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The Bhavani is the second largest river in Tamil Nadu, South India and a major tributary of the Kaveri

River, the longest river in Tamil Nadu.

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Description

The confluence of the Bhavani and Kaveri rivers at Bhavani

The Bhavani is a 217 km. long perennial river fed mostly by the southwest monsoon and supplemented
by the northeast monsoon. Its watershed drains an area of 6,200 km spread over Tamil Nadu (87%),
Kerala (9%) and Karnataka (4%).

The main river courses through entire of the North-Western Erode district of Tamil Nadu. About 90 per
cent of the river's water is used for agriculture irrigation. 6 million people live along its banks. Textile,
leather, sugar, paper, slaughterhouse and distilling industries are located along the river and its
tributaries at many points.

Industrial, municipal and agricultural pollution of the river results in poor water quality and negative
impacts on the health of people, plants and animals dependent on the river water.[1]

Headwaters of the Bhavani River

in Attappati Reserve Forest

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Tributaries

12 major rivulets join Bhavani draining the southern Nilgiri slopes. The west and East Varagar tributaries
coming from the Nilgiris are the largest and each have dams in Tamil Nadu. At Mukkali, Bhavani takes an
abrupt 120 turn towards the northeast and flows for another 25 km through Attappady plateau and for
7 km. along the inter-State border
It gets reinforced by The Kunda river coming from the north. The Kunda drains an extensive part of the
Nilgiris and forms the boundary between Kerala and Tamil Nadu for 5 km. It joins the Bhavani on its left
bank in western Tamil Nadu at a place called Athikadavu. The Siruvani river a perennial stream of
Coimbatore District and the Kodungarapallam river, flowing from the south and southeast respectively
join the Bhavani at Koodappatti on the Kerala-Tamil Nadu border.

Thereafter Bhavani flows east along the base of Nilgiris and enters the plains near Arulmigu Bathra-
Kaliamman Temple near Mettupalayam and is joined by the Coonoor River coming from Coonoor to the
northwest. 30 km downstream, at Kothamangalam the Moyar River, a major tributary originating in
Mudumalai National Park, flows in from the northwest, where it drains the valley between the northern
slopes of the Nilgiris and the southern slopes of the Bilgiri Hills. After the Moyar it is blocked by the
Lower Bhavani Dam, creating the Bhavanisagar reservoir near Sathyamangalam in Erode District.

The river continues east for over 160 km. through Erode District, traversing Kodiveri Dam, near
Gobichettipalayam and Bhavani taluks, before merging with the Cauvery.

The Bhavani flows due east past the town of Sathyamangalam. Near Gobichettipalayam, the Kodiveri
dam feeds the Arakkankottai and Thadappalli canals constructed for agricultural purposes.

Just a small distance before it joins cauvery a small barrage across the river was built by Kalingarayan in
1283 AD. to feed the 56-mile-long Kalingarayan irrigation canal. The Noyyal River joins at Aavudaiaaparai.

The Bhavani joins the Kaveri at the Northern part of Erode City near Bhavani. The Sri Sangameswarar
Temple at the confluence of the two rivers is an important pilgrimage spot.

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References