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Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
There have been a notably increasing number of inconveniences let alone untimely
expenses caused by tyre problems, including and not limited to increased fuel consumption.
Majority of scenarios have been where one fails to make it to work or to an appointment in
time due to a flat tyre and on top of that is forced to fish out money to get the car operational
again simply due to tyre pressure issues. Many drivers do the routine of passing through a
pressure refilling point every morning before they get to work which is a both inconvenient
and expensive way to maintain tyres, and as such some drivers choose to ignore under
inflated tyres. Unfortunately they do not know that in doing so they increase the overall fuel
consumption of the vehicle. The instauration of a proper and automated tyre pressure
inflation system would be an innovational advent that would answer to the many vehicle
hustles related to tyre pressure systems currently being faced, incidentally reducing tyre
repair costs by 28%. The under inflation of vehicle tyres attribute to high maintenance cost of
the tyres, elevated fuel consumption and inconveniences or holdups to the user which has
negative effects on finances and it causes delays to work and other appointments.

Improperly inflated tyres are fairly common problems on passenger vehicles. In fact,
80% of passenger vehicles on the road have at least one under-inflated tyre and 36% of
passenger cars have at least one tyre that is 20% or more under-inflated. Often pressure loss
in tyres is a result of natural permeation of the gas through the elastic rubber, road conditions
(such as potholes), and seasonal changes in temperature (According to Weissler of Popular
Mechanics, for every drop of 10 ºF, tyre pressure drops by 1 psi). Most vehicle owners are
unaware of the fact that their tyres are not at the correct pressures because it is difficult to
determine the tyre pressure visually; a tyre that is properly inflated to the correct pressure
looks very similar to one that is either over-inflated or under-inflated. According to the
Rubber Manufacturing Association (RMA) survey, 80% of people are unsure of how to
check their tyre pressures. Thus, from the viewpoint of passenger vehicle owners, they are
losing money due to increased tyre wear and decreased fuel efficiency, and a solution needs
to be found to correct this issue. From the viewpoint of the designers, however, the root
cause of improperly-inflated tyres is due to vehicle owners not knowing proper tyre pressures
for certain conditions, difficulty finding an air pump, lack of pressure measuring device, and

Dept of Mechanical Engg, NIEIT Mysuru Page 1

Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System

a general lack of concern. Thus, the combination of the user and expert viewpoints will be
used to make decisions in our design process of this product.

1.1 EFFECT OF TYRE PRESSURE ON VEHICLE
Proper air pressure in a tyre helps to distribute the weight of a vehicle evenly across
the tyre’s tread pattern, so the tyre (and the vehicle) is at its most stable. When a tyre is
under-inflated or over-inflated, it loses stability, negatively affecting handling, cornering, and
stopping. Eventually the tyre will also start to wear unevenly.

Figure 1.1: Tyre Wear Patterns Observed For Different Tyre Inflation Pressures

Under-inflated tyres tend to show wear on the outside edges of the tread as shown in
fig, while overinflated tyres show wear down the middle of the tread. With incorrect inflation
pressure more tyre wear and thus there is a need to change tyre quickly.

The main motivation for properly inflated tyre is to distribute the vehicle load evenly
across the tyre footprint thereby providing good contact with the road, passenger comfort,
responsive handling and uniform tyre wear. It should be remembered that it is the air pressure
inside the tyre that supports the weight of the vehicle. Two situations can arise with
improperly inflated tyres namely, under-inflated and over-inflated.

Dept of Mechanical Engg, NIEIT Mysuru Page 2

Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System

In the case of under-inflated tyres, the tyre life could be reduced considerable if the
tyre pressure is maintained low for long periods of time. Tyre manufacturers Michelin and
Goodyear have claimed a reduction in tyre life of up to 30% if tyres are operated 20% below
recommended pressure. Tyre also bends and distorts more, resulting in over-heating and
increased RR. In a test conducted, it was even found that the vehicle was a few seconds
slower around a track on under-inflated tyres, with drivers reporting a detached feeling from
the vehicle in the corners. For the over-inflated case, the tyre could sustain damage when
riding over road surface irregularities such as potholes and bumps. Passenger comfort is also
marginally compromised. Increasing the tyre pressure results in a decrease in tyre-road
contact area, resulting in slightly poorer traction and braking capabilities. Figure 1.1 shows
typical tyre wear patterns observed for under-inflated, recommended and over-inflated tyres.

An under-inflated tyre tends to wear at the shoulders more than at the center, since the
pressure is not sufficient at the tyre center to bear the load. For over-inflated tyres, the wear
is severe along the center due to bulging of the tyre. Proper tyre pressure becomes
particularly important in wet weather conditions from a safety point of view. Tread depth,
tyre footprint size and tread design play a vital role in determining the hydroplaning
characteristics and wet traction performance of a tyre. From a series of test conducted by
Michelin it was concluded that the tyre pressure plays an important role in determining the
tyre's contact patch surface area, especially at increasing vehicle speeds. Tests revealed that
an under-inflated tyre would hydroplane at speeds lower than well inflated tyres for the same
height of standing water.

1.2 INFLATION PRESSURE:
Tyres are specified by the vehicle manufacturer with a recommended inflation
pressure, which permits safe operation within the specified load rating and vehicle loading.
Most tyres are stamped with a maximum pressure rating. For passenger vehicles and light
trucks, the tyres should be inflated to what the vehicle manufacturer recommends, which is
usually located on a decal just inside the driver's door or in the vehicle owners handbook.
Tyres should not generally be inflated to the pressure on the sidewall; this is the maximum
pressure, rather than the recommended pressure.

Dept of Mechanical Engg, NIEIT Mysuru Page 3

Most tyres. provide traction between the vehicle and the road while providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock.3 TYRE MANUFACTURING A tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheel's rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. NIEIT Mysuru Page 4 . premature tread wear. but will degrade prematurely if underinflated. resulting in less center contact. nitrogen-filled tyres. Under-inflation can lead to tyre overheating. and friction between the road and tyre. And they do note that the loss in both the nitrogen filled tyres and the air filled tyres mean that tyre pressures should be checked regularly. The materials of modern pneumatic tyres are synthetic rubber. Furthermore. and has been shown to be a bogus marketing gimmick. tyres are not completely impermeable to air. The tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of Dept of Mechanical Engg. and may also result in shorter stopping distances. The tyre contact patch is readily changed by both over. If tyre pressure is too low. Over inflation may increase the wear on the center contact patch.and under inflation. They consist of a tread and a body.0 KPA. Not all tyre-to-rim seals. Some drivers and stores inflate tyres with nitrogen (typically at 95% purity). and so lose pressure over time naturally due to diffusion of molecules through the rubber. the statistical significance of the test was not given as no t-test nor p values were reported. though the overall contact patch will still be larger. the tyre contact patch is greatly increased. However. natural rubber. One study noted a 1. which is already 78% nitrogen. Most modern tyres will wear evenly at high tyre pressures.1 bar) for air-filled vs. The test showed an average loss of 2. air as a means to reduce the rate of pressure loss is baseless. such as those for automobiles and bicycles.2 for the nitrogen filled tyres compared to 3. This increases rolling resistance.3 psi (9. 2. and tread separation in severe cases 1. instead of atmospheric air. valve-stem- to-rim seals. The effectiveness of the use of nitrogen vs. in an attempt to keep the tyres at the proper inflation pressure longer. An increased tyre pressure may decrease rolling resistance. and under inflation will cause a concave tread.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System Inflated tyres naturally lose pressure over time. and valve seals themselves are perfect. tyre flexing. along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. fabric and wire. 0.090 bar) difference (from an initial pressure of 30 psi (210 KPA.5 for the air filled tyres.

buses. comprising a doughnut-shaped body of cords and wires encased in rubber and generally filled with compressed air to form an inflatable cushion. less rim offset after retro fitting) encourage a tendency for the alignment of the wheels to deviate during driving from the specified data. heavy equipment.4. NIEIT Mysuru Page 5 .2 One Sided Wear Dept of Mechanical Engg. and solid rubber (or other polymer) tyres are still used in various non-automotive applications. These deviations develop over time and are the price the driver pays for bad driving habits. Early rubber tyres were solid (not pneumatic). bicycles. Lowering a vehicle in conjunction with low-profile tyres can also negatively affect wheel alignment.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System compressed air. such as some casters. the first versions of tyres were simply bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tyres are used on many types of vehicles.4 TYPES OF TYRE WEAR 1. including cars. and aircraft.1 One Sided Wear The most frequent cause of one-sided wear is a wheel geometry in deviation of specifications. kern mounting. The modified lever arms (e. trucks. 1. motorcycles. Fig 1. The result may be an increase in non-uniform wear. This might go unnoticed as all wheel alignment values are still found to be within tolerance limits when measured statically on the axle measurement bench. Before rubber was developed. Today. lawnmowers. carts. Metal tyres are still used on locomotives and railcars. for example. the majority of tyres are pneumatic inflatable structures.g. and wheelbarrows.

even when the vehicle is travelling straight ahead. certain structural parts of the tyre often touch. although multiple instances are also known.4. It usually occurs on the circumference of the tyre only once.3 Wear In Tread Centre 1. The result is diagonal warping in the tyre/road contact zone. The effect is aggravated by high toe-in values. while others are not affected at all. Under inflation or shock absorbers that do not function properly aggravate this type of wear. This is because the toed-in tyre rolls at a slip angle. . can quickly increase wear of the tread centre.4. Some vehicle models are particularly susceptible to spot wear.3 Diagonal Spot Wear: Diagonal spot wear runs at a angle of about 45° to the circumferential plane. Fig 1. especially the rear left position. NIEIT Mysuru Page 6 . or when accelerating away from traffic lights. For safety reasons.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 1. Dept of Mechanical Engg. Spot wear is restricted more or less to no powered wheel positions. In the area with the most severe diagonal spot wear.2 Wear In The Tread Centre: This wear pattern is found on powered wheels of highly motorized vehicles. Toe-in values at the lower end of the manufacturer’s tolerance range are best as far as wear is concerned. These high torque levels. the tyre inflation pressure must not be allowed to drop below the vehicle manufacturer’s recommendation. during strong acceleration or in stop-start urban traffic. Vehicles affected are usually front wheel drive. Even today’s mid-range cars have modern engines generating high levels of torque and capable of producing high degrees of slip.

4. Tread grooves and sipes – a source of noise – are absolutely essential in ensuring safety on wet and flooded roads. This is the outwardly visible (and audible) manifestation of various distortional forces at work on the tread. it is better to first say something about “tread design”.4 Saw-Tooth Wear: “Saw-tooth” wear is a wear pattern caused under normal usage with normal suspension settings. Dept of Mechanical Engg.5 Braking Flat Spots Braking flat spots are the result of full braking with locked wheels. causing the tyre to ”lay rubber”. There is no tread compound which can avoid the severe wear caused by extreme braking maneuvers.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System Fig 1.5 Saw Tooth Wear 1.4 Diagonal Spot Wear 1. a higher percentage of tread void is necessary to take up the water and to improve the protection against aquaplaning. Fig 1. Cross-grooves for water drainage form “freestanding blocks” in the shoulder area. To explain this. These shoulder blocks can wear to leave the “sawtooth” pattern as a result of rolling mechanisms under certain operating conditions. NIEIT Mysuru Page 7 . In the case of low-profile tyres in particular.4.

NIEIT Mysuru Page 8 . the needs of target market is identified. 1.5.7 Development Phases 1.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 1. key assumptions and constraint 1. alternative product concepts are generated and evaluated. since it precedes the project approval and launch of product approval process.A concept is a description of the form.5.5. Dept of Mechanical Engg. business goals. which specifies the target market for the product. The output of planning phase is project mission statement. and one or more concepts are selected for further development and testing . function and features of a product and is usually accompanied by a set of specifications.6 Braking Flat Spots 1.2 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT In the concept development phase.3 COST ESTIMATION In this phase cost of each material is estimated and listed.5 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PHASES Phase 0 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Planning Concept Cost Fabrication Testing Development Estimation Fig 1. an analysis of competitive products and an economic justification of the project. This phase begins with corporate strategy and includes assessment of technology development and market objectives.1 PLANNING PHASE The planning activity is often referred as to “phase zero”. Also selection of material with low cost along with good quality.

Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 1. which include testing tyre pressure while running condition as well as in stationary position of vehicle for different times. Dept of Mechanical Engg.5 TESTING This phase includes testing of system performance.5. Products fabricated during this phase are sometimes supplied to preferred customers and are carefully evaluated to identify any remaining flaws. the product is fabricated. 1. NIEIT Mysuru Page 9 .5.4 FABRICATION OF THE PRODUCT In this phase.

Then the air pressure is increased to the tyre in the vehicle it is same as the process of indicating the sensor signal through the person when the use of solenoid valve to reduce the excess air in the tyre. Senthilraja applied the techniques to reduce the process time and human efforts of the conventional manual air filling system. NIEIT Mysuru Page 10 . So they have fabricated this machine to fill the air automatically by using control units. market. thus extending their life time at the same time saving the owner from fuel costs and maintenance cost incurred with underinflated tyres. As a result.1Literature Survey: Literature Survey including journals. the result obtained that if the system utilization will be executed in proper by taking and concerning all the relevant according to the project demand the process time. cost and human efforts can be reduce in a great manner. which will help the current product development. This can be placed in all automobiles while long drives and that can be utilized while climbing uphill or down hills. consumer and product information about existing methodologies has been carried out with the help of electronic searches. The system helps to reduce cost and frictionbetween surface of tyre and road so that will reduce thewastage of tyre material. After fabrication of automatic tyre inflation system. This search is conducted to identify the different tyre pressure inflation systems existing in the market and also to find out similar products in other areas. government reports. trade magazines. conference proceedings.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2. In this project main function is suddenly the air is decreased to the automobile vehicles the sensor signal alerted to the person when the use of air tank to fill the air in the tyre. V. TawandaMushiri presented in their report the functions to restore the tyre pressure on vehicles so that they are kept at optimum pressure levels.JeevaBharathi developed automatic tyre inflation and deflation system. It constitutes of a wind driven turbinecompressor unit which uses drag Dept of Mechanical Engg. It is very necessary for the every automobile to be cautious while driving through long distances. The patents’ survey was also carried out to collect information about available patent pertaining to the area of interest for study and understanding. Itwill increase the life of tyre.

.The main working principle of the Tyre Inflation System is that the compressed air is passed through the rotary joint into the nozzle fitted in Rim of the Wheel. A compressor is used which gets its power supply from the battery. NIEIT Mysuru Page 11 . increase fuel efficiency and increased overall vehicle safety. pneumatics. average vehicle time spent using power Dept of Mechanical Engg. The Air Maintenance Technology system developed through this project replenishes lost air and maintains optimal tyre cavity pressure whenever the tyre is rolling in service. etc. The manual work increases the effort of the man power (operator) during the air checking in vehicles. pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation. Automation can be achieved through computers.JeevaBharathi.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System wind as source of drive to a turbine and quickly converts it to rotational energy which powers a small compressor that feeds the tyre with pressurized air whenever the need arises. A trial was done in this case paper involving two cement tankers in NSW Australia operated over a period of 12 weeks in 2013. 2. The system is monitored and controlled by a Java/Android program which detects low pressure and initiates compressor ON / OFF states.Johny et al presented the theory on The “Automatic tyre inflation and deflation system” is a Mechanical device which is widely used in automobile works. D. thus improving overall fuel economy by reducing the tyre’s rolling resistance. robotics. hydraulics.2 CASE STUDY ON AUTOMATIC TYRE INFLATION MANAGEMENT: The aim of this study is to design and fabricate a system in which there is proper inflation in the tyre at all times which produce fuel savings of 1-4% and increase tyre life by up to 10%. The rotary joint thus allows the air to flow through itself along with providing the rotary motion of the wheel assembly. Hari Shankar Sahu. The system is environmentally friendly releasing zero gases and is self-sustaining using independent power source from that of the vehicle itself. Thus the rotary joint makes it possible work out the idea. The Tyre Inflammation System is based on the idea to maintain uniform tyre pressure of an automobile and to reduce tyre wear. RaunakChauhan et al. V. of these sources. When the pressure falls below desired level the compressor pumps air through the rotary union to the Tyre and inflates it. For first 6 weeks central inflation system was turned ON in both tankers and for another 6 weeks central inflation system was turned OFF in the both and graphs are prepared showing trucks with central inflated system is good in conditions like average vehicle idle time.

 Those that do check their tread depths mostly check it for safety concerns.  52% of those surveyed drive compact cars and the rest sports cars. With the recent oil price hikes and growing concern of environmental issues. average vehicle fuel consumption across the trial period.  Those that do not check their tyre pressures either do not care or do not know the correct pressures. NIEIT Mysuru Page 12 .3 SURVEY ANALYSIS Here administered a 27 question survey to potential users for this dynamically self- inflating tyre system to gain an understanding of their knowledge regarding the topic as well as to observe their preferences for certain aspects that can incorporate with the system.  66% care about vehicle appearance.  Most participants check their tyre pressures for safety reasons instead of tyre wear. and an increase in handling and tyre performance in diverse conditions 2. • Almost half of those surveyed never check their tyre tread depth. average vehicle GHG emissions.  Almost half of those surveyed get their vehicle service every 6 months and are mostly willing to wait either 1 hour or 1 day depending on the type of service required. The rotary joints effectively allow air to be channeled to the tyres without the tangling of hoses. Our design proposes and successfully implements the use of a portable compressor that will supply air to all four tyres via hoses and a rotary joint fixed between the wheel spindle and wheel hub at each wheel.  86% of survey participants listen to music/radio at a moderate to loud volume level.3% of those surveyed check their tyre pressures on a weekly basis. and mid size cars.  Only 5. • 70% of those surveyed drive on the highway a moderate amount (50% of all driving done on highways).  Those that never check their tread depths either do not know the correct depth or do not care.  Roughly half of those surveyed have had their tyres replaced in the 3-4 year timeframe. Dept of Mechanical Engg.  48% of survey participants drive over the legal speed limit.3% of survey participants check their tyre pressures for fuel economy. trucks/SUVs. Below is a list of the main points discovered from the results:  Only 4. tyre wear reduction.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System take off. this system addresses a potential improvement in gas mileage.

09 per gallon.3% in savings. PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY An under-inflated tyre can have dramatic effects on tyre wear. people are most interested in being able to control the pressures in each tyre. According to fueleconomy.4 TYRE WEAR. the tyre pressures should also increase accordingly to reduce rolling resistance. the owner will have to change the tyres three times instead of twice.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System  70% of survey participants would look to purchase a middle grade vehicle. The owner would then be paying $244 more for tyres. the most-recently installed tyres will only have approximately 10. friction and heat increase cause the contact patch to wear out more quickly than if the tyre was inflated properly.  With regards to system override. As vehicle speeds increase.000 miles. Since the contact patch of the tyre has a larger wave pattern. the average cost for a tyre $61. and in both situations.000 miles. According to an unpublished study by Goodyear. Thus.gov. an under inflation of 1 psi in all four tyres on a passenger vehicle reduces efficiency by 0.000 miles of use. and the average tread life is 45.  Of all options presented to them. people mostly want a light to show them that the system is turned on as well as a numeric display of the pressures in each tyre. at an average cost of $61.00/tyre.00. and given as a circumstance that the owner keeps a vehicle for 100. which translates to $0. Based on average gas prices. “Goodyear estimated that a tyre’s average tread life would drop to 68 percent of the expected tread life if tyre pressure dropped from 35 psi to 17 psi and remained there”.4%. there is a potential of 3. NIEIT Mysuru Page 13 . FUEL ECONOMY. Doran Manufacturing offers more statistics regarding the effects of under-inflated tyres:  20% under-inflation can reduce tyre life by 30%  20% under-inflation can increase tyres wear by 25% Fuel economy is also greatly affected by under-inflated tyres. Dept of Mechanical Engg.  52% of those surveyed expect to see a return on investment for this device in 1 year. 2.

2.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Underinflated tyres overheat more quickly than properly inflated tyres. 2) An Automatic System: An automatic system further saves human energy & time in filling the air in tyres when they are in under inflated conditions. 3. 3. To reduce this problem we are designing this system.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System CHAPTER 3 OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY 3. 1) Maintains the required tyre pressure: The function of the system is to maintain and adjust the pressure in all the tyres of the system according to varying loading and driving conditions.2 METHODOLOGY The following steps were carried out to achieve the objective of the project work  Problem Identification  Concept Development  Prototyping 3. NIEIT Mysuru Page 14 . The arrangement of the components in a proper sequence enables it to infiltrate the Dept of Mechanical Engg. then a pressure sensor senses it and send it to the Controller which activates the solenoid valve and air is filled up to proper inflation.2. 3) Builds a Low cost system: The installation of such a system in vehicles is a low cost affair. To develop an automatic air filling system which recognizes and fills air in respective tyre when its pressure goes below the desired/required pressure (under inflated condition).2 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT The concept of developing automatic tyre inflation system is as shown in below block diagram. which cause damage to tyres. As soon as a tyre pressure goes under inflated.1 OBJECTIVES The main objective of the present work is to develop and demonstrate automatic tyre inflation system for two wheelers to overcome the difficulty of under inflation.

3. Some of the major components used to develop the system are  12V DC compressor  12V 2/2 Solenoid Valve  Strain gauge type pressure switch  Analog type pressure gauge  Quick release rotary joint  12V dry battery  Flexible air hose  1/2 inch T.1 Block diagram of Automatic tyre inflation system Working Principle This mechanism works on the principle that the compressor supplies air to the tyre when the vehicle is running as well as in stationary. NIEIT Mysuru Page 15 . from where the air is supplied to the tyre which is under-inflated because of the implementation of rotary joint the air is easily supplied to the tyre without tangling the hoses. An automatic compact air compressor. The air from the compressor is supplied to the rotary joint. The compressed air is supplied to the rotary joint through the Dept of Mechanical Engg.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System air into the tyre and maintain a constant pressure.Valve Fig. shutdown automatically when the required tyre pressure is reached. There is ducting which is used connect to the compressor outlet port and one end of the rotary joint. The air is taken from the atmosphere and compressed it at required pressure. In the process of automatic tyre inflation system as shown in fig. The compressor is used to compress the air.

2 prototype Dept of Mechanical Engg. A Compressed air is given to the 2/2 solenoid valve inlet through Air compressor. This pressure switch is used to sense the current pressure and this output signal is given to the solenoid valve. One end of coupler is connected to axle and other end is connected to rotary joint. The working prototype is mounted on a real time bike (TVS Super). Fig 3. the pressure switch will deactivates the solenoid valve so that the tyre pressure will be maintained in constant level. Once the required pressure is reached in the tyre. Bearings are fixed to the rigid supports via nuts and bolts. NIEIT Mysuru Page 16 . Two Pedestal bearings are used to support the axle of the assembly. The required tyre pressure is set in the pressure switch reading. 3. The pressure switch is used to sense the tyre pressure.3 Prototype As per the concept developed and with the materials selected. The axle is rotate on which wheel or rim is mounted on one end.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System ducting. The compressed air goes to the tyre with the help of quick release coupling which is used to rotating the wheel freely. This prototype is used to check its workability and performance for infiltrating tyre in both static and dynamic conditions. It is mounted to the front tyre of the bike with little modifications on the front side. a working model is developed as show in figure.3. Whenever the tyre pressure is below the set valve the pressure switch activate the solenoid valve.

NIEIT Mysuru Page 17 . hydraulic fluids etc. steam. 5.1 ROTARY JOINT FIG 5. whereas rotating part can be a drum. This liquid and/or gas will leave the union when the valve openings meet during rotation and more liquid and/or gas will flow into the union again for the next rotation. A rotary union will lock onto an input valve while rotating to meet an outlet. water. thermal oil.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System CHAPTER 5 MATERIAL SELECTION The following materials are selected to build the prototype as per the concept developed. Generally the fluids that are used with the rotary joints and rotating unions are air. Thus it permits the flow of the fluid into and/or out of the rotating part. Stationary passage may be a pipe or tubing. Specifications: Dept of Mechanical Engg.1 ROTARY JOINT Rotary joint or a Rotary Union is a device that provides a seal between a stationary passage and a rotating part. spindle or a cylinder. During this time the liquid and/or gas will flow into the rotary union from its source and will be held within the device during its movement.

The compressed air. an air compressor forces more and more air into a storage tank. and there is a backup fuse in the package.212V DC COMPRESSOR An air compressor is a device that converts power (using an electric motor.06 CFM • Min. the air compressor turns on again and re-pressurizes the tank. KG/CM • The power cable is with a 15 amps fuse. When tank pressure reaches its upper limit the air compressor shuts off.2 12V DC COMPRESSOR FIG 5. • Working voltage: DC12V • Rating power: 120W • Inflating Speed: 1. PSI. BAR. is held in the tank until called into use. compressed air). When tank pressure reaches its lower limit. NIEIT Mysuru Page 18 . The energy contained in the compressed air can be used for a variety of applications.. increasing the pressure.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 5. • Overheat protector will shut of the unit when it exceeds 167°F Dept of Mechanical Engg. diesel or gasoline engine.e. etc. Amp: 10 Amps • Maximum Amp: 15 Amps • LED flashlight: Bright Torch • Maximum Working Pressure 100 PSI • Display Units: KPA. utilizing the kinetic energy of the air as it is released and the tank depressurizes.) into potential energy stored in pressurized air (i. By one of several methods. then.

A = Outlet. Three-way. or in applications with similar operation. NIEIT Mysuru Page 19 . Specifications: Dept of Mechanical Engg.312V 2/2 SOLENOID VALVE A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. The 3V110-1/8 is a pneumatic directional solenoid valve with a three-way operation & three ports (P = Pressure.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 5. two-position valves are generally used to fully extend a single acting (spring return) cylinder. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold. EA = Exhaust for port A).3 12V 2/2 SOLENOID VALVE FIG 5. in the case of a three-port valve.

4 PRESSURE SWITCH Fig.4 Pressure Switch A pressure switch is a form of switch that closes an electrical contact when a certain set fluid pressure has been reached on its input. The switch may be designed to make contact either on pressure rise or on pressure fall. Specifications: Enclosure Plated Steel with ABS cover to IP:33 as per IS:13947 (Part-I).Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 5.5. Pressure switches are widely used in industry to automatically supervise and control systems that use pressurized fluids. 1993 Sensing Element Photoshop Bronze Bellows Switching Instrument Quality snap acting microswitch-SPDT contacts Switch Rating 15A 250V AC Repeatability / Accuracy + 2% FSR Ambient Temperature 70° c Process Temperature 100° c max Prcess Connection 1/4" BSP (F) Dept of Mechanical Engg. NIEIT Mysuru Page 20 .

:-4F to +140F (-20C to +60C) Liquid Filling:Glycerin oil filled to enhance the reliability and integrity.5 PRESSURE GAUGE Fig 5. helps dampen the effect of vibration and pulsation.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System Cable Entry Suitable for Cable diaupto 14 mm OD Mounting Surface/Panel 5. Specifications: Dial Size: 2-1/2" Dial Size (Crimped Casing) Accuracy: +/. lubricates the movement and extends the life of gauge. NIEIT Mysuru Page 21 .3/2/3% Scale: Dual Scale .5 Pressure Gauge Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. and is probably the best known type of gauge. Likewise the widely used Bourdon gauge is a mechanical device which both measures and indicates. 1/4" NPT (for 2-1/2" dial) Normal Ambient Temp. Dept of Mechanical Engg.PSI / Bar Movement: Copper Alloy Bourdon Tube: Copper Alloy Window:Polycarbonate Case: Stainless Steel case for protection in harsh environments Connection: Copper Alloy Lower Mount. A manometer is a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure.

They are an Dept of Mechanical Engg. such as scuba diving.7FLEXIBLE AIR HOSE Fig.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 5. to carry air from the surface or from air tanks or diving pumps to the diver.8Flexible air hose Air hoses are used in underwater diving. Air hoses are therefore a necessary part of standard diving dress and any type of surface supplied diving equipment. NIEIT Mysuru Page 22 .6 12V DC BATTERY Fig 5.6 12V DC Battery An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights. and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power. smartphones. its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode Type: Dry Voltage: 12V Current: 12Ah 5.

Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System essential part of scuba diving equipment. NIEIT Mysuru Page 23 . used to deliver pressurised air from the first stage of a diving regulator to the other components. Specification: Inner Diameter: 8 mm Outer Diameter: 14 mm Working Air pressure: 300 PSI Burst Air Pressure: 1200 PSI Dept of Mechanical Engg.

trucks etc. 6. NIEIT Mysuru Page 24 .buses.  The most important is pressure adjustment based on increasing vehicle speed and load.  Another important advantage of this system is that you don’t need to check tyre pressure at any air filling station.  As the required pressure in tyres is always maintained. the life of tyres increases.  You don’t have to change your tyre with another tyre which saves a lot of time and you can utilize that time in reaching to your destination.  The cost of system is optimum. DISADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS 6.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System CHAPTER 6 ADVANTAGES. as you get solution for such problem by yourself.1ADVANTAGES  The most important advantage is you don’t have to stop in any area where you can’t find help if tyre get punctured. Hence reduced in tyre wear. Thus never have to go anywhere for the air filling.3APPLICATIONS  Automobile Application  Car Manufacturing Industry  All two wheeler and four wheeler applications Dept of Mechanical Engg.2DISADVANTAGES  It needs a separate unit to install components.  The overall weight of this system is also very less so that this system can also be effectively implanted in cars.  It needs power supply  Requires more maintenance  Too many components  Heavier than general vehicles 6. but increases fuel economy and overall vehicle safety.  The next major advantage is withstanding the static and dynamic loading exerted on the rotary joints.  Also the efficiency and mileage of the vehicle increases which eventually saves the money of owner.

the system is tested in both static and dynamic conditions. As well as it is directly depend on the actuation voltage of the compressor. The important parameter is infiltrating time.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System CHAPTER 7 TESTING & RESULTS To check the performance. The infiltrating time varies in both static and dynamic condition. NIEIT Mysuru Page 25 . The below table is the observation made on the system at various conditions Pressure Difference Time in Sec Condition Min Max (Infiltration Time) Static 5 22 10 22 15 22 Dynamic at 5 22 30 RPM of 10 22 wheel 15 22 Dept of Mechanical Engg.

Dept of Mechanical Engg. NIEIT Mysuru Page 26 . Thus it provides inflation of the tyre 3. It specifically addresses the needs of the consumers by maintaining appropriate tyre pressure conditions. It also helps in providing comfortable driving. 1.  It can also be included in heavy vehicles. Because such a product does not currently exist for the majority of passenger vehicles.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION The Self-inflating tyre system would be capable of succeeding as a new product in the automotive supplier industry. safety and vehicle performance by supplying air to all tyres via hoses and a rotary joint fixed between wheel spindle and wheel hub at each wheel whenever there is a pressure drop inside the tyre.  We removed front shock absorber for our project convenience and it can be adopted in future or next level. Thus self-inflating tyres help us in attaining certain helpful criterions. We can conclude that this automatic self-inflating tyre system ensures that all tyres are always properly inflated and thus improves the tyre life. It helps in attaining better mileage 4. It helps in the monitoring of tyre pressure constantly 2. the market conditions would be favorable for the introduction of a self-inflating tyre system. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK  This system can be used in both front and rear tyres.

A.2016. 6. no.Senthilraja."A Survey on Automatic Air Inflating System for Automobile".T. 2011.” 2002. International Journal of Information Sciences and Techniques(IJIST). AdershVinayak.Johny.1. 7. Michigan. K.DhayananthM.2395-4396. F.Karthik and M.3. Persson. Carlson and J. pp. M. S.A.C. G. N. pp. 2. Surya Balakrishnan andJanahanlal P. pp 23-31. Ajas. SuyashKamble."Design And Fabrication Of Automatic Tyre Inflation And Deflation System". S.2016. Proceeding of AVEC2002. D. 6514-6524.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System REFERENCES 1. IJREAT International Journal of Research in Engineering & Advanced Technology."Automatic Air Inflation System in Tyre with Pressure Control and Monitor System".Mohanraj.JeevaBharathi.S Mechanized Air Refilling System".ISSN. 8. Detroit. C.R. 2014.Srinivasan.2016. 3.R. Vol. 91-98. “Indirect tyre pressure monitoring using sensor fusion. ISSN. V. NIEIT Mysuru Page 27 . 9. USA.5 . 4.Murugaveland G. Muzhanje and Charles Mbohwa. V. No. Engineering and Technology. 2320 -8791. Aiswarya. 2002-01-1250.G. IndrajeetBurase. and M. Drevö.2014. “Identifying tyre pressure variation by nonlinear estimation of longitudinal stiffness and effective radius.2.International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. ISSN. Allan T. Gustafsson. August. Vol. Journal of Applied Physics and Engineering.International Journal of Innovative Research in Science.2016.S. Omprakash P and Kumar. 4(3). Dept of Mechanical Engg. "Design and Implementation of Diaphragm Tyre Pressure Sensor in a Direct Tyre Pressure Monitoring System(TPMS) for Automotive Safety Applications". 5. 2014. Mohapatra. S. proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations ManagementDetroit. "Tyre Pressure Monitoring and Automatic Air Filling System".” 2002.Sivaprasath. Vol.A. "M. "Design of an automatic tyre pressure inflation system for smallvehicles".Magudeswaran. 2319- 8753.Kabilan.2. Proceedings of SAE 2002. Vol. TawandaMushiri. May. AmolPatil and AvinashKharat. Gerdes.M. 3(8). A. Japan.

Thakre2. Tyre Inflation System for Automotive Vehicles”. 2015 ISSN (online): 2321-0613. 15. 4. AshwinKherde.Shinde5 “Central Tyre Air Inflation System”. Harshal Junankar1 Vishnusagar Bihare2 Nishant Giradkar3 Chetal Gupta4 “A Review: Automatic TyreInflanation System”.Mohanraj5 “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC TYRE 20.R.P. Issue 03. Journal of Applied Physics and Engineering. 2014 ISSN: 2347-5420.Karthik4 . Dissertation. 18. 16. 14.“To Study on Implementation of 24. V.Vol.Issue. and Lehto A. 12. D.Library. 3.Dhayananth. HemantSoni.4/April.Vol.Magudeswaran. “Design of automatic tyre inflation system” Industrial Science. Pressure Control and Monitor System”.Kabilan3 . Novel Kumar Sahu5.Senthilraja* .3 (2016) 23–31 .Jeeva Bharathi1 .. 4 No. Urbana. Pratik Golar.D. Adams.ISSN(Online) : 2319-8753 ISSN (Print) : 2347-6710 Dept of Mechanical Engg.University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. IJARIIE-ISSN(O)- 2395-4396 21. Krishna & Mohan Raju “A Conceptual design of wind friction reduction attachments. St.05 May 2012. K.Murugavel.1 to 7. Page No. Instructor:-P. 17.1.IJSRD. Issue 4.ISSN: 2347-5420. The rear portion of a car for a better fuel economy” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST).Issue.Vol-2 Issue-3 2016.Sivaprasath “Automatic Air Inflation System in Tyre with 22.IJSRD.2002. D. April 2016.NC-322.Research Paper. 11. 19. 23. Case study on AUTOMATIC TYRE INFLATION MANAGEMENT Sagar Adakmol1 Tushar Shende2 Dikshit Poriya3 Sanjot Fotedar4 Prof. V. 5.T..A. B.Gajhbhiye1 and Er. M. M. Hari Shankar Sahu3 . Vol. BhupendraPratap Singh2 .ISSN Number (online): 2455-4650. S. Sturos J. Page No.A. 13. S. Performance of a Logging Truck with a Central Tyre Inflation System. AshwinKherde “DESIGN OF AUTOMATIC TYRE INFLATION SYSTEM” Vol. NIEIT Mysuru Page 28 .Ph.4/April. 1995. Paul. ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol. Pratik Golar.B. INFLATION AND DEFLATION SYSTEM” .Vol.1. Issue 01.IJIRSET. No. M. Inderjeet Singh1 . 2016 ISSN (online): 2321-0613. 2366-2372. 10 p. S. Raunak Chauhan4. G. North Central Forest Experiment Station. G.1.IL. 2014.Johny2 .”Central tyre inflation for agricultural vehicle”.Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System 10.Vol. The effect of tyre pressure on vehicle performance by Timothy Alhassan. Brumm D. MN: USDAForest Service.S. HemantSoni.Srinivasan.D.

NIEIT Mysuru Page 29 .Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System PHOTO GALLERY Dept of Mechanical Engg.

NIEIT Mysuru Page 30 .Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System Dept of Mechanical Engg.