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International General Certificate of Secondary Education
CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

GEOGRAPHY 0460/2
PAPER 2
OCTOBER/NOVEMBER SESSION 2002
1 hour 45 minutes
Additional materials:
Answer paper
Ruler

TIME 1 hour 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Write your name, Centre number and candidate number in the spaces provided on the answer paper/
answer booklet.
Answer any three questions.
Write your answers on the separate answer paper provided.
If you use more than one sheet of paper, fasten the sheets together.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES


The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.
Sketch-maps and diagrams should be drawn whenever they serve to illustrate an answer.
Insert 1 contains Fig. 6.
Insert 2 contains Photograph A.

This question paper consists of 14 printed pages, 2 blank pages and 2 inserts.
SPA (NH/Ox) S19984/3
CIE 2002 [Turn over
2

1 (a) Fig. 1 (opposite) provides information on the growth of the worlds population and the United
Nations forecast of the likely population growth until the total number of people is 8 billion.

(i) Describe the changes in the growth rate of population in the world up to 1999, when the
population reached 6 billion. [4]
(ii) Suggest reasons why the growth rate of the worlds population may change in the future.
[4]

(b) (i) With reference to examples from Fig. 2 (opposite), describe what is shown on the map
about expected population changes in
A the developing countries of the world,
B the developed countries of the world. [4]
(ii) Give reasons for the differences you have described in (b) (i) A and B. [8]

(c) Italy, a developed country in Europe, has an ageing population. There are twice as many
people aged 60 years and over than children aged below 10 years.
What problems may this cause for the country? [5]

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forecast
World population growth

8 billion
7 billion
6 billion
5 billion
4 billion
3 billion
2 billion
1 billion

1999
1927

1974

1987
1804

1960

2013

2028
Fig. 1

China
India 1,478
1,529
1,256
Countries with populations over 100 million in 1998 and 2050 (forecast)

Russia
349 147
274 982
Turkey 122
Europe Iran 346 Japan
101
USA 126
North 115 148 213 105
America 115
147 Pakistan Vietnam Philippines
244 Egypt 170 127 131
Mexico 106 125
Nigeria 160 Ethiopia Bangladesh 312
244
166 Congo 206
Brazil Indonesia

Australia

South
America
Population forecast (million) for 2050
1998 population when over 100 million

Fig. 2

0460/2 O/N/02 [Turn over


4

2 (a) Maps X, Y and Z (Fig. 3) show three different settlements in rural areas.

X Y

60
60
N
N 90
30

60

Z
Key
Roads 0 1 km
30 N
Buildings
60
90 30 Contours (metres)
120

Fig. 3

(i) Write down X, Y and Z as a list and name each settlement pattern. [3]
(ii) Describe each settlement pattern. [6]
(iii) With reference to Fig. 3 and to examples you have studied, explain why each of these
rural settlement patterns may have developed. [6]

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(b) Traffic congestion, especially at certain times of the day, occurs in most large towns and cities
throughout the world.

(i) Fig. 4 shows the results of an attempt to reduce this problem in Singapore City in Asia.

The effect of charges on traffic flow in Singapore city

Singapores cars and taxis travelling


through the restricted zone in peak
periods,000 50

40
Evening peak
outbound 30

20

Morning peak 10
inbound
0
Years 1974 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92
Source: John Polak, Piotr Olezewiski, Yiik-diew Wong

N.B. extra charges on cars and taxis


travelling through the central
restricted zone in the morning peak
period were introduced in the 1970s.
These were extended to evening peak
traffic in 1989.
The restricted zone is the central area
of Singapore City.

Fig. 4

From the information provided, do you think that the attempt has been successful?
Give reasons for your answer. [4]
(ii) Describe measures to reduce the problem of traffic congestion in towns and cities, apart
from the one referred to in (b) (i).
You should refer to examples in your answer. [6]

0460/2 O/N/02 [Turn over


6

3 (a) Photograph A (Insert 2) and Fig. 5 (opposite) show a stretch of coastline.

(i) Use information from Photograph A and Fig. 5 to describe the scale, orientation and
appearance of the physical features shown in this coastal area. [6]
(ii) Suggest how features A, B and C may have developed. [6]

(b) Now study Fig. 6 (Insert 1) which shows different speeds of the water as it flows around a
river meander.

(i) Complete the line on Fig.6 which shows the river speed of 20 centimetres per second. [2]
(ii) On Fig. 6, shade the part of the river where the flow is greater than 40 centimetres per
second. [1]
(iii) With the help of Fig. 6, explain the shape and features of a river meander. [5]
(iv) Why do meanders sometimes develop into ox-bow lakes? [5]

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50m
50m
100m

50m
C
50m

50m

B SEA

50m
A

50m
Key N
Streams

Lakes
100
m Marsh

Cliffs

50m Height above sea level


50m in metres
0 1km

Fig. 5

0460/2 O/N/02 [Turn over


8

4 Study Fig. 7 which shows the disasters (including natural hazards) which occurred in the world
between 1971 and 1996.

Percentage of total number of disasters


(including natural hazards)
by type, 197196

Strong wind 21%


Non-natural 34%

Flood 19%

Other natural 8%

Volcano 1% Earthquake 8%
Landslide 3% Drought & famine 6%

Fig. 7

(a) (i) Suggest reasons why strong winds (including tropical storms) and flooding occurred
more frequently than the other natural hazards named in Fig. 7. [4]
(ii) State one natural hazard, not named on Fig. 7 which could be included in other natural
hazards. [1]

(b) (i) Use the information given in Fig. 8 to describe the main features and development of a
tropical storm. [4]

A section across a tropical storm

Dense clouds, Dense clouds,


Hot and calm, violent winds, violent winds, Hot and calm,
high humidity thunderstorms Calm thunderstorms high humidity

Gusty winds Gusty winds

Sea Sea
Low swell Very Warm sea surface Very Low swell
rough temperature 27C rough

vortex eye vortex


32 to 64 km 16 to 32 km 32 to 64 km

Fig. 8

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(ii) Fig. 9 provides information on the devastating river floods which affected large parts of
Mozambique in southern Africa during February 2000.

Mozambique floods

AFRICA
Lake
Malawi
MALAWI

E
U
IQ
B
M
ZA
ZIMBABWE O
M
INDIAN
Beira OCEAN
River
v Save N

SOUTH River
v Lim
Limpopo
AFRICA 0 400 km
Maputo
Key

SWAZILAND
W Flooded areas

Fig. 9

Give reasons why serious river flooding, such as that seen in Mozambique, occurs from
time to time in various parts of the world. [5]

(c) What measures might be taken to prevent or reduce the effects of either tropical storms or
river flooding? [6]

(d) Why are tropical storms and river flooding on the scale seen in Mozambique both difficult to
prepare for and so serious for the people living in the area concerned? [5]

0460/2 O/N/02 [Turn over


10

5 (a) (i) Fig. 10 gives information about oil production and use in certain regions of the world.

Region I North America, Region II The Middle East Region III Asia
South America, Europe (excluding the
Middle East)
USED USED USED
51 4 21

PRODUCED PRODUCED PRODUCED


45 22 8

DEFICIT SURPLUS DEFICIT


6 18 13

Key Figures in million barrels per day

Fig. 10

Use this information and other facts you may know to explain why oil is the major
commodity in world trade. [6]
(ii) Why is oil still the major energy source used in the world in spite of the increasing
competition from other forms of energy? [6]

(b) On the same day (July 19th 2000), two reports appeared in a British newspaper relating to
energy production in France and Brazil. Details are given in Fig. 11 (opposite).

(i) Why is there international concern over protecting the environment from problems such
as those illustrated by Fig. 11? [6]
(ii) Why is it necessary to increase the production of energy?
Explain how you think it might be possible to increase energy production while at the
same time protecting the environment. [7]

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Earthquake fear for


nuclear plant
David Hearst in Paris
The French nuclear safety
inspectorate has demanded
the closure of a nuclear FRANCE
reprocessing plant in the Cadarache Durance
south of the country because it river
is built on an earthquake zone
which seismologists fear could 0 5 km Verdon
river
soon become active.
The last big earthquake in the Cadarache Vinon
area was in 1913, but there N
Mirabeau
could be a major earthquake
once every hundred years
St Paul- Nuclear
ls-Durance reprocessing
plant
Directions of surface movements
resulting from the earthquake
in July 2000

Brazil battles to
hold back oil spill
Alex Bellos in Rio de Janeiro 0 100 km
Ponta Grossa Curitiba
Workers in southern Brazil were Oil spill
placing barriers across the Iguacu falls Araucaria
Iguacu river and digging runoff
channels to stop the country's Iguacu
worst river oil spill from reaching Varzea
river Uniao da Vitoria
river
cities and the scenic Iguacu falls. N
About 4 million litres of crude oil
spilled from a burst oil refinery BRAZIL
ARGENTINA
pipe into a tributary of the Iguacu
endangering drinking water, farm
land and animal life.

Fig. 11

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12

6 Global warming is one of the most serious problems facing the world both now and in the future.

(a) (i) What do you understand by the term global warming? [2]
(ii) With the help of Fig. 12A, describe the increase in the problem of global warming over
the time shown. [3]
(iii) What does Fig. 12B suggest about the main cause and areas contributing to global
warming? [5]

Warming up

from the average temperature


400 0.6

Changes of temperature
Billions of tonnes of CO2

350 0.4

from 196090 in C
+
(carbon dioxide)

300
0.2
250
200 Average 0
150 0.2
100
0.4
50
0 0.6
1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
Years
Key
Buildup of CO2 World temperature
in the atmosphere changes from the
(billions of tonnes) 196090 average (C)

Fig. 12A

Areas/countries producing Population of the


CO2 emissions areas/countries

% of worlds total, 1996 % of worlds total, 1996


USA 25.0 4.7

Europe (inc. E. Europe) 22.1 10.0

China 13.5 21.5

Former Soviet Union 10.2 5.0

Japan 5.6 2.2

India 3.6 16.3

Republic of Korea 2.2 0.8

Canada 2.1 0.5

Australia 1.3 0.3

Fig. 12B

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(b) Some of the major effects of global warming are given in Fig. 13.

(i) Why are the problems illustrated so serious? [4]


(ii) What can be done to reduce the problem of global warming? [5]
(iii) Explain why measures proposed to reduce global warming are difficult to achieve. [6]

How global warming threatens some major world cities and island nations

St Petersburg

Hamburg
London
Venice

The Bahamas Tokyo


New Shanghai
St Kitts & Nevis
Orleans
Antigua & Barbuda
Hong Kong
PACIFIC
Dominica Cape Verde Alexandria OCEAN
Cuba Islands Federated States Marshall
St Lucia Islands
Jamaica Barbados of Micronesia
Haiti Maldives
St Vincent &
Dominican The Grenadines Kiribati
Republic Nauru
Bangkok Palau
Equator
Grenada ~ Comoros Tuvalu
Trinidad & Sao Tome & Samoa
Tobago Principe Seychelles

INDIAN OCEAN Solomon Fiji


ATLANTIC Islands Vanuata Cook
Island
OCEAN Mauritius Tonga

Key
Members of the Alliance of Small Island States Cities in danger of flooding
in danger of flooding from a rise in sea level from a rise in sea level

Stages in the flooding of Island States


as a result of a rise in sea level

2
1 Waves and storms 4
surge over coral reef

2 Sea erodes beaches


making land more
vunerable 6
5
3 Water table
Coral reef 1

3 Water table polluted by 4 Land becomes 5 Insurance 6 Population moves inland


sea requiring imports less fertile problems leading to loss of livelihood
of water or construction requiring more for property and eventual evacuation
of de-salination plants food imports close to coast of island

Fig. 13

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Copyright Acknowledgements:

Question 1 World and Country Population Charts, published by The Telegraph Group.
Question 2 The Economist Newspaper Limited, London. 5 September 1998
Question 4a The Economist Newspaper Limited, London. 6 September 1997
Question 4b Fig. 8 Chart by R Bunnett. Physical Geography. Longman Group UK Limited 1973, 1988, reprinted by permission of Pearson Education Limited.
Question 5a Three Regional Charts of America. Published by The Observer, 3rd September 2000.
Question 5c Earthquake fear for Nuclear Plant by David Hearst. Published by The Guardian, 19th July 2000.
Question 6 Charts of Global Warming and CO2 emissions. Published by The Guardiean, 10th October 1997.

Cambridge International Examinations has made every effort to trace copyright holders, but if we have inadvertently overlooked any we will be pleased to make
the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

0460/2 O/N/02