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# Section 3.

## Previously in Section 3.1, we learned that


 =

We have the option of taking the above formula and solving for  to get a
formula for _______________________.

## The above formula only holds true when  is in

radians, so if  is in degrees, be sure to multiply
 by to convert the angle measure into

Example 1: Finding Arc Length When the Angle Has Radian Measure

## In a circle with radius 24 m, an arc is intercepted by a central angle with


measure . Find the arc length.

Example 2: Finding Arc Length When the Angle Has Degree Measure

In a circle with radius 7.5 cm, an arc is intercepted by a central angle with
measure 76. Find the arc length. Approximate the arc length to the nearest
centimeter.
Example 3: The International Space Station is in an approximate circular
orbit 400 km above the surface of the Earth. If the ground station tracks the
space station when it is within a 60 central angle of this circular orbit
about the center of the Earth above the tracking antenna, how many km
does the ISS cover while it is being tracked by the ground station? Assume
that the radius of the Earth is 6400 km. Round to the nearest kilometer.

Example 4: Consider two gears working together such that the smaller gear
has a radius of 10 cm, while the larger gear has a radius measuring 25 cm.
Through how many degrees does the small gear rotate when the large gear
makes one complete rotation?
Area of a Circular Sector

What formula could we use if we wanted to find the area of the sector
created by ?

## First start by setting the ratio of the area of the

sector to the area of the entire circle

EQUAL TO

## the ratio of  to the measure of one full

rotation.

Example 5: Finding the Area of a Circular Sector When the Angle Has

Find the area of the sector with diameter 16 feet and central angle .


## Example 6: Find the area of the circular sector given by  = 60 and

 =15km
Section 3.3: Linear and Angular Speeds

Linear Speed

Heads up: Velocity and speed are usually used as synonyms in everyday
language, but they are two slightly different ideas:

## Speed How fast you are traveling

Velocity The speed in which you are traveling and the direction you
are traveling.

## Linear Speed: If a point  moves along the circumference of a circle at a

constant speed, then the linear speed  is given by

=

Where  is the arc length and  is the time.

## A car travels at a constant speed around a circular track with circumference

equal to 2 miles. If the car records a time of 15 minutes for 9 laps, what is
the linear speed of the car in miles per hour?
Example 1.5: Linear Speed

## A car travels at a constant speed around a circular track with circumference

equal to 1.5 miles. How many laps would the car need to complete in 20
minutes in order to average a linear speed of 75 miles per hour?

Angular Speed

## If a point  moves along the circumference of a circle at a constant speed,

then the central angle  that is formed with the terminal side passing
through point  also changes over some time  at a constant speed. The
angular speed  is given by

= where  is given in radians.

## A lighthouse in the middle of a channel rotates its light in a circular motion

with constant speed. If the beacon of light completes three rotations every
12 seconds, find its angular speed in radians per minute.
The Relationship Between Linear and Angular Speeds

So how are linear and angular speeds related? First, lets write down the

 = where  = arc length and  = radius.


## If a point  moves at a constant speed along the circumference of a circle

with radius , then the linear speed  and the angular speed  are related
by

## Note: This relationship is true only when  is given in radians.

Example 3: (#34) Find the linear speed of a point  traveling along the
  
circumference of a circle with  = 8cm and angular speed  = .
! "#
Example 4: (#47) Find the distance a point travels along a circle , over  =
&  
50.5 minutes, given that the angular speed is  = and that the radius
' "#
of the circle is  = 6.5 cm.

Example 5: (#62) How fast is a bicyclist traveling in miles per hour if his
tires are 22 inches in diameter and his angular speed is 5( radians per
second?