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SEPTEMBER 2011

LEDsmagazine.com

Lamps
Philips wins $10m
L Prize P.21

Outdoor
Strategies Unlimited
market forecast P.28

TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF LIGHT EMITTING DIODES Manufacturing


Semicon West
show report P.57

Lighting
Cree buys
Ruud P.19

LEDs Magazine presents

Milan, Italy Oct 4-6, 2011 see P.35

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ISSUE 45

2011
september Cover Story
Cree has acquired Ruud Lighting (p.19),
which has supplied LED lights for
numerous projects, including this one at
San Francisco airport.
Photo: 2011 Ruud Lighting, Inc. A Cree

features Company.All rights reserved.

28 OUTDOOR
Street-lighting market shows momentum
is behind quality luminaires
columns/departments
Vrinda Bhandarkar, Strategies Unlimited

31 MARKETS 4 COMMENTARY Maury Wright


SSL industry activity fans the
Lighting market report predicts strong growth
for LED lighting, varying by application flame in a simmering summer
Laura Peters
9 NEWS +ANALYSIS
35 SIL EUROPE PREVIEW Philips wins L Prize for
60W-replacement LED lamp
Strategies in Light Europe addresses
LED lighting market challenges Osram IPO under threat
Tim Whitaker Cree buys Ruud, shows 152

37
lm/W prototype LED lamp
CONFERENCE: DOE WORKSHOP
GE acquires Lightech, invests in Nuventix
DOE workshop discusses LED success stories,
labeling programs and quality issues US House votes down
Laura Peters incandescent bulb-ban bill
LEDs may be reaching tipping
45 BUSINESS point with electrical contractors
Getting the innovation right: the need for evaluation, Osram extends LED patent battle
measurement & validation of LED lighting against Samsung and LG
Martha Carney and Jim Fay, Outsourced Innovation
21 FUNDING+PROGRAMS
51 INFRARED LEDS
Philips wins L Prize for
LEDs enable an optimal near-infrared sensing system 60W-replacement LED lamps
Rolf Weber, Osram Opto Semiconductors Philips savors L Prize, plans product launch

57 CONFERENCE: SEMICON WEST Skepticism over LED T8s


Semicon West delivers technology CELMA and ELC publish documents
update on LED manufacturing
Maury Wright 73 DESIGN FORUM

61
Brighter LEDs can simplify driver designs
METROLOGY
Bernie Weir, ON Semiconductor
Precision tools support critical PSS metrology from
R&D through high-volume LED fabrication
Xiaomei Li, Bruker Nano Surfaces Division 76 LAST WORD
Large-area LED display industry faces
67 PROCESS CONTROL pricing and supply challenges
Peter Pihos, EDG Research
Advanced analysis and control systems could
multiply yields in LED manufacturing processes
Michael Plisinski, Rudolph Technologies
LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 3
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commentary

SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT Christine Shaw


& PUBLISHING DIRECTOR cshaw@pennwell.com

SSL industry activity EDITOR Tim Whitaker


twhitaker@pennwell.com
ASSOCIATE EDITOR Nicole Pelletier

fans the flame in a nicolep@pennwell.com


SENIOR TECHNICAL Maury Wright
EDITOR maurywright@gmail.com

simmering summer SENIOR TECHNICAL Laura Peters

S
EDITOR laurap@pennwell.com
MARKETING MANAGER Luba Hrynyk
PRESENTATION MANAGER Kelli Mylchreest
PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mari Rodriguez
ummer is supposed to be down time, in direct competition with other top lumi- SENIOR ILLUSTRATOR Christopher Hipp
right? We expected that but got a boat- naire makers who are component custom- AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT Debbie Bouley

load of activity in the LED-based solid-state- ers. The company believes the move will
lighting (SSL) industry. A major acquisition, accelerate SSL adoption. But surely some
activity in the US legislature, and the cor- customers will see it differently as they com- EDITORIAL OFFICES PennWell Corporation,
LEDs Magazine
onation of the US Department of Energy pete with a potential supplier. 98 Spit Brook Road, LL-1
(DOE) L-Prize winner have stoked the fi re Action in the courts and financial markets Nashua, NH 03062-5737
recently. And we have a bit of all of the above has also been hot throughout this sweltering Tel: +1 603 891-0123
Fax: +1 603 891-0574
in this issue. summer. Osram has bickered publicly with www.ledsmagazine.com
Lets start with the DOE Bright Tomorrow LG and Samsung over intellectual property SALES OFFICES
Lighting Prize (L Prize). Launched in 2008, issues (p.12). In addition, the planned Osram SALES MANAGER Mary Donnelly
(US EAST COAST) maryd@pennwell.com
the program sought to spur SSL innovation initial public offering may or may not hap-
Tel. +1 603 891 9398
to both reduce US energy usage attributable pen given a shaky global economy and slower- SALES MANAGER Allison OConnor
to lighting and to help build an SSL indus- than-expected SSL business climate (p.9). (US WEST COAST) allison@jagmediasales.com
Tel. +1 480 991 9109
try in the US. Philips was the only entrant. The US legislature, meanwhile, may have
SALES MANAGER Joanna Hook
Still, the company developed what the DOE boosted the SSL industry by voting not to (EUROPE) joannah@pennwell.com
clearly considers an extraordinary lamp (p.9 invalidate prior legislation that mandates Tel. +44(0)117 946 7262
SALES MANAGER Manami Konishi
and p.21). The DOEs Jim Brodrick went so far mo-efficient lighting (p.10). The H. R. 2417 (JAPAN) konishi-manami@ics-inc.co.jp
as to suggest that the lamp might be suitable bill sought to eliminate energy-efficiency Tel: +81 3 3219 3641
for military applications. requirements that essentially remove incan- SALES MANAGER Mark Mak
(CHINA & HONG KONG) markm@actintl.com.hk
In the business sector, LED-maker Cree descent bulbs as an option for general light- Tel: +852 2838 6298
rocked the SSL segment by purchasing Ruud ing. The US will move into next year with SALES MANAGER Diana Wei
(TAIWAN) diana@arco.com.tw
Lighting and its BetaLED brand (p.19). The CFL and LED options for 100W-incandes-
Tel: 886-2-2396-5128 ext:270
two had long been allies with BetaLED using cent-replacement applications. SALES MANAGER Young Baek
Cree LEDs in a growing family of SSL prod- But the fluorescent market is anything (KOREA) ymedia@chol.com
Tel: +82 2 2273 4818
ucts. BetaLED has especially prospered in other than business as usual. China contin- CORPORATE OFFICERS
the outdoor-lighting market in street lights ues to try and monopolize its supply of rare- CHAIRMAN Frank T. Lauinger
and other area-lighting applications. Our earth elements that are a key enabling com- PRESIDENT AND CEO Robert F. Biolchini
CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER Mark C. Wilmoth
cover photo of the San Francisco Interna- ponent of phosphors in lighting (p.16). The
TECHNOLOGY GROUP
tional Airport is an ongoing SSL project in move appears to have impacted the fluores-
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT Christine A. Shaw
which BetaLED is involved. cent-lighting business more so than LEDs, & PUBLISHING DIRECTOR
Cree had already entered the system side although LEDs targeted at lighting also uti- SENIOR VP OF AUDIENCE Gloria S. Adams
DEVELOPMENT
of the lighting business with the purchase lize phosphor to convert blue light into white.
SUBSCRIPTIONS: For subscription inquiries:
of LED Lighting Fixtures (LLF) Inc back in Wow what a summer and now were headed Tel: +1 847 559-7330;
2008. But the company has publicly tem- to a very busy fall. We hope to see you at the Fax: +1 847 291-4816;
e-mail: led@omeda.com;
pered its aspirations in the general-lighting Strategies in Light conferences in Japan and ledsmagazine.com/subscribe
business, repeatedly insisting that its sys- Europe. And well have a report on the annual We make portions of our subscriber list available to carefully screened
companies that offer products and services that may be important for
tem business was simply focused on sym- IES Street and Area Lighting Conference in your work. If you do not want to receive those offers and/or information
biotically moving the SSL industry forward, New Orleans for you in the next issue. via direct mail, please let us know by contacting us at List Services
Magazine Name, 98 Spit Brook Road LL-1, Nashua, NH 03062.
thereby increasing component sales. Copyright 2011 PennWell Corp (ISSN 2156-633X). All rights
Now Cree owns arguably the top dog in Maury Wright reserved. Contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any
form without prior written consent of Publishers.
the SSL lighting-system industry, especially SENIOR TECHNICAL EDITOR
in outdoor applications, and will find itself maurywright@gmail.com

4 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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www.osram-os.com/oslon-ssl

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FEATURED event
| online Taiwan LED Lighting Exhibition
October 27-29, 2011
GuSu Gallery, London, UK
Webcasts: The Taiwan Trade Centre in the UK is
General Performance Testing organizing an LED lighting showcase
for Lighting in North America entitled Lighting up UK, Switch on to a
brighter future! Not only will this event
ORIGINALLY BROADCAST: August 2011 introduce Taiwan LED lighting products
PRESENTERS: Carl Bloomfield, Intertek to the UK market, it will also demonstrate
Jeff Hulett, Vektrex how the combination of these products
www.ledsmagazine.com/webcasts with modern art, decoration and everyday
life in the UK creates a totally-unique
atmosphere and experience for visitors.
White Paper: Several renowned Taiwanese LED
lighting-product suppliers to the UK will
Buck-Boost Converter for 3A LEDs showcase various products, ranging from
www.ledsmagazine.com/whitepapers/14/ architectural and decorative lighting to
industrial lighting. Visitors will be able
Web Exclusive Articles: to understand the quality and creativity
of Taiwan LED lighting products as well
LED modules bring new light to as experiencing the blending of two
Boise YMCA aquatic center different cultures. The event is related to
www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/10 the Taiwan governments drive to become
the worlds largest manufacturing center
Liquid-forged LED heat sinks for LED lighting, with a target revenue
offer thermal advantages of US$17.5 billion by 2015, creating
www.ledsmagazine.com/features/8/7/3 more than 50,000 jobs along the way.
MORE: www.taiwantrade.com.tw
ProPhotonix Ltd raises cash, www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/34
targets new LED markets
www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/7/14 For information on more upcoming events,
visit www.ledsmagazine.com/events.

ADVERTISERS index
Carclo Technical Plastics ..................... 14 Inventronics (Hangzhou) Co., Ltd. ........ 65 Proto Labs, Inc. ................................. 55
Cofanusa ........................................... 75 Jiangsu Trinity Material Co., Ltd. ......... 54 Radiant Imaging Inc. .......................... 27
Coherent, Inc. .................................... 30 Kingbright Electronic Europe GmbH...... 68 Recom Distribution & Logistics GmbH .. 71
Cree, Inc. .................................... C4, 36 Lambda Research Corp. ...................... 23 Reed Exhibitions Japan Ltd. .................. 8
Dominant North America, Inc. ............. 41 Ledlink Optics Inc. ............................. 11 Roal Electronics USA, Inc. .................. 33
Edison Opto Corporation .................... 25 Linear Technology ............................... C3 Shanxi Guangyu Led Lighting Co., Ltd. ... 20
EV Group Europe & Asia Pacific GmbH... 59 Matrix Lighting Limited, Shat-R-Shields .................................... 58
Everlight Electronics Co. Ltd. .............. 18 Hong Kong Office ............................. C2 Shenzhen Refond
Excelsys Technologies Ltd. ................. 52 Maxim Integrated Products.................... 7 Optoelectronics Co., Ltd. ................... 43
Farnell Danmark AS ............................ 63 Mikron Agie Charmilles AG .................. 17 Shin Etsu Silicones of America ............ 22
Fin-Core Corp. ................................... 26 National Semiconductor ...................... 56 Sichuan Jiuzhou Electric Group Co., Ltd. ...50
Fusion Optix ....................................... 69 Optronic Laboratories ......................... 48 Signcomplex Ltd. ............................... 49
Global Lighting Technologies ............... 16 Orb Optronix ....................................... 53 Stellarnet, Inc. ................................... 12
Hamamatsu Corp. .............................. 47 Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH ....... 5 Supertex Inc. ..................................... 60
Helio Optoelectronics Corp. ................ 42 Phihong USA ....................................... 13 The Bergquist Company ...................... 15
Hephas .............................................. 29 Philips Lighting BV ......................... 38-39 Thomas Research Products ................. 32
Instrument Systems GmbH.................. 66 Philips Lumileds ................................... 2 Toyota Tsusho America, Inc. ............... 20
Intertek .............................................. 72 Prolight Opto Technology ....................... 1 Underwriters Laboratories ................... 44

6 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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Create a Brighter Future


Maxims LED Drivers Enable Drop-In Replacements for Offline/MR16 Lamps

Maxims solutions for dimmable offline (A, R, PAR, GU10, etc.) and MR16 LED retrofit lamps use a proprietary
architecture to achieve flicker-free operation with dimmers and electronic transformers. This ensures compatibility
with the existing electrical infrastructure, helping manufacturers overcome a critical obstacle to large-scale adoption.

Technology Benefits
 Smooth dimming with installed cut-angle dimmers from 0 to 100% brightness
 Flicker-free operation with most electronic transformers (MR16)
 Universal input (90VAC to 265VAC) allows a single lamp design to support worldwide infrastructure
requirements (offline)
 Optional operation without electrolytic capacitors extends lamp lifetime

Find your LED driver solution at:


www.maxim-ic.com/LED-info

DIRECT
For a complete list of Maxims sales offices and franchised distributors,
www.maxim-ic.com/shop www.em.avnet.com/maxim visit www.maxim-ic.com/sales.
2011 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. All rights reserved. Innovation Delivered, Maxim, and the Maxim logo,are trademarks or registered trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. in the United States and other jurisdictions throughout
the world. All other company names may be trade names or trademarks of their respective owners.

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news views
LAMPS

LAMPS Cree buys Ruud,


shows 152 lm/W
Philips wins L Prize for prototype LED lamp
60W-replacement LED lamp In mid-August, Cree effectively
Philips Lighting North America has won the US Department of Energy (DOE) increased the proportion of its sales
Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize (L Prize) competition in the 60W-replacement- coming from LED lighting systems ver-
lamp category. The Philips LED-based lamp has undergone 18 months of vigor- sus components with its acquisition of
ous lab and field testing, including having 1300 lamps installed around North Ruud Lighting. The $525 million deal
America in real applications. Philips has already collected the $10 million prize includes Ruuds LED brand, BetaLED,
for its lamp, which has an output of which is an established presence in the
910 lm at 9.7W, corresponding to an LED outdoor-lighting field. The deal is
efficacy of 93.4 lm/W. The correlated discussed in more detail on page 19.
color temperature is 2727K, and the Cree already sells lighting fi xtures via
color-rendering index is 93. As well as the former LLF, Inc, which it acquired
the cash, Philips will also be able to over 3 years ago. To date, it has not
participate in Federal procurement launched any A-type LED replacement
contracts and energy-efficiency pro-
grams, which could prove to be even
more valuable over the longer term.
Philips has said that its lamp could
arrive in stores as soon as early 2012.
The LEDs Magazine opinion piece
on the L Prize (www.ledsmagazine.
com/news/8/8/11) questioned whether the competition can be considered a
success, or a worthwhile use of taxpayers money. On page 21, we discuss the
L Prize in detail with both Philips and the DOE.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/8

BUSINESS

Osram IPO under threat


In March this year, Siemens AG announced plans for an initial public offering (IPO) of
shares in Osram GmbH, its lighting subsidiary (www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/3/30).
The IPO was scheduled for this fall, but recent press stories suggest that Siemens may
change its plans. Weakness in both the lighting and equity markets may have signifi- lamps, but has unveiled details of several
cantly lessened the potential IPO value. Analysts that had valued Osram as high as EUR prototype lamps that serve as technol-
6 to 8 billion ($8.6 to $11.4 billion) now expect a drop in valuation of as much as 35%. ogy demonstrators. The latest is a lamp
William Mackie, senior analyst, capital goods at Germany-based Berenberg Bank, has that delivers 1330 lm and consumes
followed the situation and sees two main reasons for the IPO. He said it would enable 8.7W, with an efficacy of 152 lm/W.
Osram to develop a more entrepreneurial approach to grow the business in the face Cree says that the prototype exceeds
of the changing business model within the lighting industry. And he said the spinout the performance goals of the DOEs L
would allow Siemens to focus on its core activities in energy, industry, and healthcare. Prize competition in the 21st Century
When asked if he thought the IPO would go forward as planned, Mackie said, Under Lamp category. This third L-Prize cate-
the current market conditions, the likelihood of the IPO proceeding this fall has sig- gory (the first has just been won by Phil-
nificantly decreased. We believe Siemens continues to prepare for an IPO and page 10 ips) has not been officially page 10

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 9


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news+views
Osram from page 9
will make a fi nal decision in the next 2-3 Cree from page 9 launched, but legislation states that the requirements include
months. 1200-lm output at more than 150 lm/W, with >90 CRI, CCT between 2800K and 3000K,
The drop in valuation has two main and a lifetime over 25,000 hours.
causes; fi rst is that the global economy is The new lamp looks significantly different than most LED retrofit lamps, and decid-
on a shaky footing. And second, the LED edly different from a traditional incandescent bulb. Issues might arise due to the lamps
and SSL business is less robust than many cylindrical optical element, which will not provide an omnidirectional distribution of
expected for this year. The demand for LED- light, and also the relatively large heatsink. Gerry Negley, Crees CTO and co-inventor
backlit TVs was lower than many LED man- of the bulb, said, I dont know what lighting will look like in the 21st century. I can tell
ufacturers expected and many LEDs origi- you it will not be constrained with shapes and technology of the past. It will not look
nally destined for that market have been sold like a traditional light bulb.
at bargain prices into general-illumination MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/2
applications even though those LEDs may
be less than ideal for general illumination. Separately, GEs Ecomagination Chal- ary 1, 2012, 100W lamps, or more specifically
There is also increasing price pressure on lenge fund was one of the participants in a lamps with a light output of around 1700 lm,
both LED components and SSL luminaires $10 million funding round closed by Austin, operate 30% more efficiently. In successive
caused by new players in Asia. TX-based Nuventix, a maker of LED cool- years the efficiency requirements will be
One option is simply waiting for the mar- ing components. GE has also entered into a applied sequentially to 75W, 60W, and 40W
ket to improve, and Mackie expects another license agreement to access the patent port- lamps. While EISA doesnt specifically ban
upwards cycle. I certainly expect another folio surrounding Nuventixs SynJet technol- incandescent lamps, in reality only certain
upturn in demand to emerge as adoption of ogy, which GE Lightings scientists see as an technologies including SSL will be able
LED lighting solutions in the general-light- enabler of broader and faster LED-module to meet the requirements.
ing market develops, although this is likely adoption. SynJet active-cooling technology MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/7/12
to occur at lower price points, he said. In can be incorporated with commercially-
the traditional lighting technologies, the available light engines such as GEs Infusion LIGHTING
lighting manufacturers are also currently LED modules, and is compatible with a wide
being impacted by a sharp increase in prices range of lighting-fi xture types. LEDs may be reaching tipping
of rare-earth metals which is denting prof- MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/7/20 point with electrical contractors
itability. Siemens may indeed wait for these Electrical contractors may soon reach the
two factors to pass and then proceed with an LEGISLATION point where specification and installation
IPO under better conditions. of SSL, where appropriate, becomes the
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/28 US House votes down rule and not the exception. Results of a sur-
incandescent bulb-ban bill vey of 700 readers of Electrical Contractor
BUSINESS In mid July, the US House of Representatives magazine indicate that a majority of electri-
failed to pass the Better Use of Light Bulbs cal contractors believe LED lamps are now
GE acquires Lightech, Act, which aimed to repeal lighting-related ready to replace incandescent and fluores-
invests in Nuventix sections of the 2007 Energy
GE Lighting (NYSE:GE), a lighting manu- Independence and Security 90%
facturer based in East Cleveland, OH, has Act (EISA) legislation. The 80%
signed an agreement to acquire Lightech vote was targeted at nulli- 70%
Ready in more than 2 years
(Tel Aviv, Israel), a privately-held manufac- fying sections of EISA that 60%
turer of LED electronic drivers and halo- will effectively ban certain 50%
gen transformers for the lighting industry. types of lamps, beginning 40% Ready in next 12 years
Terms of the transaction were not disclosed next year. 30%

(www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/7/22). The bill (H.R. 2417) was 20%


Ready now
GE says that the acquisition of Lightech proffered by the Republican 10%
0%
will accelerate the lighting companys capa- party, members of which Incandescent CFL Fluorescent
bility to provide integrated lighting and believe the government has Market readiness for LEDs to replace different types of
power-supply products. Lightechs repu- no place legislating what lighting technology. Source: Electrical Contractor.
tation for high-quality, innovative designs type of light bulbs citizens
and skilled engineering complements and buy. The bill failed to achieve
expands [our] team of engineers and sci- the two-thirds vote required, although a cent lamps or soon will be. John Maisel,
entists around the world, said GE Lighting majority voted in favor. publisher of Electrical Contractor, said, The
president and CEO Maryrose Sylvester. EISA legislation requires that from Janu- more we educate [electrical contractors]

10 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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_________________________

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news+views
on the technology and opportunities in LED LIGHTING
the multi-billion dollar LED market thats
growing more than 30% per year, the greater LG Innotek walks-the-walk with
value they bring to their customers. huge LED production plant
Among those responding to the survey, LG Innotek, a vertically-integrated manu-
33% said LEDs are ready now to replace facturer of LEDs for displays and lighting,
incandescent lamps, compared with 23% has installed over 10,000 LED luminaires in
and 19% saying LEDs are ready to replace what it is claiming is the single-largest LED
CFLs and fluorescents, respectively (see production complex in the world. The facil-
chart, page 10). ity in Paju, Korea is 182,000 m2 in size, com-
An additional 33% said LEDs will be parable to 26 football fields.
ready to replace these traditional lamp The Paju complex, which includes the
sources within the next 1-2 years. Of those manufacturing facility, administration
who said LEDs were not ready or who didnt
know when LEDs would become viable,
19% said that high cost was a factor, while
10% mentioned the need for performance
improvements.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/16

RETAIL LIGHTING

Retail shoppers respond to lighting buildings and associated infrastructure,


with superior color rendering began operations in July 2010. Under one
Would you buy a shoe based on the way its roof, the company performs all aspects
color is rendered? A new research study of LED production, from epitaxial wafer
says you just might. San Jose, CA-based growth (some of which is on 6-inch wafers)
Xicato, a manufacturer of LED modules, to production of LEDs for lighting and LED
commissioned a study from independent modules for backlighting units. The facility
researcher Colette Knight in order to eval- has a targeted production level of 1.8 billion
uate the effect of lighting quality on the LED units per month.
attraction towards, appreciation of, and The Paju LED installation uses various
sales of, merchandise. high-efficiency LED modules including LG
The experiment found that shoppers and Innoteks ModuleA planar panel lighting
lighting designers were more attracted to module and ReflectA reflection-type light-
retail shoe displays that used spot lighting ing module.
with better color-rendering ability, in partic- MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/7/23
ular enhanced rendering of deep reds.
The experiment was performed at House PATENTS
of Fraser, a retail store in London. Three
identical alcoves were illuminated with hal- Osram extends LED patent battle
ogen lamps, Ra=80 LEDs (R9=16) or Ra=95+ against Samsung and LG
LEDs (R9>95). The LED sources were based Germany LED and lighting manufacturer
on Xicatos Standard modules for Ra=80 and Osram has filed a complaint against LG
the Artist Series modules for Ra=95. Innotek with the Korea Trade Commission
Shoppers and lighting designers were (KTC) alleging that the LG subsidiary is
asked to rate the effectiveness of the light- infringing four Osram patents focused on
ing in terms of grabbing attention and mak- white LEDs. Meanwhile, Samsung LED
ing the shoes stand out. A statistically-sig- has asserted that Osram has infringed
nificant lower rating was given to Ra=80 eight Samsung patents, citing a number of
LED sources, compared with the halogen Osrams most popular LED product lines
__________________
and Ra=95 LED sources, highlighting the including Dragon and Oslon.
importance of color rendering. Osram instigated the fi rst steps in this
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/4 skirmish back in June when it targeted

12 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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Samsung and LG with LED patent litigation processes. Bridgelux claims to have solved
in the US, Germany, and Japan. Samsung this problem by using a proprietary buf-
responded almost immediately with a coun- fer layer. Bridgeluxs Long Yang, VP of chip
ter suit against Osram fi led in Korea. And technology, said that the MOCVD steps
subsequently LG fi led a complaint against represent 40% of the capital expenditure
Osram in Korea, while Samsung and Osram in an LED fab line. Bridgelux is scheduled
both took complaints to the US Interna- to deliver its fi rst commercially available
tional Trade Commission (ITC). GaN-on-Si product within two years.
In the latest action, Osram has asked the MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/15
KTC to issue an order banning the export
of certain LG products such as LED-backlit CONTROL
TVs and computer monitors. Osram is also
seeking to have some of its rivals patents Acuity buys Horizon Control
declared invalid. Although there is plenty Acuity has added to its long list of lighting
of activity, this seems to be a normal series brands with its cash acquisition of Horizon
of actions and reactions as the compa- Control, a company that has focused on
nies seek to protect their patent portfolios. PC-based lighting-control systems for
Cross-licensing agreements are the likely applications such as entertainment and
outcome. architectural lighting. Acuity chairman,
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/31 Bridgelux believes the GaN-on-Si approach president and CEO Vernon Nagel said, The
will ultimately yield a 75% improvement rapid expansion of LED lighting and other
LED FABRICATION in cost for LED components that will in emerging technologies makes integrated
turn reduce the cost of LED-based lamps lighting control increasingly pivotal in our
Bridgelux hits 160 lm/W in lab and luminaires. The company also said that ability to deliver high-quality, customer-
with GaN-on-silicon LEDs its 1.5-mm blue LEDs can deliver wall-plug focused solutions. He noted that while
LED maker Bridgelux says it has fabricated efficiency as high as 59% at 350 mA. Horizons products are not limited to use
LEDs in the lab using gallium-nitride-on- Using silicon wafers would allow both with LEDs, clearly SSL is an important stra-
silicon (GaN-on-Si) technology that delivers lower baseline wafer costs and significant tegic direction for the application of con-
160 lm/W (cool white) and 125 lm/W (warm back-end manufacturing cost savings. In trols. Acuity paid an undisclosed amount
white) efficacy. These values, achieved front-end manufacturing, thermal mis- of cash, and will employ Horizons entire
using 8-inch silicon wafers, (see photo) are match between the GaN and silicon layers workforce.
on a par with LEDs produced on sapphire. has been a challenge for epilayer growth MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/24
____________________

carclo
technical plastics
www.carclo-optics.com

Opticselect

High Quality Optics for High Quality Lighting


United Kingdom USA India China

14 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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MATERIALS

Rare-earth supply constraints escalate


MAURY WRIGHT
Rare-earth elements are critical enabling fluorescent-lighting prices to rise over the
technologies in lighting as well as many course of the summer. In mid August, the
other applications including LCDs and National Electrical Manufacturers Asso-
automobiles, and China continues to ciation (NEMA) said prices had escalated
try and capitalize on its present supply 24% or more.
monopoly. In lighting, rare-earth ele- The news also led GE Lighting to
ments are broadly used in phosphors for develop a web page called Understand-
both fluorescent lighting and LED-based ing rare earth metals (www.gelighting.
solid-state lighting (SSL). The Chinese gov- com/na/business_lighting/education_
ernment has recently tightened quotas on resources/rare-earth-elements/)
_____________________ ded-
the materials and that has some industry icated to the subject. The site includes
watchers concerned about the impact on background on the science and what
prices and components. GE called the crisis, as well as links to
We covered the China quota situation many media reports on the topic.
and offered some insight into how rare-
earth elements are used in LEDs back in LED impact
February (www.ledsmagazine.com/fea-
__________________ Even though LEDs use far less rare-earth
tures/8/2/7).
_______ Since then, China has further material, generally to convert blue light
tightened the supply. Technically China to white, the quota could still potentially
didnt reduce the quota for exports but impact price or supply. But no one in the
rather in May ruled that ferroalloys con- LED industry seems overly concerned.
taining more than 10% rare-earth miner- This is another area where LEDs have
als will now be included in the existing an enormous advantage over traditional
quota. Essentially they reduced the export lighting, said Michelle Murray, head of
supply, and that has concerned some in corporate communications at Cree.While
the lighting industry. LEDs do contain small amounts of rare-
earth materials, the amounts are so small
Fluorescent impact compared to traditional lighting that we
The impact on fluorescent lighting might have seen and anticipate almost no impact
potentially be greater than the impact on on our supply chain. We continue to moni-
LEDs. Linear-fluorescent lamps, for exam- tor the situation.
ple, are phosphor coated on the inside of the Intematix also asserts that its business
glass. Julian Carey, director of product mar- model will ensure that it can supply phos-
keting at phosphor-specialist Intematix, phor to its LED customers. The company
said, Gram per gram, LEDs use a lot less has manufacturing operations in both
rare-earth material than fluorescent. the US and China. The phosphors man-
Tighter exports, however, still might ufactured in China meet the requisite of
not have a major impact on fluorescent less than 40% of the value being the raw
lighting. The quota only applies to the rare-earth material, so Intematix can
raw material. Products that use rare- export those phosphors independent of
earth elements and that are manufac- the quotas.
tured in China arent subject to the quota It could be that the impact on the SSL
so long as the rare-earth material consti- market from the tighter supply of rare-
tutes 40% or less of the value of the prod- earths is positive. Higher fluorescent
uct. And the bulk of fluorescent lamps prices could make SSL a more affordable
are already manufactured in China, and option. More likely, the rare-earth quotas
_______________
arent subject to the quota. will impact other applications more sig-
_______________
Still, the tighter export supply caused nificantly than lighting.

16 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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______________

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BUSINESS

Cree acquires Ruud Lighting and BetaLED subsidiary


The cover of the May/June 2007 issue of LEDs broader range of both LED and other light- understand customer requirements, he said.
Magazine featured a large photo of an out- ing products. Both companies will benefit This helps us build better components.
door LED lighting fi xture from BetaLED, from the combination of their technology, However, it seems reasonable to ask
linking to our report from the Lightfair their products and brands, and their sales whether there will be concerns about the
2007 tradeshow. This discussed, among infrastructure. deal among luminaire makers who buy
other things, BetaLEDs launch of its LED But as well as selling BetaLEDs products, LEDs from Cree and compete directly with
fi xtures, as well as the indoor LED light- Cree also wants to sell more LEDs, and not BetaLED. Will these luminaire makers still
ing products launched by LLF, Inc. Now, fol- just internally via BetaLED. A phrase used want to share their market knowledge with
lowing Crees acquisition of Ruud Lighting several times by Swoboda was that the deal Cree? Perhaps some will be concerned with
(BetaLEDs parent) for an estimated net cost will accelerate the adoption of LED supply issues and the availability of the best-
of approximately $525 million, both LLF and lighting. In Crees performing/newest components. (Of
BetaLED are part of Crees lighting division v iew, the deal course, similar
(Cree acquired LLF in early 2008 see www.
___ will help Cree issues are
ledsmagazine.com/news/5/3/5). to drive the
So is Cree still an LED maker, or is it market, creat-
becoming a lighting company? LEDs Mag- ing and expand-
azine asked Chuck Swoboda, CEO of Cree, ing opportunities for LED lighting.
how the company should be described. We are still at a very early stage of penetra-
Were an LED lighting company, he said. tion; LEDs are a tiny percentage of the over- BetaLEDs widely-deployed
Th is hasnt changed. However, its clear all market, said Swoboda. We still have to LEDway street light.
that the proportion of lighting products ver- keep proving the benefits of LEDs.
sus LED components has changed. The reasoning appears to be that the com- always raised when this type of acquisition
Because the Ruud deal is already finalized, bined Cree-Rudd can do a better job of build- or merger occurs).
the companys revenue will be added to Crees ing a market for LED products (both systems Swoboda acknowledged that there may
balance sheet right away. Taking a snapshot and components) by competing effectively be an emotional reaction, at least initially.
of the current position (without factoring in with traditional lighting companies. We see However, we think that customers will still
any growth), we estimate that lighting now our competition as companies using tech- want to use the best LEDs, he said, adding his
represents about 20-25% of Crees revenue, nologies like metal-halide lamps. This is our opinion that Crees track record as a compo-
while the LED components segment repre- focus, said Swoboda. We dont have a leg- nent supplier will speak for itself. Our clear
sents a further 65-70%. (For more on this, see acy lighting business to protect. strategy is that the component business has
the Number crunching section below). to enable our customers to be successful.
Of course, Ruud was originally a tradi- Accelerated adoption He also pointed out that many of Crees
tional by which we mean non LED Cree also uses the reasoning that the LED competitors Philips, Osram, Zumtobel, a
lighting company, but through its BetaLED lighting market is not moving fast enough number of Chinese manufacturers have a
product line, the company was one of the first by itself, and needs stimulation in the form large degree of vertical integration within
to transform the majority of its business to of companies that can demonstrate and sup- their organizations.
LED-based systems. The BetaLED launch at ply suitable LED-based components and So, this appears to be Crees big challenge,
Lightfair 2007 was the result of Ruud having systems. By accelerating the adoption of now that it has become vertically integrated
built a dedicated team to focus on LED prod- LED lighting, this benefits the market as to a greater extent to grow the Ruud/
ucts. Cree and BetaLED have been working a whole, i.e. not just Cree but also its LED- BetaLED business, while also maintaining
closely together for around 6 years. Swoboda focused competitors. Similar reasoning was its position as one of the leading suppliers
said that more than 60% of Ruuds business is used (at the component level) when Cree first of LED components. To do this, it may have
now LED based, and that the LED side of the launched packaged LED products more than to work hard to placate some of its custom-
company grew by 50% last year. 100% of their seven years ago (www.ledsmagazine.com/ ers, according to some of the comments
investment is in LED development, Swoboda features/1/9/3).
_________ added to our news item announcing the deal
said. They are building [LED-based] prod- Swoboda said that a combined compo- (www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/26). I
ucts that make traditional products obsolete. nent-system approach to the market, which wonder how many fi xture companies will
So what are the benefits of the deal? Cree has employed since it bought LLF, can reconsider using Cree LEDs in their prod-
Well, obviously Cree has bought a success- be very beneficial. We gain additional knowl- ucts, to avoid supporting a competitor, said
ful company and brands, and gains a much edge [about the lighting systems market] and one. Another said that the deal has caused

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 19


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a Toyota Tsusho brand, leverages all
Toyota IP, technical development and a huge level of discontent and bad feeling in multiple OEM boards.
knowledge to develop the most The same comment said: I dont know of one US lighting manufac-
advanced and cost effective turers president that is happy with the previous LLF arrangement.
LED solutions. This new move is bound to enhance that mood of discontent dramat-
T-Opto designs and ically and in my opinion will probably generate a significant push-
manufactures LED back by years end.
packages, power
supplies, lighting modules, Number crunching
and retrofit lamps. For its fiscal year 2011, ended June 26, 2011, Cree reported total reve-
Whether you need nue of $987.6 million, which represented a 14% increase compared to
an individual diode or
revenue of $867.3 million for fiscal 2010. Of the FY2011 total, around
a fully validated LED Flex-Module 90% (approx. $890 million) was from LED products, with the rest from
light engine, count Multiple versions ranging
on T-Opto for top from 585lm through 1100lm power and RF products. Within LED products, revenue from LLF was
10W-15W TRIAC
quality and superior Dimmable. Designed around $80 million.
to meet E-STAR. Because the deal has already closed, Ruud will contribute about
LED expertise.
$20 million in revenue to Crees balance sheet for the remaining 40%
Our business is helping
of the current quarter. So for the purposes of this snapshot calcu-
lighting OEMs produce
lation, we can extrapolate this figure to $200 million annually. Of
world-class, high-performance
SSL fixtures. course this does not include any growth (or decline).
The combination of LLF and Ruud is worth around $280 million,

from total revenue of around $1.2 billion, which allows us to estimate
that Crees lighting business represents about 20-25% of the compa-
A TOYOTA TSUSHO BRAND nys revenue. In comparison, the LED components segment repre-
SALES: t-opto-sales@taiamerica.com sents a further 65-70%.
www.t-opto.com

_____________ __________

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funding
programs
Philips savors L Prize,
plans product launch
Philips won accolades and cash in the
L-Prize contest, but the big win may
come in market success. Indeed the
company said it spent significantly more
than the $10 million prize developing the
L-Prize lamp that it now will put into
production.
Philips wins L Prize for Did Philips get what they hoped for
out of the contest? Absolutely, said
60W-replacement LED lamps Silvie Casanova, senior communica-
tions manager for Philips Lighting
MAURY WRIGHT North America. For us this was great.
It pushed the boundaries for us. Were
After 18 rigorous months of testing Philips Lighting submitted letters of intent to enter. proud to be the fi rst and only company
candidate LED lamp, the US Department Originally the contest was to have three cat- to actually have submitted LED bulbs in
of Energy (DOE) announced on August 3 egories 60W replacement, PAR38, and 21st the 60W L-Prize competition.
that Philips has won the Bright Tomorrow Century lamp but the PAR38 contest is on Upon winning the contest Philips
Lighting Prize (L Prize) competition in the hold and the 21st Century lamp category was said it would bring the product to mar-
60W-replacement-lamp category. Philips is never formally launched. ket early next year but since has said that
busily preparing the lamp for production Still, the 60W-replacement category was it hoped to sell the lamp late this year.
clearly the prime focus as thats the most Casanova confi rmed that goal, but the
widely-used incandescent lamp and there- commitment remains next year.
fore provides the greatest potential for We at LEDs Magazine questioned
energy savings. Moreover the DOE put the the delay (www.ledsmagazine.com/
largest prize $10 million, purchase guar- news/8/8/11)
_______ given that a manufacturing
antees, and explicit promotion of the win- plan was a requirement of the contest.
ner on the 60W category. The contest came But apparently Philips hadnt moved on
with stringent performance requirements, the actual manufacturing and market-
and Philips delivered the winner with specs ing effort prior to the announcement of
exceeding those requirements, including the win.
910-lm output at 9.7W, corresponding to Still, Casanova points out that Philips
93.4 lm/W efficacy (www.ledsmagazine. existing 60W-replacement lamp, which
com/news/8/8/8). is sold as the EnduraLED 12W to com-
Philips was naturally delighted at the mercial customer and as the Ambient
announcement see Philips savors L Prize LED 12W to consumers, was enabled
column at right. We also had the oppor- in part by the contest. Casanova said,
tunity to discuss the L Prize program with What we learned from the L Prize
L-Prize lamps were tested in a variety
DOE SSL Program Manager Jim Brodrick, in development has been built back into
of locations, including these wedding
the following Q&A session. our 60W and 75W LED lamps and actu-
cake lights in the Merchandise Mart in
ally allowed us to bring those to market
Chicago. Source: DOE.
LEDs Magazine: Did the DOE achieve its faster and to use proven technology.
and sale late this year or early next. goals with the L Prize program?
The DOE launched the L Prize competi- Jim Brodrick: Oh yes. Of course, there is L Prize vs EnduraLED
tion in 2008 to encourage the development more yet to come as Philips gets something What are the differences in the prod-
of more-efficient SSL products and help build on the market. Philips put a lot of time and ucts? The existing 60W thats on the
a US LED lighting industry (www.ledsmag-
_________ money and talent into doing this. They went market was built to meet Energy Star
azine.com/news/5/12/11). Philips was the after this very difficult challenge to move requirements, said Casanova: The L
only company to enter the contest and sub- the technology envelope. Its defi nitely an Prize bulb all around is an improve-
mit lamps for testing, although earlier this achievement considering that they submit- ment. The L Prize had to meet page 22
year Lighting Science Group (LSG) and GE ted this in the fall of 2009. page 23

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 21


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funding programs

Philips savors L Prize from page 21


higher standards than Energy Star.
The L-Prize candidate lamp utilized four illumination
chambers separated by air-cooling channels whereas the
EnduraLED products use three. But the production version of
the L-Prize lamp will use the three-chamber design, according
to Casanova. Also, the original 9.7W L-Prize lamp contained
24 LEDs whereas the 12W lamp has 18. In production, Phil-
ips will use an 18-LED design for the L-Prize lamp enabled by
advancements in LED brightness and efficacy.
Geometrically, the EnduraLED and L-Prize lamps are vir-
tually identical. The L-Prize lamp lacks the visible cooling
fins that are present on the EnduraLED products, suggesting

Lab testing of Philips L-Prize lamps. Source: DOE.

a more-advanced thermal design and/or brighter LEDs that


can be operated at lower drive current. The L-Prize lamp is
also lighter than the EnduraLED.
     
 
 ! " #  ! $ # %"&!! # %"$!!
Price and US manufacturing
There were questions in the aftermath of the winning
'
(  ' )* * +  announcement as to whether the DOE could pay the $10 mil-
%,!!!-" # %, !!." # %,"!! lion prize given the US budget crisis. But Casanova confirmed
that Philips received the money and said, Were going to take
  *
+ '
( **  that and reinvest it into manufacturing the bulb here in the
"! US and marketing it here in the US.
In the end, Philips was alone in entering the L Prize. With-
out commenting directly on the lack of other entries, Casa-
nova described how Philips was able to meet the challenge.
It speaks to our LED leadership and the capabilities that we
have across all of our different sectors across lighting, she
said, adding that Philips Lumileds LED business, its Light-
ing Systems and Control business, and its Color Kinetics sys-
tems business all contributed to the L-Prize lamp design. Few

        if any other companies have such a broad array of resources
to collaborate on a design. Casanova concluded, We had the
breadth and the depth needed to create this bulb.

LEDsmagazine.com

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funding programs

Philips wins L Prize from page 21 Did you expect more companies to enter Weve closed the contest completely. We wont
Th is has raised the competitive bar. All the contest sooner or did you know that be doing any testing. That doesnt mean that
of the other companies are looking at this you set the bar so high that it would be LSG and GE cant continue and put their bulb
and they want in. They want something in tough for anybody to enter? out on the market. I hope they do. But the A19
that competitive zone. The ante is up, and We originally designed the contest and we 60W replacement contest is completely closed.
the competitors are responding. wanted more of a horse race, sort of get
From the DOE perspective, we want to everybody involved. But then it became a lit- Rumors suggested that the DOE couldnt
save energy and save the consumer money. tle obvious that this was so darn high that it pay the cash award, given the US budget
With this very high efficacy lamp there is a was going to be very difficult to do. You have situation. Could you comment on that?
lot of energy and money to be saved. to have the right mix of people and capabil- The $10 million was paid within 24 hours of
You have a new consumer option. Boy, ities to enter the contest as early as Philips the award. Were looking for them to set up
there has never been something quite this did. We hoped for one way and it didnt quite the manufacturing and start to produce the
efficient that looks and operates just like an work that way. But we sure have a great lamp lamp. Wed like to see lots of sales.
incandescent lamp except for two things: coming out of the contest.
25,000-hour life and 90 lm/W efficacy. That We were a little bit surprised that they
means you are going to have about 10W LSG and GE submitted intentions to wouldnt be manufacturing it a bit
actually a pinch less in that socket. You are enter. And the DOE had said that as sooner. Was there any requirement that
opening up a new paradigm. You may well many as three companies might ulti- they have the lamp ready for market to
screw this into a socket and never remem- mately be judged to have met the entry be judged the winner?
ber the day or the year that you installed it. requirements and therefore be eligible They were asked to submit a lot of material on
Lighting moves into a new zone. for promotions even though only one their manufacturing capability and plan so
And last but not the least is US jobs. They would receive the cash prize. Do you that we could see that at least 75% of the con-
are going to manufacture this right in the expect LSG and GE to follow through tent or the assembly cost is based in the USA.
US. Whats not to like? and submit samples for testing? Keep in mind that they have the Endura-

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funding programs

LED 60W lamp on the market. And some of a little bit odd. Id guess that a lot of people eight 60W incandescent lamps in there and
the technology in the EnduraLED lamp came thought those flat-screen TVs looked a little they had to de-lamp because the L-Prize
out of this L Prize program. So a byproduct odd when they fi rst bought them. entry only needed five.
of the contest is that it got another product
on the market, maybe not as powerful as the What was the testing process like and Will the PAR38 and 21st Century lamp
L Prize, but thats a full equivalent 800 lm. how did the lamp perform? portions of the L Prize contest go
We ran through a whole lot of testing. It ful- forward?
Did you have any preconceived notion filled all of our requirements. The stress tests Its in discussion here at the DOE. Were look-
about the look of the lamp? Some com- were amazing. You could imagine that this ing at the best path to go forward. Weve got
panies have said they want to bring could go into military applications. We put to talk to upper management. And real-
lamps with a traditional look to the it through heat, cold, vibration, and really ize that the market isnt sitting still. Other
market whereas the Philips lamp looks bad quality electric 45 cycle and 120 cycle. screw-in lamps are coming that are perform-
quite different especially with the Its very solid. ing better and better.
yellow remote phosphor evident in an
unlit state. What about the field testing? That implies that you need to set a
Geometrically the shape, the screw base, Our L Prize partners, 14 from our utility tougher challenge: dont you have the
the quality of the light [are the same]: the partners, put them right into field applica- freedom to set new, more stringent
only two things that are different are the 90 tions. One of the interesting ones was the requirements?
lm/W and the 25,000 hour life. The appear- Merchandise Mart in Chicago. They had Keep in mind that the legislation sets some
ance of the lamp when its off, I dont know, these wedding-cake lights (see photo, page of those numbers. Good or bad we cant devi-
it may be something that some people fi nd 21) that were on a 12-foot ceiling. They had ate from those.

Skepticism continues over LED T8 replacements


Over the summer, the US Department of Energy (DOE) released put remains an issue especially in a retrofit scenario with one-for-
two new publications that again question whether LED-based lin- one lamp replacements.
ear lamps can be a cost-effective replacement for T8 and other The LED lamps did perform well in terms of spacing criteria (SC),
types of fluorescent lamps. The DOEs round 12 results of its Caliper matching the fluorescents and achieving good and uniform light
(Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting) distribution in the lensed troffers. Given that the fluorescent lamps
testing program revealed marginal improvement when LED T8s are are brighter, this may seem counter-intuitive. But as Heidi Steward,
used in the right fi xture. The DOE also published results of one of its research engineer at the DOEs Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Gateway trials that was focused on LED T8s, and which also revealed (PNNL), explains, Spacing criteria is a measure of evenness of light
sub-par performance for SSL lamps. pattern on a surface below the luminaires usually the work plane.
The linear-fluorescent-replacement market continues to entice It is not a measurement for lighting levels. Simply put, the fluores-
makers of SSL lamps. The market might be the single largest for cent-lit room would be brighter, even though the LEDs would offer
LED retrofits if SSL technology could offer suitable light output and acceptable uniformity.
better efficacy. But there are numerous technology hurdles for LED In many cases, fluorescent-lit spaces are overlit, and Steward
linear lamps, which arent inherently omnidirectional like fluores- agreed that LED T8s might be a plausible option in such a scenario.
cent lamps. The directionality of LED, which is a benefit in many But cost remains a huge issue. The DOE has said that no SSL T8
applications, is not a good match for the design of fluorescent trof- tested to date would provide payback in 50,000 hours of use based
fer fi xtures. LED T8s dont now produce lumen output on par with on energy and maintenance savings.
the fluorescent lamps. And fluorescent technology has made great
improvements, especially in efficacy. For more background on LED SSL T8 Gateway test
T8s, see www.ledsmagazine.com/features/7/6/6. The Gateway Laboratory evaluation of LED T8 replacement lamp
In Caliper round 12 testing (www.ssl.energy.gov/caliper.html), products report (www.ssl.energy.gov/gatewaydemos.html) pre-
the DOE didnt evaluate any new T8 lamps, but rather tested the sented similar findings, albeit in far greater detail. The study was
two best-performing lamps from prior-round testing in high-per- performed by the DOE, PNNL, and the Lighting Design Lab, in the
formance troffers with prismatic lenses. Previous testing had been latters Seattle, WA, facility. The project included testing of four dif-
done primarily in parabolic-louvered troffers, and the louvers have ferent types of troffer fi xtures, three LED T8 lamps, and T8 and T12
proven to be a mismatch with directional LEDs. fluorescent lamps.
Testing in high-performance troffers still revealed a basic problem The researchers created a test space with four troffers mounted
of inferior light output: the LED lamps delivered about half the light in a room with controlled-reflectance surfaces designed to test the
output of the reference fluorescent lamps. Despite the fact that SSL light output at a 30-inch-high work plane. The team took measure-
lamps generally use less power and offer greater efficacy, light out- ments based on a 1x1-ft grid at the work plane, and reported both

24 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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________________

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funding programs

light output and uniformity data. CELMA a nd ELC publish new


The conclusions were mixed. Compared
with the fluorescents, the SSL products gen- documents on LEDs and lighting
erally delivered about 75% of the foot candles Two European lighting organizations, CELMA and ELC, have published two new LED-
at the work plane. Thats a little surprising related documents, which cover standards and safety, as well as a guide on the impor-
since in terms of lumen output the fluores- tance of lighting in general. CELMA and ELC represent the European lighting industry
cents are generally twice as bright. for luminaires and components, and for lamps, respectively. Both CELMA and ELC are
The researchers concluded that LED T8s supporting organizations for Strategies in Light Europe 2011 (p. 35).
might be suitable for over-lit areas. The The CELMA-ELC Guide on LED-related Standards (3rd Edition, July 2011) con-
report warned that LED replacements could sists primarily of a comprehensive list of relevant standards and publically-avail-
create UL issues since the fluorescent ballast able specifications (covering both performance and safety) from international bod-
must typically be removed before LED T8s ies, as well as standards and specifications from the UK, Italy and the USA. It
can be installed. But that concern has been also contains a very helpful list of standards or amendments under development.
addressed within safety-certification bodies, The ELC-CELMA position paper on Optical Safety of LED Lighting (1st Edition, July 2011)
as Intertek detailed in a webcast this year focuses on white-light sources used in households, and evaluates the photo-biological
(www.ledsmagazine.com/features/8/3/1). safety of LED lamps and luminaires. A study compared the risk levels of blue-light expo-
The good news found in both the Gateway sure from LEDs versus conventional lamps, and determined that the risk levels are very
and CALiPER reports focused on high-end similar and well within the uncritical range.
troffers rather that the basic fi xtures that are The CELMA-ELC Guide on the Importance of Lighting (1st Edition, June 2011) explores
broadly installed globally. Still, expect the the benefits of good-quality lighting in general, discussing areas such as improved pro-
LED lamp makers to continue to chase the ductivity and health benefits.
market because of its lucrative potential. MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/9

___________

26 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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markets | OUTDOOR

Street-lighting market shows momentum


is behind quality luminaires
A new market-research report from Strategies Unlimited indicates that street-lighting applications
are taking off, though the market is currently suffering from a temporary setback.

R
evenues in the street- and area- Units (millions) Revenue ($M)a nd t hose a re
lighting market are expected to potentially going
3 700
grow at a compound annual growth to result in full-
600
rate (CAGR) of 12% between 2010 and 2015, s c a le i n s t a l l a -
500
according to a new report entitled LED 2 tions very soon. I
Outdoor Area and Street Lighting: Market 400 think that was the
Analysis and Forecast (www.ledsmagazine. 300 role of the stim-
1
com/news/8/8/32). LEDs Magazine spoke 200 ulus it exposed
with Vrinda Bhandarkar, the reports author 100 city officials to this
and Director of Research for LED Lighting at 0 0 energ y- ef f ic ient
Strategies Unlimited (San Jose, CA), a unit of 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
technology. Many
PennWell Corporation, who has been track- Market forecast for LED luminaires in outdoor roadway and area people tend to get
ing the street- and area-lighting market since lighting applications. Source: Strategies Unlimited. comfortable with
2006. Bhandarkar discussed recent devel- the status quo,
opments and pointed to a temporary mar- and China. Markets in other countries at but when you are
ket standstill in China due to quality issues, this time are quite small. given money and asked to do something
great momentum in Europe and the US, and with it that will result in energy savings,
misconceptions about the role of stimulus What kind of growth do you expect you take advantage of something like solid-
packages. going forward? state lighting. Then, when everyone sees the
We are looking at a CAGR for unit growth results, there is strong motivation to want
LEDs Magazine: How large is the street- of 28% from 2010 to 2015. However, because to implement LED lighting throughout the
and area-lighting market? LED luminaire pricing will continue to city or municipality. I dont think this would
Vrinda Bandarkar: In 2010, it was a depreciate, the revenue growth will be lower, have happened otherwise.
$327-million market, which is not huge, but at around 12% (see Chart). The slowdown in And whats going to determine whether
street lights are sort of a gateway technol- China is reflected in a temporary setback for these pilot programs go to full-scale imple-
ogy. When street lights become feasible, the the market in 2011. mentation, aside from solid performance
markets for area lights, parking-lot lights, from the pilot run?
flood lights, wall packs, billboard lights and What has been the role of stimu- The biggest hurdle for these cities is rais-
other lighting applications become available lus packages, such as the American ing the capital, especially in this difficult
to LEDs. Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009? economic environment.
The large installations, such as the one that
What markets are included in that happened in Anchorage, Alaska, and the one Are there other benefits beyond the
number? thats currently happening in Los Angeles, savings?
That includes worldwide capital spending were not implemented because of stimu- Yes, uniformity of light and fewer dark spots.
on street lights and tunnel lights; plus area lus money. They happened because the cities But beyond those qualities, I dont think we
lights, which includes parking-lot lights, wanted to reduce their operating costs both can underestimate the value of the political
canopy lights, flood lights and wall packs. the energy used and the maintenance cost of point it makes.
This is a worldwide estimate of the market the street lights. These cities did use some
size, primarily made up of the US, Europe stimulus funding, but more funding was pro- In your press release, you say the US
vided through grants and financing through market has taken the lead in prov-
VRINDA BHANDARKAR can be contacted at other channels such as environmental groups. ing the viability of LED technology
vrindab@pennwell.com. But there are so many cities trying LEDs for outdoor lighting applications. Can

28 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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markets | OUTDOOR

you elaborate?
Yes, the US put an early emphasis on street-lighting quality. Through
several programs, such as the Department of Energys Municipal
Solid State Street Lighting Consortium and the DesignLights
Consortium, a great deal of effort was made to educate the consum-
ers meaning the cities on LED technology, the energy efficiency it
can provide, lumen depreciation, and other issues. The DesignLights
qualified-products list alone gives users a good starting point for
selecting luminaires.

What about China?


What happened in China was very different. The local governments
encouraged the installation of LED-based street lighting and sev-
eral programs were implemented. However, instead of getting the
expected energy savings, there were many cases of premature lumi-
naire failure. As a result, this year China put their street-lighting
projects on hold. They realized the need for standards to ensure the
quality of every luminaire that is installed.

What will happen next?


Once China implements some standards, and they may borrow from
the existing international standards, the market will ramp back up.
The top 10-15 suppliers of street lights will begin bidding for projects
again, but that may not happen for another year.

Where do you see the greatest opportunities in this market?


The biggest opportunity exists where old technology is in place
starting with mercury vapor lamps, to fluorescent and incandescent
lamps these are no-brainer applications right now because they
pay for themselves in energy savings alone.
Linear fluorescent tubes are common in many parking lots. The
fluorescent tubes need to be changed out every year and a half to two
years. With exposure to heat, cold and vibration, these fi xtures do not
perform to their maximum efficiency. They represent another obvi-
ous area.
In area lighting, people are also going after high-pressure sodium
lights. LEDs offer superior light quality, directionality and the user
can reduce lumens and increase uniformity of light, which is the big-
gest plus for LEDs.

Where do you see maintenance being the biggest factor?


For tunnel lighting, its critical. When a tunnel needs to be shut down
or partially shut down due to luminaire change-outs, the effect on
traffic is very disruptive.

What do you see as the next step for lighting-fi xture design
in this market?
The luminaire designers, especially in Europe, have gotten very cre-
ative artistically. When it comes to shop owners and upscale malls,
the buyer will be more swayed by the attractiveness of the luminaire
and the security the light provides. Th is is a different value proposi-
tion than when luminaires are being sold to a city based mostly on
energy efficiency. I think we will see innovative, interesting lumi-
naire designs going forward. ____________

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 29


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__________________

___________

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markets | LIGHTING

Lighting market report predicts


strong growth for LED lighting
A recently-released report from McKinsey & Company on the worldwide lighting industry indicates
sizable growth for LED-based lighting, says LAURA PETERS.

T
he worldwide lighting market will Residential Office Industrial Shop Hospitality Outdoor Architectural
N = 338 N = 399 N = 261 N = 259 N = 127 N = 232 N = 235
grow to approximately EUR 110 bil-
Lifetime of
lion ($159 billion) in 2020, with 80% light source 9 12 16 8 14 12 9

of that total from general lighting, accord- Purchasing price


of light source 22 11 17 10 9 14 9
ing to a report from McKinsey & Company Fixture design affected
by light source 10 10 8 19 14 5 20
(Munich, Germany).
Shape of
McKinsey was commissioned by Osram, light source 10 7 5 6 6 11 7
Siemens lighting division, to examine the Light quality 20 30 23 30 25 21 26
worldwide lighting market and to investi-
Light controllability 8 9 8 7 16 6 12
gate the adoption patterns of SSL through
the year 2020. The McKinsey report can be Life cycle cost/
14 14 17 15 13 21 12
energy efficiency
downloaded from the LEDs Magazine web- Easy
8 8 5 5 2 10 5
site (www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/8/5). installation
The report tracks general lighting, auto- Other 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
motive lighting and backlighting as the Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
three largest lighting-market sectors at pres-
ent, with general lighting (broken down into Lighting professionals and consumers selected the most important design criteria
numerous segments, of which residential is when deciding on the type of light-source technology for fi xture installations in new
the largest) accounting for about 75% of the building/structures. Light quality was the most important concern for all applications
total market in 2010. However, the report except residential, where purchase price came top. Numbers show percentage of
does not include other lighting applications responses. N = number of respondents for each application. Source: McKinsey.
within this sector, such as signal, signage or
medical lighting, which together account ing technologies will lead to a fundamen- by 2020. Rapid growth in LED penetration
for a total market share of under 10%. In tal disruption of the lighting industry along is also expected in hospitality-, shop- and
addition, the market impact of organic the entire value chain. Standard lighting outdoor-lighting applications. However, the
LEDs (OLEDs) on general lighting were not approaches are being challenged by entirely proliferation of cost-competitive linear-fluo-
included due to poor visibility into OLED new possibilities enabled by LEDs, such as rescent lamps in office and industrial light-
adoption rates. design flexibility, or the ability to dynami- ing will mean that penetration of LEDs will
The global LED lighting market is expected cally change the color temperature of light. be slower in these applications.
to grow from EUR 7 billion in 2010 to EUR 40 The controllability of LED-generated light
billion in 2016 a compound annual growth enables intelligent lighting systems, and Why people buy LED fixtures
rate (CAGR) of 34%. Subsequently, growth is McKinsey estimates that the revenue from In June 2011, McKinsey conducted a global
expected to slow down, with a CAGR of 13% control-system components will reach EUR survey of 650 lighting professionals and 1000
from 2016 to 2020. The LED lighting market 7 billion in 2020. consumers to estimate LED market share of
will amount to almost EUR 65 billion ($94 bil- While the rate of LED penetration in resi- lighting fi xtures by application, including
lion) by 2020, representing close to 60% of the dential lighting is slower than in other gen- office, shop, hospitality, residential, industrial,
total lighting market. eral-lighting segments, the residential LED outdoor, and architectural lighting. The light-
The report says that the significant differ- lighting market is likely to be worth over ing professionals included lighting designers,
ences in LED technology versus other light- EUR 20 billion by 2020. Architectural light- architects and electrical engineers, and par-
ing has been an early adopter of LED light- ticipants were from the USA, Germany, Japan,
LAURA PETERS is a Senior Technical Editor ing due to benefits such as color control, China, Russia, Brazil and India.
with LEDs Magazine. and is expected to see 85% LED penetration The buyers indicated their number-one

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 31


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markets | LIGHTING

purchasing criterion when selecting new lighting fi xtures in up to the most-rapid growth. Asia already accounts for around 35% of the
three applications (see chart). Quality of light, which includes CRI, general-lighting market, and this figure is set to rise to around 45%
color temperature, color consistency and light distribution, ranked by 2020. Europe and North America will follow, with market shares
the highest for all applications except residential, where it was out- of 25% and 20% respectively.
ranked by purchase price. The second-highest concern was lifecycle The report describes the general-lighting market as frag-
cost/energy efficiency for all applications except residential. mented, due to the fact that lighting is used in so many different
In the survey, lighting professionals and consumers were also applications, with many types of light sources and many differ-
asked to identify a payback period (in years) that would encourage ent parties responsible for purchasing decisions. The local land-
them to choose LED over traditional lighting, by application. The scape of fi xture manufacturers depends on the region: there are
results showed that most people required payback of three years or over 100 fi xture companies in Europe, but in the US the fi xture
less. The acceptable payback period for residential lighting had the market is relatively consolidated with four large companies. In
highest proportion of participants (22%) that expected payback in Japan, the top two companies have a large market share, while
less than one year. China has many local companies including OEM suppliers for
The acceptable premium that people were willing to pay for a new overseas brands.
lighting fi xture for the first installation varied on average between The report predicts that the lighting-fi xture market will remain
30% above cost (for residential) and 39% (for office lighting). How- fragmented because of the local buying power of governments,
ever, the median value was at 20% for all applications except for construction firms, architects and designers. Th is is in contrast
office lighting, which had a median value of 30%. with globally-consolidated electronics manufacturers.
In Asia, North America and Europe, the current LED share
General lighting of the general-lighting market is similar, at around 7%, but in
A key finding of the report is that growth of the general lighting mar- each case this is expected to grow to around 70% by 2020. LED
ket is highly correlated with local construction investment, so it is penetration will be slightly higher in Europe and North Amer-
no surprise to see that Asia, and China in particular will experience ica than in Asia.

______________________

32 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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ENHANCING THE QUALITY AND


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CALL 888-299-8057 (TOLL-FREE WITHIN U.S.) Supported by:

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MARKET INTELLIGENCE
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conferences | SIL EUROPE PREVIEW

Strategies in Light Europe


addresses LED lighting
market challenges
With a theme of Enhancing the Quality and Performance of LED Lighting, this years Strategies in
Light Europe 2011 conference takes place in Milan, Italy on October 4-6.

A
fter a successful launch in Also in the Plenary session, Philips Light- retrofit lamps, clearly a major issue follow-
September 2010, the Strategies in ing will discuss the next phase in LED illu- ing the phase-out of low-efficiency 60W
Light Europe conference and exhi- mination, which will be associated with lamps in Europe from September 1, 2011.
bition moves to Milan, Italy. The conference rigorous cost reduction. Osram Opto Semi- In the Market Transformation track, a ses-
program addresses key issues surround- conductors will look at the status and poten- sion on standards contains a talk by CELMA,
ing the evolution and transformation of the tial of organic LED (OLED) technology and one of the events Supporting Organizations,
lighting market, and the ongoing develop- products, discussing whether OLEDs are discussing the importance of standardiza-
ment of higher-quality, higher-performance
LED lighting. Conference Program see www.sileurope.com for details
Tim Whitaker, Conference Director and Tues 4 Oct, 09:00-12:00 Workshop A Thermal Management
Editor-in-Chief of LEDs Magazine, said: We Tues 4 Oct, 10:00-15:00 SSL Investors Forum
believe we have assembled a conference pro-
Tues 4 Oct, 12:30-15:00 Workshop B Light Measurement for SSL
gram that provides an excellent and compre-
hensive update on the current status of the Tues 4 Oct, 15:30-17:00 KEYNOTE Session Main Conference
LED lighting industry, and that will offer Wed 5 Oct, 08:30-10:30 PLENARY Session Main Conference
valuable insights into future directions and Parallel Tracks Market Transformation Technology
strategies for business success. Wed 5 Oct, 11:00-12:00 European Initiatives #1 Luminaire/System Design
The Keynote session on Tuesday will set
Wed 5 Oct, 13:30-15:00 European Initiatives #2 Drivers & Dimming
the scene for the conference, with talks from
McKinsey and Strategies Unlimited that will Wed 5 Oct, 15:30-17:00 Standards Networks & Control
discuss the global LED lighting market- Thurs 6 Oct, 08:30-10:00 Market Development Retrofits Lamps
place, identifying trends and opportunities Thurs 6 Oct, 10:30-12:00 Lighting Applications #1 Optical Materials & Packaging
for solid-state lighting. Both organizations Thurs 6 Oct, 13:00-15:00 Lighting Applications #2 Optics
are likely to discuss aspects of their respec-
tive reports for details, see pages 28 and ready to take off in general-lighting appli- ton of performance requirements for LED
31 of this issue. Also in the Keynote session, cations. And Marc Fontoynont will report luminaires. Another talk will describe the
Simon Fisher of GE Lighting will discuss how progress from the global IEA Annex on SSL, CIEs work related to LEDs and lighting.
LEDs can provide an opportunity to redefine which is aiming to build consensus on qual- Recent additions to the program include
the rules for designing the lit environment. ity and metrology issues. a talk from Philips Lumileds on the perfor-
Europe is obviously a major focus of From mid-morning on Wednesday, the mance requirements for LEDs in general-
the conference, and in Wednesdays Ple- conference splits into parallel tracks, which lighting applications, and a presentation
nary session Paolo Bertoldi of the Euro- are focused on Market Transformation and from ELC (another Supporting Organiza-
pean Commission will provide a status Technology. The latter track will include tion) explaining the activities of the Global
update on LED lighting in the European talks ranging from the use of wireless DALI Lighting Forum.
Union. Other sessions on European initia- as a control technology for LED luminaires, All this, and much more. The organizers
tives will discuss the EU LED quality char- to the development of optical systems using of Strategies in Light Europe LEDs Maga-
ter, and the possible need for an LED per- reflectors, light-guides and lenses, to the zine, Strategies Unlimited and PennWell
formance label, as well as the European capabilities of materials such as silicones look forward to welcoming you to Milan.
program on metrology. and thermoplastics. A session will discuss MORE: www.sileurope.com

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 35


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LIGHTING-CLASS LED
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conference | DOE WORKSHOP

DOE workshop discusses LED success


stories, labeling programs and quality issues
Presenters at the DOE SSL Market Introduction Workshop looked at the SSL success stories,
analyzed different cost-reduction strategies and ways of reporting luminaire reliability, and examined
the implications of the FTC Lighting Facts label. LAURA PETERS reports from Seattle.

T
he annual US Department of Energy
(DOE) SSL Market Introduction
Workshop took place in Seattle,
Washington on July 12-14 and was attended
by 275 industry professionals including light-
ing designers, lighting manufacturers, LED
and driver manufacturers, utility companies,
and energy-efficiency companies. Highlights
of the workshop included several real-world
success stories, a discussion of the new FTC
Lighting Facts label and how it differs from
the DOE Lighting Facts label, a new report
on reliability, and ways of bringing down SSL
costs throughout the supply chain.
Jim Brodrick, who runs the DOEs SSL pro-
gram, stated in one of his weekly Postings
emails that the Workshop indicated just how
Source: Seattle City Light

far the SSL industry has come over the past


year. He said that while SSL is not yet suit-
able for every application, its become a def-
inite force to be reckoned with. The indus-
try is clearly getting some of the help it needs
from government incentives to utility
rebates to technical developments to suc- FIG. 1. A Seattle side street is well lit with LED-based lamps, eliminating the hot
ceed in the replacement of incumbent, less- spots or gaps in lighting often seen with HPS street lights.
energy-efficient lighting options.
The maturing of the LED lighting industry lighting. At the workshop, Bruce Harrell, LED-based street lighting was the result
can be seen in the increasing number of large- Council Member of the Seattle City Council, of LEDs demonstration of the illumination
scale installations across the country. At the discussed the successful installation of over performance, controllability and opera-
Workshop, the principal installers discussed 6000 street lights by the publicly-owned util- tional efficiency (48% energy savings) needed
the lessons learned from installing LEDs in ity Seattle City Light (see Fig. 1). The proj- to satisfy the citys lighting needs.
two art galleries, the city streets of Seattle and ect is part of the plan to replace 41,000 resi- Council members were also swayed by the
US Navy parking lots. dential street lights in Seattle by the end of tremendous savings in maintenance costs.
2014, a program that is already saving the Every two years, we would pay workers
Streets of Seattle city $300,000 per year (www.ledsmagazine. overtime to quickly replace the high-pres-
The home of the DOE workshop this year also com/news/8/7/11). Once completed, the city sure sodium lamps before the winter came,
happens to be a showplace for LED street council estimates a $2.4 million reduction in Smalley said. Now that cost has been essen-
operating costs will be achieved. tially eliminated.
LAURA PETERS is a Senior Technical Editor Edward Smalley, council member of Seat- Smalley said that feedback from local law
with LEDs Magazine. tle City Light, said the decision to install enforcement indicates the LED street lights

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 37


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Fortimo LED Modules


for today, for tomorrow

Future-proof, high quality and


progressive LED technology for retail.

Designed to give you the best quality of white light


and easy design-in, now and in the future. Many leading
manufacturers already use Fortimo as the trusted light
source in their luminaires. See why at philips.com/fortimo

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Fortimo LED Modules


for today, for tomorrow

Future-proof, high quality and


progressive LED technology for offices.

Designed to give you the highest energy efficiency and


comfortable white light, now and in the future. Many leading
manufacturers already use Fortimo as the trusted light
source in their luminaires. See why at philips.com/fortimo

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conference | DOE WORKSHOP

make criminal activity easier to identify. He Viewing publics assessment of four light sources
said this is due both to the better quality of the LED Lamp 1 LED Lamp 2 LED Lamp 3 Halogen
LED light and the elimination of hot spots,
Overall light distribution on art 0 23 8 23
which are prevalent with HPS street lights.
Smalley is the director of the DOE Munic- Ideal warmness/coolness of light 10 37 12 8
ipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Best lamp for oil painting 6 25 15 15
(http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/ Best lamp for black-and-white photo 1 29 14 4
consortium.html),
__________ which has more than 270 Source: DOE pre-analysis, Gateway demonstration program
members. Consortium membership is free
and open to cities, utilities and investors magnetic ballasts. achieving a 21% improvement in minimum
involved in street- and area-lighting proj- The switch to LEDs in the two galleries is illumination (lux) and a $1412 per year
ects. The consortium builds a repository of expected to reduce lighting power density energy saving.
shared field data to help accelerate the learn- in the Renwick Gallery from 3.9 W/ft2 to 1
Close
At Pearl Harbor, the Navy changed out 34
ing curve for LED street lighting. W/ft2, and in the Smithsonian American Art 150W HPS luminaires for 104W LED lumi-
Museum from 2.9 W/ft2 to 0.5 W/ft2. Overall naires, improving minimum illumination by
Lighting in art galleries energy consumption in the two galleries is 225% while still reducing the energy cost by
Lighting designer Scott Rosenfeld had no expected to decrease by 75%. $1280 per year. We are mandated by Con-
complaints about the light quality in the As part of this Gateway study, the DOE sur- gress to reduce our energy use by five percent
Smithsonian American Art Museum and veyed members of the viewing public to deter- per year, and at the same time these lighting
the Renwick Gallery, both in Washington, mine their preference for the quality of light projects have become showpieces for the
DC, but he wanted a more energy-efficient among three LED flood-lamp options and Navy, explained Kistler.
alternative. Rosenfeld, chair of the Kistler added that the instal-
Relative manufacturing cost
IES Museum Lighting Committee, lations provide better lighting
explained the unique challenges Assembly 1.0 quality and security, and the Navy
associated with illuminating art. Driver expects to improve the energy
Any light causes damage, so we 0.8 savings further through increased
use the smallest quantity of light Mechanical/thermal use of sensors and intelligent con-
0.6
necessary to experience what is Optics trols. With such projects, the US
relevant about the object, he said. Navy looks for utility incentives,
0.4
Rosenfeld turned to LED light- 5-year warrantees on the prod-
LED packages
ing after evaluating fluorescent ucts they purchase, and lumi-
0.2
and metal-halide lighting tech- naires with corrosion resistance,
nologies and determining that 0.0
efficient thermal management
they could not match the per- 2010 2012 2015 2020 and good ventilation.
formance of the existing halo- Source: DOE Manufacturing Roundtable Consensus for Indoor Downlights He also promoted the value of
gen products in the galleries. Flu- checking LM-79 and LM-80 data
orescent, in particular, would FIG 2. Future cost targets for LED luminaires. for any products that are under
cause additional damage to art- serious consideration, checking
work due to the ultraviolet light component. a halogen lamp (see Table). One LED lamp DOE Caliper data for the class of products
Effective illumination of artwork involves scored particularly highly (lamp 2), though considered, and assessing whether lighting
precise control the lighting intensity, angle the halogen lamp also scored highly. This products can dissipate heat well.
and distribution. Rosenfeld chose a mixture survey confirms what Rosenfeld has observed
of LED wall-washing and spotlighting lamps, with the LED replacements: viewers discern Meeting aggressive cost targets
including replacements for PAR30, PAR38 and little difference, if any, between a high-quality The industry has set very aggressive cost tar-
MR16 lamps, with beam angles from 4 to 54 LED replacement and halogen lighting. gets, including a 50% reduction in luminaire
degrees. Some lights had to remain incandes- cost from 2010 to 2012 and greater reduc-
cent, because there was no suitable LED alter- US Navy tion between 2012 and 2015 (see Fig. 2). As
native, for instance, for 250W incandescent Paul Kistler of the US Navy (Seattle, WA) Fred Welsh, President of Radcliffe Advisors
spot and flood lamps used with the high ceil- shared his experience with changing out (Chestertown, MD) explained, luminaire
ings (34 ft) of the Renwick Gallery. parking-lot lights from HPS lights to LED manufacturers are moving toward a more
Rosenfeld commented that the early part luminaires on naval bases in Ventura, CA integrated model, using fewer components
of the LED installation was dominated with and the naval station at Pearl Harbor, HI. to reduce assembly and testing costs.
fl icker issues, especially with MR16 lamps. In Ventura, the Navy replaced 14 400W HPS A breakdown of packaging and material
The museum overcame these issues by using luminaires with 207W LED luminaires, costs (see Fig. 3) indicates that cost reduc-

40 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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conference | DOE WORKSHOP

tion in several areas is needed. For high-volume luminaire produc- Hand also advocated delivering only the CRI that is necessary for
tion, new equipment is needed to maximize yield and consistency the application, and suggested that customers specify only the nec-
of manufacturing results. Welsh said that increased equipment essary level of restrictions on binning to reduce cost.
throughput is needed with increased automation for MOCVD,
improved testing and inspection techniques, and improved Quality of light
upstream process control. From the LED packaging side, simpli- A recurring theme in several workshop presentations was the need
fied designs are required and the industry should move to wafer- to assess the quality of light from SSL. Maria Thompson, Principle
scale packaging technologies. Applications Scientist at Osram Sylvania (Danvers, MA), said that the
Mike Watson, Senior Director of Marketing at Cree (Durham, NC), industry is making rapid progress in performance, having already bro-
called for more radical change throughout the manufacturing sup- ken the 200 lm/W efficacy barrier that was set as a target for 2020.
ply chain. He suggested building a new ecosystem and new business However, the potential for delivering improved color quality is essen-
models for the SSL market. In this ecosystem, financial-service com- tially untapped.
panies should monetize the energy savings for the consumer. Th is Thompson described the limitations of CRI. CRI, which is a color
can be provided through lighting and energy-control companies, fidelity metric, reflects the ability to reproduce colors as close as pos-
lighting-systems integrators and leasing experts. sible to those perceived under sunlight, or blackbody radiation, she
Mark Hand, Director of New Products and Technology at Acuity said. However, CRI is based on eight unsaturated colors, and it not
Brands (Atlanta, GA), talked about the need for more realistic speci- only doesnt account for color saturation, but it actually penalizes for
fications to reduce cost. For instance, specifications of 50,000-60,000 color saturation.
hours may be reasonable for applications that run 24 hours a day, 7 Thompson explained that color distortions with increased chro-
days a week, but he said that 10,000-20,000 hours may be reasonable matic contrast (increased color saturation) are typically preferred
for a majority (80%) of applications. This could allow the LEDs to be by viewers. The Color Quality Scale (CQS) developed by the National
run hotter, either yielding a higher light output or reducing the cost Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD),
of the thermal-management components. does take into account color saturation, though it also is an average

_________________________

__________________

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conference | DOE WORKSHOP

value, like CRI. Given the limitations of both Color consistency over lifetime: <5 SDCM power (W) and presence of mercury.
CRI and CQS, Thompson suggested further Stalker advocated testing and binning Until very recently, the lighting industry
investigation into improved metrics for gen- LEDs at their operating conditions to reduce has used the voluntary DOE Lighting Facts
eral lighting applications for SSL white light. costs, simplify the design process and raise label. The DOE has stated that its label is not
Chad Stalker, Regional Marketing Man- purchasing confidence. in conflict with the new FTC Lighting Facts
ager of Philips Lumileds (San Jose, CA) took label, and will still be used by lighting pro-
a slightly different approach to defining the Practical color variations fessionals, utilities and retail buyers. The FTC
quality of light, and discussed the differ- Daniel Salinas, a lighting-systems designer label strictly targets consumers. However, the
ent color-rendering needs in terms of appli- with Nelson Electric (Seattle, WA) provided DOE will no longer use its label on medium
cation. He compared food displays, which feedback from the perspective of a designer screw-base products after January 1.
require excellent color rendering, versus and installer of lighting fi xtures. He said that A notable difference, however, is that
street lighting, which requires lower CRI. color variance for an overall project can be the DOE Lighting Facts label program has
He explained that LEDs require color con- minimized by purchases products from a attempted to control the labels content by
sistency in five areas: small number of luminaire manufacturers. encouraging third-party testing and verifi-
Color spectrum and rendering: Mea- To simplify installation and maintenance, cation at certified laboratories. Though this
sured by CCT, CRI, R9, CQS he also suggested minimizing the number
Color consistency between sources: of control technologies and drivers used on a
<3 SDCM (standard deviation of color project. I recommend that the designer and Substrate
matching) the customer establish an acceptable level of 10%

Color in application: Measured at 85 color variance or color shift, make that a part Phosphor
degrees junction temperature of the binning requirements, and include it 10%
Packaging
Color consistency in beam: <10 points on in the contract agreement upfront, he said. 40%
uv scale Salinas also suggested that lighting sam- Wafer
ples be made available during the design pro- processing
20%
cess and that these be tested together with
the materials of the room (wood, carpet, art- Epitaxy
work, etc.) to ensure customer satisfaction. 20%
Salinas defi ned project life as typically
5-7 years, and said that during that time, Source: Estimated by DOE Cost Modeling Working Group
the light fi xtures will need to be cleaned
and maintenance will typically be needed on FIG. 3. Cost breakdown for packaged
drivers, so accessibility to both is important. LEDs in 2010: higher-throughput MOCVD
He added that adequate ventilation for LEDs (epi) processes, larger wafer substrates
is critical. Finally, he said that luminaires and wafer-level packaging would all help
should be checked for UL listing before the reduce costs.
_______________
project begins.
action was voluntary, Lighting Facts part-
Update on Lighting Facts labeling ners had a greater tendency to publish data
Effective January 1, 2012, the US Federal Trade that was independently verified with LM-79
Commission (FTC) will require that manufac- test data than non-partners.
turers of medium screw-base bulbs (table- Now, the FTC labeling is required. Unlike
lamp-size bulbs), whether incandescent, flu- the DOE, the FTC in principle has the power
orescent or LED-based, include the new FTC to ensure that manufacturers only publish
Lighting Facts labels on the front and back accurate metrics on the label. Only time will
of the bulbs packaging. Also, the bulb itself tell whether the FTC will take action against
must contain the light output (in lumens) and manufacturers that publish false perfor-
the fact that it contains mercury (if it does). mance metrics.
The US FTC mandates that these labels
(see Fig. 4) appear on products sold on and Luminaire reliability
after January 1, 2012. The front label con- The SSL Quality Advocates, a working group
tains light output (lm) and energy cost ($/ formed jointly by the US DOE and the Next
yr), while the back FTC Lighting Facts label Generation Lighting Industry Alliance
contains light output, energy cost, lifetime (NGLIA), announced a new report at the
estimate (years), appearance (CCT), required workshop entitled LED Luminaire Lifetime:

42 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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conference | DOE WORKSHOP

Recommendations for Testing FIG. 4. FTC lamp labels.


and Reporting.
Members of the working ferent environmental operat-
group included Fred Welsh, ing conditions may cause color
Terry Clarke, CEO of Finelite, shift; and the luminaire may or
and Steve Paolini of Lunera may not use active color manage-
Lighting Inc. Welsh pointed out ment. Though the working group
that many people in the indus- could not come to an agreement
try still ascribe lumen depreci- on ways to characterize color
ation to luminaire lifetime. In shift as a metric of reliability,
a simple example, he explained they consider it a significant fac-
that lumen depreciation of an tor in luminaire performance.
LED might lead to lifetime esti- Paolini talked about the value
mates of 60,000 hours, but when
Front Back of temperature cycling and
driver lifetime (55,000 hours) is highly-accelerated life testing
taken into account (failure probabilities are vided for color shift, such as an amount of designed to identify the weakest component
multiplied), the lifetime of the system will be color shift after a measured period of time. in the luminaire to enable design improve-
more like 52,000 hours. Clarke emphasized that color shift in ments. These tests can help you improve the
The working group recommends defi n- LEDs is significant, complex and not well design, but only long-term reliability test-
ing the standard luminaire lifetime as the understood. He added that not all color ing at normal use conditions will give you
time when half the product population falls shift comes from the LED itself: different an indication of how long the luminaire will
below 70% of initial light output for any rea- luminaire designs impact color; different last. For more on the recommendations, see
son. Additional specifications might be pro- optics and designs can age differently; dif- www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/7/13.

___________

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RELY ON UL

As lighting technology evolves, so does UL. In addition to product safety


certication, we also provide industry-leading performance testing,
environmental programs and robust training initiatives.

UL is widely known for our dedication to quality, technical expertise and


being a symbol of trust. From code authorities to speciers and consumers
to retailers, our 100-year history of advancing safety demonstrates our
commitment to protecting people, products and places.

When you rely on UL for your lighting product needs, your future is bright.

VISIT WWW.UL.COM/BRIGHT
___________________

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business | INNOVATION

Getting the innovation right: the


need for evaluation, measurement
& validation of LED lighting
Success in the solid-state lighting market requires a system-engineering approach that
demonstrates real value to customers, where results can be validated by real-world testing, as
MARTHA CARNEY and JIM FAY explain.

B
ringing products to market based color, temperature, and uniformity; dimma- up with solid field data, mainstream adopt-
on new technology is a risky busi- bility and controls performance; and envi- ers will be more skeptical, affecting market
ness. The small number of truly suc- ronmental impacts. share. Those LED manufacturers that listen
cessful innovations contrasts with the large Second is the user benefits and real-world to customers and deliver and report authen-
number of new products that have failed to impact of the product. In the case of SSL, tic new value will be the successful ones.
realize their promise. It can be confusing to some possible impacts include:
read about how advancements in LED tech- The relative value of an entirely-new Manufacturers as stakeholders
nology are transforming the lighting indus- customer experience. This can only The market for new lighting products is com-
try, because that future wont happen unless be understood through gauging con- petitive, and the potential rewards are high.
we get the innovation right. We should con- sumer reaction to the in-situ experi- Manufacturers must trade off the desire to be
sider how solid-state lighting (SSL) tech- ence of an activity under the new light-
nology companies can employ system engi- ing conditions.
neering, with all critical stakeholders using The enhanced brand of a retail business Color
better measurement, validation and com- and its attractiveness to customers, as 10%
Light
munication to get the innovation right in well as enhanced real-estate value. trespass
todays new economy. Monetizing the value of improved pro- 14%
To efficiently penetrate the market and ductivity and health of employees, or of Brightness
realize its full potential, key stakeholders livestock in agricultural environments. Energy 55%
must play their part in building a compre- Increased safety and security of business savings
21%
hensive and accurate body of knowledge and municipal environments.
about the new product experience. This LED lighting represents perhaps a true
will assist the earliest customers in making opportunity for a potential technology home-
informed, thoughtful and prudent decisions, run. In the March 2011 issue of LEDs Mag-
and help build the market on a foundation of azine, Philip Keebler of the Electric Power FIG. 1. Residents in Apple Valley, MN,
realized expectations. Research Institute (EPRI) demanded show rated the level of importance of various
Such a body of knowledge includes two me the data and pointed out the need for characteristics of an outdoor residential-
important components. First is the techni- more measurement and validation of system area lighting system.
cal performance of the product in real-world efficacy, driver efficiency, and power quality.
conditions. Th is includes all aspects of the We agree, and call for even further data anal- first to market with the need to provide the
whole-product performance (including the ysis that is focused on the customer. market with robust information about prod-
LED chips and their drivers), and encom- Todays customers increasingly rely on uct capabilities and performance. Successful
passes energy savings and power quality; the internet, social media and customer products will be focused on meeting stated
product life and maintenance; light output, testimonials to learn about new products. and unstated customer needs. New-product-
Word of the initial product experiences of development guru Robert Cooper (www. ___
MARTHA CARNEY and JIM FAY are with early adopters are likely to spread quicker prod-dev.com) says the inability to effectively
Outsourced Innovation, a solid-state lighting and further, and therefore are more influ- match a new product to real-world customer
consulting firm based in Naperville, Illinois ential in driving future market decisions. If needs is the most frequent reason for new
(www.outsourced-innovation.com). product performance claims are not backed product failures in America.

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 45


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business | INNOVATION

Getting truthful answers to the good, bad


and sometimes painful side of LED light-
ing is critical to ultimate market success.
Among the key questions are:
What drives a consumer to pay (or not
pay) for energy efficiency?
What level of dimming provides energy
savings without sacrificing perceptions
of safety in outdoor lighting?
What are the primary components of
value, and what are they worth?
Alternatively, what are the pain points FIG. 2. An LED conversion program at the convention center in Bettendorf, IA.
with todays lighting that will drive con-
sumers to LEDs? bad impression with the public. Even if a fi x After testing several manufacturers prod-
For companies intending to be in the mar- is found that makes the product superior to ucts, the city chose thirty-two Capella LED fix-
ket for the long haul, it makes good business anything else in the marketplace, the dam- tures from Philips. The lamps were installed
sense to be a leader by providing decision age can be irreversible and be further exac- on State Street and promise to deliver a 45%
makers with a robust body of knowledge erbated with todays social-media tools. So energy saving. The city of Bettendorf rou-
regarding new products. Measurement and understanding your customer and the com- tinely tracks residents perception of down-
validation should include: plex operation of SSL systems is advisable town safety at night (Fig. 3). Results show a
Relevant customer research data before making one big enthusiastic sales 20% increase in the citys safety score at night
Test data for standards and certification pitch on LEDs. following the installation of LED street-
compliance lights in 2009. Defining additional value of
Independently-verified field-perfor- Municipal and commercial customers this type will be important in order to accel-
mance data The City of Apple Valley, MN, and its host erate the technology adoption with other
Case studies to illustrate the application utility Dakota Electric Association sur- municipalities.
and customer reaction. veyed residents as part of a recent demon- Taking it one step further, the city of Betten-
stration project. Brightness was found to be dorf could track whether the downtown con-
Demonstrations the most important characteristic in a resi- vention center attracts more visitors or lures
Outsourced Innovation has managed over 15 dential street-lighting system. Surprisingly, more booked conventions due to the installa-
LED demonstrations in collaboration with energy savings, light trespass and color tion of SSL systems. Again, this level of evalu-
Midwest utilities, ranging from outdoor were far less important to consumers (Fig. ation could help to justify such installations.
street and area lighting, to on-campus uni- 1). These results suggest that, when residents Business tactics such as these are
versity lighting, to creating LED lighting con- view brightness as far more important than referred to as Blue Ocean strategies, where
versions in agricultural settings. Among the energy savings, education is needed to sup- value innovation becomes so important
lessons learned from these demonstrations port the rationale for reducing light levels that competition is irrelevant and price
is that measurement and validation clari- during after-midnight hours. becomes inconsequential. Th is is a good
fies product performance and aligns expec- The good news is that our research consis- market strategy for SSL as long as we
tations with proven performance. Also, busi- tently shows that, no matter what the geo- understand it and leverage the technology
ness value beyond energy savings is just as graphic location, LED outdoor lighting is pre- to create meaningful value that goes well
important and needs to be evaluated, too. ferred to conventional street lighting by a beyond energy savings.
A true breakthrough will not occur just factor greater than 7. But a related question for There is a growing body of evidence that
because LED technology is used, but because builders and home buyers is this: will an LED customers are installing LED lighting prod-
of the added value the technology brings to lighting system create a more attractive place ucts like light bulbs, with very little if any
enrich our lives. We need to understand and to live, adding new value to real estate? New efforts to understand the nuances of the
monetize that added value. product research should characterize that semiconductor technology or consideration
The DOE works hard to publish realistic value, as it will help justify a scalable deploy- of whether it indeed makes a good business
reports from both Gateway and Caliper pro- ment of new and more expensive technology. case. But doing business without listening to
grams. These studies help temper the cool- Another promising example includes the the customer is like sailing a ship without a
ness factor surrounding the notion of dig- city of Bettendorf, Iowa, which is collaborat- rudder: it may take a lot longer, or worse yet
ital lighting, so the marketplace wont be ing with its host utility, MidAmercian Energy, we may never get there.
disappointed with LEDs. to better understand the performance of LED Lighting professionals may not always
If there is an unforeseen problem or disap- lighting in front of the downtown Quad Cities understand the unique photometric charac-
pointment with SSL, the product can leave a Waterfront Convention Center (Fig. 2). teristics of LEDs, or their optical or thermal

46 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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business | INNOVATION

behavior. They may not have


Swine Farrowing Facility: 26-watt CFLs to 15-watt LED
regard for what type of LED
lighting system the commu- Average MAX MIN Max/Min Coefficient of Uniformity
Illuminance Variation
nity prefers on the parkway
in front of their homes, or CFL LED CFL LED CFL LED CFL LED CFL LED CFL LED
whether residents may want Photopic 5.2 5.0 8.5 18.7* 1.3 0.8 6.5 23.4 .28 .70 4.0 6.3
to have less-bright street- Scotopic 6.6 7.3* 11.9 27.9* 1.7 0.7 7.0 39.9 .29 .74 3.9 10.4
lights or even the ability * Denotes matched or better performance
to control brightness. New
innovation cannot survive TABLE 1. Photometry comparison of CFL versus LED in a swine facility. Data represents 89
on intuition alone. measurements on 3x5-foot grid.
These communities can be
our labs. A close watch of customer insights and what new value can be engineered into (Table 1 and Table 2) compared with incum-
can bring innovation to the most iconic and an LED system? bent technologies. Energy savings of 50%
established products like lighting. But a lack of The National Rural Electricity Cooper- have been validated for LED conversions in
coordination and good data collaboration has ative Associations (NRECA) Cooperative both swine and dairy facilities.
been a big barrier to innovation in the past. Research Network, along with Oklahoma These results are laudable, especially as
State University, has commissioned several the measured LED lights at both agricul-
Examples from agriculture agricultural LED field assessments to seek tural test sites put out the same amount of
Another critical example involves US-based some answers. Early power-quality mea- illumination as the legacy lighting systems
agricultural businesses. What problems surements suggest LED performance that theyve replaced.
have evolved in such operations using is true to manufacturers claims, and that For these field studies, researchers hope
todays energy-efficient lighting systems, has matched or slightly better light levels to prove that the added value goes beyond

Reduce LED testing time

Fast results with our new spectrometer

Test LEDs faster than ever before. Hamamatsus new


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you can minimize testing time and maximize throughput.

For more info, go to http://sales.hamamatsu.com/miniled Toll-free: USA 1-800-524-0504 Europe 00 800 800 800 88

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 47


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business | INNOVATION

energy savings. The hypothesis is that ani- past research implies that 15 How safe do you feel downtown after dark?
mal livestock and poultry will exhibit mea- foot-candles are necessary to
sureable weight gain or increased milk pro- instigate an increase in milk 73% Combined
duction, or that farmers could realize a production (Josefsson et al.,
reduction in feed costs by leveraging the 2000). The answer appears to 60%
25% Very safe
spectral light intensity of LEDs. Many of be no, more LED fi xtures may 52% 15%
todays progressive farmers have advanced not be required: early field
16%
tracking systems in place to evaluate behav- data at the dairy is showing a
ioral data, along with the power-usage data 13% increase in milk yield on
collected by the utility, so the full value of the LED side of the barn, sug- 48% Somewhat safe
45%
the new lighting system can be determined. gesting a compelling argu- 36%
Rich Robinson of Robinson Family Farms, ment for LEDs. However, there
who owns and manages a swine opera- is a need for continued study.
tion with 22,000 sows in Holdenville, OK,
reported: As you can imagine, our operation Utilities as stakeholders 2006 2008 2010

is harsh and dirty. The energy saving from Electric utilities have an FIG. 3. Residents perception of safety in the city of
the LED prototype lamps in our swine facil- important role in demonstrat- Bettendorf, IA, increased following the LED installation
ity is proven, but now we can hose and foam- ing significant new energy- in 2009 (+5% margin of error).
clean the lamps without fear of breakage, saving products and in facil-
which is a common occurrence with CFLs. itating their adoption in
Robinson further commented: Weve applications that make good business sense. municipalities, manufacturers and distrib-
gone through 3 cycles of piglets with no CFLs have been a pillar of utility energy-effi- utors. The main take-away from the work-
damage or breakage to the LED lights and ciency program portfolios, but now utilities shop was how utilities and municipali-
thats substantial when we typically replace are beginning to embrace SSL. ties typically dont have the staff to select a
many CFLs each month. Thats the real value Utilities and their regulators are recog- quality LED system. Dave Ahlberg, MidAm-
of LEDs for our operations. nizing the importance of a comprehensive erican Energys Product Manager of Indus-
Table 2 shows promising results from an measurement and verification approach to trial Energy Efficiency Programs, stated:
LED dairy conversion project for about 120 validate the full value of SSL and ensure an We want to be a good resource for our cus-
milk-producing cows. However, these find- apples-to-apples baseline comparison for tomers and advisor for SSL projects, offer-
ings beg the question: will more LED fi x- determining energy-efficiency savings. ing grants or incentives to help prove mar-
tures be required or could re-engineered Outsourced Innovation recently held a ket acceptance of the technology.
optics provide the additional benefit of driv- workshop for MidAmerican Energy on solid- For SSL, utilities will also need to be cre-
ing a behavioral change? And especially as state street lighting, bringing together Iowa ative in designing new rate structures that

___________________

48 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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business | INNOVATION

preserve the diversity of street-


lighting ownership options Dairy FreeStall Barn: 250-watt metal-halide conversion to 120-watt LED
now offered to municipalities. Average MAX MIN Max/Min Coefficient of Uniformity
Utilities like the controllabil- Illuminance Variation
ity features of SSL, which allow MH LED MH LED MH LED MH LED MH LED MH LED
lighting-optimization strat-
Photopic 2.3 3.4* 10.4 8.1 0.2 0.4* 101.5 20.3* .94 .61 11.6 8.4*
egies for different municipal
Scotopic 4.2 4.9* 20.3 12.0 0.2 0.4* 203.0 30.0* .99 .63 21.0 12.3*
applications and have a natu-
ral fit into the industrys vision *Denotes matched or better performance
of the smart grid.
TABLE 2. Photometry comparison of high-bay metal-halide (MH) lighting versus LED in a dairy
Utilities strive to achieve
facility. Data represents 95 measurements on 12x12-foot grid.
reliable electricity service and
high customer-satisfaction
scores. Consumers look to their electric- development. Product success depends upon optimal value by listening to the customer.
ity provider for leadership and education the market taking a system-engineering Manufacturers, service providers, munici-
on emerging technologies that save energy. approach and evaluating the individual tech- palities, electric utilities and end users all have
Good measurement and validation provides nology components as an integrated product a stake in the success of SSL technology. Get-
customers with the unbiased facts on the that provides a variety of customers with ting the innovation right is more important
results that new technology can deliver. an important and complex energy service. today when word of failed expectations can
Market participants must also support cus- reach so many decision-makers very rapidly.
Conclusion tomer decisions by tempering product claims However, we can indeed leverage SSLs future
SSL has significant market potential, but with solid real-world test results, as well as market potential to transform lives and posi-
it is still in the critical early stages of its designing products and services that provide tion the economy to move forward.

___________

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________________

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infrared LEDs | SENSING SYSTEMS

LEDs enable an optimal near-


infrared sensing system
Todays high-efficiency, low-cost, near-infrared (NIR) LEDs and lasers enable many commercial
applications. A few straightforward formulas can help the designer approximate the performance of
an NIR sensing system and then optimize it to best handle the real-world variables of a particular
application, as ROLF WEBER explains.

S
pecifying the best near-infrared any application. For a given emitter in a given Characterizing the emitter
(NIR) system for a particular sens- application, how much light power or beam The first step in characterizing a system is to
ing application can be complex but, flux (in mW/cm2) arrives at the target? How calculate how much flux () is in the emit-
armed with an understanding of the basic much of that is reflected back to, and cap- ted beam, which depends on various factors
principles and a few straightforward equa- tured by, the sensor? Finally, is the level of such as the emitter type, package type and,
tions, the designer has a good chance of suc- light sufficient to reliably collect the infor- if present, secondary optics. In general, the
cess. Systems based on the NIR range (850- mation required for the
950 nm) of the light spectrum are becoming application?
increasingly popular in a variety of diverse It can be useful to set
applications such as security and surveil- up a test system with
lance, data communications, automotive all the real-world vari-
and manufacturing to name a few. Some of ables of the application to
the more interesting applications for NIR answer these questions.
include adaptive cruise control in auto- Fig. 2 shows an unpro- Target
mobiles, fingerprint and iris recognition in cessed video frame from
security systems, and gesture recognition in such a system, useful as a
gaming, medical and home-entertainment benchmark to determine
applications. how much light might be
The three main areas that need to be required in other appli-
addressed in designing a typical NIR sys- cations. The target in this
tem (Fig. 1) include: system is a flower pot with
the emitter or light delivery system, 10% reflectivity, placed 94
sometimes called the radiator or irradi- feet away from the cam- Emitter Sensor
ator, which may be based on an IR LED era in the center of a com-
or a laser, pletely dark scene. The FIG. 1. The three critical components of an NIR sensing
the target, which is the object of inter-scene is illuminated by system are the emitter, target and detector (or sensor), all
est irradiated by the emitter subsystem, two 850-nm Dragon IR affecting the amount of light used in the application.
the light detector or sensor (camera or LEDs with a secondary
photodiode based), which measures the 8 lens, generating about 1W of light. The light intensity (I) from a source varies with
amount of light reflected back from the sensor is an IR web camera with a visible-light the beam angle (). So to calculate flux, we
target. cut-off filter running at 20 frames per second. must integrate the intensity over the solid
Successfully approximating the light inten- Applying the calculations that we will angle of the beam.
sity that will ultimately reach the sensor detail in this article to this benchmark appli- Solid angles are expressed as a steradian
requires an understanding of each link in the cation yields results of 0.7 W/cm2 arriving (), which is defined as the surface portion of
light chain between emitter and sensor. There at the target, and 0.01 W/cm2 arriving at a sphere hit by the beam divided by the sur-
are three critical questions to be answered for
the sensor. face of the whole sphere. The steradian for a
given beam angle can be calculated with the
ROLF WEBER (Rolf.Weber@osram-os.com) is Senior Applications Engineer for infrared, sensors formula below:
and laser products at OSRAM Opto Semiconductors North America (www.osram-os.com). () = 2 0 sin d

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 51


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infrared LEDs | SENSING SYSTEMS

The flux in a beam with a beam lensed LED can be simplified by mul-
angle is expressed by the integral tiplying the target area with the peak
of the light intensity over the solid intensity and dividing it by the square
angle, as shown here: of the distance between the emitter
f lu x () w it h in bea m = and the target, as shown here:
2 0 (Intensity sin ) d = I0 target area / distance2
Solving this integral over 90 For a 15 lens (n = 20) and a target
degrees shows the relationship size of 1.5 (thats about a 1 foot tar-
between intensity at the beam center get at a 20-foot distance), this simpli-
(I0), or peak intensity, as well as the fication causes an acceptable error of
total produced flux. Note that peak less than 0.5%.
intensity will vary with the type of
light emitter being used, with very dif- Reflected light
ferent results for Lambertian (0 to 90 The next step in the light chain is the
degree) emitters compared with emit- FIG. 2. Setting up a test system as a benchmark can be beam power in the reflected light
ters equipped with secondary optics helpful in characterizing performance and manipulating from the target, which is dependent
such as lenses, diffusers and reflectors. variables, such as distance, to see the effect this has. on the size of the target, its reflectiv-
For a Lambertian emitter such as a ity, and other factors. How much light
lens-less LED, the peak intensity is total flux light. Th is can, however, be boosted to 90% does a camera need? Setting up some hard-
divided by (I0 = total/ ). Flux, in turn, is or higher when a reflector around the LED ware i.e. an LED emitter subsystem and
calculated as follows: () = I0sin 2. is added to the lens. establishing the target distance can quickly
In contrast, for a cosine power-n (cosn) indicate whether sufficient light can be cap-
described lens, peak intensity increases by Light on the target tured by the sensor.
a factor of n + 1 divided by 2 (I0 = total(n Once the amount of flux delivered by the Reflectivity, which can be specular (mir-
+ 1)/2). Flux is calculated as follows: () = emitter subsystem has been approximated, ror-like) or diff use, must also be considered.
2I0(1-cosn+1)/(n+1). the flux hitting the target can be calculated, For specular reflections, the outgoing light
For a given Lambertian emitter whose as follows: angle equals the incoming angle. Diff use
intensity drops to 50% at a 60 angle, the Flux on target = 2I0 (1-cosn+1) / reflectors, in contrast, are Lambertian light
example cosine power-n lens for n = 10 (n+1). sources, reflecting light in all directions. A
results in a 50% drop at about a 21-degree The beam angle () is determined by the real-life target is typically a combination of
angle, reducing the effective beam size. size of the target as seen from the irradia- both reflector types.
Note also that a secondary lens alone may tion source. The variable is the efficiency of Specular reflectors can provide irradiance
collect as little as 15% of an LEDs emitted the lens. For small alphas, the formula for a in the range of 1/(2 distance of target)2. For

52 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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infrared LEDs | SENSING SYSTEMS

small targets, specular reflection provides Question 1: Question 2:


How many mW/cm2 How many mW/cm2
more light than diff use reflection if the tar- arrive at the target? arrive at the camera CCD?
get is vertical to the beam. The beam inten-
sity simply drops with the inverse square of
the total light path length.
The irradiance provided by diff use reflec-
tors, in turn, is described by cosine alpha. Target is a hand 6 feet from the emitter
For a small target, this can be replaced with
just the peak intensity value (I0). For a 3
target area, like a 1-foot target at a 10-foot
Flux = 500 mW
distance, there is only a 0.14% difference Target area (small hand) = 10 cm2
using the approximation. Distance (6 feet) = 180 cm
Reflectance R of target = 0.5
The path to the sensor Camera lens = f/N, w. N = 1.2
The final link in the light chain is the path to
the sensor, which may be a simple photodi-
FIG. 3. Parameters of a gesture-recognition system as an example of an NIR sensing
ode (essentially just one big pixel) or a high-
system.
resolution camera, based on CCD or CMOS
sensors. When both the emitter subsystem Its important to note that cameras have focal length, in turn, limits the size of the
and the target have been characterized, the detection limits, and that NIR wavelength target picture. Therefore, the irradiance of
question is whether enough beam flux (mW/ has a profound effect on camera sensitivity. a camera chip is:
cm 2) is supplied to let the sensor see what Lens apertures, further limit the amount of Camera irradiance = 0.25 (radiance from
it needs to see. What is the sensors criteria light cameras can collect, and the cameras target) aperture2 / focal length2.
and does the rest of the system provide it?
Photodiodes usually arent implemented
with a lens and so collect light from the entire
target, in contrast to cameras, whose lenses
focus on the light from a selected part of the
target.
Photodiode irradiance can be calculated
as follows:
Photodiode irradiance = radiance target
area / distance2
A camera-chip lens system is typically far

FIG 4. An SFH 4232 Platinum IR Dragon


emitter.

more efficient than a photodiode without a


lens. For example, where a target area has a
diameter of one tenth of its distance from the
sensor and the camera has a 1.2 lens number,
the camera would receive about 70 times more _____________
mW/cm2 than a photodiode without a lens.

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 53


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infrared LEDs | SENSING SYSTEMS

Note that zoom lenses Wavelength Visibility (relative units) CMOS or CCD sensitivity
Assuming the target is a dif-
increase the focal length and (relative units) fuse reflector acting like a
might reduce the aperture. In Lambertian light source, its
850 nm 10000 10000
the best case, the brightness is intensity is the flux divided
reduced by the square of the 900 nm 450 8400 by . The flux per cm2 is, of
magnification only. 950 nm 30 3600 course, the received flux per
Also note that the beam 980 nm 7 2400 cm2 times the ref lectivity
flux delivered to a camera is of the target. The radiance
not dependent on the distance TABLE 1. Camera sensitivity decreases at longer NIR wavelengths, but of our example target is 0.8
from the target. Rather, if you so does a potential problem with undesirable visibility to the naked eye. W/cm2, calculated as fol-
increase the distance, the pic- lows, with R representing the
ture simply gets smaller, leaving the amount 500 mW of light with a 60 beam. The tar- reflectivity of the target:
of mW/cm2 the same. get is the mans hand, 10 cm2 in size, 6 feet Radiance from target = 0.05 mW R / (
The choice of NIR wavelength also comes (180 cm) away from the TV and 50% reflec- 10cm2) = 0.8 W / (cm2 sr)
into play in terms of whether the light is tive. The sensor subsystem, which is located Keeping in mind that the focal length
visible to the human eye and sensitivity of at the top of the TV, is a CCD-based camera divided by lens aperture is the lens num-
the sensor. Table 1 includes sensitivity data. with a 1.2 lens number. ber of a camera, we can now calculate the
In covert applications, the relative visibil- How much of that original 500 mW mW/cm2 that reaches the camera chip by
ity of 850-nm light can be an issue. With reaches the target at the first link of the light multiplying the radiance by 0.25 and mul-
increased NIR wavelengths, CCD camera path? We can use this formula: tiplying it with the square of lens aperture
sensitivity drops, but eye visibility drops (target) = target area flux / ( divided by focal length (the equivalent of
faster. At longer wavelengths such as 950 distance2) dividing 0.25 by the square of the lens
and 980 nm, unwanted visibility is drasti- The peak intensity of a Lambertian LED is number):
cally reduced. flux divided by , so we divide the intensity mW/cm2 (at CCD) = 0.25 (radiance from
by the distance squared to get the mW/ cm2 target) aperture2/focal length2.
Gesture-sensing system at the target. Plugging in the specifics of the The result for our gesture-recognition sys-
Now it is time to put some real-life numbers example application a 10 cm2 size target, tem example is 0.43 W/cm2 at the camera
into the equations to characterize an exam- 500 mW IR emitter, and 180 cm distance chip, which is an easily detectable light level.
ple of a gesture recognition NIR sensing sys- we get (target) = 0.05 mW as the result. A few straightforward formulas can help
tem. In Fig. 3, a man sits in an easy chair The next step is to calculate how much of the designer approximate the performance
interacting with his TV using gestures. The the remaining beam flux, which has been of an NIR sensing system and determine
SFH 4232 Platinum IR Dragon emitter (Fig. reduced from 500 mW to just 0.05 mW at what changes may be needed to better han-
4) located on the side of the TV produces the target, will be reflected to the camera. dle application variables.

_________

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conference | SEMICON WEST

Semicon West delivers technology


update on LED manufacturing
A day-long LED session at semiconductor tradeshow Semicon West addressed efficiency droop,
MOCVD developments, new packaging schemes, and epitaxial layer transfers, reports MAURY WRIGHT.

A
n LED-centric theme continued LED community. At low currents, LEDs can non found in semiconductors where energy
to simmer at Semicon West, the exhibit efficacy well in excess of 200 lm/W, is transferred among three carriers with the
annual semiconductor-industry but at the high drive currents used for HB third ultimately losing the energy that, in the
tradeshow that took place July 12-14 in San LEDs in general-illumination applications, case of LEDs, would generate light.
Francisco, CA. The manufacturing-oriented the efficacy drops considerably. Indeed phos- Kioupakis and his team performed a theo-
event included a day-long LED program pre- phor-converted white LEDs being shipped retical evaluation of Auger loss. The key find-
sented in the Extreme Electronics pavilion today are generally in the 100 lm/W range ing according to the team is that indirect
called More lumens per dollar: Issues and with some besting that number. Auger loss is the major culprit. Indirect Auger
answers to bring costs down to create a gen- Companies have achieved much better loss is caused by the scattering of charge car-
eral lighting market. Speakers from LED riers whereas most
manufacturers, equipment manufactur- Relative Epi cost ($/cm2) other research on
ers, materials companies, universities, and the phenomenon has
Facilities 1.0
analyst organizations addressed efficiency focused on direct
Spares/ 0.19 0.9
droop, MOCVD developments, new packag- consumables
Auger loss that has
0.8
ing schemes, and even novel epitaxial layer been judged to have
Labor 0.25 0.7
transfers that could all lead to more afford- a relatively small
0.6
able solid-state lighting (SSL). impact on efficiency.
LED manufacturing technology was still 0.5 Presuming their
Gas/utilities 0.20
decidedly in the minority on the huge show 0.4 identification of the
floor given the breadth of the show focus. 0.3 droop cause is cor-
Capital 0.34
The LED session provided broad cover- depreciation 0.2 rect, the team is
age that introduced the SSL concept and 0.1 now trying to solve
opportunity to the semiconductor crowd, 0.0 the problem. The
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
while also digging deeper into manufactur- researchers believe
ing better, less-expensive LEDs for the SSL FIG. 1. Veeco projects significant reductions in epi cost. the answer lies in
converts in the crowd. Well skip the details reducing ca r r ier
on LED market opportunity and SSL basics performance in the lab. For instance, Cree density through thicker quantum wells,
here as weve covered those topics exten- announced lab tests that delivered 231 lm/W more quantum wells, and nonpolar and
sively for example in our Strategies in efficacy earlier this year (www.ledsmagazine. semi-polar growth.
Light coverage and will focus instead on com/news/8/5/8). Solving the droop problem
LED manufacturing. and producing such highly-efficient LEDs is Reducing MOCVD costs
a key to much-lower-cost SSL products and Bill Quinn, chief technologist at Veeco
Identifying droop culprit therefore much broader deployment. Instruments, focused his presentation on
Manos Kioupakis, a postdoctoral researcher The UCSB researchers dont claim to have trends in MOCVD (metal organic chem-
at the University of California at Santa solved the droop problem but to have identi- ical vapor deposition) systems that can
Barbara (UCSB), presented university fied the cause. Indeed researchers have long reduce the cost of making HB LEDs. Quinn
research focused on identifying the cause debated the cause. The leading theories are said, The color, the brightness, and the
of the droop phenomenon in LEDs. Droop carrier leakage and Auger recombination. electrical properties are all determined by
has long puzzled the high-brightness (HB) Carrier leakage occurs when charge-carry- the MOCVD. And of course MOCVD tools
ing electrons escape the active quantum- impact device costs significantly since as
MAURY WRIGHT is a Senior Technical Editor well region in an LED where light is produced. Quinn said the tools make up more than 50%
with LEDs Magazine. Auger recombination is a complex phenome- of the capital expenditure on a new LED fab.

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 57


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conference | SEMICON WEST

The MOCVD tool or reactor handles the cos case. They are also FIG. 2. Dow Electronic Materials'
epitaxial growth, typically on sapphire offering clusters of two Vaporstation system.
wafers, that is the first step in LED chip man- to five chambers than
ufacturing. The reactor mixes precursors can share infrastruc- better temperature and chemical-
hydride molecules such as ammonia (NH3) ture, such as the precur- flow control can improve yields. In
with metal-organics such as trimethylgal- sor supply, thereby low- one new approach to better tem-
lium (TMGa) at the surface of the wafer to ering the total cost of perature control, the company is
grow first an n-type gallium nitride (n-GaN) ownership. using a pyrometer to monitor tem-
layer, followed by a multiple quantum well Qu inn sa id that perature at the growth layer rather
(MQW) region where the light is generated, Veeco had researched than relying on wafer temperature.
and topped with a p-type GaN layer. other challenges to Quinn projects steady progress
Despite the high cost, Quinn said that reduce prices, and yield in MOCVD reactors. He said, By
MOCVD remains the best choice for man- takes the number one 2015, continuing on the path were
ufacturing LEDs compared to other depo- position. In the case on with MOCVD improvement, we
sition technologies. He noted the readily- of LEDs, yield doesnt can get down to a relative epi cost
available precursors and high GaN growth mean an LED that of about 20% of where we were in
rates as advantages and said the tools are works or doesnt. Rather 2009. (See Fig. 1) That translates to
easily scalable to 8-in wafers. it means manufactur- a 3 to 4 reduction in LED cost over
The key to lower cost is faster epitaxial ing an LED that meets the same period, said Quinn.
processing. Companies such as Veeco have tight specifications in
attacked that problem by developing reactor color, brightness, and Centralizing precursor delivery
chambers that can handle more wafers simul- forward voltage. Th iloma Perera, director of mar-
taneously as many as 54 2-in wafers in Vee- Veeco has found that keting at Dow Electronic Materials,
discussed a different approach to opti-
mizing reactor throughput. Dow has devel-
oped what it calls a Vaporstation (Fig. 2) that
enables centralized vapor-phase delivery of
precursors to multiple reactors.
Today, most reactors rely on chemicals
stored at each reactor or cluster in metal cyl-
inders that are commonly called bubblers.
According to Perera, that approach wastes
floor space, increases labor costs, and cre-
ates downtime. The reactors must include
temperature-controlled baths in which the
bubblers are stored these significantly
increase the footprint of the system.
But the larger problem comes when a
chemical runs low. Perera said, You have
to stop your reactor, change the bubbler,
and then start it again. This takes anywhere
from 4 to 24 hours. The long restart time is
in part due to the time it takes to stabilize
the process.
Dows approach eliminates this down-
time. There are many possible confi gura-
tions that can support varying numbers
of reactors or clusters. But in any scenario
there is always a secondary supply of the pre-
cursor that takes over when one runs low.
____________ Perera said that one customer is running 11
reactors on one Vaporstation.
Perera admitted that it will take time to
bring about the cultural change within LED

58 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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conference | SEMICON WEST

manufacturers, who would have to transition from a system that has


worked successfully. But she insisted it will reduce the cost of own-
ership of a reactor through lower labor costs and better through-
put. Perera said savings from using the centralized system would be
highly dependent on each installation. However, Dow believes the
system could save $200,000 to $300,000 in operating cost per reac-
tor per year, and that a throughput improvement would come on
top of those savings.
Perera also said that the centralized system is safer since most
of the precursors are pyrophoric, meaning they will spontaneously
ignite if exposed to air. She said that every time a bubbler is changed
there is a potential for an accident that would be greatly lessened by
moving to a centralized system.

Dicing and packaging


Taking a much broader look at the cost of making LEDs, Yole
Developpement senior market and technology analyst Eric Virey
presented 20 research areas that could deliver significant advance-
ments in either lower manufacturing cost or better LED perfor-
mance (meaning essentially more lumen output). He identified
larger-diameter wafers and alternative substrates such as silicon
as having the most potential for big cost reductions. Solving cur-
rent droop, as discussed earlier, ranked as having the most signif-
icant potential on the performance axis.
Virey, however, chose to focus his presentation on three other
areas where theres near-term potential for gains on both axes:
Die singulation Optical lithography and resist
Wafer-level packaging processing solutions
Thermal management
There are four primary methods now used for die singulation
blade dicing, laser dicing, diamond scribing, and laser scribing.
Wafer bonding for layer transfer
The scribing methods require a breaking step once the scribing is
completed. Nano Imprint Lithography for beam
Improvement can come in several ways according to Virey. Man- shaping and enhanced light extraction
ufacturers could use more-accurate dicing techniques to reduce
the street width the wasted area between LEDs on a wafer and
therefore increase the number of die per wafer. Faster cutting speeds Handling and processing of thin and
would increase throughput. And techniques are needed that dont bowed wafers
damage components and impact yield. Virey said some of the laser
schemes can damage the edges of the die causing kerf loss and reduc-
ing brightness.
Virey identified a couple of laser-based approaches that might
bring about improvements. He noted that to increase throughput,
you cant just use a higher laser-dicing speed because that requires www.EVGroup.com
higher laser energy and results in component damage. Instead you
can split a laser beam creating a serial or in-line multibeam. He
also described a parallel system where multiple beams scribe dic-
ing lines simultaneously. He said a 6 improvement in scribing
speed would yield double the wafer throughput.
In the thermal-management area, Virey showed examples from
all of the major LED vendors in terms of packaging and materials
that can conduct heat away from the LED. He moved quickly to a
focus on wafer-level packaging (WLP) that it turns out addresses
both thermal and packaging issues.

LEDsmagazine.com

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conference | SEMICON WEST

WLP is a concept intended to opti- LED chip a carrier wafer attached to the
mize the back-end of the LED manu- Cu-filled Si submount
epi side. The original substrate is
facturing process. You still must sin- TSVs with Cu TSVs then removed, and the epi layer
gulate the LED die, but then bond each is attached to a new substrate
to a silicon packaging wafer. The man- made from copper or a metal
AIN
ufacturer can then perform phosphor alloy. Brewer makes the tools and
coating, optic installation, and other materials that enable the tempo-
processes to a wafer of LEDs rather FIG. 3. An LED after transfer to a conductive substrate. rary bond t o withstand chemi-
than one by one before the individual Courtesy of Brewer Science. cals and high-temperature pro-
components are once again separated. cesses. The technology allows
Virey said that WLP can decrease cost director of the LED/Energy Devices strate- safe removal of the carrier with no damage
and increase reliability based on monolithic gic business unit at Brewer Science. Trichur to the components.
assembly, silicon thermal conductivity, and focused on thin-wafer-handling technology. Trichur showed a sample application in
copper-fi lled through-silicon vias (TSVs) to According to Brewer, it can be advantageous which the LED chip is ultimately mounted
connect the anode and cathode, and to pro- to transfer the epitaxial layer from the growth on a silicon sub-mount or interposer layer
vide heat conduction. However, he also said substrate to an electrically- and thermally- (Fig. 3). Copper-fi lled TSVs provide both
that TSVs add expense. Note that at Semi- conductive substrate. Doing so provides even electrical and thermal conductive paths.
con West, ESI announced a new packaging current distribution through the MQW active The silicon layer is mounted to the alloy
system that uses a laser to drill TSVs (www.
___ region, and better heat dissipation. And a layer such as aluminum nitride (AlN).
ledsmagazine.com/news/8/7/15). manufacturer can reuse the growth substrate Trichur said that Brewer has a new alpha-
after transferring the epi layer. stage technology called ZoneBond that will
Epi layer transfer To enable such a transfer, the manu- allow debonding at room temperature and
TSVs were also a key theme for Ram Trichur, factured wafer is bonded temporarily to support wafers as large 300 mm.

________________

____________

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LED fabrication | METROLOGY

Precisiontools support critical


PSS metrology from R&D through
high-volume LED fabrication
The different capabilities of the atomic-force microscope and the white-light interferometer are well
suited to the metrology demands of high-brightness LEDs built on patterned sapphire substrates,
explains XIAOMEI LI.

G
rowing demand for high-brightness Several methods have been developed pinholes. In the case of PSS, it is equally vital
(HB) LEDs is prompting manufac- to enhance the light-extraction efficiency, that the sapphire bumps are created with
turers to refine production methods including random surface texturing, fl ip- the correct dimensions (height and width)
and to develop devices with better perfor- chip technology, photonic crystal and PSS and the right pitch; testing protocols must
mance. Achieving these ends requires pre- (see Fig. 1). The latter is becoming widely ensure that malformed bumps or missing
cision metrology tools. In particular, criti- used because of several key advantages, in bumps are avoided.
cal metrology includes measurements of film addition to its higher
thickness, and layer and substrate rough- extraction efficiency.
ness, as well as detailed validation of pat- First is cost, since the ITO
terned sapphire substrates (PSS). PSS features can be p-GaN
This article describes two types of gauge- readily produced on MQW
capable metrology tools that are currently conventionally-pol-
n-GaN
used for these purposes: the atomic-force ished sapphire wafers
microscope (AFM), and the white-light using well-proven
interferometer (WLI). Because of its very photol it hog raph ic
high speed, the WLI in particular is poised methods. Second is
Patterned sapphire substrate
to become a key quality-control (QC)/process- performance related;
monitoring tool as production volumes of rel- PSS supports the for-
atively new devices are pushed to ever higher mation of higher-
levels. We compare and contrast these very quality GaN epitax-
different tools, showing where each is par- ial layers that can FIG. 1. A typical LED is based on a stack of GaN-based
ticularly well suited in the HB-LED life cycle deliver brighter out- layers grown epitaxially on a sapphire substrate. A patterned
of development through volume production. put. Specifically, the sapphire substrate (PSS) can improve the light extraction
GaN layers are prone efficiency.
PSS benefits to dislocation effects
In conventional gallium nitride (GaN) on due to lattice mismatch issues between the AFM: the ultimate surface-metrology tool
sapphire LEDs, total internal reflection layers, as well as thermal expansion differ- The highest-resolution surface-metrology
due to the large refractive-index difference ences. The PSS structures act as a grid that instrument available is the atomic-force
between GaN and air limits the amount of minimizes the formation of these defects microscope (AFM). It is now widely used
light that can be extracted from the device. and can be conical, hemispherical, or pyra- by both wafer suppliers and LED manufac-
Overcoming this limitation will enable midal (Fig. 2). turers as a reference standard because it is
HB-LED manufacturers to steadily increase Final LED performance is strongly capable of atomic resolution.
two of the most important performance impacted by the quality of the substrate In AFM operation, a hyper-fi ne tip on
parameters brightness and efficiency. and the various layers. Key factors are the the end of a micro-fabricated cantilever is
front- and back-side substrate wafer rough- brought into near-contact with the sample
XIAOMEI LI (xiaomei.li@bruker-nano.com) is ness, the roughness and uniformity of the surface. The tip is affected by atomic/molec-
with Bruker Nano Surfaces Division, Tucson, various epitaxial layers, and the absence of ular interaction forces with the sample sur-
AZ. Web: www.bruker-nano.com. defects in these epi layers, such as steps and face, which are initially attractive, and then

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 61


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LED fabrication | METROLOGY

(a) (b)

FIG. 2. The exact PSS design varies by manufacturer, but typical structures can be conical, hemispherical, or pyramidal. (a) Data
obtained with an AFM (Bruker Dimension Edge PSS). (b) Data obtained with a WLI (Bruker Contour GT-X8 PSS).

become repulsive as the tip contacts the sur- ting film defects, such as steps and pin- software that supports dual (engineering
face. A laser beam measures the position and holes. It is also fast enough for measuring and operator) levels of access. This latter fea-
movement of the cantilever. the roughness of these layers during new ture enables an engineer to set up measure-
By raster-scanning the tip across the sam- process development or modification, where ment protocols as well as pass/fail criteria
ple (or the sample under the tip), a quanti- its non-destructive nature is a significant and then hand the tool off to a technician as
tative topographic map of the surface can advantage. And, once a process is proven, it a simple pass/fail diagnostic.
be created. The in-plane (or XY) resolution is is often the preferred tool for sta-
mainly limited by the radius of the tip, and tistical sampling of final product.
it is often 2 nanometers (nm), or sometimes However, in the production of
even better. The resolution in the vertical textured wafers, and most nota-
(Z) dimension is not directly related to the bly those with PSS, the picture is
tip, and is often better than 0.5 angstroms somewhat different. The details of
(0.05nm). the PSS surface are vitally impor-
Substrate (wafer) suppliers rely on the tant but cannot yet be produced
AFM in particular to measure the results with 100% yield, meaning that ide-
of their polishing process, which has a tar- ally every PSS wafer is sampled and
get R A (rms) value of 0.5 angstroms (Fig. 3). preferably at several locations on
Widely used in many industries and applica- each wafer. For example, even small
tions, R A is the arithmetic mean of all devi- amounts of wafer bow can de-focus
ations from the mean surface height.While the lithography process in certain
the AFM is limited by its modest measure- parts of the wafer.
ment speed, 100% sampling is not required For R&D and some production FIG. 3. The AFM is capable of full three-
for these applications. Th is is because the applications, the AFM is still the dimensional resolution. This example is a 2 x 2-m
polishing process is deterministic and well- preferred tool for PSS because it surface-profile scan of a polished sapphire wafer
characterized, so process sampling need provides complete three-dimen- measured with a Bruker Dimension Edge PSS.
only be statistical. Similarly, for LED man- sional characterization of the crit-
ufacturers, heavy testing of conventional ical surfaces, including slope, at atomic WLI supports high-volume PSS
smooth wafers from well-qualified vendors resolution if necessary. Indeed AFM man- For very-high production volumes, even
is not considered necessary, and the AFM is ufacturers such as Bruker have developed AFMs designed specifically for PSS can be
the dominant and preferred tool. dedicated AFMs for PSS applications (e.g. a testing bottleneck. The white-light inter-
The AFM is also the defi nitive reference the Dimension Edge PSS). These tools com- ferometer (WLI) is a tool that better meets
for the production of epitaxial layers. The bine the ability to automatically measure the needs of these applications. Specifically,
XYZ metrology it provides is ideal for spot- up to nine 2- to 6-inch wafers at a time with the WLI can quantify the height, width and

62 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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THELATEST
AND GREATEST

LED LIGHTING

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LED fabrication | METROLOGY

pitch of PSS features and readily spot defec- WLI an optimum plat-
tive features. In addition, it is an ideal tool
form for high-density
for measuring surface roughness and the (e.g. 100%) sampling
thickness of optically-transparent films that even in a very-high-
are greater than 1.5 m in thickness. throughput produc-
The WLI, or optical profi ler, is a non-con-
tion environment.
tact, non-destructive tool that uses light The W LI deliv-
waves as a high-resolution ruler or depth ers extremely high
gauge. A WLI looks similar to a conven- dynamic range; that
tional optical microscope, and the device is, it provides verti- FIG. 5. A dual white-light interferometer (WLI) implementation
under test is placed on the sample stage. cal resolution of bet- with integrated wafer handling for the sapphire substrates
Light from a white-light source is sent into ter than 0.1 nm over speeds production testing.
the objective, and is then split into two paths
a range of feature
by a partially-reflective mirror. One of the heights up to 8 mm. In the (horizontal) XY a CHAD WaferMate wafer-handling system,
paths is focused on the sample surface and plane, WLI image resolution depends on the this QC tool supports turnkey operation for
the other is deflected to an extremely-flat choice of microscope objective. In addition production QC environments and seamless
internal reference surface. When these two to mapping the surface profi le and features integration with automated substrate han-
reflections are recombined, the image con- (Fig. 4), a high-performance WLI can also dlers. Furthermore, maximum speed can be
tains a series of dark and light bands that compute common statistical parameters doubled by using a dual-WLI setup, as shown
such as R A roughness.
are a direct function of the profi le of the test in Fig. 5.
surface; they are analogous to elevation con- The WLI is already proving to be a robust The optimum WLI magnification for PSS
tours on a topographic map. Moreover, they tool for several different HB-LED metrology work appears to be about 230, which deliv-
only appear as sharp stripes in the image tasks including ITO (indium tin oxide) fi lm ers the best combination of field of view (i.e.
where the microscope is perfectly focused roughness; GaN film thickness measurement; speed) with the XY resolution required for
on that part of the sample. PSS pitch, width, height and uniformity; PSS pass/fail operation and process feedback.
In operation, the instruments computer defect inspection (non-valid peaks); and sap- For example, the 20 micron2 field-of-view
steps the microscope through a full range phire substrate top- and bottom-side flatness. per measurement enables 13 such sites to
of focus positions and captures the shape However, it is in the areas of profiling be analyzed per 2-inch wafer in just 2 min-
of these band contours on a digital camera, PSS wafer pitch, width and height, as well utes. This corresponds to more than 60
also noting the precise focal depth at which as defect inspection, that the WLIs speed is wafers per hour.
each part of the striped image is sharpest. proving to be a critical advantage. Depending on the HB-LED specifics, a
Onboard software then uses this data to cal- The seamless integration of this testing 20 micron2 field-of-view corresponds to
culate a three-dimensional surface map over modality within the PSS production environ- between 20 and 100 PSS features. Moreover,
ment requires more than just performance the standard deviation of measured height
the entire field of view in a few seconds, i.e.
tens of thousands of surface points (pixels) and speed. It also requires automated wafer is less than 6 nm (3), and less than 10 nm
simultaneously versus a point-by-point tool handling, technician-level software oper- (3) for width. The use of automated inter-
such as the AFM. This very high speed makes ation, and customizable statistical analy- nal calibration means excellent gauge capa-
sis and archiving. A new bility; the 3 standard deviation of height,
generation of WLIs has width, and pitch is less than 10nm over a
now been developed spe- five-day period.
cifically for PSS work.
Such WLIs integrate Conclusion
these key practical fea- For conventional LEDs, the AFM remains the
tures, together with soft- ultimate surface-metrology tool for LED fab-
ware algorithms required ricators and wafer vendors alike. Its also an
to fully optimize PSS fea- ideal solution for development and qualifica-
ture size measurement. tion of new production processes, such as for
An example of this is the PSS HB-LEDs. But when these HB-LEDs go
ContourGT-X8 PSS from to very-high-volume production, dense sam-
Bruker, which enables pling can often be better served by a WLI. This
highly repeatable, high- is a versatile tool that is also useful for other
throughput, nanometer HB-LED QC/metrology tasks including sur-
FIG. 4. WLI roughness measurement of a sapphire substrate, surface metrology of HB- face roughness and gauging thickness of opti-
showing a polishing scratch. Field of view ismicrons. LED PSS. Integrated with cally-transparent films.

64 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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____________________________________

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We bring quality to light.

LED test & measurement


solutions from the world leader
Instrument Systems continues to set the benchmark in LED metrology. Whether testing individual LEDs
(standard or high-power), LED modules, or OLEDs - the global LED industry relies on us to engineer superior
measurement equipment for high-speed production testing and high-performance R&D and QC applications.

Our instruments provide accurate


and reliable results as per CIE
recommendations and methods:
Luminous flux [lm], luminous intensity [cd],
and luminance [cd/m2]
Chromaticity coordinates x,y,z and uv
Color temperature and color rendering index
Dominant wavelength and spectral data
Spatial radiation pattern


 
Instrument Systems Germany Phone: +49 89 45 49 43 0 info@instrumentsystems.com www.instrumentsystems.com

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LED fabrication | PROCESS CONTROL

Advanced analysis and control


systems could multiply yields in
LED manufacturing processes
Significant yield enhancements in LED fabrication can be achieved by the integration of yield
analysis, fault detection and classification, and run-to-run process control, says MICHAEL PLISINSKI.

A
s demand for high-brightness LEDs Kill ratio (%) It was essentially a go/no-go
continues to accelerate, manufac- 60 approach, having the pri-
turers are turning to a potent com- 50 mary goal of detecting faulty
40
bination of yield analysis, process control, 30 devices and avoiding the
20
equipment monitoring and factory auto- 10 additional cost of packaging
mation to increase output, optimize prof- 0 them. The path to greater
Defect size
itability and gain strategic advantage in yields requires a more per-
Yield Defect density
an increasingly competitive marketplace. vasive, fully-integrated solu-
100 17
While each of these components brings 16
tion. This includes yield anal-
90
specific benefits, when intelligently inte- 80 15 ysis, to rapidly identify root
grated, their total combined benefit is far 70
14 causes and reduce wafers at
greater than the sum of their individual 13 risk; real-time equipment
60 12
contributions. monitoring, to quickly detect
Historically, LED manufacturing has suf- faults and reduce costs of
Both class 1 and 2 are dominant defect types.
fered from low overall yields and even lower ownership; and precise pro-
1500
binned yields of devices with specific char- cess control, to optimize pro-
acteristics. High yield variability further Defective 1000 cesses and increase binning
die
500
complicates the problem, introducing sig- yields. All of these compo-
0
nificant uncertainty over time and making Class 2 Class 1 Class 4 Class 3 nents should communicate
it difficult to maintain a nimble yet reliable Defect to probe correlation reveals... through a comprehensive
supply chain for customers. As the market 1500 factory automation and data
matures, it is no longer economically via- Non-yielding 1000
collection facility.
ble to simply buy more capacity, and com- die
500
petitive advantage will shift increasingly to 0 Yield management
Class 2 Class 1 Class 4 Class 3
those who can improve yield and increase Yield management provides
output through more efficient use of exist- ...class 2 and class 3 are the yield limiting defects.
the capability to analyze
ing assets. FIG. 1. Data show little correlation between defect defect, metrology and test
In addition to rapidly-growing demand, lethality and defect size (top) or density (middle). data across the entire pro-
other trends in the industry are also increas- After image-based automatic defect classification, a cess. Input data should be
ing the pressure to improve yields. These very strong correlation appears for the specific defect collected as widely as possi-
include demand for larger LEDs in a single classes 2 and 3 (bottom). ble, including inspection and
package; the need to reduce assembly costs metrology tools, equipment
and reduce losses to street waste (between sensors and event logs, man-
die); as well as increases in the number of Early efforts at LED process control ufacturing execution system (MES) schedul-
die per wafer, resulting from smaller die and focused on substrate inspection before, and ing and tracking data, and final test yields.
larger wafers. electrical test after, the fabrication process. Given sufficient input, yield analysis can
quickly determine where the root cause of
MICHAEL PLISINSKI is Vice President and General Manager, Data Analysis and Review Business a problem lies - incoming material, equip-
Unit with Rudolph Technologies. Email: info@rudolphtech.com. Web: www.rudolphtech.com. ment malfunction, or process excursion. It

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 67


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LED fabrication | PROCESS CONTROL

mines its lethality, though the data pre-


sented in Fig. 1 show only a weak correla-
tion between size and kill ratio. Neither
Yield % is there a discernible relationship between
defect density and yield. However, using
By lot wafer image-based automatic defect classifica-
tion (ADC) to sort the defects into classes
with similar characteristics, it becomes
FIG. 2. By stacking defect maps from over 1000 low-yielding wafers and applying clear that almost all defects in classes 2
spatial pattern recognition, yield analysis reveals a problem in a bonding process. and 3 are killers, while those in classes 1
and 4 have almost no impact on yield. Th is
allows engineers to prioritize their efforts on thousands of die. allows the process engineers to adjust the
those problems that have the greatest effect As an example, consider the problem tool process to eliminate specific defect
on yield. Once a cause is identified they can of assessing the yield impact of specific types to improve overall yield.
drill down further to equipment-perfor- defects. A reasonable starting assumption In the second example, engineers were
mance data, formulating procedures to pre- might be that the size of the defect deter- challenged to fi nd the cause of sporadic
vent future process problems. low-yielding wafer lots. The
A lthough much of the yield management system
methodology for LED yield (YMS) allowed them to select
analysis can be adapted over 1,000 wafer maps from
straightforwardly from inte- low-yielding lots and stack
grated-circuit manufactur- Pressure them to look for tell-tale pat-
ing, LED manufacturing also difference terns in the defect data. The
poses a number of unique maps fi rst had to be aligned
challenges. These include the to correct rotational errors
ability to process data from of plus/minus several degrees
broken or partial wafers, the that result from the one-
Time
precise alignment of maps shot exposure technique
Particle filter change
among various tool sets, and used for LED fabrication.
the ability to simultaneously FIG. 3. Increasing difference between process and exhaust pressures Then, using algorithms spe-
analyze thousands of wafer on an MOCVD tool indicates a need to service the exhaust filter cially designed to recognize
maps each with hundreds of before a fault condition occurs. wafer-scale spatial patterns,

_________________

68 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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LED fabrication | PROCESS CONTROL

Wafers scrapped

Forward
voltage

7/31 8/1 8/2 8/3 8/4 8/5 8/6 8/7 8/8 8/9

Fault detection
and classification

FIG. 4. A CVD tool problem resulted in 138 scrapped wafers and 3.5 days of
downtime. A fault detection and classification (FDC) model was developed to detect
the fault condition on the first wafer.

they were able to trace the problem to the they become faults. Automatic characteriza-
bonding process (Fig. 2). The entire analy- tion of faults reduces trouble-shooting time.
sis, which would likely have taken several Accurate models also allow the optimization
days to perform manually, was completed of maintenance schedules to provide main-
in less than two hours. tenance when, and only when, it is needed,
YMS can also be used to correlate yield avoiding unnecessary downtime and mini-
with event-type data such as changes in mizing cost of ownership.
recipes, equipment maintenance, SPC On a typical MOCVD tool, monitored
alarms and more. Quantitative data on the parameters might include: reactor and
yield impact of these occurrences, which exhaust pressure for fi lter maintenance
may include aggregate data from multiple cycles, baratron calibration, device failure;
sources, provides a sound basis for opera- MFC/PC stability for time-to-settle vari-
tional decisions, such as the optimal fre- ations, bubbler health for condensation/
quency of periodic maintenance proce- depletion; and reactor heating for temper-
dures. Periodic reporting and charting ature stability, fi lament aging, and reactor
focuses engineering resources on impor- cooling. In Fig. 3, an increasing difference
tant yield-robbing issues. Automatic between reactor and exhaust pressure sig-
alarms can trigger customized reports nals the need for fi lter maintenance before
that drill down through the data to reveal it causes process problems.
underlying causes. Fig. 4 demonstrates the value of real-
time FDC on a CVD tool. Without real-time
Equipment monitoring monitoring, 138 wafers were misprocessed
Real-time fault detection and classification before the problem was detected and it took
(FDC) tools analyze hundreds of data points 3.5 days to locate and correct the fault. An
per second to monitor equipment perfor- FDC model was developed that detected
mance. Using this data, it constructs models the fault on the fi rst misprocessed wafer,
to predict process performance based on the informing engineers of the exact nature of
monitored parameters. Engineers can use the problem to speed repairs. ________________________
the models to detect abnormalities before In yet another example, engineers

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 69


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LED fabrication | PROCESS CONTROL

were able to retrieve and com- Normal chamber detection and classification,
pare pressure data from a nor- Low-yielding chamber and run-to-run process con-
mal chamber and a low-yield- Step trol is the key to maximiz-
ing chamber. Overlaying the ing returns on investment in
data (Fig. 5) clearly indicated process control. Yield analy-
Pressure
pressure differences between sis, including automatic defect
the chambers and led them to classification and spatial pat-
replace a malfunctioning valve tern recognition, permits the
on the defective chamber. rapid identification and pri-
oritization of yield-reducing
Process control Time problems and their root causes.
By monitoring drifts in process Fault detection and classifica-
performance from run to run, FIG. 5. Overlaying pressure data from a normal and a non- tion permits predictive mod-
engineers reduce process varia- yielding process chamber revealed obvious differences and led eling to detect abnormalities
tion and drive performance to rapidly to the replacement of a malfunctioning valve. and trends before they impact
optimal values. Possible appli- yield. Run-to-run process con-
cations include control of fi lm thickness, by the factory automation system, which trol allows feedback of current process per-
composition, and uniformity; critical coordinates the data flow between oper- formance to adjust operating parameters,
dimensions of metal lines; the accuracy of ators, equipment and factory systems. It achieving better control and tighter pro-
pattern overlays; and thermal uniformity provides communication among all sys- cess windows. Moreover, all of these tech-
during the growth of multi-quantum wells. tems and components in the factory, nologies can scale inexpensively to accom-
Automation of run-to-run measurements including user interfaces and credentials, modate additional process capacity.
and adjustments reduces engineering time engineering enquiries and reports, pro- Given that some current LED manu-
and eliminates operator errors in the calcu- cess control systems, data collection inter- facturing processes have yields less than
lations. Avoiding rework and increasing the faces, process equipment, operational set- 40% and binned yields less than 20%,
time between replacements also improves
the cost efficiency of consumable parts
and supplies.
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)
processes remove material from the wafer
surface using a chemically-reactive, abra-
Thickness
sive slurry and a polishing pad. The mate-
rial removal rate changes as the pad ages.
By measuring the removal rate of the pro-
cess combined with feed-forward thickness
information and feeding this information
Time
back to modulate down-force and polishing
time for the next run, engineers were able FIG. 6. Run-to-run monitoring of a CMP process uses feedback of current removal
to reduce fi lm-thickness variability, center rates and incoming thickness to adjust polishing time and down-force for subsequent
variations about the target value, and main- runs. This reduces variability, centers the distribution on the target value and
tain the process entirely within control lim- eliminates out-of-spec performance.
its (Fig. 6).
Similarly, run-to-run process control tings and recipes, databases, and incoming yields could double and binned yields
was used to improve control of the sputter- material entry. The implementation of could quadruple and still be at levels well
deposition process, in which depletion of the well-designed automation layers signif- below those of advanced IC manufactur-
sputtering target leads to changes in depo- icantly reduces the time to implement ing processes.
sition rate. Measurements of deposition rate advanced analysis packages, such as fault Although there may be unknown practi-
are fed back to adjust deposition time. Con- detection and run-to-run control systems, cal impediments to achieving such yields
trol of uniformity and resistivity can also be and virtually eliminates scrap due to oper- for LEDs, the mere possibility of such dra-
improved by feeding back data to adjust gas ator error. matic increases in productivity, with only
flows and RF power. modest investments in control systems and
Conclusion little or no investment in additional pro-
Factory automation Comprehensive integration among the cess equipment, is sufficient to stimulate
The fi nal piece of the puzzle is provided various components yield analysis, fault intense interest among manufacturers.

70 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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LightLine. The Next Generation of Constant Current LED Drivers

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Being ready for ENERGY STAR means having


a testing lab thats ready for ENERGY STAR

ENERGY STAR program requirements have changed, requiring more rigorous Qualication and Verication
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design forum | DRIVING STRINGS

Brighter LEDs can simplify


driver designs
LED vendors are producing components that can operate at higher drive currents and produce more
lumens, and system designers can move to a simpler two-stage driver as the number of LEDs in a
fixture is reduced, explains BERNIE WEIR.

M
uch attention in the LED lighting color rendering since the light source is characteristics, are easy to dim across a
world has focused on two applica- nearly monochromatic. wide range of light levels. Moreover LED
tions that are at polar extremes; MH sources display better optical charac- performance has been rapidly improving in
low-power incandescent bulb replacement teristics but have slightly lower initial lumen terms of lumen output and efficacy (lm/W)
and high-power street lights. While these output, shorter lifetime, and higher lumen and over the last few years has been making
applications are ubiquitous and iconic, there degradation over the useful life. MH life- in-roads into these traditional area-lighting
is also a range of area-lighting applications time (measured to 50% failure point of the applications.
such as parking garages, park lighting,
Dimming
stairway lighting and outdoor commercial input LED strip 1
LED power supply
lighting such as wall packs, wall washers, Fixed
90-305 DC rail
and security, flood, gas-station canopy and Vac Buck
pathway lighting which are hiding in plain Vin Switch
PFC Isolated output
sight. These medium- to high-power appli- DC-DC LED strip 2
cations are ideal candidates for solid-state Vout
Dimming
lighting (SSL), and new LEDs that operate input
Buck Current
at higher drive currents and produce more sense
Rdim
lumens are a good match. Designing a lumi- LED strip N
naire with fewer brighter LEDs can also sim-
plify the driver electronics and ease the task Buck
of adding adaptive controls.
The applications mentioned above are a
good match with LEDs, because they con- FIG. 1. Three-stage LED driver approach.
sume large amounts of power, have high
hours of annual use, and are used in public population) is in the 10-20,000 hour range When white HB-LEDs came on the market,
spaces that may not be occupied for many depending on the bulb design and construc- the most common configuration was called
hours, thus opening the door for adaptive tion, whereas HPS has typical lifetimes of a 1W LED because when it was driven with
controls and dimming that can significantly 24,000 hours. 350 mA, it typically dissipated around 1.2W
reduce energy consumption. Beyond energy HPS and MH sources are also limited in given a nominal forward voltage of 3.3-3.5V.
cost, a driving factor of LED lighting is long terms of adaptive controls and dimming. Today, widely-available 1W LEDs can gen-
life and reducing the maintenance cost of And most of these area-lighting applications erate more than 100 lumens at an efficacy
bulb replacement. require directional light. Although HPS and of over 100 lm/W. To generate 5000 deliv-
Traditionally, the aforementioned MH bulbs have high lumen output, 40-60% of ered lumens a fi xture needs on the order of
medium-power applications have used high- the generated light can be lost in the fi xture. 50 LEDs whereas 18-24 months ago the same
pressure-sodium (HPS) and metal-halide application may have required 80-100 LEDs.
(MH) light sources. HPS light sources are LED life and controls To power such a large number of LEDs
actually very efficient but generate a decid- High-brightness white-LED light sources from the AC line, drivers have typically used
edly yellow/orange light that has very poor address many of the limitations of the legacy a three-stage power-conversion architecture
lighting technologies as they are inherently as illustrated in Fig 1. A two-stage constant-
BERNIE WEIR is the applications and directional in nature, have very long operat- voltage power supply implements power-fac-
marketing manager for the computing and ing lifetimes, provide white light with good tor correction (PFC) in the fi rst stage, fol-
consumer product group at ON Semiconductor. color rendering and, given their instant-on lowed by a high-voltage DC-DC converter

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 73


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design forum | DRIVING STRINGS

Light output (%)


that generates a safe isolated voltage rail
typically in the range of 28-60 VDC. 100

The fi xed-voltage output rail supplies mul- 90

tiple strings of LEDs. A third-stage, a dedi- 80

cated buck DC-DC LED driver, provides reg- 70


ulated current to each string. Depending on 60
the output of the second stage and the for- 50
ward voltage of the LEDs, each string might 40
include 8-12 LEDs. 30
20
Brighter LEDs 10
Some LED manufacturers have developed 0
advanced processes and improved LED chip Dusk 8PM 10PM Midnight 2AM 4AM 6AM Dawn 10AM
Time of day
designs that deliver more lumens at higher
drive currents while maintaining the same FIG. 2. Example of a smart dimming profile.
forward voltage. For example, the Cree XM-L
is rated for up to 3A drive current and has LBST DBST
Vbulk
AC EMI
a very low typical forward voltage of 3.1V input filter DR1
T1
at 1500 mA drive current. At 1500 mA and Cbulk Cout Vout
85C junction temperature, in cool white, QH LR
QBST
each LED generates 440-475 lm. A fi xture
that uses just 12 such LEDs would have an QL
DR2
Secondary side
output in the range of 5200-5700 lm with a VREF compensation (CCCV)
typical load power of around 53W, deliver- VCC Z
PFC VDD
ing over 100 lm/W efficacy. control
2.5 V
Going from 50 LEDs in the previous exam- Z
ple to 12 simplifies the optics but it has a more House Half
keeping bridge
2.5 V
sweeping impact on the driver architecture. driver
Now all the LEDs can be safely driven in a VDD
NCL30051
single string, eliminating the need for mul- PLC modem

tiple parallel DC-DC LED buck drivers. This Ambient


MCU light sensor
also improves light uniformity as all LEDs are
driven at the same exact current. Motion/occupancy
To eliminate the third stage, the two- sensor
FIG. 3. Block diagram of a smart LED driver.
stage constant-voltage LED power supply is
replaced with a constant-current LED driver. Control scenarios and the blue areas indicate those times that
This provides two fundamental advantages. In area lighting, controls have been mostly the light source is increased to 100% when
The overall system efficiency is improved as limited to on and off at dusk and dawn. But activity is detected. The energy savings can
one power-conversion stage is completely dimming LED light sources is very straight- be substantial since most of the operating
eliminated, and the cost and design com- forward compared to HPS and MH light hours are at the reduced energy-consump-
plexity of multiple DC-DC converters is elim- sources that have long turn-on and restart tion levels.
inated. It also simplifies adding intelligent times. LED light sources can be dimmed Application trials for such bi-level control
control as the dimming function can now across a wide range and can rapidly turn performed by the California Lighting Tech-
be integrated in the current-control loop of on to 100% brightness based on activity nology Center at the University of California-
the constant-current LED driver. or occupancy. In an outdoor park-light- Davis indicate these control schemes can
Adaptive controls have been used in ing scene, for example, this means the light yield energy savings of as much as 70-90%
indoor lighting for a number of years and along the running path or walkway can be over traditional HID approaches.
involve combining sensors with networked turned down significantly when no activ- Lets consider an example of how new high-
or autonomous microprocessor-based con- ity is detected and instantaneously turned lumen packaged LEDs can simply the lumi-
trols to optimize the lighting level to the to full brightness if a jogger runs down the naire system architecture and efficiently con-
needs of the environment. Simple examples trail in the middle of the night. vert AC power into a regulated current in the
include adding an occupancy-sensor light- Fig. 2 illustrates a possible dimming pro- 1-3A range (Fig. 3). Such an LED driver design
ing control to turn off a light source when fi le through the course of a typical evening. can also incorporate support functions to
there is no activity for a prescribed time. The gray area represents timer-based control enable adaptive controls. The addition of a

74 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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design forum | DRIVING STRINGS

low-cost microcontroller (MCU) opens the Efficiency (%) Power factor 260-280 lm (neutral/cool
door to more-sophisticated control schemes 94 1.00 white). A string of 9 LEDs
that can monitor ambient light, occupancy/ 93 driven at 2A outputs
activity sensors, time of day, and day of week 92 0.98 more than 5000 lm. This
to provide appropriate light in a variety of sit- 91 lumen level can easily
uations while maximizing energy savings. 90 0.96 address a range of area-
89 lighting applications
MCUs and networks add functionality 88 0.94 such as wall packs and
For centralized control, these smart lumi- 87 wall washers. Depend-
naires can be networked, for example using 86 0.92 ing on the drive cur-
a power-line-communications (PLC) modem rent and LED configura-
90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 270
block (Fig. 3). Alternatively, a system can use Input voltage (Vac) tion, this type of driver
a wireless interface like Zigbee, a traditional approach can exceed
wired interface such as Ethernet, or existing FIG. 4. Typical 55W 2A NCL30051 driver efficiency and 90% wall-plug efficiency,
lighting and building controls. power factor. as well as supporting a
The block diagram illustrates an AC-DC range of dimming meth-
driver based on a high-efficiency PFC and the light level. The PFC block implements ods required for intelligent control.
half-bridge-resonant (HBR) isolated DC/ a critical conduction mode (CCM) control New LEDs that have high source-lumen
DC step-down controller integrated in the scheme which achieves high power factor capability can greatly simplify the LED
NCL30051 from ON Semiconductor. The (>0.98 typical) with low harmonic content driver architecture by reducing power-con-
basic current-control loop consists of a sim- and is suitable for applications up to 200W. version stages and increasing overall power-
ple analog circuit which monitors the out- conversion efficiency. Adding smart controls
put current and provides feedback across Efficiency and power factor can yield further energy savings and opens
the isolation barrier via an opto-coupler to This driver architecture can support a wide the door to new capabilities such as con-
the primary-side control IC. The circuit also range of power levels. Fig. 4 illustrates the stant-lumen-output operation modes. Here,
monitors the maximum output voltage, pre- typical efficiency and power-factor curve the driver can control the LED current to
venting driver damage in the event the LED of an example driver design based on the maintain constant lumen output over life-
string is accidentally opened. NCL30051 driving 2A with a nominal LED time to combat lumen depreciation. Smart
The MCU monitors sensor feedback and load of 55W. Across the 115-240 VAC line- dimming-control techniques have an addi-
network communications to control the voltage range, the efficiency exceeds 88% and tional benefit of extending the operating life-
light level. Moreover the MCU generates a the power factor is greater than 0.94. time of the LEDs as well as the driver elec-
PWM signal that is used to turn on and off The Cree XM-L LED is ideally suited for tronics by reducing the average operating
the half-bridge driver, thereby controlling this range of current. At 700 mA, it generates temperature.

_____________

LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER 2011 75


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last word

Large-area LED display industry


faces pricing and supply challenges
The LED display industry needs intelligent pricing that enables sustainable
businesses, as well as a secure supply chain, including reliable LED suppliers,
writes PETER PIHOS of EDG RESEARCH.

T
he large-area display (LAD) indus- were to take the extreme low end of pric- down-payment, only to fi nd the very next
try has returned to positive growth, ing for a 20-mm-pitch system at $750 per week that the company was in receiver-
at levels comparable to those before m2 and work the model backwards, there is ship and the chances of getting either the
the economic downturn. The growth rate is absolutely no way a company can expect to money back or equipment ordered were slim
tempered by continued price declines, even have a viable business. At that price level, to none.
though demand is at record levels. Lower many of my clients (who are mainly LAD
pricing of LADs, especially full-color ones, suppliers) question how it is possible just to Reliable source of components
has opened up markets that could not jus- purchase the components (at least the ones One of the concerns I hear most often from
tify the cost before, and this is a good thing low-cost providers claim they are using), my clients is having a reliable LED supply
as long as products do not become overly much less allocate a portion of the sales chain in the future. LAD suppliers feel
commoditized. Even so, this does not mean price as a contribution to fi xed costs. they will be regulated to second-class sta-
there will be clear sailing ahead. Th ere Pricing has dropped dramatically in the tus, as their market share of LED consump-
are a couple of equally-important chal- past 15 years from $33,000 tion will not warrant contin-
lenges, namely intelligent pricing and a per m2 for a 30-mm system ued product development for
reliable supply of components, that should to $1,500-3,000 per m2 for a LADs. Granted the end mar-
be addressed in the coming years, so that 20-mm system. But of course ket is very small compared
companies may more easily enjoy degrees this means proportionally to others, especially light-
of fi nancial health and stability. lower revenues and profits ing, but is still in the region
for LAD suppliers. of $1.0-1.5 billion annually.
Intelligent pricing If I were a buyer I would It is no secret that some
A number of years ago I developed with want to be sure that the com- display companies have
John Finlayson, former general manager of pany I was purchasing from trouble reordering LEDs that
Stewart Warner, a pricing model that we felt could continue as a business, they have purchased in years
represented an intelligent way to price an to be able to assist if there past. With the focus in LED
LAD. The key word here is intelligent, by was a technical problem, to development heavily geared
which I mean pricing that affords a com- have replacement parts readily available for towards lighting, what will happen to the
pany the ability to make a profit, thereby the life expectancy of the system and gener- LEDs that are used in LED displays? Will
enabling a business to have sustainabil- ally to stand behind the product. With 85% there be advances in LED display com-
ity. Periodically I sit down with my tech- of display production coming either direct ponent technology that will match the
nical guru, Zoltan Helmeczi, who has been or OEM from China, this is very important. advances found for lighting?
involved in manufacturing and sourcing The products may be commoditized, but I believe there exists an opportunity for
parts for over 20 years, to see if the model they are not as yet disposable. an LED supplier to focus on the LAD mar-
still stands the test of time. So whether you are an OEM customer ket by providing an approach that is differ-
To be sure, the model still works for top- or an end-user, care should be given when ent from the past and meets the needs of
tier companies, but is less effective when deciding which system you purchase. If the future.
you look at the lower half of the pricing not, you could end up like a recent Euro-
range off ered by some companies. If one pean OEM customer that made a $100k MORE: EDG Research (www.edguide.com).

76 SEPTEMBER 2011 LEDsmagazine.com

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Isolated LED Current Control


with Active PFC
90V to 265V
AC

VIN DCM

VIN_SENSE FB

lated
Regu rrent
u LT3799
LED C lly 5%)
ca
VREF 20W
(Typi CTRL3 GATE LED
Power
CTRL2 SENSE
CTRL1 VINTVCC

GND
Fault FAULT
CT COMP + COMP

Complete TRIAC Dimmable Schematic

TRIAC Dimmable LED Driver Needs No Opto-coupler



Our LT 3799 isolated LED controller with active power factor correction (PFC) is specifically designed for driving LEDs
over a wide input range of 24V to 480V+. It is ideal for LED applications requiring 4W to over 100W of LED power and
is compatible with standard TRIAC in-wall dimmers. The LT3799s unique current sensing scheme delivers a well regulated
current to the secondary side with no opto-coupler, enabling it to provide 5% LED current accuracy. It also offers low
harmonic distortion while delivering efficiencies as high as 90%. Open and short LED protection ensures long term
reliability and a simple, compact solution footprint addresses a wide range of applications.

LED Current vs TRIAC Angle LT3799 Demo Board (25W) Info & Free Samples
1.2
www.linear.com/product/LT3799
1.0 1-800-4-LINEAR
LED Current (A)

0.8

0.6

0.4

120V app
0.2
220V app
______________
0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are
TRIAC Angle (Degrees) registered trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation. All other
trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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CLX6A CLV6A CLMVB C4SMK

CREE HIGH-BRIGHTNESS LEDs


ARE CHANGING THE WAY YOU DISPLAY.

REVOLUTIONARY!

Whether indoors or out, Cree High-Brightness


LEDs are optimized for your video screen, high-
resolution display, channel lighting, decorative
and architectural lighting applications. Cree
High-Brightness LEDs utilize proven technology
to lower your system costs and provide the
performance, durability and energy efciency
that you need.

Crees full line of RGB and white high-brightness


LEDs, with through-hole and surface-mount
congurations, deliver breakthrough performance
at an economical price. Its no wonder were
leading the LED revolution.

Get samples of Cree High-Brightness


LEDs or contact an authorized
distributor at cree.com/hb or call us
at 800-533-2583.

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4 - 6 October 2011
Crowne Plaza Milan Linate
Milan l Italy
www.sileurope.com

ATTEND THE EXHIBITION


FOR FREE
Register by 30 September

ENHANCING THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE


OF LED LIGHTING

Owned and Produced by: Presented by

www.ledsmagazine.com

Events: Supported by:

Strategies Unlimited
MARKET INTELLIGENCE
64"t&6301&t+"1"/t$)*/" PHOTONICS LEDS LIGHTING

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ABOUT STRATEGIES IN LIGHT EUROPE


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WHY YOU SHOULD ATTEND


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NETWORK [MXL]SYVTIIVWERHMRHYWXV]TVSJIWWMSREPWEXSYVLMKLP]TSTYPEVRIX[SVOMRKVIGITXMSRXLEX
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ACQUIRE RI[FYWMRIWWGSRXEGXWERHSTTSVXYRMXMIWXSLIPTQSZI]SYVFYWMRIWWJSV[EVH
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WHO SHOULD ATTEND


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EARLYBIRD DISCOUNTS
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EJII

HOW DO I REGISTER?
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@ 'SQTPIXIXLIVIKMWXVEXMSRJSVQERHIQEMPXSVIKMWXVEXMSR$TIRR[IPPGSQ

HOW DO I GET THERE?


CROWNE PLAZA MILAN
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CONFERENCE AT A GLANCE
STRATEGIES IN LIGHT EUROPE 2011 PROGRAMME GRID

Day 1 - Tuesday 4 October 2011


WORKSHOP A - Thermal Management
Tuesday 4 October 2011

09:00 - 12:00 Solid-State Lighting Investor Forum


for LEDs & Solid-State Lighting
12:00 - 13:00 Delegate Lunch
WORKSHOP B - Light Measurement
12:30 - 15:00 Solid-State Lighting Investor Forum
for Solid-State Lighting
15:00 - 15:30 Delegate Coffee Break
15:30 - 17:00 Opening Keynote Session
17:00 - 19:00 Welcome Reception

Day 2 - Wednesday 5 October 2011


08:30 - 10:30 SESSION 1 - Plenary
Wednesday 5 October 2011

Market Transformation Track Technology Track


10:30 - 11:00 Delegate Coffee Break
11:00 - 12:00 SESSION 2 - European Initiatives #1 SESSION 2 - Luminaire/System Design
12:00 - 13:30 Delegate Lunch
13:30 - 15:00 SESSION 3 - European Initiatives #2 SESSION 3 - Drivers & Dimming
15:00 - 15:30 Delegate Coffee Break
15:30 - 17:00 SESSION 4 - Standards SESSION 4 - Networks & Control
17:00 - 19:00 Networking Reception

Day 3 - Thursday 6 October 2011


08:30 - 10:00 SESSION 5 - Market Development SESSION 5 - Retrofit Lamps
October 2011
Thursday 6

10:00 - 10:30 Delegate Coffee Break


10:30 - 12:00 SESSION 6 - Outdoor Lighting SESSION 6 - Optical Materials & Packaging
12:00 - 13:00 Delegate Lunch
13:00 - 15:00 SESSION 7 - Lighting Applications SESSION 7 - Optics

EXHIBITION TIMES NETWORKING RECEPTION


8YIWHE]3GXSFIV   ;IHRIWHE]3GXSFIV 
;IHRIWHE]3GXSFIV 
8LYVWHE]3GXSFIV   EXHIBITOR PRESENTATIONS
3TIRERH*6))SJGLEVKIXSEPPXLVSYKLSYXXLII\LMFMXMSR
OPENING KEYNOTE STIRMRKLSYVW
3TIRERH*6))SJGLEVKIXSEPP
8YIWHE]3GXSFIV  

WELCOME RECEPTION
8YIWHE]3GXSFIV  

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FLOOR PLAN & EXHIBITOR LIST

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Register before 31st August 2011
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