ns[ksaxs fd oSokfgd laca/kksa esa
lkekftd fyaxHksn dh ,slh ijEijk,a o jhfr&fjokt+ bLyke ,oa bZlkbZ /keksZa esa Hkh ekStwn gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 44


bl rjg gekjs lekt esa vkt vkSjr dk ntkZ egt+ ,d xqyke nklh dh rjg gSA bl xSj&cjkcjh ds dkj.k vkSj
bl xSj&cjkcjh dks cuk, j[kus ds fy, vkSjrksa ij fofHk izdkj dh fgalk dh tkrh gSA ckgjh fgalk ls T;knk ?kjsyw
fgalk dh ?kVuk,a gSaA ,slk Hkh ugha gS fd vkSjr ij mlds llqjky esa gh fgalk gksrh gks] ek;ds esa Hkh og ihfM+r gSA
mlds thou dk fodkl] xfr ;gha jksd nh tkrh gSA bl rjg fir`lkk us ,d&nwljs ds iwjd nks balkuksa dks
vkSjr&enZ ds [kkapksa esa ckaVdj iq#"k dks ijes'oj o vkSjr dks mldh nklh cuk fn;k gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 45


ukjhokn
ukjhokn] vkSjr&enZ ds chp fir`lkk }kjk cukbZ xbZ xSj&cjkcjh dks [kRe djus rFkk vkSjr dks iq#"k dh gh
rjg balku le>us ds fy, la?k"kZ djrk gSA lkekftd fyaxHksan dks flQZ igpkuuk gh dkQh ugha gS cfYd mldks
pqukSrh nsuk o mlds f[kykQ [kM+s gksuk ukjhokn gSA ;g pqukSrh fdlh Hkh :i esa gks ldrh gS& vdsys] lkewfgd :i
ls] O;kid Lrj ij /kjus&vkUnksyu djdsa ;k O;fDxr thou esa fir`lkk ds ewY;ksa dks udkjdjA vkSjr dk vius
'kjhj o thou ij Lo;a ds fu;a=.k o vf/kdkj dk la?k"kZ gh ukjhokn gSA
? ukjhokn] ?kj&ckgj nksuksa txgksa ij vkSjrksa dh lekurk o lEeku dh ckr djrk gSA
? ukjhokn] ekStwnk fir`lkkRed lkekftd <+kaps dks cnydj vkSjr&enZ dh lekurk ij vk/kkfjr <kps dh
LFkkiuk dk iz;kl gSA
? ukjhokn] vkSjrksa dks lfn;ksa iqjkus neu o 'kks"k.k ds f[kykQ la?k"kZ djus ds fy, izsfjr djrk gSA
? ukjhokn] ekuoh;dj.k dh ,d izf;k gS tks lekt esa balkuh ewY;ksa dks vkxs c<+kus ds fy, izfrc) gSA
blhfy, ;g iq#"kksa ds fy, Hkh mruh gh t+:jh gS ftruh vkSjrksa ds fy,A
iq#"kksa ds fy, ukjhokn D;ksa t+:jh gS\
;g ekuuk Bhd ugha gS fd fir`lkkRed O;oLFkk esa lHkh iq#"k [kq'k gSa vkSj mUgsa bl O;oLFkk ls dksbZ
f'kdk;r ugha gSA fir`lkk us vkSjrksa dks ftl rjg ls nCcw vkSj det+ksj cuk;k gS] mlh rjg ls iq#"k dks 'kklu djus
okys] vU;k;h o vR;kpkjh ds :i esa mHkkjk gSA vkt gj HkkbZ&firk viuh cgu&csVh dks ysdj fpafrr gSA iq#"kksa ij
enkZuxh tcnZLrh Fkksih xbZ gSA ftl rjg efgyk,a vcyk o detksj ugha gksrh gSa] cukbZ tkrh gSa] mlh rjg gj iq#"k
rkdroj o vU;k;h ugha gksrk] cuk;k tkrk gSA D;k iq#"kksa dk eu dHkh ugha djrk gksxk fd os ckgj tkdj iSlk
dekus ds ctk; ?kj dh ftEesnkjh laHkkysa] cPpksa ds lkFk le; fcrk,a] muds ikyu&iks"k.k dk ftEek ysa\ ysfdu
fir`lkk mUgsa ,slk ugha djus nsrhA tks: dk xqyke] ukenZ tSlh xkfy;ka mUgsa feyrh gSaA dksbZ Hkh laosnu'khy iq#"k
fir`lkk dh Hkwfedk Lohdkjuk dHkh ilan ugha djsxkA blfy, fir`lkkRed O;oLFkk dks cnydj vkSjr&iq#"k dh
lekurk ij vk/kkfjr lekt esa iq#"k Hkh viuh ilan dh Hkwfedk ys ldsaxs o fir`lkk dh enkZuxh okyh [kksy ls
ckgj fudydj jkgr dh lkl ys ik,axsA fu;a=d o 'kkludrkZ dh Hkwfedk esa gksus ds dkj.k iq#"koxZ vDlj
vR;kpkjh cu tkrk gSA enkZuxh fn[kkuh gS rks fdlh ij viuh fot; fn[kkuh gh gksxh vkSj QSlys xyr gks tk,axs
rks fdlh ij xqLlk mrkjuk gh gksxkA lkeusokyk iq#"k T;knk cy'kkyh gqvk vkSj mlls thruk eqf'dy yxk rks
mldh cgu&csVh ij cykRdkj fd;k tk,xkA ,slh [kcjksa ls v[kckj o i=&if=dk,a Hkjs iM+s gSaA laosnu'khy iq#"kksa
dks ;g lquuk cqjk yxrk gksxk fd vkt yM+fd;ksa o vkSjrksa dks taxyh tkuojksa ls Hkh mruk Hk; ugha gS ftruk fd
iq#"kksa ls!
D;k yM+fd;ksa okys dke o [ksyksa esa yM+dh gksuk t+:jh gSA D;k bUgsa yM+ds ugha dj ldrs tSls [kkuk
idkuk] flykbZ djuk] NksVs cPpksa dh ns[kHkky djuk] xqfM+;k ls [ksyuk vkfn\ blh izdkj yM+ds okys dke o [ksyksa
dh tkap&iM+rky djksA xkSjryc gS fd lHkh nt+hZ] ckophZ o gyokbZ enZ gksrs gSaA gksVyksa o <kcksa esa Hkh [kkuk cukus]
ijkslus o cjru /kksus dk dke iq#"k djrs gSa tcfd ;gh dke ?kj esa dsoy efgyk,a djrh gSaA D;ksa\
vU;k; djus okyk O;f /khjs&/khjs viuh balkfu;r Hkh [kksrs tkrk gSA balku] balku dks xqyke cuk,] blls
cM+h =klnh vkSj D;k gks ldrh gSA jksrh] fxM+fxM+krh] n;k dh Hkh[k ekaxrh vkSjr ds lkFk cykRdkj djuk] NksVs
yM+ds&yM+fd;ksa ds lkFk cykRdkj djuk] D;k balkfu;r ds y{k.k gSa\ ukjhokn] iq#"k dks balku cuus esa enn djrk
gSA blhfy, vkt dbZ laosnu'khy iq#"k ukjhokn ds bl la?k"kZ esa vkSjrksa ds lkFk [kM+s gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 46


vkSjr gh vkSjr dh nq'eu gS!
tc Hkh ge vkSjrksa dh fLFkfr ds ckjs esa ckr djrs gSa rc vDlj ;g tqeyk gesa lquus dks feyrk gS fd vkSjr
gh vkSjr dh nq'eu gSA vkb,] ns[krs gSa fd blds ihNs gdhdr D;k gSA
gekjk ekuuk gS fd vkSjr&vkSjr dh nq'eu ugha gS cfYd fir`lkkRed O;oLFkk dh okgd gSA fir`lkk dh
tM+s blhfy, bruh et+cwr gSa D;ksafd blesa vkSjrksa dk bLrseky vkSjrksa ds f[kykQ fd;k x;k gSA vkSjrksa dh nqfu;k
?kj dh pkjnhokjh ds vanj gS vkSj iq#"k T+;knkrj ?kj ds ckgj jgrs gSa] flQZ lksus ds fy, ?kj vkrs gSaA ,sls esa
LokHkkfod gS fd dgk&lquh vkSjrksa ds chp gh gksxhA nq'eu fdls dgrs gSa\,slh fdruh ?kVuk,a vkius ns[kh ;k lquh
gSa ftlesa vkSjrksa us vkSjrksa dks ryokj ls] canwd ls ;k pkdw ls ekj Mkyk gks\ lkFk gh ge bl gdhdr dks Hkh Lohdkjsa
fd enZ&enZ ds chp fdruh nq'euh gksrh gSA laifk ds fy, csVk cki dks ekj Mkyrk gS] HkkbZ&HkkbZ esa >xM+k jgrk gSA
rc Hkh ;g ugha dgk tkrk fd enZ&enZ dk nq'eu gSA vDlj lkl&cgw ds >xM+ksa dks c<+k&p<+kdj crk;k tkrk gS
ysfdu llqj&nkekn esa fdruh curh gS] bl ij dHkh ckr rd ugha gksrhA blh rjg lkSruksa ds chp gksus okys >xM+ksa
dks [kwc izpkfjr fd;k x;k gSA ij D;k dHkh fdlh iq#"k us iRuh ds 'kknh iwoZ ds izse dks Lohdkjus dh fgEer fn[kkbZ
gS\ bruk gh ugha] iRuh ij 'kd gksrs gh ekjihV o fu;a=.k 'kq: dj fn;k tkrk gSA fQj Hkh D;k ge ;gh dgsaxs fd
vkSjr] vkSjr dh nq'eu gS\ cgu&HkkbZ] nksLr] iM+kslh lHkh ds chp vDlj dgk&lquh gks tk;k djrh gS pwafd ;s
vf/kdka'k le; lkFk fcrkrs gSaA rks D;k os ,d&nwljs ds nq'eu gks x,\
lkekU; O;fDr lquh&lqukbZ ckrksa ds vk/kkj ij bls lp ekuus yxrs gSA okLrfodrk ;g gS fd vyx&vyx ifjokj
ls vk;h gqbZ vkSjrsa ,d lkFk ,d ifjokj esa jgrh gSa rks mUgsa lkeatL; fcBkus esa le; yxrk gSA D;ksafd os ,d nwljs
ds O;ogkj] fopkjksa ls ifjfpr ugha gksrh gSaA fQj vius vkidks ifjokj esa LFkkfir djus dh gksM+ esa Hkh dHkh&dHkh
muesa eueqVko gks tkrk gSA ,slk rks nks Hkkb;ksa esa Hkh gks tkrk gS rks D;k bldks nq'euh dgdj LFkkfir fd;k tk
ldrk gSa\
yM+dh ds ek;ds okys dgrs gSa bls ijk;s ?kj tkuk gS] ;g ijk;k /ku gSA 'kknh ds ckn llqjky tkrh gS rks
llqjky okys dgrs gSa ;g ijk;s ?kj dh yM+dh gSA nksuksa gh ?kjksa esa ;g lkspk tkrk gS fd bl ij [kpkZ djuk csdkj
gSA ysfdu ek;ds llqjky nksuksa gh txgksa esa mldk cjkcj dk gd gS vkSj nksuksa gh ?kj mlds gSaA
L=h dks ges'kk ifrozrk cuus dh lykg nh tkrh gSA tks iRuh ifr dks viuk lc dqN le>s] mldh lsok
djs] cPpksa dks tUe ns] mldh gj vkKk dk ikyu djs] mls lekt lEeku vkSj J)k dh n`f"V ls ns[krk gSA Bhd
blds foijhr vxj dksbZ ifr viuh iRuh dh ns[kHkky djrk gS] ?kj ds dke esa mldh enn djrk gS] mlds
lq[k&nq[k dk /;ku j[krk gS rks mls tks: dk xqyke dgk tkrk gSA ;g lc lekt ds cuk;s fu;e gSaA balku gksus ds
ukrs enZ vkSjr nksuksa ds vf/kdkj vkSj dkZO; cjkcj gSaA
vkSjr ftl ?kj esa iyrh&c<+rh gS ml ?kj ls mls 'kknh ds ckn viuk ifjokj cukus ds fy;s llqjky tkuk
gksrk gSA bldk eryc ;g ugha fd mls ogk fdlh Hkh ifjfLFkfr esa jguk gksxkA
lekt esa ,slk ekgkSy cuk gqvk gS fd yksx bl yksd ls T;knk ijyksd dh fpUrk djrs gSaA blh ds lkFk tqM+
tkrk gS fd csVk ikuh nsrk gSA rks mldh ykr Hkh HkyhA gesa okLrfodrk le>us dh T;knk t:jr gSA D;k csVk] D;k
csVh] tks [;ky j[ks] lsok djss] cq<+kis dk lgkjk cus ogh viuk gksrk gSA tc ge bl ckr dks fny ls le> tk;sxsa rks
gesa csVk vkSj csVh nksuksa gh ifjfLFkfr ds vuqlkj ?kh ds yM~Mw vkSj iRFkj yxsaxsA
dqN dgkorsa ,slh gSa ftldk eryc gh fudydj vkrk gS fd csVh dk tUe gh u gks ;k iSnk gks rks mldk
ejuk vPNkA ysfdu dksbZ bls xgjkbZ ls lksps rks irk pysxk fd vxj ,slk okLro esa gksxk rks D;k uqdlku gksaxs%

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 47


yM+dh ugha gksxh rks 'kknh fdlls gksxh\
yM+dh ugha gksxh rks cgu ugha gksxh\
vkSj ,d fnu ,slk vk;sxk tc tUe nsus ds fy;s ek gh ugha gksxh rks iwjh l`f"V gh [kRe gks tk;sxhA
bls cukus o ,slk cuk, j[kus esa efgyk&iq#"k nksuksa dh vge o cjkcj dh Hkwfedk gSA buesa ls fdlh Hkh ,d
ds cxSj ;g nqfu;k ugha py ldrhA dHkh /keZ ds uke ij rks dHkh tkfr o oxZ ds vk/kkj ij] rks dHkh viuh lkk dks
QSykus ds fy, tc naxs HkM+dk, tkrs gSa] ;q) fd, tkrs gSa] rc bls lqanj cukus okys balku vkil esa yM+us yxrs gSaA
,d&nwljs dk [kwu cgkrs gSaA ;s gknls rks fQj Hkh dHkh&dHkh vkSj dgha&dgha gksrs gSa fdarq fyax&vk/kkfjr fgalk]
vkSjr dks vkSjr gksus ds ukrs izrkfM+r djus dk flyflyk rks gj ?kj&ifjokj dh jkst+ejkZ dh ckrksa esa 'kqekj gSA gekjh
cgu&csfV;ksa o ekrkvksa ds dHkh ru vkgr gksrs gSa rks dHkh euA mudh ihM+k dks ns[kdj muds HkkbZ] firk o lkFkh Hkh
ijs'kku gksrs gSaA ysfdu ;gh HkkbZ] firk o lkFkh nwljs dh cgu&csfV;ksa dks ihM+k igqapkus ls ugha pwdrsA ,slk D;ksa\
dc rd ge balkfu;r [kksdj fir`lkk ds gkFkksa dh dBiqryh cus jgsaxs\

vkb,] ge feydj ladYi djsa fd %


iq#"k gksus ds ukrs]
fdlh Hkh efgyk ij] fdlh Hkh gkykr esa] fdlh Hkh izdkj dh fgalk ugha djsaxsA
fdlh Hkh vU; pkgs iq#"k gks ;k efgyk ds }kjk fdlh efgyk ij fdlh Hkh izdkj dh fgalk ugha gksus nsaxsA
efgyk gksus ds ukrs]
vius ij dh tk jgh fdlh Hkh fgalk dk pkgs og ifr ds }kjk gh D;ksa u gks dk izfrjks/k djsaxhA
fdlh vkSj efgyk ij dh tk jgh fgalk dks jksdus ds fy, gj laHko dksf'k'k djsaxhA
balku gksus ds ukrs] ge efgyk o iq#"k nksuksa]
lkekftd fyaxHksn dks iSnk djus okys fir`lkkRed <kaps dks /oLr djus vkSj mldh txg ,d lerkewyd
ekuooknh <kaps dk fuekZ.k djus ds fy, feydj yxkrkj la?k"kZ djsaxsA

ge ls mEehns
lekt vkSj ifjokj esa ge ls vyx&vyx mEehnsa dh tkrh gSa& iq#"k ls vyx rks efgykvksa ls vyxA
o;Ldksa ls vyx rks cPpksa ls vyxA firk ls dqN] rks ekW ls dqN] vkSj HkkbZ ls dqN rks cgu ls dqNA ge lHkh bu
mEehnksa dks iwjk djus esa tqVs jgrs gSA ij tks mEehnsa vke rkSj ij iq#"kksa ls vyx&vyx Hkwfedk esa dh tkrh gS] ml
esa eku&lEeku T;knk gksrk gS tSls fd os j[kokys gSa& lqj{kk nsrs gSa] ?kj dks pykrs gSa] dekus okys gSa] cqf)&fopkj ls
QSlyk lqukus okys] eqtfje dks ltk fnykus@nsus okys vkfn&vkfnA ;s lHkh mEehnsa vDlj iq#"kksa dh ph fLFkfr
ls Hkh tqM+h jgrh gS rFkk mUgsa ?kj vkSj ckgj] lekt esa QSlys ysus dh Hkwfedk nsrh gSA ij efgykvksa ls mEehnsa gksrh gSa
tSls& R;kx djsa] eerk fn[kk;sa] lsok djsa] 'kkyhu gksa] nc dj jgsa vkfn&vkfnA bu lHkh mEehnksa ds ihNs vius gdksa
dks de ekuuk fNik jgrk gSA gels vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd ge vius vki dks de egRo nsa vkSj iq#"kksa ds
egRo&Js"BRo dks cuk;sa j[kus dks gh viuk ije ms'; ekusaA tks yM+dh@vkSjr ftruh dqjckuh djsxh] vkSj vius
ifjokj ds iq#"kksa ;k ifr ls tqM+s lEcfU/k;ksa dh lsok djsxh og mruh egku ekuh tk;sxhA gels mEehnksa dks bl

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 48


prqjkbZ ls ckaVk x;k gS fd vxj ge loky mBk;sa rks dgk tk;sxk& ^;g rks vius Hkkb;ksa ls tyrh gS*] ;k ?kj dks
rksM+rh gS* vkfnA fir`lkk cM+h prqjkbZ ls gekjs dkeksa] lsok esa yxs Je dks] eerk vkSj drZO; dk tkek iguk dj
eqr esa gekjh esgur ls Qk;nk mBkrh rFkk viuk Je vkSj iSlk cpkrh gSA eerk vkSj ekr`Ro dh inoh nsdj gesa
fl[kk;k tkrk gS fd ^;s rqEgkjk drZO; gS*A fir`lkk ds lkFk&lkFk gekjh iztuu 'kfDr ij Hkh dCtk djrh gSA
gekjh eerk u rks gesa vius vf/kdkj fnyk ikrh gS vkSj u gh ^ekr`Ro* ls ,slh xkj.Vh feyrh gS fd cPpksa ij gekjk
vf/kdkj gksxk vkSj cPpsa gesa vkxs pydj lqj{kk] lq[k] lEeku nsxsaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 49


f'k{kk ds ek/;e
gekjs lekt esa yM+fd;ksa dh f'k{kk ds izfr yksx csgn ykijokg gSaA vf/kdka'k cfPp;k izkjafHkd f'k{kk ls Hkh
oafpr jg tkrh gSaA yksx ;g ugha lksprs fd ,d iq#"k f'kf{kr gksrk gS rks ,d O;fDr f'kf{kr gksrk gS vkSj tc ,d
efgyk f'kf{kr gksrh gS rks iwjk ifjokj ;k ,d lekt f'kf{kr gksrk gSA
f'k{kk dh vko';drk gj euq"; dks gS& pkgs og fdlh Hkh fyax] tkfr ;k /keZ dk gksA
Hkkjr ljdkj us viuh cky&uhfr esa ;g /;ku j[kk gS fd 14 o"kZ rd dh mez ds gj cPps dks fu%'kqYd vkSj
vfuok;Z f'k{kk iznku dh tk ldsA
yM+fd;ksa rFkk detksj cPpksa dh f'k{kk esa vkbZ fxjkoV dks de djus dh dksf'k'k csgn vko';d gSA tks cPps
Ldwyh f'k{kk ikus esa vleFkZ gSa] muds fy, vukSipkfjd f'k{kk dh O;oLFkk dh xbZ gSA vR;ar izfrHkk'kkyh cPpksa] [kkl
rkSj ls detksj oxZ ds izfrHkk'kkyh cPpksa dks izksRlkfgr djus rFkk mudh lgk;rk ds fy, fo'ks"k dk;Ze cuk;s x;s
gSaA izfrHkk'kkyh vkSj ;ksX; cPpksa dh mPp f'k{kk ds fy, ljdkj dh vksj ls fokh; lgk;rk nsus dh Hkh ;kstuk gSA
fuj{kjrk ,oa vKkurk feVkus ds fy, dbZ ljdkjh vkSj xSj&ljdkjh laxBu dk;Zjr gSaA
f'k{kk ds eq[; :i ls fuEufyf[kr nks ek/;e gksrs gSa% vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k rFkk vukSipkfjd f'k{k.k

vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k Formal Learning


f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa }kjk vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k ls rkRi;Z oSls f'k{k.k ls gksrk gS ftlesa f'k{kkFkhZ fdlh
vuq'kklukRed okrkoj.k esa dqN [kkl rjg ds fu;eksa ,oa fl)karksa ds vuq:i fdlh dkS'ky dks lh[krs gSaA tSls] d{kk
esa f'k{kdksa dh mifLFkfr esa f'k{kkFkhZ }kjk lh[kk x;k dkS'ky skills ,d vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k formal learning
dk mke mnkgj.k gSA
lwcsy Ausubel, 1989 us vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k formal learning dks ewyr% nks Hkkxksa esa ckVk gS&
1- d{kk f'k{k.k Classroom learning
2- {ks= f'k{k.k Field learning
bu nksuksa dh O;k[;k bl izdkj gS&
1- d{kk f'k{k.k Classroom learning& d{kk f'k{k.k ls rkRi;Z Ldwy ;k dkWystksa esa Nk=ksa }kjk oxZ ;k d{kk
esa f'k{kdksa dh enn ls xzg.k fd;k x;k dkS'ky ls gksrk gSA bl rjg ds f'k{k.k esa Ldwy] f'k{kd] ikBiqLrd
textbook rFkk vU;lac) lkefxz;ksa materials dh Hkwfedk vf/kd gksrh gSA f'k{kd Nk=ksa dks d{kk esa f'k{kk nsus
ds fy, ,d fo'ks"k ikBe syllabus rS;kj djrs gSa vkSj mlh ds vuq:i os Nk=ksa dks dkS'ky fl[kkrs gSaA bl
rjg dh f'k{kk dh mi;ksfxrk ;g gksrh gS fd blls Nk= dk fparu] rdZ'kfDr ,oa vU; lac) ;ksX;rkvksa dk bruk
vf/kd fodkl gks tkrk gS fd og vius fnu&izfrfnu dh ftanxh Bhd <ax ls lek;kstu rks dj gh ysrk gS rFkk lkFk
gh lkFk mlesa i;kZIr ekufld ifjiDou Hkh vk tkrk gSA
2- {ks= f'k{k.k Field learning& {ks= f'k{k.k ls rkRi;Z oSls f'k{k.k ls gksrk gS ftlesa Nk= fdlh {ks=] tSls
[ksy ds eSnku esa fo'ks"k izkf/kdkjh authority] tSls f'k{kd ;k vU; dksbZ fo'ks"kK dh enn ls fdlh fo'ks"k dkS'ky
dks lh[krs gSaA vDlj Nk=ksa dks Ldwy esa] [ksy ds eSnku esa dqN fo'ks"k rjg dh f'k{kk education nh tkrh gS
ftldk ewy ms'; d{kk f'k{k.k ls cps gq, dkS'kyksa dks i;kZIr fodkl djus ls gksrk gSA ,sls f'k{k.k dk ego

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 50


'kkjhfjd f'k{kk physical education esa lokZf/kd gksrk gSA
f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa dk er gS fd d{kk f'k{k.k rFkk {ks= f'k{k.k ds ek/;e ls fn;k x;k vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k
laiw.kZ ,oa ifjiDo gksrk gS D;ksafd blls ckydksa dk ekufld ,oa 'kkjhfjd nksuksa rjg dk fodkl lefUor <ax ls
gksrk gSA
blds Lrj fuEuor gSa%&
izkFkfed vFkok izkbejh Ldwy d{kk 1 ls 5 rd
twfu;j gkbZLdwy d{kk 6 ls 8 rd
gkbZLdwy d{kk 9 ,oa 10
b.VjehfM,V d{kk 11 ,oa 12
Lukrd b.Vj ds i'pkr 3 lky
ch0,0] ch0,l0lh0] ch0dke
ijkLukrd Lukrd ds ckn nks o"kZ ds fy;s
,e0,0] ,e0dke] ,e0,l0lh0
ih,p0Mh0 'kks/kdk;Z

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk Informal Learning


f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa us vukSipkfjd f'k{k.k ds ewyr% fuEukafdr rhu izdkj crk, gSa&
i ekrk&firk }kjk nh xbZ f'k{kk Education given by parents& dgk tkrk gS ifjokj igyh
ikB'kkyk gksrh gS tgk cPps f'kf{kr gksrs gSa ]bl ikB'kkyk esa ifjokj ds lnL;ksa dk] fo'ks"kdj ekrk&firk dh Hkwfedk
vf/kd egoiw.kZ crkbZ xbZ gS] ekrk&firk cPpksa dks mez ds vuqlkj rjg&rjg dh f'k{kk nsrs gSaA cPpksa dks dSls vius
ls cM+ksa ds lkFk] vius ls NksVksa ds lkFk] ifjokj e]sa ckgj ds yksxksa ds lkFk var% f;k interaction djuk pkfg,]
bldh f'k{kk ekrk&firk ls gh feyrh gSA bruk gh ugha] cPpksa dks uSfrd f'k{kk Hkh nsdj ekrk&firk mUgsa ekufld
:i ls dkQh ifjiDo dj nsrs gSaA dqN f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa dk er gS fd ftu cPpksa dks vius ekrk&firk ls
ckY;koLFkk childhood esa bl rjg dh vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ugha feyrh gS] muesa o;LdkoLFkk esa O;fDrRo fofr
personality disorder dh mRifk gksus dh laHkkouk dkQh rhoz gks tkrh gSA
ii ikl&iM+ksl }kjk nh xbZ f'k{kk Education given by neighbours& cPps vius ikl&iM+ksl ds
O;fDr;ksa ds lkFk var% f;k djds Hkh dbZ rjg ds dkS'kyksa dks lh[krs gSaA bls f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa us vukSipkfjd
f'k{kk dk ,d izeq[k vax ekuk gSA ikl&iM+ksl ds O;fDr;ksa dks tSlk O;ogkj djrs gq, cPps ns[krs gSa] os mldk
vuqdj.k djrs gSa rFkk mls vkRelkr djrs gSaA ;gh dkj.k gS fd mke iM+kslh gksus ls cPpksa esa mke uSfrdrk ,oa
f'k"Vkpkj dk xq.k rsth ls iuirk gSA Bhd mlds foijhr] ;fn ikl&iM+ksl dk okrkoj.k mke ugha gksrk gS] rks
cPpksa dk ekufld fodkl mlls vuqfpr <ax ls izHkkfor gks tkrk gS D;ksafd ,sls cPps cgqr lkjs vuqi;qDr vknrksa
dks lh[k ysrs gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 51


iii lkfFk;ksa ds lewg esa izkIr f'k{kk Education by peer groups& izR;sd ckyd 5&6 lky dh vk;q
ds ckn ls viuh ,d fo'ks"k Vksyh peer group dk;e djrk gS rFkk bl Vksyh ds lHkh lnL; ,d&nwljs ds vPNs
fe= gksrs gS] bl Vksyh dk izR;sd lnL; ,d&nwljs ds lkFk var f;k interaction djds mUgsa izHkkfor djrk gS
rFkk fo'ks"k dkS'ky dks lh[kus esa enn djrk gSA 'kk;n ;gh dkj.k gS fd ,slh Vksyh ftlds vf/kdrj lnL; fdsV
esa #fp j[krs gSa] muds vU; lkjs lnL;ksa esa Hkh bl [ksy ls lac) fu;eksa dk Kku ,oa [ksy esa vfHk#fp vf/kd gks
tkrh gSA

vukSipkfjd f'k{kk ds ljdkjh laLFkku :

vukSipkfjd f'k{k.k informal learning ls rkRi;Z oSls f'k{k.k ls gksrk gS ftlesa ckyd fdlh
dkS'ky skills dks ,d vkSipkfjd izkf/kdkjh formal authority ls ugha lh[krs gS rFkk bl rjg ds f'k{k.k dk
okrkoj.k mruk vuq'kklukRed ugha gksrk gS ftruk fd vkSipkfjd f'k{k.k formal learning dkA
d fu;fer :i ls Ldwy ugh tk ikus ij Hkh i<+kbZ izkbosV@O;fDrxr :i ls Hkh dh tk ldrh gSA blesa O;fDr
izkbosV V;w'ku ;k O;fDrxr rkSj ls ?kj ij dkslZ [kRe dj bfErgku ns ldrk gSA bl izkbosV bfErgku dh lqfo/kk
gj ljdkjh Ldwy esa miyC/k gSA gkbZLdwy o baVj Lrjh; f'k{kk gsrq i=kpkj ?kj ij gh i<+uk gksrk gS ijUrq fdrkcsa
Mkd }kjk ?kj vkrh gSa }kjk Hkh i<+kbZ dh tk ldrh gSA
[k efgyk f'k{k.k dsUnz % ;g yxHkx 30 yM+fd;ksa ;k efgykvksa dh 6 eghus dh vkoklh; f'k{k.k O;oLFkk gSA
blesa yM+fd;ksa dks] tks i<+h&fy[kh ugha gS] mUgsa d{kk 5 rd dh i<+kbZ djok;h tkrh gS vkSj ijh{kk Hkh fnyok;h
tkrh gSA
x vkaxuckM+h % ljdkj dh rjQ ls pyk;h tkus okyh cky fodkl ,oa iq"Vkgkj ifj;kstuk ds rgr izR;sd xkao
esa ,d vkaxuckM+h dsUnz gksrk gSA bu dsUnzksa esa ikap lky rd ds cPpksa dks Ldwy iwoZ f'k{kk rFkk lkekU; iks"kkgkj Hkh
fn;k tkrk gSA ;gka xHkZorh rFkk cPps dks Lruiku djkus okyh eka dks Hkh iks"kkgkj fn;k tkrk gS rFkk mudh MkWDVj
}kjk tkap gksrh gSA bu vkaxuckM+h dsUnzksa esa fd'kksfj;ksa dh LokLF; tkp] Vhdkdj.k rFkk O;kolkf;d izf'k{k.k Hkh
fn;k tkrk gSA
?k ljdkjh f'k{kk dsUnz% ;fn fdlh leqnk; esa 30 ckfydk;sa i<+us ds fy, rS;kj gksa vkSj ,d ,slk LFkku lqfuf'pr
gks tk;s] tgka mUgsa i<+k;k tk lds] rks ljdkj viuh vksj ls ,d v/;kid dh O;oLFkk djrh gSa tks mlh {ks= esa
vkdj cPpksa dks i<+krh gSA ;g dsUnz bZ0th0,l0 ,tqds'ku xkjaVh Ldhe ds vUrxZr lapkfyr fd;k tkrk gSA ;g
;kstuk ljdkjh rFkk xSj ljdkjh laLFkkvksa }kjk pyk;h tkrh gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 52


cPpksa dh ut+j gekjk f'k{kd ,slk gks
? f'k{kd oks tks cl I;kj djs] ihVs uA
? tks f'k{kk dks cks> ugha] lgt cuk;sA
? tks cPpksa esa Mj ugha] fo'okl iSnk djsA
? tks cPpksa esa tkfr] oxZ] fyax Hksn ugha] ns'k dk Hkfo"; ns[ksA
? tks cPpksa dks viekfur ugha] lEekfur djus ds volj <wa<+sA
? oks gedks rc rd le>k;s tc rd gedks le> esa u vk tk;sA
? ge tks iwNsa oks lc crk;sA
? xf.kr vkSj vaxzsth rks cgqr vPNs ls i<+k;sA
? gels xanh ckrsa u djsA
? i<+krs le; galk;s Hkh] dgkuh Hkh lquk;s] f[kyk;s Hkh] [kwc c etk yxk;sA
f'k{kk gh og vL= gS ftlls ckfydkvksa dh ekufld {kerkvksa dk fodkl gksrk gS] f'k{kk vkRefo'okl iSnk
djrh gS rFkk fu.kZ; djuk fl[kkrh gSA f'k{kk xkao ls ckgj Hkh dqN gS dk nk;jk c<+krh gSA
blfy;s efgyk;sa Hkys gh ukSdjh u djsa ij mUgsa i<+uk t:jh gS rkfd muds thou esa ldkjkRed izHkko
ifjyf{kr gks ldsaA
yM+fd;ksa dks i<+kuk t:jh gS D;ksfd i<+h&fy[kh yM+dh %
? iwjs ifjokj dh ns[kHkky vPNs <ax ls djrh gSA
? Hkys&cqjs dh igpku djrh gSA
? viuh vkSj vius cPpksa dh ftUnxh csgrj cukus ds rjhdss tkurh gSA
? ifjokj ds QSlyksa esa lgh Hkkxhnkjh fuHkkrh gSA
f'k{kk vkSj lk{kjrk esa vUrj
f'k{kk 'kCn dh mRifk laLr dh ^f'k{k* /kkrq ls gqbZ gS ] bldk vFkZ gS fl[kkuk] f'k{kk dk eq[; ms'; balku
dk lokZxh.k fodkl djuk gSA tSlk fd ge lc tkurs gSa fd iqjkus le; ls gh ekuo vuqHkoksa ls lh[krs rFkk mUgha ds
vk/kkj ij thou dks vkSj csgrj cukus ds fy;s u;s fu;eksa dks cukrs vk;sa gSaA le; vkSj ifjfLFkfr ds vuqlkj thou
ds ms'; cnyrs jgrs gSaA bl rjg f'k{kk ds fl)kUr rFkk ms'; Hkh le; ds vuqlkj cnyrs jgrs gSaA
f'k{kk vkSj lk{kjrk nksuksa dh f;k,a dbZ va'kksa esa leku gSa] ijUrq bl lekurk ds jgrs gq, Hkh nksuksa esa
i;kZIr fofHkUurk gS] f'k{kk ,d fo'kky oV&o`{k gS rks lk{kjrk mldh ,d Mkyh gSA f'k{kk cgqvFkhZ 'kCn gS vkSj
fofHkUu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuqlkj blds fHkUu vFkZ gksrs gSa ijUrq lk{kjrk dk vFkZ dsoy i<+us fy[kus ;k v{kj Kku ls
gSA
lk{kjrk f'k{kk dk ,d cgqr gh vko';d vax gS] vkt dh nqfu;k foKku vkSj tkx`fr dh nqfu;k gSA izR;sd
O;fDr LoHkkor% u;h&u;h tkudkjh ikus dks mRlqd jgrk gSA tkudkjh ikus dk ,d izeq[k L=ksr lekpkj i= gS tks
,d lk{kj gh i<+ ldrk gSA lk{kjrk f'k{kk dks xfr nsrh gSA ge i=&if=dk] fdrkc vkfn }kjk viuh f'k{kk dk
vknku&iznku nwj&nwj rd djrs gSaA
lk{kjrk dh lgk;rk ls gh f'k{kk lEiw.kZ gksrh gSA
izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 53
tc cPpk iSnk gksrk gS rks og ifjokj esa cpiu ls gh cgqr lkjh phtksa dks lh[krk gSA tSls % ugkuk] nkr
lkQ djuk] [kkuk] [ksyuk] ?kj ds dke dkt vkfnA cpiu ls gh ?kj ds O;olk; ds tks Hkh lk/ku gSa] cPpk mls Hkh
lkFk gh lkFk lh[kus yxrk gSA tSls% dqEgkj dk csVk dqEgkj dk dke lh[k tkrk gSA blh rjg ge ikfjokfjd rFkk
lkekftd jhfr&fjokt+ rFkk ijEijkvksa dks lh[krs gSaA tSls iwtk&ikB] cM+ksa dk vknj vkfnA blh rjg ifjokj esa
jgdj yM+dk rFkk yM+dh] vyx&vyx rjg ds O;ogkj djuk Hkh lh[krs gSa tSls yM+dh cpiu ls gh nqik viuh
Nkrh ij vks<+rh gS ogh nqik yM+dk lj is ixM+h dh rjg ls ck/krk gSA

ckfydk f'k{kk
csVh dks Hkh i<+k;sa D;ksafd i<+uk mldk gd gSA yM+dk i<+sxk rks dsoy ,d O;fDr f'kf{kr gksxkA
yM+dh i<+sxh rks iwjk ifjokj f'kf{kr gksxkA
? yM+fd;ksa ds i<+kbZ ds lUnHkZ esa f'k{kd dh ftEesnkjh gS fd %
? yM+fd;k ikB'kkyk esa nkf[ky gksaA
? yM+fd;k i<+kbZ chp esa u NksM+saA
? yM+fd;ksa dks mPp Lrjh; f'k{kk feysA
? f'k{kd gksus ds ukrs vki tkfu;s fd yM+fd;ka ikB'kkyk D;ksa ugha tkrh\os i<+uk ugha pkgrh ;k blds dksbZ
vkSj dkj.k gSa\
? ekufld o lkekftd fodkl ds fy;s cfPp;ksa dk ikB'kkyk tkuk t:jh gSA
yM+fd;kas ds ikB'kkyk vkuk cUn dj nsus ds dkj.k%&
? ? v/;kid dh vfu;fer mifLFkfrA
? efgyk v/;kid dh dehA
? nsj ls fo|ky; igqpus ij ltk feyukA
? iq#"k v/;kid dk vf'k"V O;ogkj@vkpj.kA
? v/;kid dk yM+fd;ksa ds izfr mis{kk dk Hkko j[kuk vkSj d{kk ds vU; dke djokuk tSls lkQ&lQkbZ] ikuh
fiykuk] VkV&ih fcNkuk] vius cPps lEgyokuk] vkfnA
? Ldwy nwj gksukA
? NksVs HkkbZ&cguksa dh ns[kHkkyA
? ?kj ds dke dkt tSls [kkuk idkuk] lQkbZ djuk] i'kqvksa dh ns[kHkky] ikuh ykuk] bZ/ku ykuk vkfnA
funku%
? yphyk O;ogkj viuk;saA
? nsj ls vkus ij lt+k u nsaA
? muds ?kjsyw dkj.kksa dks lqy>kuk pkgsaA
mijksDr funku ls ckfydk;sa i<+ ldsxhA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 54


Hkkjrh; lafo/kku ds vuqlkj lHkh jkT;ksa dh ftEesnkjh gS fd 14 o"kZ rd ds lHkh cPpksa dks fu'kqYd% o vfuok;Z
f'k{kk nh tk;sA ubZ f'k{kk uhfr 1986 esa Hkh lHkh cPpksa ds fy;s xq.kokk iw.kZ f'k{kk nsus ij cy fn;k x;k gSA
vUrjkZ"Vh; Lrj ij cky f'kfoj lEesyu 1989 esa Hkh cPpksa ds fodkl ds fy;s vf/kdkjksa ds nsus ij tksj fn;k x;k gSA
bl f'kfoj lEesyu esa fy, x;s fu.kZ;ksa dks ykxw djus ds fy, Hkkjr us Hkh viuh lgefr nh gSA
Hkkjr o"kZ esa bu lHkh fl)kUrksa o uhfr;ksa ds vuqlkj ljdkj rFkk vU; laLFkkvksa us lHkh yM+fd;ksa o yM+dksa
dh f'k{kk ds fy;s Hkjiwj iz;kl fd;s gSA bu iz;klksa ds vPNs ifj.kke Hkh lkeus vk;s gSa tSls%&
? lk{kjrk nj c<+h gSA
? mkj izns'k esa efgyk lk{kjrk nj 26 izfr'kr ls c<+dj 54 izfr'kr rd igqp x;h gSA
? u;s izkFkfed Ldwy cuok;sa x;s gSaA
? Ldwyksa esa cPpksa dh Bgjko nj c<+h gSA
? f'k{kdksa dh la[;k c<+h gSA
bu lQyrkvksa ds ckotwn Hkh gekjs lkeus vkt vusd pqukSfr;k gSa] tSls%&
? fo'o esa lcls vf/kd vui<+ O;fDr Hkkjr esa gSaA
? mkj izns'k esa lcls vf/kd la[;k esa fuj{kj yksx gSaA
? lHkh Ldwyksa esa izR;sd d{kk ds fy;s ,d f'k{kd o vyx dejs dh lqfo/kk ugha gSA
? vf/kdk'ka fo|kfFkZa;ksa dh f'k{kk miyfC/k Lrj de gSA
ljdkjh iz;klksa ds lkFk&lkFk mkj izns'k esa vusd u;s&u;s iz;ksx dbZ laLFkkvksa }kjk fd;s tk jgs gSaA ;s
lHkh iz;kl ljdkjh iz;klksa ds lkFk&lkFk py jgs gSaA budk ms'; Hkh lHkh cPpksa] fo'ks"kdj nwj njkt {ks=ksa esa jgus
okyh ckfydkvksa] dks xq.kokkijd f'k{kk miyC/k djkuk gSA
ckfydk f'k{kk ds y{; dks izkIr djus ds fy;s cgqQyh; j.kuhfr Multi Pronged Strategies
viuk;h x;h gSA vuqHko ;g crkrs gSa] fd nwj ds xkoksa esa jgus okyh( ftu rd dksbZ lqfo/kk ugha igqp ikrh ,slh
vkcknh rd igqpkus ds fy;s vusd u;s&u;s rjhdksa dks viukdj gh lQyrk feyh gSA
ckfydkvksa dh f'k{kk dk viuk ,d vyx ego gS ]ckfydk f'k{kk ls %
? ns'k dh vkfFkZd le`f) ij vuqdwy izHkko iM+rk gSA
? i<+h&fy[kh efgyk dk ifjokj vf/kd LoLFk gksrk gSA
? f'k{kk efgyk esa vkRefo'okl txkdj mUgsa lkeF;Z nsrh gSA
? ckfydk f'k{kk fodkl dk;Zeksa dks fLFkjrk iznku djrh gSa

f'kf{kr gksuk vfuok;Z gS%


? tkx#d ukxfjd ds :i esa fodflr gksus] Kku o dkS'ky lh[kus] thou ds Lrj dks csgrj cukus] vU;k;
vkSj 'kks"k.k ds fojks/k esa vkokt mBkus] vf/kdkj vkSj drZO;ksa dk mfpr iz;ksx djus ds fy;sA
? fodkl ;kstukvksa dks le>us] muls ykHk mBkus vkSj muesa lgHkkfxrk fuHkkus ds fy;sA
? fodklkRed dk;Zeksa dh xfr rst djus( ckfydkvksa dks vius vf/kdkjksa ds izfr tkx#d djus] ,sls
dk;Zeksa ds ykHkksa dks vf/kd ls vf/kd gkfly djus ds fy;sA
izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 55
Kku vkSj f'k{kk dk rHkh Q+k;nk gS tc mlds mi;ksx ls ge vius O;ogkj esa csgrj thou ds fy, dqN rCnhyh yk
ldsaA vius okrkoj.k vklikl dks le>us i<+us vkSj cnyus fy[kus dh rkdr dk fodkl gh lPph lk{kjrk
gSA

1- ljdkjh Ldwyksa]O;oLFkk dks lg;ksx


ljdkjh f'k{kk O;oLFkk izHkkoh cukus ds fy;s fuEufyf[kr dk;Z fd;s tk ldrs gSa%&
? leqnk; ds lkFk feydj 'kkyk ekufp=hdj.k }kjk Ldwy u tkus okys yM+ds o yM+fd;ksa ds uke@xko okj
lwph rS;kj djrk gS rFkk ^Ldwy pyks vfHk;ku* esa izR;sd cPps dks ikl ds Ldwy esa tkus ds fy, izsfjr
djukA
? ikl ds Ldwyksa esa bu cPpksa dk ukekadu djk] rFkk mudh fu;fer mifLFkfr dks lqfuf'pr djukA
? Ldwyksa esa igqps bu cPpksa dks iqLrd forj.k dk ykHk lqfuf'pr djk dj iBu&ikBu dks etcwrh djukA
? oSdfYid f'k{kk dsUnz ls Ldwyksa esa vk;s cPpksa dks] vkjEHk ls lg;ksx nsuk rkfd Ldwyksa esa Bgj dj os i<+kbZ iwjh
dj ldsA
2- oSdfYid f'k{kk dsUnz
;g Hkkjr ljdkj dh ;kstuk gS ftlds varxZr ftu {ks=ksa esa 1 fd0eh0 dh ifjf/k esa Ldwy ugha miyC/k gS]
ogk leqnk; dh enn ls oSdfYid f'k{kk dsUnz [kksys tkrs gSaA ,d dsUnz ij LFkkuh; izf'kf{kr f'k{kd 30 ls 40 cPpksa
dks tks Ldwy ls ugha tqM+s gSa( izkFkfed f'k{kk ikB~;e 2 ls 3 o"kZ dh vof/k esa iwjk djrk gSA
blds mijkUr ftyk csfld f'k{kk vf/kdkjh dk;kZy; }kjk bu cPpksa ds fy, ikWpoh d{kk dh ijh{kk
vk;ksftr dh tkrh gS o mrh.kZ cPpksa dks izek.ki= fn;k tkrk gSA bu xkoksa esa Ldwy [kqyus ij dsUnz cUn dj i<+us
okys lHkh cPpksa dks eq[; Ldwy esa fHkUu&fHkUu d{kkvksa esa nkf[kyk ysus ds fy;s izsfjr fd;k tkrk gSA
3- vkoklh; ckfydk f'k{kk f'kfoj
Ldwy esa 5 o"khZ; izkFkfed f'k{kk izkIr djus esa dqN fd'kksjh ckfydk;sa fgpfdpkrh gSa] D;ksafd vius ls NksVh
mez ds cPpksa ds lkFk cSBus @ i<+us esa os 'kekZrh gSA ekrk&firk Hkh 3&5 o"kZ rd bUrtkj ugha djuk pkgrs D;ksafd os
tYnh gh csfV;ksa dh 'kknh dj nsuk pkgrs gSaA
bu fd'kksfj;ksa 10&14 o"kZ ds fy;s 6 ekg ds vkoklh; f'kfojksa esa jg dj izkFkfed f'k{kk izkIr djus dh
O;oLFkk dh x;h gSA ;g ,d pqukSrh Hkjk dke gSA ;g f'kfoj rHkh lQy gksrk gS] tc ekrk&firk f'kfoj O;oLFkk ls
iwjh rjg larq"V gksaA bu iz;klksa esa yM+fd;k] ekrk&firk] Lo;alsoh laLFkkvksa dh cjkcj Hkkxhnkjh vko';d gSA
izkFkfed f'k{kk iwjh djus ij csfld f'k{kk vf/kdkjh dk;kZy; ls budh ijh{kk djkbZ tkrh gS rFkk mkh.kZ ckfydkvksa
dks izek.k i= fn;s tkrs gSa] ftlds vk/kkj ij os d{kk 6 esa nkf[kyk ys ldsaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 56


f'k{k.k izf;k esa lh[kuk % vFkZ ,oa Lo:i

lh[kuk ,d vfr egoiw.kZ fo"k; gS] vr% euksoSKkfudksa us lh[kus dks oSKkfud <ax ls ifjHkkf"kr djus dh
dksf'k'k dh gS a] lkekU; vFkZ esa lh[kuk O;ogkj esa ifjorZu dks dgk tkrk gSs] ijarq lHkh rjg ds O;ogkj esa gq,
ifjorZu dks lh[kuk ugha dgk tkrk gSA O;ogkj esa ifjorZu Fkdku] nok [kkus] chekjh] ifjiDou vkfn ls Hkh gks
ldrk gSA ijarq ,sls ifjorZuksa dks lh[kuk ugha dgk tkrk gSA euksfoKku esa lh[kus ls rkRi;Z flQZ mUgha ifjorZuksa ls
gksrk gS tks vH;kl ;k vuqHko ds QyLo:i gksrk gS rFkk ftldk ms'; ckyd dks lek;kstu esa enn djuk gksrk
gSA euksoSKkfudksa }kjk nh xbZ ifjHkk"kkvksa dk mYys[k fd;k tk jgk gS&
lkjVsu] ukWFkZ] LVsat rFkk pSieSu Sartain, North, Strange & Chapman, 1973 ds
vuqlkj] lh[kuk ,d ,slh izf;k gS ftlds }kjk vuqHkwfr ;k vH;kl ds QyLo:i O;ogkj esa vis{kkr LFkk;h
ifjorZu gksrk gSA
fjyh rFkk ysfol Reilly & Lewis, 1983 ds vuqlkj] vH;kl ;k vuqHkwfr ls O;ogkj esa /kkj.k ;ksX;
ifjorZu dks lh[kuk dgk tkrk gSA
1 lh[kuk O;ogkj esa ifjorZu dks dgk tkrk gS Learning is the change in behaviour& izR;sd
lh[kus dh izf;k esa ckyd ds O;ogkj esa ifjorZu gksrk gSA ;fn f'k{kd ;g ns[krs gSa fd ckyd ds O;ogkj esa
ifjorZu ugha gqvk gS] rks mls ge lh[kuk dh Js.kh esa ugha j[ksaxsA ;g ifjorZu vPNk Hkh gks ldrk gS ;k cqjk Hkh gks
ldrk gSA 'kCnksa ds lgh&lgh fgTts djuk] mudk mPpkj.k djuk] 'kCnksa dk okD; esa iz;ksx dj ysuk O;ogkj ds
vPNs ifjorZu ds mnkgj.k gSaA pksjh djuk] >wB cksyuk vkfn O;ogkj esa [kjkc ,oa dqleaftr ifjorZu ds mnkgj.k
gSA lh[kus ls rkRi;Z O;ogkj esa bu nksuksa rjg ds ifjorZuksa ls gksrk gSA
2 O;ogkj esa ifjorZu vH;kl ;k vuqHkwfr ds QyLo:i gksrk gS The change in behaviour
occurs as a function of practice or experience& lh[kus dh izf;k esa tks ifjorZu gksrk gS] og
vH;kl ;k vuqHkwfr ds QyLo:i gksrk gSA ;gk vH;kl ls rkRi;Z fdlh izdkj ds izf'k{k.k ls gksrk gS ftlesa O;fDr
fdlh izf;k dks ckj&ckj nksgjkrs gq, rFkk viuh xyfr;ksa dks lq/kkjrs gq, lh[krk gSA vuqHkwfr ls ;gk rkRi;Z
O;fDr dh vkdfLed vuqHkwfr;ksa ls gksrk gS tks ckyd ds O;ogkj esa ifjorZu ykrk gSA
3 O;ogkj esa vis{kkr LFkk;h ifjorZu gksrk gS There is relatively permanent change in
behaviour& vis{kkr LFkk;h ifjorZu O;ogkj esa oSls ifjorZu dks dgk tkrk gS tks ,d [kkl le; rd ,d
rjg ls LFkk;h gksrk gSA ml [kkl le; dh dksbZ fuf'pr vof/k ugha gksrh gSA ;g dqN fnu dk Hkh gks ldrk gS ;k
dqN eghus dk Hkh gks ldrk gSA tSls ;fn dksbZ Nk= Vkbi djuk lh[krk gS rks mlds O;ogkj esa gqvk bl rjg dk
ifjorZu dqN le; rd LFkk;h gksrk gSA vH;kl u djus ls laHko gS fd rhu eghus ;k ikp eghus esa Nk= fQj ls
Vkbi djuk Hkwy tk,A rc ;g dgk tk,xk fd Nk= ds O;ogkj esa gqvk ifjorZu rhu ;k ikp eghus ds fy, LFkk;h
FkkA vxj O;ogkj esa gqvk ifjorZu {kf.kd gksrk gS vFkkZr dqN feuV ds fy, gh gksrk gSA tSlk fd izsj.kkRed voLFkk
tSls Hkw[k] I;kl] dke] uhan vkfn esa gksrk gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 57


lh[kuk rFkk ifjiDou
Learning and Maturation
ge tkurs gS fd vH;kl ;k vuqHkwfr ds ifj.kkeLo:i O;ogkj esa gq, ifjorZu dks lh[kuk dgk tkrk gSA
ifjiDou ls rkRi;Z f'k'kqvksa esa fodkl rFkk o/kZu dh izf;k iwjh gksus ls gksrk gSA pwfd ifjiDou ls Hkh f'k'kqvksa esa
fodkl rFkk o/kZu gksrk gS] vr% LoHkkor% blls Hkh O;ogkj esa ifjorZu gksrk gSA tSls tUe ds le; f'k'kq fu%lgk;
gksrk gSA dqN eghus ckn mlds 'kjhj dh ekalisf'k;ksa dk o/kZu gksrk gS rks og cSBuk ,oa pyuk izkjaHk dj nsrk gSA bl
rjg tSls&tSls mez chrrh tkrh gS] mlds 'kjhj dh ekalisf'k;ksa rFkk gf;ksa esa o/kZu rFkk fodkl gksrs tkrk gSA
vFkkZr mlesa ifjiDou vkrh tkrh gS vkSj mlds O;ogkj esa ifjorZu gksrk tkrk gSA bl rjg lh[kus rFkk ifjiDou
nksuksa esa gh O;ogkj ifjorZu gksrk gSA bl lekurk ds ckotwn nksuksa dk vFkZ vyx&vyx gSA bu nksuksa ds Lo:i dks
Bhd <ax ls le>us ds fy, ;g vko';d gS fd bu nksuksa ds varj dks Hkh le>k tk,A euksoSKkfudksa us bu nksuksa esa
fuEukafdr varj fd;k gS&
1 ifjiDou ,d tUetkr izf;k gS tcfd lh[kuk ,d vftZr izf;k gSA ifjiDou dh izf;k xHkZ/kkj.k
ls tUe ds ckn Hkh pyrh jgrh gSA ijarq] lh[kus ds lkFk ,slh ckr ugha gSA lh[kus dh f;k vftZr gksrh gS tks
O;fDr }kjk ifjiDou ds [kkl Lrj ij igqpus ds ckn gh gksrh gSA tSls ,d f'k'kq o.kZekyk ds v{kjksa dks fy[kuk
vius&vki ugha lh[k ysrk gS cfYd ifjiDou ds ,d [kkl Lrj ij igqpus ds ckn gh f'k'kq mls lh[krk gSA
2 ifjiDou dh f;k esa vH;kl dk ego ugha gksrk gS tcfd lh[kus dh f;k esa vH;kl ,d egoiw.kZ
dkjd gSA le; chrus ds lkFk gh lkFk ifjiDou dh f;k lkekU; voLFkk esa vius&vki gksrh jgrh gSA blds fy,
fdlh vH;kl dh t:jr ugha iM+rh gSA ijarq lh[kus ds lkFk ,slh ckr ugha gSA fdlh Hkh izf;k dks tc ge lh[krs
gSa rc bls izk;% ckj&ckj nqgjkrs gSa rFkk mldk vH;kl djrs gSaA
3 ifjiDou dh izf;k ,d lkekU; izf;k gS tcfd lh[kuk ,d O;fDrxr izf;k gSA tSls] ,d [kkl
mez ds lHkh ckydksa lkekU; voLFkk jgus ij esa vaxksa dk fodkl djhc&djhc ,d&leku gksrk gS] vFkkZr
ifjiDou dh izf;k leku gksrh gSA gk] ;fn dksbZ ckyd izk;% chekj ;k vLoLFk jgrk gks rks mlesa viuh gh mez ds
vU; ckydksa dh vis{kk ifjiDou vo'; gh de gksxkA lh[kus dh izf;k ges'kk O;fDrxr gksrh gSA ,d 15 o"kZ dk
yM+dk ;fn dkj pykuk lh[k ysrk gS rks bldk eryc ;g ugha gqvk fd 15 o"kZ ds lHkh ckyd vius&vki gh dkj
pykuk lh[k tk,xsA
4 ifjiDou dh izf;k lrr gksrh gS vFkkZr~ ,d [kkl le; ls izkjaHk gksdj ,d [kkl le; rd yxkrkj
pyrh jgrh gSA tSls xHkZ/kkj.k ls lkekU;% o;Ldrk rd ifjiDou dh f;k yxkrkj gksrh jgrh gSA ijarq lh[kus ds
lkFk ,slh ckr ugha gSA O;fDr tc vH;kl tkjh j[krk gS] rks lh[kus dh izf;k gksrh jgrh gS vkSj tc og vH;kl
can dj nsrk gS rks lh[kus dh izf;k Hkh yqIr gksus yxrh gSA
5 ifjiDou dh f;k ,d [kkl mez ;k voLFkk vkus ij fcydqy gh eUn ;k ugha ds cjkcj gksrh gSA tSls
o;Ldrk ds ckn ifjiDou dh f;k lkekU;r% ugha gksrh ns[kh xbZ gS ijarq lh[kus dh f;k vkthou pyrh jgrh
gSA ,slh dksbZ voLFkk ugha gksrh ftlds ckn lh[kus dh f;k dk gksuk cUn gks tkrk gSA O;fDr cq<+kis esa Hkh ubZ&ubZ
izf;kvksa dks lh[krk gSA
6 ifjiDou ls 'kjhj esa dkQh ifjorZu vkrs gSaA 'kjhj ds Hkhrjh vaxksa rFkk ckgjh vaxksa dk dkQh fodkl gks
tkrk gSA lh[kus dh izf;k ls 'kjhj ds vaxksa esa dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gksrkA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 58


7 ifjiDou ,d 'kkjhfjd f;k gS tcfd lh[kuk ,d ekufld ;k euksoSKkfud izf;k gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa]
;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd ifjiDou dk laca/k 'kjhj ds vax&izR;ax ds fodkl ls gksrk gS tcfd lh[kus dk laca/k ,sls
fodkl ls ugha cfYd O;ogkj esa fd, x, fdlh [kkl ifjorZu ls gksrk gS tks Li"Vr% ,d euksoSKkfud izf;k gSA
8 lh[kus dh f;k ifjiDou ij fuHkZj djrh gS ijarq ifjiDou dh f;k lh[kus ij ughaA tSls ,d nks
lky dk ckyd fdruk Hkh vH;kl D;ksa u djs rsth ls fy[kuk ;k Li"V :i ls dksbZ fdrkc i<+uk ugha lh[k ldrk
D;ksafd mlds vax dk ifjiDou iwjk ugha gqvk gSA Li"V gS fd lh[kus dh izf;k ifjiDou ds vHkko esa laHko ugha gSA
nwljh rjQ] ifjiDou ds fy, fdlh dk;Z dks lh[kuk vko';d ugha gSA ,slk ugha dgk tk ldrk fd tc rd ,d
nks lky dk cPpk fy[kuk&i<+uk ugha lh[k ysrk gS] mlds gkFk&iSj ;k 'kjhj ds vU; vaxksa dh ekalisf'k;k ifjiDo
ugha gksxhA
mi;qZDr fooj.k ls Li"V gS fd ;|fi ifjiDou rFkk lh[kuk nksuksa esa gh O;ogkj esa ifjorZu gksrk gS] ijarq ;s
nksuksa izf;k, ,d&nwljs ls fHkUu gSaA
lh[kus ds izdkj Kinds of Learning
f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa us lh[kus ds dbZ izdkjksa dk o.kZu fd;k gSA tSls lwcsy Ausubel, 1968 us lh[kus
ds fuEukafdr pkj izdkj cryk, gSa&
1 vfHkxzg.k lh[kuk Reception learning
2 vUos"k.k lh[kuk Discovery learning
3 jVdj lh[kuk Rote learning
4 vFkZiw.kZ lh[kuk Meaningful learning
1 vfHkxzg.k lh[kuk Reception learning& bl rjg ds lh[kuk esa f'k{kkFkhZ dks lh[kus okyh lkexzh
cksydj ;k fy[kdj ns nh tkrh gS vkSj f'k{kkFkhZ mu lkefxz;ksa dks vkRelkr dj ysrk gSA nqHkkZX;o'k vf/kdrj
f'k{kd ;gh le>rs gS fd vfHkxzg.k lh[kuk ek= jVdj gh fd;k tk ldrk gS ijarq lwcsy Ausubel us Li"V
dj fn;k fd ;g jVdj Hkh gks ldrk gS rFkk le>dj Hkh gks ldrk gSA
2 vUos"k.k lh[kuk Discovery learning& vUos"k.k lh[kuk oSls lh[kuk dks dgk tkrk gS ftlesa f'k{kkFkhZ
dks nh xbZ lkefxz;ksa esa ls u;k lizR;; ;k dksbZ u;k fu;e ;k fopkj dh [kkst dj mls lh[kuk gksrk gSA nqHkkZX;o'k
vf/kdrj f'k{kd ;gh le>rs gSa fd vUos"k.k lh[kuk ges'kk vFkZiw.kZ meaningful gh gksrk gS ijarq lwcsy
Ausubel us ;g Li"V fd;k fd ;g vFkZiw.kZ Hkh gks ldrk gS ;k jVdj Hkh lEiUu gks ldrk gSA tSls ;fn dksbZ
ckyd fn, x, mkjksa esa ls [kkstdj bl v/kwjs okD;] vFkkZr Hkkjr esa --------- vktkn gqvk Fkk dks iwjk djus dh
dksf'k'k djrk gS] rks ;g ,d ,slk vUos"k.k lh[kuk dk mnkgj.k gksxk tks jVdj laiUu gqvk ekuk tk,xkA ijarq ;fn
Nk= fdUgha Kkr rF;ksa dks iqulZxfBr dj ;k dksbZ iz;ksx dj fdlh u, fu;e dh [kkst djrk gS] rks mls ,d ,slk
vUos"k.k lh[kuk dgk tk,xk tks vFkZiw.kZ izf;k }kjk laiUu gqvk gksA
xsxuh }kjk crk;s x, lHkh vkB dkj ds lh[kuk J`a[kykc) e esa fuEukafdr gS &
3 jVdj lh[kuk Rote learning& oSls lh[kus dks dgk tkrk gS ftlesa f'k{kkFkhZ fn, x, lkefxz;ksa dks
lkgp;Z association 'kCn'k% rFkk euekus <ax ls mlds vk'k; dks fcuk le>s gq, lh[krk gSA fujFkZd inksa dks
lh[kuk] 'kCnksa ds tksM+s dks lh[kuk] v{kj&vad tksM+ksa dks lh[kuk bl Js.kh ds lh[kus ds mnkgj.k gSaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 59


4 vFkZiw.kZ lh[kuk Meaningful learning& lwcsy Ausubel ds vuqlkj bl rjg dk lh[kuk f'k{kk
ds fy, fo'ks"k ego j[krk gSA blfy, f'k{kdksa us bl rjg ds lh[kus ij vf/kd cy Mkyk gSA vFkZiw.kZ lh[kuk oSls
lh[kus dks dgk tkrk gS ftlesa lh[ks tkus okys lkexzh ds lkj ro dks ,d fu;e ds vuqlkj le>dj rFkk mldk
laca/k xr Kku ls tksM+rs gq, lh[kk tkrk gSA
1 lkadsfrd lh[kuk Signal learning& lkadsfrd lh[kuk Dykfldh vuqca/ku lh[kuk ds leku gksrk gS
ftlesa dksbZ rVLFk mhiu ds lkFk dksbZ LokHkkfod mhiu dks ,d lkFk dbZ ckj fn;k tkrk gSA iSoyo ds
Dykfldh vuqcU/ku iz;ksx esa ?kaVh dh vkokt ,d rVLFk mhiu rFkk Hkkstu LokHkkfod mhiu dks lkFk&lkFk
dqN iz;kl rd nsus ij dqkk ek= ?kaVh dh vkokt ij ykj dk lzko djuk lh[k x;k FkkA bl rjg dk lh[kuk
lkadsfrd lh[kuk ds mnkgj.k gSaA iSoyo ds Dykfldh vuqcU/ku dks euksoSKkfudksa us ^Vkbi&,l vuqcU/ku* Hkh dgk
gSA
2 mhiu&vuqf;k lh[kuk Stimulus-Response learning& oSls lh[kuk dks mhiu&vuqf;k
dgk tkrk gS ftlesa izk.kh fdlh mhiu ds izfr ,d ,sfPNd f;k djrk gS ftldk ifj.kke mlij lq[kn gksrk gS
vkSj og /khjs&/khjs ml mhiu ds izfr ogh vuqf;k djuk lh[k ysrk gSA Ldhj Skinner dk f;kizlwr
vuqcU/ku operant conditioning ;k ftls lk/kukRed vuqcU/ku instrumental conditioning Hkh dgk
tkrk gS] ,d mhiu&vuqf;k dk mnkgj.k gS ftlesa Ldhj cDl Skinner box esa pwgk fyHkj nckus dh
izf;k dks lh[k ysrk gSA Ldhj ds lk/kukRed vuqcU/ku dks euksoSKkfudksa us ^Vkbi&vkj vuqcU/ku* Type-R
conditioning Hkh dgk gSA
3 ljy k`a[kyk dk lh[kuk Learning of Simple chaining& xsxuh Gagne us bl rjg ds
lh[kuk ls rkRi;Z ,d e esa gksus okys vyx&vyx dbZ mhiu&vuqf;k laca/kksa ds lsV set ls crk;k gSA bl
izdkj dk lh[kuk is'kh; lh[kuk motor learning esa ik;k tkrk gSA tSls ,d dkj pykuk] njoktk [kksyuk]
rcyk ctkuk vkfn ,sls is'kh; lh[kuk ds mnkgj.k gSa ftuesa dbZ NksVh&NksVh vuqf;k, ,d e esa lfEefyr gksrh
gSA tc ;s lkjh vuqf;k, vkil esa lacaf/kr gksrh gS] rks O;fDr dkj pyk ikrk gS ;k njoktk [kksy ikrk gS ;k rcyk
ctk ikrk gSA
4 'kkfCnd lkgp;Z lh[kuk Verbal association learning& 'kkfCnd lkgp;Z lh[kuk oSls lh[kuk dks
dgk tkrk gS ftlesa O;fDr dks mhiu&vuqf;k dk ,slk e sequence lh[kuk gksrk gS ftlesa 'kkfCnd
vfHkO;fDr verbalization fufgr gksrh gSA tSls dfork ;kn djuk] 'kCnkoyh lh[kuk] dgkuh ;kn djuk vkfn
'kkfCnd lkgp;Z ds dqN mnkgj.k gSaA
5 foHksnhdj.k lh[kuk Learning discrimination& tSlk fd uke ls gh Li"V gS] blesa O;fDr fofHkUu
mhiuksa ds izfr fofHkUu vuqf;k responses djuk lh[krk gSA tSls ckydks }kjk f=Hkqt ,oa prqHkqZt esa varj
lh[kuk] vytcjk rFkk vadxf.kr esa varj lh[kuk] QqVckWy rFkk fdsV esa varj lh[kuk foHksnhdj.k lh[kuk ds dqN
mnkgj.k gSaA
6 laizR;; lh[kuk Concept learning& dksbZ oLrqvksa ds lkekU; xq.kksa ds vk/kkj ij dksbZ fo'ks"k vFkZ dks
lh[kuk laizR;; lh[kuk dgk tkrk gSA tSls ^Hkkyw*] ^ck?k*] ^flag* rFkk ^fl;kj* 'kCnksa esa ,d lkekU; xq.k vFkkZr
taxyh i'kq dk laizR;; fNik gSA ;gk ^taxyh i'kq* ds laizR;; dks lh[kuk laizR;; lh[kuk dk ,d uewuk gksxkA
7 fu;e lh[kuk Rule learning& fu;e rule or principle dk lh[kuk ,d egoiw.kZ lh[kuk gSA bl

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 60


rjg dk lh[kuk laizR;; lh[kuk ij lokZf/kd vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA fu;e ls nks ;k nks ls vf/kd laizR;;ksa concepts
ds chp ,d fu;fer laca/k regular relationship dk irk pyrk gSA bl rjg ds lh[kuk ls O;fDr dk
Kku&HkaMkj fodflr gksrk gSA tSls ckydksa }kjk O;kdj.k] xf.kr] foKku vkfn ds fofHkUu fu;eksa dk lh[kuk blh
rjg ds lh[kus dh Js.kh esa vkrk gSA
8 leL;k&lek/kku lh[kuk Problem-solving learning& leL;k&lek/kku lh[kuk xsxuh
Gagne ds k`a[kykc) lh[kuk dh lcls ijh voLFkk highest stage gSA bl rjg ds lh[kuk esa O;fDr fdlh
fu;e principle or rule dk mi;ksx djds dksbZ leL;k dk lek/kku djrk gS vkSj ,d u, rF; dks lh[krk gSA
xsxuh Gagne, 1965 us lh[kus ds bu vkB izdkjks types dks crkrs le; ,d vkSj egoiw.kZ rF; tks
Li"V fd;k] og ;g Fkk fd buesa pkSFkh voLFkk ds lh[kuk vFkkZr 'kkfCnd lkgp;Z verbal association dk
lh[kuk rFkk blls ij ds vU; lHkh Lrjksa dk lh[kuk gSA f'k{kdksa ds fy, vf/kd egoiw.kZ gS D;ksafd oxZ esa f'k{kdksa
}kjk fn;k tkus okyk funsZ'k instruction esa ewyr% pkSFkh voLFkk ls vkBoha voLFkk ds lh[kuk fufgr gksrs gSaA
igyh voLFkk ls rhljh voLFkk ds lh[kuk dk ego f'k{kdksa ds fy, ek= bruk gh gS fd os pkSFkh voLFkk ds lh[kuk
ds fy, Nk=ksa esa ,d vko';d i`"BHkwfe dk fuekZ.k djus esa enn djrs gSaA
izHkkodkjh lh[kus dh fof/k;k
Methods of Effective Learning
euksoSKkfudksa us lh[kus dh dbZ fof/k;ksa dk izfriknu fd;k gSA buesa dqN ,slh fof/k;k gSa ftUgsa ijEijkxr
fof/k traditional method dgha xbZ gS tks vk/kqfud f'k{kdksa ,oa f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa }kjk mruk izHkkodkjh ugha
ekuh xbZ gSaA fQj Hkh budk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bu fof/k;ksa esa fuEukafdr izeq[k gSa&
1 vfojke fof/k rFkk fojke fof/k Massed method and distributed method
2 iw.kZ fof/k rFkk va'k fof/k Whole method and part method
3 lkfHkizk; lh[kuk rFkk izklafxd lh[kuk intentional learning and incidental learning
fojke fof/k esa Nk= FkksM+k foJke ns&nsdj fdlh dk;Z ;k ikB dks lh[krk gSA vfojke fof/k esa bl rjg dk
foJke ugha fn;k tkrk gSA vkSj lh[kus ds fy, tks fu/kkZfjr le; gksrk gS] Nk= mlesa yxkrkj dk;Z djds ikB ;k
fo"k; dks lh[krk gSA
tc Nk= fdlh fo"k; dks izkjaHk ls var rd i<+dj lh[krs gSa] rks bls iw.kZ fof/k whole method dgk
tkrk gS vkSj tc os fdlh fo"k; dks vusd va'kksa esa ckVdj izR;sd va'k dks ,d&nwljs ds ckn lh[krk gS] rks bls va'k
fof/k part method dgk tkrk gSA
tc Nk= viuh bPNk ,oa ,d fuf'pr ms'; ds lkFk fdlh ikB ;k fo"k; dks lh[krs gSa] rks bls lkfHkizk;
lh[kuk intentional Learning dgk tkrk gSA nwljh rjQ tc Nk= fdlh fo"k; dks fcuk fdlh fuf'pr ms';
;k bPNk ds gh vius&vki lh[k ysrk gS] rks bls izklafxd lh[kuk incidental learning dgk tkrk gSA
vk/kqfud f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa }kjk bu ijaijkxr fof/k;ksa traditional methods dks mruk
izHkkodkjh effective ugha ekuk x;k gSA vr%] mu yksxksa us lh[kus dh dqN vk/kqfud fof/k;ksa dk izfriknu fd;k
gS ftUgsa rqyukRed :i ls vf/kd izHkkodkjh Hkh ekuk x;k gSA bu fof/k;ksa esa vxzkafdr izeq[k gSa&
1 izs{k.k }kjk lh[kuk Learning by observation & f'k{kk euksoSKkfudksa dk er gS fd ckyd fdlh

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 61


izf;k dks izs{k.k }kjk vf/kd tYnh ls lh[k ysrs gSaA tc ckyd fdlh izf;k dks iqucZfyr reinforced gksrs
ns[krk gS] rks muesa oSlk gh djus dh ,d rhoz izo`fk tkx mBrh gS ftlds QyLo:i og mlh izf;k dks rsth ls
lh[k ysrk gS rFkk tc ,d Nk= nwljs Nk= dks 'kCnksa dk lgh mPpkj.k pronunciation djus ij f'k{kdksa }kjk
mudh dkQh iz'kalk gksrs ns[krk gS] rks og Hkh ml <ax ls 'kCnksa dk mPpkj.k djuk lh[k ysrk gSA
2 foospuk fof/k Discussion method & ;g ,d ,slh fof/k gS ftlesa ckyd izk;% lewg esa lh[ks tkus okys
fo"k; ds xq.k&nks"k dh foospuk djrk gSA viuh #fp ds vuqlkj dbZ ckyd fo"k; ds izR;sd igyw dk ewY;kadu
evaluation djrs gSa vkSj ,d fuf'pr fu"d"kZ ij igqprs gSaA pwfd Nk=ksa esa lgHkkfxrk participation dh
Hkkouk gksrh gS] blfy, blls lh[kk x;k ;k xzg.k fd;k x;k fo"k; ckydksa dks vf/kd le; rd ;kn jgrk gSA
3 djds lh[kuk ;k iz;ksx djds lh[kuk Learning by doing or experimenting & tc ckyd
fdlh dk;Z dks Lo;a djds ns[krk gS ;k Lo;a gh mlds fo'ks"k Lo:i dks le>us ds fy, dqN iz;ksx djrk gS] rks
blls og rsth ls ml dk;Z dks lh[k ysrk gSA euksoSKkfudksa dk er gS fd tc ckydksa dks dksbZ dk;Z Lo;a djus dk
ekSdk fn;k tkrk gS] rks blls os ml dk;Z esa vkbZ fo'ks"k dfBukb;ksa ls voxr gksrs gSa] ml ij fo'ks"k /;ku nsrs gSa rFkk
mlds lek/kku esa Hkh fo'ks"k #fp fn[kkrs gSaA bu lcdk ifj.kke ;g gksrk gS fd os ml dk;Z dks vklkuh ls lh[k ysrs
gSaA
4 vko`fkdj.k rFkk iqu% fujh{k.k fof/k Recitation and revision method & vko`fkdj.k fof/k esa
ckyd fdlh ikB dks lh[k ysus ds ckn fcuk ns[ks gh ml fo"k; dks eu gh eu nksgjkrk gSA t:jr iM+us ij og chp
esa ml lh[ks x, ikB dk iqu% fujh{k.k Hkh dj ysrk gS vFkkZr mls iqu% ns[k Hkh ysrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] eku fy;k tk,
fd ckyd laLr ds ,d 'yksd dks rhu ckj i<+dj ;kn dj ysrk gS] vc og bl 'yksd dks fcuk ns[ks gh eu gh eu
nksgjkrk gS] bl izf;k dks vko`fkdj.k dh fof/k dgh tk,xhA laHko gS fd og 'yksd ds fdlh va'k dks Hkwy tk, ]
,slh ifjfLFkfr esa og 'yksd dks iqu% ,d ckj ns[k ysrk gS fd fdu va'kksa dks og Hkwy jgk gS] bl izf;k dks iqu%
fujh{k.k fof/k revision method dgk tkrk gSA bl rjg ls ge ns[krs gS fd vko`fkdj.k rFkk iqu% fujh{k.k
fof/k ,d nwljs ds iwjd gSaA
5 jVdj rFkk le>dj lh[kus dh fof/k Rote and understanding method& ckydksa esa fo"k; dks
jVdj lh[kus vFkok le>dj lh[kus dh fof/k Hkh dkQh yksdfiz; gSA 4 ls 6 lky dh mez ds ckyd fdlh fo"k; dks
jVdj vFkkZr fcuk mldk fo'ks"k vFkZ le>s gq, lh[k ysrk gS ijarq tSls&tSls ckydksa dh mez c<+rh tkrh gS] os fo"k;
dks le>dj vf/kd lh[krs gSa rFkk jVus dh fof/k dk iz;ksx ;nk&dnk djrs gSaA ckyd izk;% mu fo"k;ksa dks jVrs gSa
ftudk dfBukbZ&Lrj difficulty level vf/kd gksrk gSA jVus dk fof/k NksVs ckydksa ds fy, ,d izHkkodkjh
fof/k effective method ekuh xbZ gS tcfd le>dj lh[kus dh fof/k cM+s ckydksa ds fy, ,d izHkkodkjh fof/k
ekuh xbZ gSA
lh[kus ds fu;e rFkk d{kk esa mudh mi;ksfxrk,
Lawa of Learning and their Applications in Classroom
FkkWuZMkbd Thorndike us lh[kus ds eq[; rhu fu;eksa dh ppkZ dh gS&
1 rRijrk dk fu;e Law of readiness
2 vH;kl dk fu;e Law of exercise
3 izHkko fu;e Law of effect
izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 62
bu fu;eksa dk o.kZu rFkk mudh 'kSf{kd mi;ksfxrk, fuEukafdr gSa&
1 rRijrk dk fu;e Law of readiness & rRijrk dk fu;e ;g crkrk gS fd lh[kus okys O;fDr fdu&fdu
ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa larq"V satisfied jgrs gSa rFkk fdu&fdu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa muesa [kh> annoyance mRiUu gksrh
gSA mUgksauas bl rjg dh fuEukafdr rhu ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk o.kZu fd;k gSA
i tc O;fDr fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy, rRij jgrk gS vkSj mls og dk;Z djus fn;k tkrk gS] rks blls mlesa
larks"k satisfaction gksrk gSA
ii tc O;fDr fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy, rRij jgrk gS vkSj mls og dk;Z ugha djus fn;k tkrk gS] rks blls
mlesa [kh> annoyance mRiUu gksrh gSA
iii tc O;fDr fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy, rRij ugha jgrk gS vkSj mls og dk;Z djus ds fy, ck/; fd;k tkrk gS]
rks blls Hkh mlesa [kh> gksrh gSA
Li"V gS fd lh[kus okys O;fDr esa larks"k satisfaction ;k [kh> annoyance gksuk O;fDr dh rRijrk
readiness ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
;g fu;e 'kSf{kd n`f"Vdks.k ls dkQh egoiw.kZ gSA blds 'kSf{kd ego dh O;k[;k bl izdkj dh tk ldrh
gS&
i f'k{kdksa dks igys ckydksa dh vfHk#fp ,oa vfHk{kerk aptitude dk ekiu dj ysuk pkfg, rkfd mudh
rRijrk dk mUgsa lgh&lgh Kku gksA
ii f'k{kdksa dks ckydksa dh rRijrk ds vuq:i f'k{k.k nsuk pkfg,A mUgsa vius v/;kiu dk;Z esa mu fo"k;ksa ij vf/kd
cy Mkyuk pkfg, ftudh vksj ckydksa dh rRijrk rFkk :>kku vf/kd gksA
iii ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa ckydksa esa vkRe&larks"k self-satisfaction vf/kd gksxk vkSj os fo"k; dks Bhd <ax ls
lh[kdj yEcs le; rd mls /kkj.k retain fd, jgsaxsA
2 vH;kl dk fu;e Law of exercise& vH;kl dk fu;e bl rF; ij vk/kkfjr gS fd vH;kl ls O;fDr esa
iw.kZrk vkrh gS practice makes a man perfectA vH;kl dk fu;e ;g crkrk gS fd vH;kl djus ls mhiu
stimulus rFkk vuqf;k response dk laca/k etcwr gksrk gS rFkk vH;kl jksd nsus ls ;g laca/k detksj iM+
tkrk gS ;k mldk foLej.k gks tkrk gSA bl O;k[;k ls fcYdqy gh Li"V gS fd tc ge fdlh ikB ;k fo"k; dks
ckj&ckj nksgjkrs gSa rks mls lh[k tkrs gSaA bls FkkWuZMkbd Thorndike us mi;ksx dk fu;e law of use dgk
gS rFkk nwljh rjQ tc ge fdlh ikB ;k fo"k; dks nksgjkuk cUn dj nsrs gS rks mls Hkwy tkrs gSaA bls mUgksaus
vuqi;ksx fu;e law of disuse dgk gSA
bl fu;e dk Hkh 'kSf{kd ego dkQh gS ftls fuEukafdr <ax ls fn[kk;k tk ldrk gS&
i f'k{kdksa dks pkfg, fd os Nk=ksa dks d{kk classroom esa vf/kd ls vf/kd ckj fo"k; ;k ikB dks
nksgjkus nsaA blesa mUgsa dksbZ tYnhckth ugha cjruh pkfg,A
ii Nk= fdlh lh[ks x, fo"k; dks vf/kd fnuksa rd ;kn fd, jgsa] blds fy, f'k{kdksa dks pkfg, fd os Nk=ksa ls
chp&chp esa lh[ks x, fo"k; dks ns[krs jgus dk lq>ko nsaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 63


iii f'k{kdksa dks d{kk esa ;g vkxkg dj nsuk pkfg, fd ;fn Nk= lh[ks x, fo"k; dks chp&chp esa nksgjkrs ugha jgsaxs
rks mudk foLej.k gks tk,xkA
ijarq] vH;kl fu;e dks gh lh[kus dk ,d ek= vk/kkj Nk=ksa dks ugha cuk ysuk pkfg, D;ksafd blesa dqN nks"k
Hkh ik, x, gSa tks fuEukafdr gSa&
i Nk= ek= vH;kl ls fdlh fo"k; dks tYnh ugha lh[k ikrs gSaA lh[kus ds fy, mUgsa vH;kl ds lkFk gh lkFk lw>
vkSj le> dh Hkh t:jr gksrh gSA
ii vH;kl fu;e bl ckr dh Hkh O;k[;k djus esa vleFkZ jgrk gS fd leku vH;kl jgus ij Hkh fofHkUu ckydksa ds
f'k{k.k Lrj esa fHkUurk D;ksa gksrh gSA D;ksa dqN Nk=ksa ds f'k{k.k o learning curve esa rsth ls c<+ksrjh gksrh gS
vkSj dqN Nk=ksa ds f'k{k.k o esa /kheh ;k eUn xfr ls c<+ksrjh gksrh gS\
iii vH;kl fu;e }kjk f'k'kqvksa ds lh[kus dh izf;k dh O;k[;k Bhd <ax ls gksrh gS] ijarq cM+s ckydksa ,oa fd'kksjksa
ds lh[kus dh O;k[;k Bhd <ax ls ugha gks ikrh gS D;ksafd cM+s ckyd ,oa fd'kksj ek= iqujko`fk repetition ds
vk/kkj ij ugha cfYd vU; dkjdksa tSls #fp] :>ku] vfHk{kerk] izsj.kk vkfn ds vk/kkj ij lh[krs gSaA
3 izHkko fu;e Law of effect& FkkWuZMkbd Thorndike dk izHkko fu;e lcls vf/kd egoiw.kZ fu;e
gSA bl fu;e ds vuqlkj O;fDr fdlh vuqf;k ;k dk;Z dks mlds izHkko effect or consequence ds vk/kkj
ij lh[krk gSA fdlh dk;Z ;k vuqf;k dk izHkko O;fDr esa ;k rks larks"ktud satisfying gksrk gS ;k [kh>
mRiUu djus okyk annoying gksrk gSA izHkko larks"ktud gksus ij O;fDr ml vuqf;k dks lh[k ysrk gS rFkk
[kh> annoyance mRiUu gksus ij O;fDr ml vuqf;k dks nksgjkuk ugha pkgrk] Qyr% mls og Hkwy tkrk gSA
;fn O;fDr dks vuqf;k response djus ds ckn iqjLdkj reward fn;k tkrk gS rks mlls mlesa larks"k
satiffaction mRiUu gksrk gS rFkk ;fn mls naM punishment fn;k tkrk gS] rks mlls mlesa [kh>
annoyance mRiUu gksrh gSA izHkko fu;e law of effect ds vuqlkj fdlh vuqf;k dks blfy, lh[k fy;k
tkrk gS D;ksafd O;fDr esa ml vuqf;k dks djus ds ckn larks"ktud izHkko satifying effect gksrk gSA
izHkko fu;e dh mi;ksfxrk d{kk classroom ds f'k{k.k learning esa lokZf/kd crkbZ xbZ gS] tks bl
izdkj gS&
i f'k{kdksa dks d{kk dk okrkoj.k Mjkouk cukdj ugha j[kuk pkfg, cfYd mUgsa d{kk dk okrkoj.k ,slk
cukdj j[kuk pkfg, fd mlesa Nk= vf/kd ls vf/kd [kq'k gks rFkk v/;kiu ls larq"V gksaA
ii f'k{kdksa dks v/;kiu djrs le; ckydksa dk mRlkg c<+kuk pkfg, rkfd muesa vf/kd ls vf/kd
vkRe&larqf"V self-satisfaction gks vkSj os lh[kus ds fy, izksRlkfgr gksaA
iii f'k{kdksa dks pkfg, fd os ikBeksa dks ;k v/;;u fd, tkus okys fo"k;ksa dks ,d ,sls e esa O;ofLFkr
djds Nk=ksa ds lkeus mifLFkr djsa fd Nk=ksa dh vfHk#fp ,oa :>ku cuh jgs rFkk f'k{k.k ls Nk= vf/kd ls vf/kd
larq"V gksaA
iv f'k{kdksa dks viuh iqjkuh vknr dk iz;ksx vFkkZr naM punishment dk iz;ksx u ds cjkcj gh djuk
pkfg, D;ksafd izHkko fu;e ls ;g Li"V gks x;k gS fd naM ,d izHkkodkjh izfof/k effective method ugha gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 64


O;fRo fodkl PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

O;fRo dk laizR;; Concept of Personality


O;fRo ,d tfVy izR;; gS rFkk viuh blh tfVyrk vkSj xw<+rk ds dkj.k dkQh le; rd euksoSKkfudksa
}kjk ;g misf{kr fo"k; jgk gSA oLrqr% O;fRo 'kCn vaxzsth Hkk"kk ds ilZusfyVh 'kCn dk i;kZ; gS tks ySfVu Latin
Hkk"kk ds ilksZuk Persona 'kCn ls fy;k x;k gSA ilksZuk dk vaxzsth esa i;kZ; Mask gS tks udkc ;k eq[kkoj.k
dgykrk gSA xzhd vfHkusrk bls vius dk;Z ;k pfj= ds vuq:i vfHku; ls iwoZ iguk djrs FksA ilksZuk ls lEcfU/kr
gksus ds dkj.k izkjaHk esa O;fRo dk vFkZ O;f ds ck :i&jax] vkdkj vkfn ls gh fy;k tkrk Fkk ijUrq O;fRo dh
bl O;k[;k dks ge iw.kZ ,oa lUrks"kizn ugha eku ldrs] D;ksafd euq"; dh vkfr gh euq"; ds O;fRo dk cks/k ugha
djkrhA
mlds fy;s dqN vkUrfjd xq.kksa dk gksuk Hkh vR;Ur vko';d gksrk gSA vkUrfjd xq.kksa ds vHkko esa O;fRo
viw.kZ le>k tkrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] ;fn ge ;g dgsa fd izrhd ,d cM+k I;kjk vkd"kZd O;fRo j[krk gS rks gekjk
;g dFku ,dkaxh gS D;ksafd ;gk ge O;f ds vkUrfjd xq.kksa dh mis{kk dj jgs gSa vkSj ek= O;f ds jax :i]
os'k&Hkw"kk] psgjs eksgjs ds u;u uD'k vkfn dks gh O;fRo dk iSekuk eku cSBs gSaA
O;fRo dh O;k[;k mlds fu/kkZjd rRoksa dk ;ksx fuekZ.k djuk fdlh Hkou dk o.kZu mlds fuekZ.k esa iz;q
lkexzh crykdj djus ds leku gSA lc bZekjrksa esa lkexzh ogh iz;q gksrh gS] fQj Hkh] og ,d:i ugha gksrha]
ftldk dkj.k lkexzh dh ek=k dh fHkUurk ,oa ml lkexzh dk vyx&vyx izdkj ls la;kstu gksuk gSA ;fn
O;fRo ek= 'khy xq.kksa dk ;ksx gksrk rks izR;sd O;f dh viuh oS;frk ugha gksrh vkSj vius i;kZoj.k ds izfr
O;ogkj izfrekuksa esa Hkh fHkUurk u ikbZ tkrhA
O;fRo ds fu/kkZjd Determinants of Personality
O;fRo dk fu/kkZj.k djus okys izeq[k dkjd fuEufyf[kr gSa&
1tSfod ;k oa'kkuqe lEcU/kh dkjdBiological or Hereditary Determinants
2 euksoSKkfud dkjd Psychological Determinants
3 lkekftd dkjd Social Determinants
4 lkaLfrd dkjd Cultural Determinants
1 tSfod ;k oa'kkuqe lEcU/kh dkjd Biological or Hereditary Determinants&
oa'kkuqe ls O;fDr dks {kerkvksa dk Hkjiwj [ktkuk feyrk gS tks fdlh lhek rd mlds O;fDrRo ds Lo:i dks
fu/kkZfjr djrk gSA lkFk gh] mls dqN tSfod n'kk;sa Hkh miyC/k gksrh gSaA ;s n'kk;sa mu lhekvksa dk fu/kkZj.k djrh gSaA
ftldh ifjf/k ls ckgj tkus ij O;fDr dk fodkl lEHko ugha gksrk pkgs mldk ifjos'k fdruk gh le`) ,oa
izsj.kkLin D;ksa u gksA
oa'kkuqe ,oa okrkoj.k nksuksa gh ekuo&fodkl ds lanHkZ esa brus vf/kd ,d nwljs ls lEcfu/kr gSa fd buds
vyx&vyx ;ksxnku dk Bhd ls vuqeku ugha yxk;k tk ldrkA tSfod dkjd mu lhekvksa dks fuf'pr djrs gSa
ftuds vUnj jgrs gq, O;fDrRo dk fodkl gksrk gSA O;fDrRo ij tSfod izHkko dk lEcU/k 'kkjhfjd lajpuk ,oa
fofHkUu izdkj dh xzfUFk;ksa ls gksus okys lzko ls gksrk gSA uhps budk laf{kIr fooj.k izLrqr fd;k tk jgk gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 65


'kkjhfjd lajpuk Constitutional Factors of Physique& O;fDrRo dk ckgjh Lo:i] tSls&
pkbZ] Hkkj] 'kkjhfjd&cukoV] jax o vU; nwljh fo'ks"krk, O;fDrRo fodkl ij dqN izHkko vo'; Mkyrh gSaA ckyd
dh 'kkjhfjd lajpuk mlds vkRe&izR;; Self-concept dks fuf'pr djus esa lgk;rk iznku djrh gSA ,d
vkd"kZd O;fDrRo j[kus okyk O;fDr vius vkl&ikl ds yksxksa esa vo'; gh vkd"kZ.k dk dsUnz gksrk gSA mls vius
lewg esa igpku ,oa izfr"Bk nksuksa feyrh gSA blds foijhr] ,d izfrHkk lEiUu] fofHkUu xq.kksa ls ;qDr NksVs dn ds
nqcys&irys O;fDr dh mldh 'kkjhfjd cukoV vkd"kZd u gksus ds dkj.k vuns[kh dh tkrh gSA ,slk O;fDr
dkykUrj esa vkRe&ghurk ls Hkj tkrk gS rFkk /khjs&/khjs iyk;uoknh Hkh cu tkrk gSA yEcs vkSj lqUnj O;fDr vius
ls NksVs ,oa dq:i O;fDr;ksa dh rqyuk esa gj ckr esa vkxs jgrs gSa rFkk ifjfLFkfr dk ykHk mBkrs gq, gkoh jgrs gSaA
dksbZ 'kkjhfjd nks"k ;k folaxfr lEiw.kZ O;fDrRo dks gh rksM+ dj j[k nsrh gSA
,d Fkdk&gkjk Hkw[kk vkneh vdkj.k gh viuk larqyu [kks cSBrk gSA Bhd blh izdkj] mPp jDr pki]
vkWDlhtu dh deh] e|&lsou] CyM 'kqxj dk de ;k vf/kd gksuk] vR;f/kd ozr j[kuk ;k vU; efLr"d fodkj
,sls vusdksa dkj.k gSa tks O;fDrRo esa vlk/kkj.k vk/kkjHkwr ifjorZu ykrs gSaA
jklk;fud ;k xzfUFk vk/kkj Chemical or Glandular Bases& O;ogkj dk tSfod vk/kkj
gekjs O;ogkj ds dqN igyqvksa esa LFkkf;Ro iznku djrk gSA gekjk ukM+h rU=] xzfUFk;k] jDr&jlk;u Blood
Chemistry vkfn gekjs O;ogkj ds rjhdksa ,oa fo'ks"krkvksa dks cgqr lhek rd izHkkfor djrs gSaA ;s dkj.k gekjs
O;fDrRo dks tSfod vk/kkj iznku djrs gSaA
,aMkskbu xzfUFk;k Endocrine glands gekjs jDr esa gkeksZal ;k mkstdksa Exciters dks izos'k djkrh
gSaA buds e/; lg;ksx vfr&vko';d gSA
fi;w"k &xzfUFk Pituitary tks gekjs efLr"d rFkk eqag dh Nr roof of the mouth ds e/; fLFkr gksrh
gS] bldk dk;Z vU; xzfUFk;ksa ij fu;U=.k djuk gksrk gSA ;g gekjs laosxksa dks izHkkfor djrh gSA
Fkkbjk;M &xzfUFk Thyroid Glands ls mRiUu inkFkZ O;fDr ds LoHkko dks fu;fU=r djrk gSA bl
inkFkZ dh deh ds dkj.k O;fDr Fkdku vkSj detksjh eglwl djrk gSA ;g xnZu ds fupys fgLls esa fLFkr gksrh gSA
,d mi xy&xzfUFk Para-Thyroid Gland Hkh gksrh gSA bl xzfUFk }kjk mRiUu inkFkZ dh vf/kdrk ls O;fDr esa
vf/kd mkstuk vk tkrh gSA
Fkk;el&xzfUFk Thymus Glands O;fDr dk ySafxd fodkl djrh gSA ;qokoLFkk vkus ij ;g xzfUFk
viuk dk;Z djuk cUn dj nsrh gSA ;g Nkrh ds ijh fgLls esa fLFkr gksrh gSA
bl izdkj] bu xzfUFk;ksa dh vlekU; fLFkfr gekjs O;fDrRo dks xEHkhjrkiwoZd izHkkfor djrh gSA
2 euksoSKkfud dkjd Psychological Determinants& O;fDrRo dks izHkkfor djus okys eq[; dkjdksa
esa euksoSKkfud dkjd viuk egRoiw.kZ LFkku j[krs gSA O;fDr vius 'kjhj ds ckjs esa dSlk izR;{khdj.k djrk
gS\mldk jax&:i dSlk gS\mlesa D;k ;ksX;rk,a ,oa {kerk;sa gSa\ og lekt esa dSlh fLFkfr j[krk gS\mldk nwljksa ls
esy&tksy dSlk gS\rFkk og Lo;a dks dSlk yxrk gS vkfn&vkfnA
lek;kstu dh n`f"V ls O;fDr vk'oLr gksuk pkgrk gS fd mlds ekrk&firk] vfHkHkkod] lxs&lEcU/kh]
ikl&iM+kSl] fe=x.k] v/;kid rFkk vU; mlds ckjs esa dSlh jk; j[krs gSa\vxj bl izdkj dk izR;{khdj.k nwljksa
dh ilUn] Lohfr] iz'kalk] viukiu vkfn ls tqM+k gksrk gS rks ;g lc mlesa vkRe&larqf"V dh Hkkouk Hkjus ds fy;s
i;kZIr gksrk gS rFkk mls vkRekuqHkwfr Self-Actualization dk cks/k gksrk gS] og vius thou dks lkFkZd le>rk

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 66


gSA blds foijhr] ;fn mls lekt ls frjLdkj] fuUnk] vogsyuk vkfn feyrs gSa rks og Lo;a dks fujFkZd] egRoghu
rFkk vlqjf{kr eglwl djus yxrk gSA og ghu Hkkouk ls xzLr gksdj lalkj ls iyk;u dh ckr lkspus yxrk gSA
blfy, LoLFk vuqdwyu ds fy;s ckyd dks lekt esa vkRe&Lohfr dk feyuk vR;Ur vko';d gksrk gSA
vkRe&Lohfr feyus ij gh ckyd esa vUrnZ`f"V dk fodkl Bhd ls gks ikrk gS rFkk og viuh ;ksX;rkvksa Talents
,oa {kerkvksa Limitations dks Bhd ls le>us yxrk gSA mldk n`f"Vdks.k Lo;a ds izfr rFkk nwljksa ds izfr
/kukRed :i ys ysrk gSA og bl Hkkouk ls Hkj tkrk gS& eSa viuh lhek,a c[kwch le>rk gw ysfdu eSa Hkjld iz;kl
d:xkA 'I recognize my limitations, but, I will do my best.' oLrqr% tks ckyd Lo;a dk mPp
ewY;kadu djrs gSa os ,d ghu&Hkkouk dk f'kdkj gks tkrs gSa ftldh {kfriwfrZ os feF;k Js"B Hkkouk dk izn'kZu djds
djuk pkgrs gSaA Bhd blh izdkj dqN ckyd ,sls Hkh gksrs gSa tks viuk ewY;kadu okLrfodrk ls fuEu Lrj dk djrs
gSaA ,sls ckyd Lo;a dks v;ksX; ekurs gSa rFkk vkRe&fo'okl esa deh eglwl djrs gSaA mUgsa ;g Hk; gj le; lrkrk
jgrk gS fd os HkkX;ghu gS rFkk tks dksbZ Hkh dk;Z djsaxs mlesa mUgsa vlQyrk gh gkFk yxsxhA ;s nksuksa gh fLFkfr;k
ckyd ds fgr esa ugha gSA bu fLFkfr;ksa esa v/;kid o vfHkHkkodksa dks pkfg;s fd os ckyd dks grk'kk dk f'kdkj u
gksus nsa rFkk mldh ;ksX;rkvksa ,oa {kerkvksa dk Bhd ls vkdyu dj mls fn'kk funsZ'k nsaA
3 lkekftd dkjd Social Determinants&
"Personality is shaped by and inter-woven with the social environment."
- John Dollard
,d O;fDr lekt esa gh tUe ysrk gS vkSj lekt esa gh mldk ikyu iks"k.k gksrk gSA og okrkoj.k esa
mifLFkr mhidksa ds lkis{k gh vuqf;k djrk gSA
lkekftd okrkoj.k esa vusd ,slh laLFkk, gSa tks O;fDrRo ds fodkl dks fdlh u fdlh rjg ls mYys[kuh;
:i ls izHkkfor djrh gSaA O;fDr dk ifjokj] iMkslh] fe=&e.Myh] fo|ky;] efUnj o ppZ] /kkfeZd mRlo rFkk
lkekftd ijEijk,] jhfr&fjokt vkfn lHkh O;fDrRo dks izHkkfor djrs gSaA budk laf{kIr mYys[k bl izdkj gS&
a ifjokj&ifjokj ckyd dh izFke ikB'kkyk gSA bl ikB'kkyk dk izHkko thou&i;ZUr jgrk gSA ifjokj ds
lnL;ksa ds e/; lEcU/k] mudh f'k{kk] muds jgu&lgu ds Lrj] mudh lkekftd o vkfFkZd fLFkfr] ifjokj ls
feyus okyk izse o Lusg vkfn leLr ckrsa ckyd ds O;fRo dks izHkkfor djrh gSaA ifjokj esa cPpksa dh dqy la[;k]
ekrk&firk ds fdrus cPpsa gSa\ fdl e dk cPpk gS] tUe ds le; ekrk&firk dh mez vkfn ckrsa Hkh O;fDrRo dks
izHkkfor djrh gSaA
b iM+kSl&tSlk iM+kSl gksxk oSlk gh ckyd gksxkA ckyd cgqr dqN iM+kSl ds ckydksa ls lh[krk gSA iM+kSl dh
vkfFkZd o lkekftd fLFkfr ;fn cgqr [kjkc gS rks ckyd esa mPprk dh Hkkouk Superiority Complex
fodflr gks tk;sxk vkSj ;fn iMkslh dkQh mPp fLFkfr okys gSa rks ckyd esa ghurk dh Hkkouk fodflr gks tk;sxhA
c fe=&e.Myh&ckyd ij fe=&e.Myh dk mYys[kuh; izHkko iM+rk gSA ckyd ftl izdkj ds ckydksa ds lkFk
jgsxk] oSls gh xq.k fodflr dj ysxkA laxh&lkFkh ;fn vPNs gSa rks ckyd dk O;fDrRo Hkh lqUnj cusxk vkSj ;fn
laxh&lkFkh cqjs gSa rks og Hkh xyr vknrksa dk f'kdkj gks tk;sxk vkSj mldk O;fDrRo Hkh larqfyr ugha jg ik;sxkA
vr% vPNh fe=&e.Myh dk gksuk cgqr vko';d gSA
d fo|ky;&izR;sd fo|ky; dk viuk Lo;a dk i`Fkd O;fDrRo dk Hkh izHkko ckyd ij oSlk gh iM+sxkA fo|ky;
ckyd esa vusd xq.kksa dk fodkl djrk gSA ;s xq.k vU; cPpksa ds lkFk jgus ls] f'k{kdksa dk vuqdj.k djus ls] [ksy ds

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 67


eSnku] d{kk&d{k vkfn esa O;ogkj djus ls fodflr gksrs gSaA
bu rRoksa ds vykok /kkfeZd laLFkk,] ckyd dh lkekftd o vkfFkZd fLFkfr] muds thou y{;] lkekftd
mRlo] esyk&R;ksgkj] pyfp=] lkfgR;] lkekftd o jk"Vh; pfj= vkfn vusd ckrsa ckyd ds O;fDrRo&fodkl dks
izHkkfor djrh gSaA
4 lkaLfrd dkjd Cultural Determinants& laLfr dh vfeV Nki O;fDr ds O;fDrRo ij iM+rh
gSA izR;sd ns'k rFkk izkUr dh viuh&viuh laLfr gksrh gS ftlds ifj.kkeLo:i ;gk ds jgus okys O;fDr;ksa dk
O;fDrRo izHkkfor gksrk gSA
oLrqr% lHkh O;ogkj&izk:i gekjs lkaLfrd mRikn gSaA buesa tks eq[; gSa] os gSa] uSfrd ewY; ,oa vkn'kZ]
lkekftd #fp;k ,oa n`f"Vdks.kA
laLfr cPps ds O;fDrRo dks lqn`<+ vk/kkj iznku djrh gSA dksbZ ckyd ftl lkaLfrd ifjos'k esa tUe
ysrk gS og /khjs&/khjs mlh ls lEc) gks tkrk gS rFkk ml laLfr fo'ks"k dh vko';drkvksa ,oa ekU;rkvksa dks vius
O;fDrRo dk LFkk;h vax cukus ds iz;kl esa tqV tkrk gSA og eglwl djrk gS fd lewg fo'ks"k esa lf; lgHkkfxrk
fuHkkus ds fy;s rFkk txg cukus ds fy;s mls lewg fo'ks"k ds fopkjksa] vknrksa] n`f"Vdks.kksa] ewY;ksa vkfn dks Lohdkj
djuk gksxk rFkk mUgsa vius thou esa vkRelkr djuk gksxkA
izR;sd izdkj dh laLfr esa ekrk&firk dk izHkko cPpksa dh vknrksa] vuq'kklu rFkk izf'k{k.k ij vo'; iM+rk
gSA ckyd dh ;g f'k{kk mldh 'kS'kokoLFkk ls gh izkjEHk gks tkrh gSA
ckyd dk lkaLfrd lewg mls bu vokfNr f;kvksa dks lkekftd ewY;ksa esa ifjorZu ds volj iznku
djrk gSA ;s volj gksrs gSa& [ksydwn] okn&fookn izfr;ksfxrk, vkfnA lkFk gh] ;s lewg ckyd ds ?k`.kkLin
n`f"Vdks.k dks Lusgiw.kZ n`f"Vdks.k esa cnyus ds Hkh volj iznku djrs gSaA ckyd ij dqN uSfrd cU/ku Hkh yxk;s tkrs
gSaA rkfd og mu dk;ksZa dks u djs ftUgsa cM+s ilUn ugha djrs gSaA Mj] MkV&QVdkj] nks"kkjksi.k vkfn vusd izfof/k;ksa
lekt esa blhfy;s iz;ksx esa yk;h tkrh gSa rkfd ckyd viuh laLfr dks Lohdkj djs rFkk mlds fu;U=.k esa jgsA
lkaLfrd ncko ckyd ds O;fDrRo dks lgh o xyr fn'kk esa eksM+us ds fy;s iw.kZ :i ls mkjnk;h gSaA ,d
ckyd dh f'k{kk viuh fo"k;&oLrq] fn'kk ,oa izsj.kk mldh lkaLfrd i`"BHkwfe ls gh xzg.k djrh gSA mldk
n`f"Vdks.k] ewY;] uSfrd O;ogkj rFkk thou ds izfr lEiw.kZ n`f"Vdks.k vkfn ikfjokfjd laLfr ds jax esa gh jaxs gksrs
gSa rFkk budh tM+s ml LFkku esa gksrh gS tgk mldk tUe gqvk gSA
ckyd viuh laLfr ds gkFkksa dk ,d f[kykSuk ek= ugha gS tks ek= viuh laLfr ds ?ksjs esa f?kjk jgrk gS
cfYd og Lo;a Hkh viuh laLfr dks izHkkfor djus dh {kerk j[krk gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa] og viuh laLfr dk okgd
Carrier Hkh gS vkSj l`tugkj Creater HkhA
mijks dkjdksa ds v/;;u ls ;g ckr Li"V gks tkrh gS fd O;fDr dk O;fRo fdlh ,d dkjd ls izHkkfor
u gksdj dbZ dkjdksa }kjk izHkkfor gksrk gSA vr% v/;kid rFkk ekrk&firk dks pkfg;s fd O;fRo ds fodkl ds fy;s
mijks dkjdksa dks fu;fU=r djsaA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 68


kW;M dk O;fRo lajpuk lEcU/kh fl)kUr
eksfoZ;k ds ,d uxj esa 6 ebZ 1855 dks lk/kkj.k ;gwnh ifjokj esa kW;M dk tUe gqvkAckn esa iwjk ifjokj
fo;uk pyk x;kA ;gk kW;M us e`R;q ds ,d o"kZ iwoZ rd viuk thou O;rhr fd;kA ckY;koLFkk esa kW;M us
ckbfcy dk v/;;u fd;kA fo;uk fo'ofo|ky; esa os fpfdRlk ds fo|kFkhZ jgs] ysfdu os MkDVj cuuk ugha pkgrs
FksA blhfy;s os nSfgdh esa vf/kd :fp ysus yxsA ckn esa kW;M] 'kkdksZa ds lEidZ esa vk;s vkSj isfjl esa jgdj muds
lkFk ,d o"kZ rd v/;;u fd;kA
kW;M us rhl o"kZ dh vk;q esa 'kknh dh rFkk rfU=dk fo'ks"kK cudj fo;uk esa dk;Z djus yxsA fo;uk ds
vUnj euLrki dk {ks= misf{kr Fkk] vr% k;M us blh {ks= esa viuk uke LFkkfir fd;kA ;gha ij mUgksaus viuh
lEeksgu fof/k dks tUe fn;kA bl fof/k esa dqN dfBukb;k vkus ij os buds lek/kku ds fy;s kal ds uSUlh Ldwy esa
x;s ysfdu ogk Hkh bUgsa larqf"V ugha gqbZ vkSj ;s iqu% fo;uk ykSV vk;s rFkk lEeksgu fof/k ds {ks= esa dk;Z djrs jgsA
82 o"kZ dh vk;q esa kW;M dh e`R;q gqbZA
kW;M us loZizFke eu dh rhu n'kk;sa crk;h gSa&
1 psru Conscious& psruk dk lEcU/k orZeku ls gksrk gSA psru eu ds dbZ mnkgj.k gekjs nSfud thou esa
feyrs gSa& tSls ijh{kk Hkou esa ijh{kkFkhZ dk iz'uksa ds mkj fy[krs jgukA kW;M ds vuqlkj psruk vpsru dk og
Hkkx gS tks rRdkfyd Kku ls lEcfU/kr jgrk gSA
2 vpsru Unconscious& kW;M ds vuqlkj eu dk lcls cM+k Hkkx vpsru gksrk gSA mlus vpsru eu dh
rqyuk cQZ ds VqdM+s ls dh gS ftldk vf/kdk'k Hkkx ikuh esa Mwck jgrk gSA ;g Hkkx gesa fn[kkbZ ugha nsrkA bl izdkj
cQZ ds VqdM+s dk tks de Hkkx rSjrk jgrk gS mls ge psru dgrs gSa rFkk tks Hkkx Mwck jgrk gS mls vpsru dgrs gSaA
3 v)Z&psru Pre-Conscious& ;g psru voLFkk dh ijh lrg gksrh gSA dqN Le`fr;k ,slh gksrh gSa tks
vklkuh ls fcuk fdlh iz;kl ds psru voLFkk esa vk tkrh gSa] bUgsa v)Z&psru dgrs gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ&thHk dk
yM+[kM+k tkuk] ifjfpr ukeksa dks Hkwy tkuk] oLrqvksa dks xyr txg ij j[k nsuk bR;kfnA ;s lHkh f;k;sa
v)Z&psru esa vkrh gSaA
O;fRo lajpuk dh n`f"V ls kW;M Id, Ego, Super-Ego dks egRo nsrk gS&
bna Id& kW;M us Id dks cgqr vf/kd egRo fn;k gSA ;g thou o e`R;q nksuksa ewy izo`fk;ksa dk dsUnz gSA
bldh mRifk cPps ds tUe ds lkFk gh gks tkrh gSA ;g bPNkvksa dh tuuh gSA bls mfpr&vuqfpr dk dqN Kku
ugha gksrk D;ksafd ;g vkuUn fl)kUr Pleasure-Principle dks ekurk gS ftlds dkj.k bldk eq[; ms';
dsoy vkuUn izkIr djuk gh gSA
vga Ego& vga dks okLrfodrk fl)kUr Reality Principle dgrs gSaA ;g gekjs O;ogkj ij
fu;U=.k djrk gSA lkFk gh] gekjh bPNkvksa rFkk okLrfodrkvksa ds chp lUrqyu cuk;s j[krk gSA vga dk dk;Z ,d
iqy dh rjg gS tks Id rFkk Super-Ego ds chp gksrk gSA bls bu nksuksa dks eukuk gksrk gSA blfy;s bls eu dk
'kkld dgk tkrk gSA
ije&vga Super-Ego& bldk fodkl lcls nsj esa gksrk gS rFkk bls vkn'kZoknh ;k uSfrdrk dk
fl)kUr Idealistic Principle dgrs gSaA ;g og 'kf gS tks vkneh dks lkekftd cuk;s j[krh gSA blh ds
vk/kkj ij O;f ds vanj iNrkos dh Hkkouk vkrh gSA bls ge vkRek dh vkokt Hkh dg ldrs gSa tSls&tSls O;f dh

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 69


mez c<+rh tkrh gS bn detksj gksrk tkrk gS rFkk lqij&bxks fodflr gksrk tkrk gSA kW;M us bu rhuksa esa lEcU/k
Hkh crk;k gSA
Lo&eksg Narcissism& dHkh&dHkh cPpk vius gh :i ij eksfgr gksdj vius vki ls gh izse djus
yxrk gSA kW;M us bls Lo&eksg ;k ukflZfTTe dgk gSA blds ihNs ,d ikSjkf.kd dFkk gSA dgrs gSa xzhd ns'k esa
ukflZll uke dk ,d vfr lqanj ;qod FkkA ,d fnu ;g ckyd taxy esa x;kA ogk mls I;kl yxhA ikl esa gh
rkykc FkkA tc og bl rkykc esa ikuh ihus ds fy;s >qdk rks mls ikuh esa ,d lqUnj psgjk fn[kkbZ fn;k tks mldh
Lo;a dh ijNkbZ FkhA og bl ijNkbZ dks ns[kdj eqX/k gksrk jgk vkSj Hkw[k I;kl ds dkj.k ej x;kA dgrs gSa ftl
LFkku ij mldh e`R;q gqbZ Fkh ogk ,d lqUnj ikS/kk mxk vkSj yksxksa us bl ikS/ks dk uke cPps ds uke ij gh ^ujfxl*
j[k fn;kA
kW;M ds vuqlkj ,slk FkksM+k cgqr lcds lkFk gksrk gSA dqN O;f okLro esa ,sls gksrs gSa ftUgsa vius
'kkjhfjd vaxksa ij xoZ gksrk gSA os 'kh'ks esa ckj&ckj viuk izfrfcEc ns[krs gSa rFkk brus dkeqd gks tkrs gSa fd vius gh
'kkjhfjd vaxksa dks ,sls pweus yxrs gSa tSls fdlh nwljs ds 'kjhj dks pwe jgs gksaA kW;M us ,sls yksxksa dks ukflZll dgk
gSA
ewy&izo`fk;k Instincts& kW;M us nks izdkj dh ewy izo`fk;k ekuh gSa& thou ewy izo`fk rFkk e`R;q
ewy izo`fk Life and Death InstinctA kW;M us thou ewy izo`fk dks izse ewy izo`fk Hkh dgk gSA ;g ewy izo`fk
okluke;h vkosxksa dks tUe nsrh gS rFkk O;f dks jksVh] diM+k] edku o vU; jpukRed dk;Z djus ds fy;s izsfjr
djrh gSA ckSf)d fodkl Hkh blh ewy&izo`fk ls gksrk gSA
e`R;q ewy izo`fk ds vUrxZr O;f dsoy fuekZ.k] izse dh gh ckrsa ugha lksprk cfYd og fo/oal] vke.k vkSj
?k`.kk dh Hkkouk ls Hkh Hkjk gksrk gSA ;g ewy izo`fk ekuo thou dks rgl&ugl djus ds fy;s foo'k djrh gSA ;s
nksuksa ewy izo`fk;k ,d nwljs dh fojks/kh ugha gSa cfYd tqM+h gqbZ gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ& cM+s ls cM+s izseh esa Hkh viuh izsfedk
ds izfr ?k`.kk o lrkus dh Hkkouk ikbZ tkrh gSA Bhd blh izdkj cM+s ls cM+s Mkdwvksa esa Hkh izse] lgkuqHkwfr o xjhcksa ds
izfr n;k Hkko ik;k tkrk gSA
j{kk&;qf;k Defence Mechanisms& kW;M us fofHkUu izdkj dh j{kk&;qf;ksa dk Hkh mYys[k
fd;k gS] tks bl izdkj gSa&
1 neu Repression& tc dksbZ fopkj psru esa mRiUu gksrk gS rks ;k rks mls O; dj fn;k tkrk gS
;k mldk neu dj fn;k tkrk gSA neu la?k"kksZa ls NqVdkjk ikus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA neu esa ihM+k ls cpus dh
Hkkouk fufgr gksrh gS rFkk neu ge mUgha fopkjksa ;k bPNkvksa dk djrs gSa ftUgsa ge O; dj ldus esa vleFkZ gksrs
gSaA
2 'keu Supression& neu ds leku gh 'keu ;qf dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA neu rFkk 'keu esa
vUrj ;g gS fd neu dh fLFkfr esa d"Vnk;d fopkj Lo;a gh vpsru esa pys tkrs gSa tcfd 'keu dh fLFkfr esa
d"Vizn bPNk ;k fopkjksa dks tkucw>dj vpsru esa izfo"V djk;k tkrk gSA
3 izfrxeu Regression& izfrxeu dk vFkZ gS& okfil tkukA tc O;f Lo;a dks pkjksa vksj ls
f?kjk ikrk gS rks og vius ml 'kS'kodky dh vksj ykSVrk gS tgk ;s lc fpUrk;sa ugha FkhaA izfrxeu dh fLFkfr esa ,d
ifjiDo O;f vifjiDo O;ogkj djus yxrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ&izkS<+ ;qorh blfy;s vklw cgkrh gS D;ksa fd cpiu esa
vklw cgkdj og ^eEeh* ls cgqr&lh ckrsa euok fy;k djrh FkhA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 70


4 rknkRehdj.k Identification& bl fLFkfr esa O;f fdlh vU; O;f ds lkFk viuk rknRE;
LFkkfir dj ysrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ& ,d O;f nsokuUn ls rknkRE; LFkkfir dj mlh dh rjg cky j[kuk ;k cksyuk
izkjEHk dj nsrk gSA dqN lhek rd rknkRehdj.k vPNk gks ldrk gS ysfdu vfr&rknkRehdj.k ekufld jksx dk
y{k.k gksrk gSA
5 ;qfdj.k Rationalization& bl ;qf ds }kjk O;f viuh dfe;ksa rFkk vlQyrkvksa dks
mfpr djkj nsus ds fy;s rdZ izLrqr djrk gSA bl ;qf dk iz;ksx izR;sd O;f dHkh u dHkh fdlh Lrj ij vo';d
djrk gSA tsc esa iSlk u gksus ij cPps dks ;g dgdj le>k fn;k tkrk gS fd ;s tysch Bhd ugha gSaA ;g Bhd oSls
gh gS tSls ykseM+h ds [ks vaxwjA
6 iz{ksi.k Projection& vius nks"kksa] dfe;ksa dks nwljksa ds lj Fkksi nsuk iz{ksi.k dgykrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ&ijh{kk esa vlQy gksus ij Nk= isij dk vkmV&vkQ&dkslZ gksuk crkrk gSA cjlkr ds fnuksa esa fofHkUu
izdkj ds cknyksa esa fdlh dks 'ksj fn[kkbZ nsrk gS rks fdlh dks vknehA tkdh jgh Hkkouk tSlh] izHkq ewjr ns[kh fru
rSlh iz{ksi.k dk gh ,d mnkgj.k gSA
7 {kfriwfrZ Compensation& ghurk dh Hkkouk ls lqj{kk ikus ds fy;s fdlh nwljs {ks= esa Js"Brk
dk fodkl djus dh izf;k {kfriwfrZ dgykrh gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ& i<+kbZ esa detksj Nk= [ksy esa vPNk izn'kZu djds
i<+kbZ dh ghurk dh {kfriwfrZ djrk gSA blh izdkj] ,d vU/kk O;f vius va/ksiu dh {kfriwfrZ vPNk xoS;k cudj
dj ysrk gSA izR;sd O;f esa dksbZ u dksbZ deh vo'; gksrh gSA
8 ekxkZUrhdj.k Sublimation& bl ;qf ds }kjk O;f viuh vlkekftd bPNkvksa ds ekxZ dks
cnydj lkekftd ekxZ ij ys vkrk gS] tSls&izsfedk dks izkIr djus esa vlQy ,d O;f vPNk ewfrZdkj cu tkrk
gS ;k rqylhnkl viuh iRuh ls QVdkj ds ckn jkeHk cu x;sA ekxkZUrhdj.k ds }kjk lkekftd ms'; vklkuh ls
izkIr gks tkrs gSaA
9 izfrf;k fuekZ.k Reaction Formation& tc dksbZ bPNk nfer gks tkrh gS rks vga mls
nqckjk vkus ls jksdrk gS rFkk O;f ,slh fLFkfr esa foijhr O;ogkj djrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ&,d O;f tks vius firk
ls ?k`.kk djrk Fkk] mldh e`R;q ds ckn og cjlh] rsjgoha] Jk)] gou] riZ.k vkfn djsxk rkfd ?k`.kk dh iqujko`fk u
gksA
10 :ikUrjhdj.k Conversion& bl ;qf esa nfer bPNk fdlh 'kkjhfjd jksx ds y{k.k ds :i esa
iznf'kZr gks tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh O;f dh bPNk chekj iM+ tkus dh gksrh gSA O;f chekj D;ksa gksuk pkgrk gS\
bldk ,dek= mkj ;g gS fd og nSfud leL;kvksa ls NqVdkjk ikus ds fy;s chekj iM+uk pkgrk gS vkSj fQj okLro
esa chekj iM+ tkrk gSA
11 fnok&Loiu Day-Dreaming& fnok&Loiu okLrfodrk ds nq%[kn lalkj ls nwj ys tkdj
O;f dks jaxhu ut+kjs fn[kkrk gSA ;g ,d izdkj ls dkYifud nqfu;k esa gekjh bPNkvksa dh iwfrZ djkrk gS ftls ge
[;kyh iqyko ;k gokbZ fdys cukuk dgrs gSaA fo'o dk gj O;f fdlh u fdlh :i esa fnok&Loiu vo'; ns[krk
gSA
12 iyk;u Withdrawal& izR;kgkj dh fLFkfr esa O;f okLrfod fLFkfr ls iyk;u dj tkrk gSA
og ,dkdh] 'kehZyk] Hk;Hkhr rFkk xEHkhj gks tkrk gSA O;f tc fdlh Hk;kud ifjfLFkfr dk lkeuk djus esa Lo;a
dks v{ke ekurk gS rks og mlls iyk;u djuk gh mfpr le>rk gSA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 71


13 vLohfr Denial& dqN O;f nq%[kn ckrksa dks lqudj Hkh ,slk O;ogkj djrs gSa ekuksa mUgksaus mls
lquk gh u gksA O;f viuh cqjkbZ] vkykspuk vkfn dks lqudj vulquk blhfy;s dj nsrs gSaA
14 udkjkRedrk Negativism& udkjkRedrk dh fLFkfr esa O;f mu dk;ksZa dks djrk gS ftUgsa
djus ds fy;s mls euk fd;k tkrk gSA tSls& cPps ls Qwy rksM+us ds fy;s euk fd;k x;k rks og vo'; gh Qwy
rksM+sxkA ;s dk;Z rc fd;s tkrs gSa tc euk djus okys ds izfr eu esa fdlh izdkj dk fonzksg gksA

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 72


Founder Member of
Peoples' Vigilance Committee on Human Rights

Pt. Vikas Maharaj

Gyanendra Pati (Poet)

Dr. Lenin Raghuvanshi

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 72


OFFICE OF SECRETORY GENERAL

Dr. Lenin Raghuvanshi

Sr. Manager

Dr. Rajiv Kumar Singh


Sr. Manager

izf'k{k.k eSuqvy PVCHR /TATA TRUSTS 72


Peoples Vigilance Committee on Human Rights (PVCHR)
(AN INITIATIVE OF JAN MITRA NYAS)
SA 4/2A, Daulatpur, Varanasi- 221002 (Uttar Pradesh) India
Mobile No.: +91 9935599333, E-mail: pvchr.india@gmail.com
Website: www.pvchr.asia, www.pvchr.net
Blog: www.itepvchr.blogspot.in
www.testimonialtherapy.org, www.detentionwatch.blogspot.in