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Dear Students,

Prepare the report with the given

Use Book Antiqua And 12 font size.

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Make the changes as per your details at red coloured text.

Binding: Simple stapled tape binding with transparent sheets

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10. CHAPTER 2: ..

No. of copies : 3

1. Student copy, 2. Department 3. Guide copy (guides interest)

Robotics is part of Todays communication. In todays world ROBOTICS
is fast growing and interesting field. It is simplest way for latest technology
modification. Now a days communication is part of advancement of technology,
so we decided to work on robotics field, and design something which will make
human life simpler in day today aspect. Thus we are supporting this cause.

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design,

construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of
robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information

Obstacle detection and avoidance robots are intelligent robots which can
perform desired tasks in unstructured environments by finding and overcoming
obstacles in their way without continuous human guidance.

In robotics, obstacle avoidance is the task of satisfying some control

objective subject to non-intersection or non-collision position constraints. Normally
obstacle avoidance is considered to be distinct from path planning in that one is
usually implemented as a reactive control law while the other involves the pre-
computation of an obstacle-free path which a controller will then guide a robot
along. A practical real-time system for passive obstacle detection and avoidance is

Robot Sensors are essential components in creating autonomous robots

as they are the only means for a robot to detect information about itself and its
environment. As little as one sensor is needed by a robot, though increasing the
number and variety of sensors tends to increase the robots ability to get a more
thorough understanding of the world around it.

There are a wide variety of sensors available which are capable of

measuring almost anything, from environmental conditions (distance, light, sound,
temperature) to angular and linear acceleration, forces and distances. The first
sensor often incorporated into a mobile robot is a distance sensor, which is usually
in the form of an infrared or ultrasonic sensor. In both cases, a pulse (of light or
sound) is sent and its reflection is timed to get a sense of distance. Usually these
values are sent to the controller many times each second.

There are many types of mobile robot navigation techniques like path planning, self
localization and map interpreting. An Obstacle Avoiding Robot is a type of
autonomous mobile robot that avoids collision with unexpected obstacles.

In this project, an Obstacle Avoiding Robot is designed. It is an Arduino based robot

that uses Ultrasonic range finder sensors to avoid collisions.

Hardware Required

Arduino Uno
Ultrasonic Range Finder Sensor HC SR04
Motor Driver IC L293D
Motors x 2
Robot Chassis

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328

(datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM
outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power
jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support
the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it
with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all
preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead,
it features the Atmega8U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.
"Uno" means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of
Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduno,
moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the
reference model for the Arduino platform.


The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an
external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-
USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.
The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the
board's power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin
headers of the POWER connector.
The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with
less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board
may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage
regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12
The power pins are as follows:
VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power
source (as opposed to5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power
source). You can supply
voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it
through this pin.
5V. The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other
components on the
board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by
USB or another regulated 5V supply.
3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current
draw is 50 mA.
GND. Ground pins.


The Atmega328 has 32 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 0,5 KB is
used for the bootloader). It has also 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which
can be read and written with the EEPROM library).


Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output,
using pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5
volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal
pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins
have specialized functions:
Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data.
These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL
Serial chip .
External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt
on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite()
SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI
communication, which, although provided by the underlying hardware, is not
currently included in the Arduino language.
LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH
value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it's off.

The Uno has 6 analog inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e.
1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it
possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the
analogReference() function. Additionally, some pins have specialized functionality:

I2C: 4 (SDA) and 5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication using the Wire
There are a couple of other pins on the board:
AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference().
Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a
reset button to shields which block the one on the board.


The Arduino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer,
another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328 provides UART TTL
(5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An
ATmega8U2 on the board channels this serial communication over USB and
appears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. The '8U2 firmware uses
the standard USB COM drivers, and no external driver is needed. However, on
Windows, an *.inf file is required.. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor
which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. The RX
and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB-
toserial chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication
on pins 0 and 1).

Figure 4: UltraSonic sensor

The Ultrasonic Range Meter is an efficient way to measure the distance of
unreachable obstacles. It is based on sending sound waves through a specific
medium and observing the returning echoes to measure the distance from the
device to the obstacle.
The device is divided into three parts, transmitter, receiver and the
microcontroller. The transmitter consists of an electronics circuitry which generates
electrical signal .In addition, an electromechanical transducer to convert electrical
signal to physical form to drive through the medium, which is air. The receiver also
consists of an electronics circuitry which detects the echoes bounced back from the
Working Voltage: DC 5V
Working Current: 15mA
Working Frequency: 40Hz
Max Range: 4m
Min Range: 2cm
Measuring Angle: 15 degree
Trigger Input Signal: 10S TTL pulse
Echo Output Signal Input TTL lever signal and the range in proportion
Dimension 45 * 20 * 15mm
How does an Ultrasonic Distance Sensor work?
The Ultrasonic Sensor sends out a high-frequency sound pulse and then times how
long it takes for the echo of the sound to reflect back. The sensor has 2 openings on its
front. One opening transmits ultrasonic waves, the other receives them, (like a tiny
microphone). The speed of sound is approximately 341 meters (1100 feet) per second
in air. The ultrasonic sensor uses this information along with the time difference
between sending and receiving the sound pulse to determine the distance to an
object. It uses the following mathematical equation:
Distance = Time x Speed of Sound divided by 2
where Time = the time between when an ultrasonic wave is transmitted and when it
is received You divide this number by 2 because the sound wave has to travel to the
object and back.

Figure 5:Echo generation by Uitrasonic sensor


Before going to working of the project, it is important to understand how

the ultrasonic sensor works. The basic principle behind the working of ultrasonic
sensor is as follows:

Using an external trigger signal, the Trig pin on ultrasonic sensor is made
logic high for at least 10s. A sonic burst from the transmitter module is sent. This
consists of 8 pulses of 40KHz. The signals return back after hitting a surface and
the receiver detects this signal. The Echo pin is high from the time of sending the
signal and receiving it. This time can be converted to distance using appropriate
calculations.The aim of this project is toimplement an obstacle avoiding robot
using ultrasonic sensor and Arduino. All the connections are made as per the
circuit diagram. The working of the project is explained below.

When the robot is powered on, both the motors of the robot will run normally and
the robot moves forward. During this time, the ultrasonic sensor continuously
calculate the distance between the robot and the reflective surface. This
information is processed by the Arduino. If the distance between the robot and
the obstacle is less than 15cm, the left wheel motor is reversed in direction and the
right wheel motor is operated normally.This will rotate the robot towards right.
This rotation continues until the distance between the robot and any obstacle is
greater than 15cm. The process continues forever and the robot keeps on moving
without hitting any obstacle.