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Civil Engineering

RESEARCH
ISSN 0219-0370 No. 27 / 2014 http://www.cee.ntu.edu.sg/Research/Pages/ResearchBulletin.aspx

ADVANCEMENTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL
AND WATER TECHNOLOGY
The School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) ELROP IRUPDWLRQ DQG OLIHF\FOH KDYH EHHQ HOXFLGDWHG LQ
is a front runner in the domain of environmental and water several model organisms, little has been known about the
technology. CEEs successes in its strategic research area of ELROP PDWUL[ $Q LPSURYHG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI ELROP
environment and water have advanced not only the School matrix structure and function is crucial for developing
research in this domain, but have also advanced research QHZ VWUDWHJLHV WR HUDGLFDWH GHWULPHQWDO ELROPV DQG WR
in the wider NTUs research ecosystem. Leveraging on HQJLQHHUEHWWHUEHQHFLDOELROPV$VVLVWDQW3URIHVVRU&DR
the strength of Nanyang Environment & Water Research Bin and his collaborators have been exploring molecular
Institute (NEWRI) at NTU, CEE faculty have explored components, interactions, assembly, and disassembly of EPS
and developed multi-faceted advanced environmental and PDWUL[LQELROPVWKHUROHRIPDWUL[LQELROPFRQWDPLQDQW
water technologies for high performance water reclamation interactions, and its environmental and biotechnological
and water resources management. Such synergies amongst applications.
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ensuring a better understanding of the complexity of the fast
changing local and global water environment. Therefore, this 0DWUL[HQDEOHGQDQRFDWDO\WLFELROPVIRUFRQWDPLQDQW
article highlights the latest developments in environmental UHPRYDO
and water technology made by CEE faculty.
Microorganisms have the potential to change the oxidation
state of metals and these microbial processes have opened
ENGINEERING BIOFILMS FOR up a new window for novel applications including
ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS biosynthesis of metal nanomaterials. Biological processes
for the production of nanomaterials have become one
0LFURELDO DFWLYLWLHV DQG SURFHVVHV JRYHUQ WKH RZ RI of the most attractive research focuses in current green
HQHUJ\DQGPDWWHUWKURXJKWKHHQYLURQPHQWDQGGHQHWKH nanotechnology towards sustainable development. Many
structure and function of natural and engineered ecosystems. organisms can be used to synthesize metal nanomaterials.
Hence, it is essential to understand and harness the power Among them, Shewanella oneidensis is able to reduce a
of microbial activities to prevent and address environmental diverse range of metal ions extracellularly. Extracellular
problems. In most natural, engineered, and medical settings, production makes extraction of nanomaterials easier.
microorganisms often attach onto surfaces or interfaces In a recent study, Assistant Prof Cao Bin and his team
DQG GHYHORS LQWR VHVVLOH FRPPXQLWLHV NQRZQ DV ELROPV showed that it may be possible to control particle size
,Q ELROPV FHOOV DUH HPEHGGHG LQ D VHOISURGXFHG PDWUL[ and activity of the extracellular biogenic nanoparticles via
composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) FRQWUROOHG H[SUHVVLRQ RI FHUWDLQ VSHFLF PDWUL[DVVRFLDWHG
including proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and extracellular proteins. It was also found that nanoparticles that are
DNA. Extensive studies have demonstrated a wide range of generated in matrix could have a high catalytic activity.
DGYDQWDJHVRIWKHSUHVHQFHRIDQ(36PDWUL[IRUWKHELROP 7KURXJK H[SORLWLQJ WKH SRZHU RI ELROP PDWUL[ WKH WHDP
mode of life. For example, comparing to their planktonic IXUWKHU IDEULFDWHG K\EULG ELROPQDQRFU\VWDO V\VWHPV RU
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tolerant to harsh physicochemical conditions as generated LQWKHELROPPDWUL[ )LJXUH 7KLVHQDEOHVWKHJHQHUDWLRQ
by various toxic contaminants or biocides. Because of these RI D ELROPEDVHG QDQRFDWDO\WLF DFWLYLW\ FRPSOHPHQWLQJ
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wastewater. Although important genetic determinants of systems exhibiting both bio- and nano-catalytic activities.
In Focus

organic matters in water. Hence, the development of a novel


chemical-free method for cleaning membrane biofouling is
highly desirable. Professor Liu Yu and his collaborators
have explored the possibility of using microbubbles (MBs)
for membrane biofouling control. In a physical sense, MBs
may undergo self bursting in aqueous solution, leading
to generation of shock wave and high-speed water jet
near MBs. However, physical forces generated through
)LJXUH  $  'HSWKUHVROYHG SUROH RI GLVVROYHG R[\JHQ uncontrolled self bursting of individual MBs would not
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membrane surface. Therefore, the team has developed a new
LQ WKH ELROP DQG WKH PLFURHQYLURQPHQWV LQVLGH WKH control strategy which is based on synchronized bursting of
ELROP DUH KLJKO\ KHWHURJHQHRXV MBs triggered by intermittent low-intensity ultrasonication
86 )LJVKRZVWKDWDERXWRI[HGELRPDVVFRXOG
EHUHPRYHGDIWHUPLQ860%VWUHDWPHQWZKLOHVLPLODU
(QJLQHHULQJ D EHWWHU ELRILOP PDWUL[ IRU LPSURYHG trends were also observed for removal of extracellular
SHUIRUPDQFH proteins (PN) and extracellular polysaccharides (PS). It is
well known that PN and PS are essential for maintaining
$OWKRXJKELROPEDVHGELRSURFHVVHVKDYHEHHQLQFUHDVLQJO\ WKHVWUXFWXUDOVWDELOLW\DQGLQWHJULW\RIELROPVLHUHGXFHG
XVHGLQYDULRXVDSSOLFDWLRQVORQJWHUPUREXVWDQGHIFLHQW EPS would eventually cause destabilization and even
ELROPSHUIRUPDQFHUHPDLQVRQHRIWKHPDLQERWWOHQHFNV GLVUXSWLRQ RI ELROP VWUXFWXUH OHDGLQJ WR WKH GHWDFKPHQW
In a recent work, the team showed that the cohesiveness RI [HG ELRPDVV IURP PHPEUDQH VXUIDFH 7KH WHDPV
and performance of Shewanella oneidensis ELROPV LQ QGLQJVVXJJHVWWKDWWKHFRPELQHG860%V%SURFHVVFDQ
decontaminating chromium (Cr)-contaminated water, i.e., be regarded as a novel environmentally-friendly technique
Cr(VI) immobilization, could be enhanced by disrupting for cleaning biologically fouled membranes.
putrescine biosynthesis (Figure 2). The results also imply
a potential role of putrescine in S. oneidensis through
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structural configuration of the extracellular polymeric
substances. This work demonstrates a novel strategy in
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based bioprocesses.

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DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMIMETIC
MEMBRANES
BIOFOULING CONTROL WITH State-of-the-art synthetic reverse osmosis (RO) membranes
MICROBUBBLES are able to desalinate seawater with much less energy
demand than in the early days, while the energy usage is
To mitigate membrane biofouling, chemical cleaning has VWLOO  WR  WLPHV WKH WKHRUHWLFDO PLQLPXP GLFWDWHG E\
been commonly practiced in water and wastewater industries thermodynamics. Hence, there is room for further membrane
JOREDOO\+RZHYHUH[WUDFHOOXODUPDWUL[RIELROPVPD\DFW improvement driven by economy and energy. Among
as a diffusion barrier that retards diffusion and transport various new concepts, aquaporin (AQP)-based biomimetic
RI FKHPLFDOV LQWR ELROPV GXULQJ PHPEUDQH FOHDQLQJ membranes have attracted considerable interest over the last
Moreover, it should be noted that chemical cleaning can also years. The aquaporins or water channel proteins, inserted
generate undesirable chemical byproducts upon reaction with in cellular membranes, are highly permeable to water but

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5 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
CEE Vision and Mission

CEE VISION & MISSION

Our Vision
A leading school for sustainable built
environment.

Our Mission
To nurture students to be responsible leaders
capable of realizing their maximum potential
in their profession and community. To provide
a collegiate environment for faculty to excel
in education and research for sustainable
development. To advance knowledge for the
practice of civil and environmental engineering
and maritime professions.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 6
CEE Vision and Mission

STATISTICS
Faculty & Staff (as of 1 December 2013)

Publications, Patents and Research Grant

Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013


Journal
216 118 264 321 631
papers
Conference
106 70 121 118 89
papers
Patents 2 2 2 2 6
Research
36.4 46.6 11.6 13.4 18.2
Grant ($mil)

Students Enrolment

Programme/ Under- MEng PhD PhD MSc MSc MSc MSc


Academic Year graduate (SSP) (Civil Eng) (Env Eng) (ICM) (MS)
AY2009-10 1148 5 169 7 106 42 50 121
AY2010-11 1149 4 214 7 91 55 63 94
AY2011-12 1114 6 275 7 94 35 59 104
AY2013-14 1084 2 220 5 112 24 50 96
AY2013-14* 1075 5 236 3 85 29 48 88
*Semester 1 only

7 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Undergraduate Programmes

BACHELOR DEGREE PROGRAMMES


BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (CIVIL) BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
(ENVIRONMENTAL)
7KH&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJSURJUDPPHLVVWUXFWXUHGRQDH[LEOH
and diverse system that allows students to choose from a The Environmental Engineering programme is structured on
broad range of courses to receive a well-rounded education DH[LEOHDQGGLYHUVHV\VWHPWKDWDOORZVVWXGHQWVWRFKRRVH
ZKLOHPDLQWDLQLQJKLJKDFDGHPLFVWDQGDUGV,QWKHQDO\HDU from a broad range of courses to receive a well-rounded
of study, students are given the opportunity to specialize education while maintaining high academic standards. In
in particular areas of civil engineering by selecting the WKHQDO\HDURIVWXG\VWXGHQWVDUHJLYHQWKHRSSRUWXQLW\WR
relevant elective courses. Furthermore, though students specialize in particular areas of environmental engineering
typically complete the degree course in four years, they by selecting the relevant elective courses. Furthermore,
may study at their own pace and complete their studies though students typically complete the degree course in
within the time frame of three-and-half to seven years. four years, they may study at their own pace and complete
their studies within the time frame of three-and-half to
In the programme, students take the common engineering seven years.
courses which deals with basic concepts in mathematics,
science and fundamental engineering principles, followed In the programme, students take the common engineering
by a balanced-mix of core courses in the civil engineering courses which deals with basic concepts in mathematics,
discipline. Courses offered include basic theory of structures, science and fundamental engineering principles, followed by
geotechnical engineering, water resources engineering, a balanced-mix of core courses in environmental engineering
engineering drawing & measurement, structural analysis, discipline. Courses offered include fluid mechanics,
design in concrete and steel structures, and specialized hydrology, environmental chemistry, environmental
courses in foundation, transportation and environmental processes, and environmental microbiology, water
engineering. supply engineering, wastewater engineering, solid waste
engineering, geo-environmental engineering, hydraulics
During the course of study, students also have the chance and basic structural design.
to register for a 20-week Industrial Attachment (IA) or a
10-week Industrial Orientation (IO) in a private company During the course of study, students also have the chance
or public organization, where they learn to practise civil to register for a 20-week Industrial Attachment (IA)
engineering under the guidance of experienced engineers or a 10-week Industrial Orientation (IO) in a private
and managers. company or public organization, where they learn to
practise environmental engineering under the guidance of
In the final year, the Civil Engineering programme experienced engineers and managers.
concentrates on training students in professional civil
engineering practice as well as managerial and entrepreneurial In the final year, the Environmental Engineering
skills. Students are given the choice to pursue their own programme concentrates on training students in professional
HOGV RI LQWHUHVW LQ D SDUWLFXODU DUHD RI VSHFLDOL]DWLRQ E\ environmental engineering practice as well as managerial
selecting from a group of optional elective courses offered and entrepreneurial skills. Students are given the choice to
by the School. Each student is also required to complete SXUVXH WKHLU RZQ HOGV RI LQWHUHVW LQ D SDUWLFXODU DUHD RI
a two-semester duration research project in any of the specialization by selecting from a group of optional elective
specializations in civil engineering. In Integrated Design, courses offered by the School. Each student is also required
students will be involved in team effort to confront and solve to complete a two-semester duration research project in
real-life open-ended civil and environmental engineering any of the specializations in environmental engineering.
problems.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 8
Undergraduate Programmes

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE with Business Major degree aims to produce graduates


(MARITIME STUDIES) well versed with the maritime industry and strong business
knowledge so that they will be the future business leaders
The Maritime Studies programme focuses primarily on in the global maritime industry. MPA and the industry are
tertiary education in shipping, business, management, and fully supportive of the Maritime Studies degree programmes
maritime science and technology, to build up the expertise and MPA also provides an endowed Professorship (Shipping
of the local shipping industry as well as working towards Management) in NTU.
establishing Singapore as a centre of excellence for shipping
business, research and development. The programme is The BSc (Maritime Studies) curriculum aims to provide
conducted jointly by NTU and the Norwegian School of students with both depth and breadth. The course structure
Management (BI), Norway, supported by the Maritime and LV H[LEOH DQG EURDG EDVH 6WXGHQWV ZLOO EH UHTXLUHG WR
Port Authority of Singapore (MPA). complete:
 )RXQGDWLRQ FRXUVHV LQFOXGLQJ PDWKHPDWLFV VRFLDO
With the support from the College of Engineering, sciences, business and technology
Nanyang Business School and School of Humanities  6KLSSLQJ VSHFLDOLVW FRXUVHV LQFOXGLQJ RUJDQL]DWLRQ
and Social Sciences, students enrolled in the Maritime and management of shipping companies, international
Studies programme will learn from academics from various shipping logistics, maritime law, marine insurance,
disciplines, thereby developing different skills in a holistic shipping strategy, and a research project
and comprehensive learning environment. The Norwegian  3UHVFULEHG HOHFWLYHV IRU VSHFLDOL]DWLRQ LQ WKH
School of Management (BI) is Norways second largest programme, and General Education Requirement
educational institution, and one of the largest business courses for broadening the learning experience
VFKRROV LQ (XURSH %, LV WKH UVW 1RUZHJLDQ HGXFDWLRQDO
and research institution to achieve international accreditation In addition to the above, the more rigorous BSc (Maritime
establishing BI as one of Europes leading business schools. Studies) with Business Major curriculum includes core
business courses in accounting, business law, company
The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) and ODZSULQFLSOHVRIWD[DWLRQEXVLQHVVHQYLURQPHQWQDQFLDO
the shipping industry have recognized that the shipping analysis & reporting, marketing, and organization behaviour
practice and business in Singapore need to be further & design.
elevated in order to enter into the regional and global
arenas. The BSc (Maritime Studies) degree is a strategic Students will complete a semester of their studies at BI,
development that would provide high-level and high-value Norway, in their third year of studies. The curriculum also
education for professionals in shipping and related business, includes a ten-week Industrial Immersion where students
elevating them from local business management to one of will be attached to organizations in the shipping and
international business standing. The BSc (Maritime Studies) related industry.

9 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Graduate Programmes

GRADUATE STUDIES
BY COURSEWORK BY RESEARCH
Master of Science (Civil Engineering) Students can choose to pursue Doctor of Philosophy degree
in one of the following disciplines:
The programme equips students with the latest advancements
in knowledge and technology in modern civil engineering Construction Technology and Management
practice. Students will also have the opportunity to acquire Construction Technology and Management
knowledge in several civil engineering disciplines by Risk and Project Financing
selecting appropriate courses. Facility and Infrastructure Management

Master of Science Structures and Mechanics


Computational Mechanics
(Environmental Engineering)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics
The programme equips graduate engineers and other related Protective Technology
professionals with advanced skills and expertise in a wide Fire Engineering
variety of environmental disciplines. The programme offers Concrete and Steel Technology
a comprehensive range of subjects on advanced water and
wastewater treatment, air and land pollution as well as Geotechnical Engineering
broader aspects of environmental management and planning. Foundations of High-Rise Buildings
Land Reclamation
Master of Science Underground Space Development
(International Construction Management) Tropical Soil Engineering
Rock Mechanics and Engineering Geology
The programme enables graduate engineers, architects and
other related professionals to expand their decision-making
Environmental and Water Resources
horizons given the kind of parameters and risks which
Membrane Technology in Environmental Engineering
international construction managers encounter. The main
Water Reclamation Technologies
objective of the programme is to develop competent and
Waste Reuse and Resource Recovery
well rounded construction managers who have the skills
Environmental Biotechnology
to source, secure and effectively manage projects in the
Integrated Urban Water Management
domestic and international construction market.
Environmental Fluid Mechanics
Sediment Transport
Master of Science (Maritime Studies) Coastal Management
The programme provides graduate level and high-value
education for professionals in shipping and related business; Maritime Studies
elevating them from local business management to one of Maritime Logistics
the international and global business settings. The foremost Port Economics and Management
intention is for young graduates and middle-management Maritime Strategy and Risk Management
executives working in shipping related areas an avenue Strategic and Quality Management in Shipping
for higher education. The programme will also be suitable Supply Chain Management
for graduates who wish to be involved in the maritime
profession. Transportation Engineering
7UDQVSRUW 0RGHOOLQJ DQG 7UDIF 0DQDJHPHQW
Transport Planning
Congestion Pricing
Road Safety Engineering

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 10
Achievements and Commendations

ACHIEVEMENTS AND
COMMENDATIONS
AWARDS OTHER APPOINTMENTS AND
INVITATIONS
Assistant Professor Thai Van Vinh ZDV DZDUGHG WKH
IROORZLQJ Assistant Professor Lam Siu Lee JasmineZDVDSSRLQWHG
  .20$5(63UL]HIRUWKHZLQQHURIWKHFRPPHQGHG DVWKH$VVRFLDWH(GLWRURI0DULWLPH3ROLF\ 0DQDJHPHQW
SDSHU DZDUG WK ,QWHUQDWLRQDO &RQIHUHQFH RI$VLDQ 7LHU  MRXUQDO 
6KLSSLQJ DQG /RJLVWLFV .REH 8QLYHUVLW\ -DSDQ
2013. Assistant Professor Wong Ngai Yuen, LouisZDVDSSRLQWHG
  67; 3UL]H  IRU %HVW 3DSHU SXEOLVKHG LQ WKH DV D
$VLDQ-RXUQDO6KLSSLQJDQG/RJLVWLFVLQ67;   0HPEHURIWKH(GLWRULDO%RDUG(QJLQHHULQJ*HRORJ\
6FKRODUVKLS)RXQGDWLRQDQGWKH$FDGHPLF(GLWRULDO SXEOLVKHG E\ (OVHYLHU
%RDUGRIWKH$VLDQ-RXUQDORI6KLSSLQJDQG/RJLVWLFV   0HPEHU RI WKH (GLWRULDO %RDUG %XOOHWLQ RI
  &RPPHQGDWLRQ 3UL]H 1H[W *HQHUDWLRQ &RQWDLQHU (QJLQHHULQJ*HRORJ\DQGWKH(QYLURQPHQWSXEOLVKHG
3RUW &KDOOHQJH 03$ 6LQJDSRUH  E\ 6SULQJHU
  0HPEHU RI WKH (GLWRULDO %RDUG 5RFN 0HFKDQLFV
Assistant Professor Lam Siu Lee Jasmine ZDV DZDUGHG DQG 5RFN (QJLQHHULQJ SXEOLVKHG E\ 6SULQJHU
&RPPHQGDWLRQ 3UL]H 1H[W *HQHUDWLRQ &RQWDLQHU 3RUW
&KDOOHQJH 03$ 6LQJDSRUH  Assistant Professor Wong Ngai Yuen, LouisZDVLQYLWHG
E\ WKH 6LQJDSRUH $FFUHGLWDWLRQ &RXQFLO 6$&  WR EH D
Associate Professor Wang RongWRJHWKHUZLWK3URIHVVRU 7HFKQLFDO$VVHVVRU IRU WKH HOG RI 6LWH ,QYHVWLJDWLRQ
7RQ\)DQHDQG3URIHVVRU/LX<XHWDOZHUHDZDUGHGWKH
01' ELHQQLDO 0LQLVWHUV 5 '$ZDUG 0HULW  LQ  LQ
UHFRJQLWLRQ RI WKHLU RXWVWDQGLQJ 5 ' HIIRUWV WR DFKLHYH
RXU VKDUHG YLVLRQ RI $Q (QGHDULQJ +RPH$ 'LVWLQFWLYH INVITED LECTURES
*OREDO &LW\ ZLWKLQ WKH 01' )DPLO\
Assistant Professor Wong Ngai Yuen, LouisZDVLQYLWHG
'U:DQJZDVDOVRDFRUHFLSLHQWRIWKH0LQLVWHUIRU1DWLRQDO DV D VSHDNHU IRU WKH IROORZLQJ FRQIHUHQFH
'HYHORSPHQW 5 '$ZDUG 0HULW   LQ 6LQJDSRUH   .H\QRWH /HFWXUH 7KH VLJQLFDQFH RI FUDFNLQJ
SURFHVVHVLQURFNPHFKDQLFVQG,QWHUQDWLRQDO
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(QJLQHHULQJ &$+( -XO\=KXKDL
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11 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

Activities of Centre for


Infrastructure Systems (CIS)
CENTRE ACTIVITIES $PHULFDQSUHFDVWFRQFUHWHLQGXVWU\DQG178VUHVHDUFK
on improving the performance and productivity of
Public lectures and seminars construction projects. The seminar showcased a
SLORW SURMHFW ZKLFK LQWHJUDWHV %,0 SUHFDVW SURFHVVHV
1. Public lecture on The maritime and logistics throughout the design and construction phases.
industry in transition: how resilient are seaports?
by Professor Theo Notteboom, Professor, University 4. Seminar on The development of Building
of Antwerp, Belgium Information Modelling (BIM) tools for precast
industry in the US by Professor Chuck Eastman,
On 4 Apr 2013, Centre for Infrastructure Systems Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
(CIS) organised an MPA Visiting Professor Public
Lecture on the topic of The maritime and logistics On 23 May 2013, Professor Chuck Eastman delivered
industry in transition: how resilient are seaports? a seminar on The development of Building Information
MPA Visiting Professor Theo Notteboom shared his Modelling (BIM) tools for precast industry in the
knowledge of the evolving competitive environment US. Professor Eastman shared his knowledge on
of seaports and the resultant shift of the strategic two subjects, namely Developing Interoperability
paradigm. The speaker provided his analysis on how Standards for the Precast Concrete Industry and
the success of a seaport has grown to rely increasingly Semantic Exchange Models (SEMs): a New Method
on the ability of the port community. With practical for Generating Model Views in Less than a Day.
examples and best practices from seaports around the
world, Professor Notteboom drew a visionary picture 5. Seminar on Maritime Research Studies by
of the changing environment that seaports face and Professor Paul T-W Lee, Assistant Professor
the necessary responses from port managers. Jasmine Siu Lee Lam and Mr Liu Tianjing
On 14 Aug 2013, Centre for Infrastructure Systems
2. Seminar on Building Information Modelling (CIS) organised a seminar on the subject of maritime
(BIM) & its utilisation on projects globally research. The seminar presented three studies, namely
by Michael Evans, Technical Manager, Tekla Transportation research trends in environmental
Corporation issues by Professor Paul T-W Lee, Soochow
On 11 Apr 2013, Mr. Michael Evans of Tekla University, Taiwan, Developing environmental
Corporation delivered a seminar on Building performance by ANP-QFD approach: case of logistics
Information Modelling (BIM) & its utilisation on service providers by Assistant Professor Jasmine
projects globally. Mr. Evans shared his knowledge in Siu Lee lam, NTU, and Evaluating port network
WKH HOG RI %,0 DQG VSRNH DERXW LWV SRWHQWLDO LQ WKH performance under disruption risks, presented by Mr
AEC sector around the world. He also spoke about Liu Tianjing, NTU.
KLVH[SHULHQFHVLQ%,0VLPSOHPHQWDWLRQLQDYDULHW\
of projects such as the Heathrow Airport, the Royal 6. Public lecture on Chinas engagement in Africa
/RQGRQDQG6W%DUWKRORPHZV+RVSLWDOHWF9DULRXV and a new development of international maritime
DGYDQWDJHVRI%,0ZHUHGLVFXVVHGQDPHO\LQFUHDVLQJ logistics by Professor Paul T-W Lee, Professor,
productivity, reducing wastage, and minimising rework Soochow University, Taiwan
by decreasing errors. On 22 Aug 2013, MPA Visiting Professor Paul
T-W Lee delivered a public lecture on the topic of
3. Seminar on The development of Building Chinas engagement in Africa and a new development
Information Modelling (BIM) for precast: history of international maritime logistics. Professor Lee
of the initiative in the US by Professor Chuck KLJKOLJKWHGWKHLPSOLFDWLRQVRI&KLQDVHQJDJHPHQWLQ
Eastman and Associate Professor Robert Tiong the South-South trade liberalisation from the viewpoint
On 22 May 2013, Professor Chuck Eastman of Georgia of international maritime logistics. Referring to the
Institute of Technology and Associate Professor Robert impacts of trade liberalisation and container hub port
Tiong of NTU jointly delivered a seminar on the development strategy in South Africa, Professor Lee
VXEMHFW RI %XLOGLQJ ,QIRUPDWLRQ 0RGHOOLQJ %,0  shared his assessment on the best location for a logistics
The seminar presented both the history of the North GLVWULEXWLRQFHQWUHWRSURPRWH&KLQDVHQJDJHPHQWLQ
Africa.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 12
Research Centres

7. Seminar on Applying Building Information 10. Seminar on Seminar on Enhancing Productivity in


Modelling (BIM) to precast production and Construction Sector: Role of Building Information
PDQDJHPHQWWRLPSURYHHIFLHQF\E\0U7KRUVWHQ Modelling (BIM) by Professor Peter E.D. Love,
Hertel, Application Manager, Precast Segment, Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil
Tekla Corporation Engineering, School of Civil and Mechanical
On 10 Sep 2013, Mr Thorsten Hertel delivered Engineering, Curtin University, Australia
a seminar on the topic of Applying Building On 3 Dec 2013, Prof Peter E.D. Love delivered a
Information Modelling (BIM) to precast production seminar on the topic of Enhancing productivity in
and management to improve efficiency. This construction sector: role of Building Information
seminar provided participants with an introduction Modelling (BIM). During the seminar, Prof Peter
to the resource management systems and machinery /RYHVKDUHGKLVNQRZOHGJHLQXVLQJ%,0WRLQFUHDVH
automation commonly used in precast fabrication SURGXFWLYLW\HQKDQFHJURZWKDQGLPSURYHHIFLHQF\
DQG KRZ WKH\ FDQ EH LQWHJUDWHG LQWR %,0 DQG RWKHU &DVH VWXGLHV ZHUH VKRZQ WR GHPRQVWUDWH KRZ %,0
SURFHVVHVWREULQJDERXWKLJKHUSURGXFWLYLW\HIFLHQF\ can be used in the construction sector of Singapore.
and level of service.

8. Public lecture on What is an International RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS


Maritime Centre (IMC)? by Professor Ma Shuo,
Vice President (International), World Maritime
University, Sweden NTU-Tekla Memorandum of Agreement (MoA)
On 2 Oct 2013, MPA Visiting Professor Ma Shuo
Signing Ceremony
delivered a public lecture on the topic of What is
On 15 Nov 2013, Centre for Infrastructure Systems (CIS)
an International Maritime Centre (IMC)? Three
and Tekla SEA Pte Ltd signed a Memorandum of Agreement
types of IMCs were introduced during the lecture,
(MoA) to collaborate in research and development activities
namely production-based IMCs, service-based IMCs
aimed at increasing the number of local graduates equipped
DQGNQRZOHGJHEDVHG,0&V%DVHGRQHPSLULFDOGDWD
ZLWK%XLOGLQJ,QIRUPDWLRQ0RGHOLQJ %,0 VNLOOVDVZHOO
Professor Ma further analysed the current situation in
DVERRVWLQJWKHDGRSWLRQRI%,0WHFKQRORJ\LQWKHEXLOGLQJ
Europe, Asia, and American pertaining to IMCs, and
and construction industry. The MoA will provide a platform
LGHQWLHGVHYHUDOSRWHQWLDORSSRUWXQLWLHVIRUGHYHORSLQJ
for mutual sharing of best practices in the application of
an IMC in Singapore.
%,0 VROXWLRQV RQ EXLOGDEOH GHVLJQ DQG FRQVWUXFWDELOLW\ LQ
the construction industry, and ultimately to increase the
9. Seminar on New technologies for the management
DZDUHQHVV UHJDUGLQJ WKH DGRSWLRQ RI %,0 WHFKQRORJ\ LQ
DQG UHFODPDWLRQ RI XLG QH WDLOLQJV LQ RLO VDQGV
6LQJDSRUHV FRQVWUXFWLRQ LQGXVWU\
tailings by Dr. G. Ward Wilson, Professor,
University of Alberta, Canada
On 25 Nov 2013, Prof Ward G. Wilson presented
his research works on New technologies for the
Research Project on Aging Population and
PDQDJHPHQW DQG UHFODPDWLRQ RI XLG QH WDLOLQJV Road Safety - A Drivers Perspective
in oil sands tailings. The speaker described the
proper procedure and method for the treatment and This 1-year research project, which has been undertaken
UHFODPDWLRQ RI XLG QH WDLOLQJV DQG VKDUHG QHZ by NTU-CIS and is funded by Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance
WHFKQRORJLHV IRU PDQDJLQJ WKH XLG QH WDLOLQJV Welfare Foundation, started in January 2013. This research
VXFK DV WKLQOD\HUHG  QHV GRPLQDWHG GHSRVLWV DLPV WR LQYHVWLJDWH KRZ DJH DIIHFWV   GULYHUV YLVXDO
GHHSQHV GRPLQDWHG GHSRVLWV QHV HQULFKHG VDQG prioritisation, 2) perception latency, and 3) perception-
deposits and water capped disposal in end pit lakes. reaction time, in various driving scenarios. Participants
The laboratory test and in-situ tests for characterization will be asked to mount a mobile, light-weight eye-tracker
RIK\GUDXOLFSURSHUWLHVDQGVKHDUVWUHQJWKRIXLGQH and watch video clips recorded in real driving situations.
WDLOLQJVZHUHDOVRGHVFULEHGEULH\GXULQJWKHVHPLQDU 7KHQGLQJVIURPWKLVUHVHDUFKZLOOKHOSURDGUHJXODWRUVWR
Numerical analyses were presented in the seminar for design elderly-friendly roads for aging drivers. The project
the evaluation of the new technologies. investigators are Associate Professor Wong Yiik Diew and
PhD Candidate Mr Yeung Jian Sheng.

13 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

Research on Driver Behavioural Adaptation Research Project on Survey of Elderly Fallers


to Underground Road Conditions - Descriptive Analysis Three Years Later
This 1-year research project, jointly funded by the NTU This half-year research project, which is jointly funded by
6XVWDLQDEOH (DUWK 2IFH DQG &,6 VWDUWHG LQ -XQH  NTU-CIS and Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), started
The aim of the project is to study how drivers adapt in April 2013. This research aims to enable discovery of
behaviourally when transiting from an open road to external environmental factors that contribute to elderly
a road tunnel. The project investigators are Associate falls, so as to potentially make changes and upgrades to
Professor Wong Yiik Diew (CEE), Assistant Professor Xu the environment to prevent future incidents. The project
Hong (HSS), and PhD candidate Mr Yeung Jian Sheng. investigators are Associate Professor Wong Yiik Diew,
The project has been completed. Participant drivers were 3K' &DQGLGDWH 0V .RK 3XD\ 3LQJ DQG 3URMHFW 2IFHU
recruited to drive in a predetermined route, passing through 0U /HRZ %RN :HH
various road environments. Various behaviour data were
collected during the drive, such as direction-of-gaze, heart
rate (electrocardiogram), skin conductance, and following
headway. The behaviour data were analysed to understand
how drivers react to road tunnels and determine the
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improvements to the design of future road tunnels were
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carried out in Singapore.

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Research Centres

Maritime Research Centre (MRC)


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15 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

 :DQJ ;. 6X %< DQG 7DQ 6.  9RUWH[ 14. Li, J., Liu, H.X. and Tan, S.K., 2012. "Numerical
induced vibrations of a tethered cylinder. Journal of Study of Wave Trapping within Cylindrical Arrays".
Fluids and Structures, Vol. 34, pp. 51-67. Proceedings of the 22nd International Offshore and
4. Wang, X.K. and Tan, S.K., 2012. Flow around four Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE2012), Greece,
FLUFXODUF\OLQGHUVLQVTXDUHFRQJXUDWLRQ3URFHHGLQJV pp. 920-925.
of the 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference 15. Li, J., Liu, H.X. and Tan, S.K., 2012. Modeling
(AFMC), Launceston, Australia, Paper ID 265. transmission and trapping of waves within large-scale
5. Yang, S.-Q.*, Tan, S.K. and Wang, X.K., 2012. cylindrical arrays. Civil Engineering Research,
Mechanism of secondary currents in open channel Vol.25, pp. 62-64.
flows. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth 16. Li, J., Liu, H.X., Gong, K., Tan, S.K. and Shao, S.D.,
Surface, Vol. 117, F04014, doi:10.1029/2012JF002510. 2012. "SPH Modeling of Solitary Wave Fissions over
6. Yang, Y.X., Wang, Q.X. and Tan, S.K., 2013. 8QHYHQ %RWWRPV &RDVWDO (QJLQHHULQJ 9RO  SS
Dynamic features of a laser-induced cavitation bubble 261-275.
near a solid boundary. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 17. Wei, X., Le T. M., Dai Y. and Tan, S. K., 2013. Life
Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 1098-1103. Cycle Analysis on Materials of Underwater Structure.
7. Gao, Y.Y., Wang, X.K., Tan, D.S.*, Tan S.K., 2013. &(( 5HVHDUFK %XOOHWLQ  6FKRRO RI &LYLO DQG
Particle Image Velocimetry Technique Measurements Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological
of the Near Wake behind a Cylinder-Pair of Unequal University.
Diameters. Fluid Dynamics Research, Vol. 45, No.4, 18. Wei, X. and Tan, S. K., 2013. Containment Design to
pp.045504 (doi:10.1088/0169-5983/45/4/045504) Flooding In an Urban Environment. Proceeding of 4th
8. Gao, Y.Y., Yu, D.Y.*, Wang, X.K., Tan S.K., 2012. International Conference on Urban Water Environment:
Numerical Study of an Oscillating Cylinder in the Monitoring and Management, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Wake of an Upstream Larger Cylinder. Journal of 19. Vu, T.T. and Tan, S.K. (2013). Velocity and turbulence
Ocean University of China (Oceanic and Coastal Sea characteristics around a silt screen. Proceedings of
Research), Vol.11, No.2, pp.111-117. the Institute of Civil Engineers (ICE) Maritime
 *DR << 7DQ '6 =KDQJ %)  7DQ 6.  Engineering, Volume 166, Issue 2, pp 89-97.
Experimental Study on the Flow around a Moving 20. Vu T.T. and Tan S.K. (2013). Towards a comprehensive
Cylinder. Proceedings of the ASME 2013 32th GHVLJQ IRU VLOW VFUHHQV LQ RSHQ FRQJXUDWLRQ IURP
International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and the hydraulics perspective. In Proceedings of 20th
Arctic Engineering (OMAE), Nantes, pp.1-8. :RUOG'UHGJLQJ&RQJUHVV-XQH%UXVVHOV
10. Gao, Y.Y., Wang, X.K., Tan S.K., 2012. Numerical %HOJLXP
Study of Two Side-by-Side Cylinders with Unequal  =KRX%/LX<-DQG7DQ6.(IFLHQWVLPXODWLRQ
Diameters at Low Reynolds Number. The 26th IAHR of oxygen cutting using a composite heat source
Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, model, International Journal of Heat and Mass
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11. Gao, Y.Y., Wang, X.K. and Tan S.K., 2012.  :HL=</LX<-=KRX%/LX++1XPHULFDO
Experimental study on the near wake behind two analysis and experimental research on residual stress
staggered cylinders of unequal diameters. Proceedings distribution induced by oxygen cutting opening of steel
of the ASME 2012 31th International Conference on structure. Journal of Dalian University of Technology,
Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2012), v 52, n 3, July 2012
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12. Liu, H.X., Li, J. and Tan, S.K., 2012. "Numerical Analysis and Structure Optimum Design of Lifting
Modelling of Solitary Wave Propagation over Padeye. Advanced Materials Research, 658, 399
Underwater Steps with SPH". Proceedings of the  =KRX % 7DQ 6 . :DQJ ;. *KR : 0 
22nd International Offshore and Polar Engineering Environmental loads study for underwater city of
Conference (ISOPE2012), Greece, pp. 1074-1079. WKH IXWXUH %,7
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simulation of violent evolution of free surface 25. Nguyen, A. T., Dai, Y., Cao, T. V. P. and Tan, S. K.,
GXULQJ ZDWHU HQWU\ RI ZHGJH 3DFLF$VLD 2IIVKRUH )HDVLELOLW\VWXG\RQXWLOL]LQJLQDWDEOHUXEEHU
Mechanics Symposium (PACOMS-2012), Oct 3-5, balloon as a fresh water reservoir in a non-fresh water
Vladivostok, Russia. environment. Civil Engineering Research, ISSN 0219-
0370, No. 25/2012, pp.51-53.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 16
Research Centres

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17 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

 /L<) =KX *%  1J:- DQG7DQ 6.  $ 56. Zhang, D.Q., Gersberg, R.M., Zhu, J.F., Hua, T.,
review on removing pharmaceutical contaminants Nguyen, A.T., Law, W.K., Ng, W.J., and Tan, S.K.,
from wastewater by constructed wetlands: Design, 2012. Effect of feeding strategies on pharmaceutical
performance and mechanism. Science of the Total UHPRYDO E\ VXEVXUIDFH RZ FRQVWUXFWHG ZHWODQGV
Environment, Vol. 468-469, pp. 908-932. Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 41 (5), pp.1674-
47. Yu, Q., Tan, S.K., 2013. Modeling Inorganic 1680.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Wash-off from Soil Surface. 57. Zhang, D.Q., Tan, S.K., Gersberg, R.M., Zhu, J.F.,
Proceedings of the 35th IAHR World Congress, Sadreddini, and Li, Y.F., 2012. Nutrients removal in
Chengdu, China. WURSLFDO VXEVXUIDFH RZ FRQVWUXFWHG ZHWODQGV XQGHU
48. Yu, Q., Tan, S.K., 2012. Modelling nutrient losses EDWFK DQG FRQWLQXRXV RZ FRQGLWLRQV -RXUQDO RI
from soil surface, Proceedings of the 9th international Environmental Management, Vol. 96, pp.1-6.
symposium on ecohydraulics, Vienna, Austria. 58. Zhang, D.Q., Zhu, J.F., Li, Y.F., Gersberg, R.M.
49. Zhang, D.Q., Gersberg, R.M., Hua, T., Zhu, J.F., and Tan, S. K., 2012. Nutrient removal in tropical
Goyal, M.K., Ng, W.J., and Tan, S. K., 2013. Fate VXEVXUIDFHRZFRQVWUXFWHGZHWODQGV3URFHHGLQJVRI
of pharmaceutical compounds in wetland mesocosms International Symposium on Urban Lakes Monitoring
planted with Scirpus validus. Environmental Pollution and Management, 18 May 2012, CAP-NET Lanka, U
181, 98-106. RI3HUDGHQL\D(G63DWKPDUDMDK.%61-LQDGDVDDQG
MIM Mowjood, pp. 127-34.
50. Zhang, D.Q., Gersberg, R.M., Hua, T., Zhu, J.F.,
Ng, W.J., and Tan, S. K., 2013. Carbamazepine and 59. Ni, W.D., Zhang, D.Q., Gersberg, R.M., Hong, J.H.,
naproxen: Fate in wetland mesocosms planted with -LQDGDVD .%61 1J :- DQG 7DQ 6 . 
Scirpus validus. Chemosphere 91, 14-21. Statistical modelling of batch versus continuous
feeding strategies for pollutant removal by tropical
51. Zhang, D.Q., Hua, T., Gersberg, R.M., Zhu, J.F., VXEVXUIDFHRZFRQVWUXFWHGZHWODQGV:HWODQGV  
Ng, W.J., and Tan, S. K., 2013. Fate of Caffeine in 335-344.
mesocosms wetland planted with Scirpus validus.
Chemosphere 90 (4), 1568-1572.  -LQDGDVD.%61:LMHZDUGHQD6.,=KDQJ'4
Gersberg, R.M., Tan, S.K., Wang, J.Y., and Ng, W.J.,
52. Zhang, D.Q., Hua, T., Gersberg, R.M., Zhu, J.F., Ng, 2012. Socio-environmental impact of water pollution
W.J., andTan, S. K., 2012. Fate of diclofenac in on the Mid-canal (Meda Ela), Sri Lanka. Journal of
wetland mesocosms planted with Scirpus validus. :DWHU 5HVRXUFH  3URWHFWLRQ  
Ecological Engineering 49, 59-64.
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53. Zhang, D.Q., Gersberg, R.M., Zhu, J.F., Hua, T., Ng, Gersberg, R.M., Tan, S.K., and Ng, W.J., 2012.
W.J., and Tan, S. K., 2012. Assessment of plant- 7URSLFDO DSSOLFDWLRQ RI RDWLQJ ZHWODQGV IRU ODNH
driven uptake and translocation of the pharmaceutical, restoration. Wetlands 32 (5), 955-961.
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Science and Pollution Research 20 (7), 4612-4620.
54. Zhang, D.Q., Gersberg, R.M., Zhu, J.F., Hua, T., Ex-Staff movement (2012-2013)
-LQDGDVD .%61 DQG 7DQ 6.  %DWFK
versus continuous feeding strategies for pharmaceutical Dr Gao Yangyang Assistant Professor
UHPRYDO E\ VXEVXUIDFH RZ FRQVWUXFWHG ZHWODQGV (Zhejiang University)
Environmental Pollution Vol.167, pp.124-131.
Dr Gong Kai A*STAR IHPC
55. Zhang, D.Q., Gersberg, R.M., Hua, T., Zhu, J.F.,
Dr Li Jing DNV
Nguyen, A.T., and Tan, S. K., 2012. Pharmaceutical
UHPRYDOLQWURSLFDOVXEVXUIDFHRZFRQVWUXFWHGZHWODQGV Dr Liu Huaxing SIX TEE Consultants
at varying hydraulic loading rate. Chemosphere
Vol.87, pp.273-277.

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Research Centres

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Seminar Titles Speakers


Key aspects of shaft planning 0U$QGHUV %HLWQHV
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development 5HVHDUFK )HOORZ
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19 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

Tapping the talent pool of NTU students  0RGLFDWLRQ RI (QJLQHHULQJ 3URSHUWLHV RI 0DULQH
&OD\ ZLWK *URXQG *UDQXODWHG %ODVWIXUQDFH 6ODJV
I3 Centre has started various programs with the single and Lime
objective of inspiring NTU students to become part of the  (IIHFWV RI *URXQG *UDQXODWHG %ODVWIXUQDFH 6ODJV
next generation of engineers in Singapore. **%6  DQG /LPH RQ (QJLQHHULQJ 3URSHUWLHV RI
Kaolin
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JTC Engineering Book Prize **%6  DQG $FWLYDWHG 0DJQHVLXP 2[LGH RQ
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RI&LYLO (QYLURQPHQWDO(QJLQHHULQJGHJUHHSURJUDPPH
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in recognition of their excellent academic results in civil
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engineering studies. Mr Sutomo Salim received the JTC
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building
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Seminars and Site Visits which included a visit to JTC VWRUDJH V\VWHP 95%(66 
sites, Jurong Island and one-north, as well as educational
seminars presented by JTC engineers.
Manage resources, outreach & building
relations
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2013/14 Norway Study Trip

, &HQWUH ODXQFKHG LWV UVW -7& 6SRQVRUHG )LQDO <HDU I3 Centre, together with JTC, organised a study trip to
Projects in AY 2012/13 with a sponsorship of up to $2000 Trondheim and Oslo in 2013. The purpose of the trip was
per project. This initiative continues in AY 2013/14 with to study Norwegian underground and off-shore technology
13 JTC Sponsored Final Year Projects. and to discuss a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
for research collaboration. The trip included visits to
the Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Lists of sponsored Final Year Projects SINTEF - the largest independent non-commercial research
organisation in Scandinavia - as well as to various
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participated in the study trip.
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reclamation sand
As a result of the discussions during the trip, an MOU
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and Activated Magnesium Oxide of Underground Technology was signed on 14th November
2013 in NTU.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 20
Research Centres

Activities of Nanyang Centre for


Underground Space (NCUS) in 2012-2013
Nanyang Centre for Underground Space (NCUS) ZDV SEMINARS AND WORKSHOPS
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 Sustainability and Resiliency Issues for Urban


Underground SpaceE\3URIHVVRU5D\PRQG6WHUOLQJ
KEY RESEARCH AREAS 7DQ 6ZDQ %HQJ (QGRZHG 3URIHVVRU  -XO\ 
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  8QGHUJURXQG 5RFN (QJLQHHULQJ Operational Issues, MRLQWO\RUJDQL]HGE\1&86DQG
  8QGHUJURXQG 6SDFH 3ODQQLQJ  0DQDJHPHQW ,7$&(7  -XO\ 
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  8QGHUJURXQG &RQVWUXFWLRQ 7HFKQRORJ\ E\ $VVRFLDWH 3URIHVVRU &DUORV &DUUDQ]D7RUUHV
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PARTNERSHIP AND  Realistic Failure Process Analysis E\ 3URIHVVRU


COLLABORATION &KXQDQ 7DQJ 'LUHFWRU RI WKH &HQWHU IRU 5RFN
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(QJLQHHULQJ *HRORJ\ 650(*  KDYH ZRUNHG induced Landslide Modelling E\3URIHVVRU/\HVVH
WRJHWKHUWRRUJDQL]HPDQ\VHPLQDUVDQGUHVHDUFK /DORXL &KDLUHG 3URIHVVRU DQG 'LUHFWRU RI WKH 6RLO
DFWLYLWLHV 0HFKDQLFV /DERUDWRU\ 6ZLVV )HGHUDO ,QVWLWXWH RI
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5DLQIDOOLQGXFHG /DQGVOLGH 0RGHOOLQJ
(Associate Professor Zhao Zhiye presented a token
of appreciation to Professor Lyesse Laloui, EPFL)

21 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

EVENTS AND CONFERENCES MEMBERSHIPS


1. International Workshop on Dynamic Stability of Rock 1. NCUS is a member of the Associated Research Centres
Mass, Perth, Australia, 6-8 August 2012, co-organized for Urban Underground Space (ACUUS).
by NCUS.
2. Associate Professor Zhao Zhiye became a member of
2. The world conference organized by Associated the editorial board for the International Journal of
Research Centres for Urban Underground Space Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology in
(ACUUS) in November 2012. NCUS is a co-sponsor January 2012.
for this world conference.
3. Associate Professor Zhao Zhiye was elected as the
3. First International Conference on Rock Dynamics and 3UHVLGHQW RI WKH 6RFLHW\ IRU 5RFN 0HFKDQLFV 
Applications (RoDyn-1), Switzerland, 6-8 June 2013, Engineering Geology (Singapore), in March 2012.
co-organized by NCUS.

4. 11 th International Conference on Analysis of RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Discontinuous Deformation, Fukuoka, Japan, 27-29
August 2013, co-organized by NCUS.

WORKSHOPS/CONFERENCE
PARTICIPATIONS
1. Associate Professor Zhao Zhiye attended the
international workshop on Dynamic Stability of Rock
Mass at the University of Western Australia (5-9 August
2012) as workshop co-chair.

2. Associate Professor Zhao Zhiye presented a keynote Research project on NTU Underground Space Master Planning
(SEO project team was looking as the campus model)
paper at 11th International Conference on Analysis of
Discontinuous Deformation, Fukuoka, Japan (27-29
August 2013).

PAST RESEARCH PROJECT


We have completed a research project funded by the following organization:

Title of Supported Project NTU Underground Space Master Planning


Name of Researcher Zhao Zhiye Zhao Jian
Associate Professor Visiting Professor
Role in Supported Project Principal Investigator Principal Investigators
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Total Awarded Amount (S$) 90,000
Duration of Project (start-end date) 2012 2013

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 22
Research Centres

CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS


&XUUHQWO\ ZH DUH H[HFXWLQJ UHVHDUFK SURMHFWV IXQGHG E\ WKH IROORZLQJ RUJDQL]DWLRQV

7LWOH RI 6XSSRUWHG 3URMHFW Study of Cavern Collocation for Industrial Facilities
1DPH RI 5HVHDUFKHU =KDR =KL\H  /X 0LQJ
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5ROH LQ 6XSSRUWHG 3URMHFW &R  3ULQFLSDO ,QYHVWLJDWRU  &R  3ULQFLSDO ,QYHVWLJDWRU
)XQGLQJ %RG\ 0LQLVWU\ RI 1DWLRQDO 'HYHORSPHQW 01' 
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Biogrouting for underground construction-a new technology


7LWOH RI 6XSSRUWHG 3URMHFW
to maximize the usage of underground space in Singapore
1DPH RI 5HVHDUFKHU &KX -LDQ  =KDR =KL\H 7DQ 6RRQ .HDW
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5ROH LQ 6XSSRUWHG 3URMHFW 3ULQFLSDO ,QYHVWLJDWRU  &R  3ULQFLSDO ,QYHVWLJDWRUV
)XQGLQJ %RG\ 0LQLVWU\ RI 1DWLRQDO 'HYHORSPHQW 01' 
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RESEARCH OUTPUT
Title of Papers Author Name(s) Publication Title Vol, No. Year
([SHULPHQWDO ,QYHVWLJDWLRQ RI %HGGLQJ +H 0& 1LH :   -RXUQDO RI 5RFN 0HFKDQLFV DQG 
3ODQH 2ULHQWDWLRQ RQ WKH URFNEXUVW  =KDR =< DQG *XR : 5RFN (QJLQHHULQJ 9RO 
EHKDYLRU RI VDQGVWRQH  ,VVXH  
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ZDWHULQGXFHG YDULDWLRQV LQ  =KDR =< DQG +H 0&*
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'HYHORSPHQW RI URFN EROW HOHPHQW =KDR =< 1LH : DQG  ,QWHUQDWLRQDO :RUNVKRS RQ 
LQ WZRGLPHQVLRQDO GLVFRQWLQXRXV  1LQJ<- '\QDPLF 6WDELOLW\ RI 5RFN 0DVV
GHIRUPDWLRQ DQDO\VLV ''$'   
5RFN VORSH VWDELOLW\ DQDO\VLV XVLQJ 6XQ -3 DQG =KDR =<  3URFHHGLQJV RI WKH WK ,650 
WKH 'LVFRQWLQXRXV 'HIRUPDWLRQ   ,QWHUQDWLRQDO &RQJUHVV RQ 5RFN
$QDO\VLV  0HFKDQLFV SS 
'HYHORSPHQW RI FRQWDFW DOJRULWKP  +H /$Q ;0 DQG ,QWHUQDWLRQDO -RXUQDO IRU 
IRU WKUHHGLPHQVLRQDO QXPHULFDO  =KDR =< 1XPHULFDO 0HWKRGV LQ
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'HYHORSPHQW RI WKUHHGLPHQVLRQDO  +H /$Q ;0 0D ,QWHUQDWLRQDO -RXUQDO RI 5RFN 
QXPHULFDO PDQLIROG PHWKRG IRU  *:  DQG =KDR =< 0HFKDQLFV DQG 0LQLQJ 6FLHQFHV
MRLQWHG URFN VORSH VWDELOLW\ DQDO\VLV  9RO  SS 
$ GHWDLOHG LQYHVWLJDWLRQ RI EORFN  1LQJ<  DQG =KDR = ,QWHUQDWLRQDO -RXUQDO IRU 1XPHULFDO 
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RI MRLQWHG URFN PDVV XVLQJ  ;%  DQG =KDR =< DQG$QDO\WLFDO 0HWKRGV LQ
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PHWKRG  SS 

23 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

Title of Papers Author Name(s) Publication Title Vol, No. Year


DDA/NMM developments and Zhao, Z.Y., An, X.M. Frontiers of Discontinuous 2013
applications in Nanyang and Zhou, Y.X. Numerical Methods and Practical
Technological University, Singapore Simulations in Engineering and
Disaster Prevention.
Proceedings of the 11th
International Conference on
Analysis of Discontinuous
Deformation (ICADD-2013),
pp. 67-80.
%HDULQJ FDSDFLW\ DQDO\VLV XVLQJ WKH  6XQ -3  =KDR =< $FWD 0HFKDQLFD 6LQLFD 
method of characteristics and Cheng, Y.P.* Lixue Xuebao, Vol. 29, No. 2,
pp. 179-188.
Comparison of modeling methods Zhao LY, Tang LH, Smart Materials and Structures, 2013
and parametric study for and Yang YW. 22, 125003.
piezoelectric wind energy harvester
Comparative study of tip Yang YW, Zhao LY Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 10, 2013
FURVVVHFWLRQV IRU HIFLHQW JDOORSLQJ  DQG 7DQJ /+ 1R  
energy harvesting
Powering indoor sensing with Xiang TY, Chi ZC, Li F, 11th ACM Conference on 2013
DLURZV D WULQLW\ RI HQHUJ\  /XR - 7DQJ /+ (PEHGGHG 1HWZRUNHG 6HQVRU
harvesting, synchronous Zhao LY and Yang YW. Systems (SenSys 2013), Rome,
duty-cycling, and sensing Italy, 11-15 November.
Dynamic characteristics of a Tang LH, Wu H, 11th International Conference on 2013
EURDGEDQG QRQOLQHDU SLH]RHOHFWULF  =KDR /< DQG<DQJ<: 6WUXFWXUDO 6DIHW\  5HOLDELOLW\
energy harvester (ICOSSAR), New York, NY, USA,
16-20 June.
Dynamics of a broadband nonlinear Tang LH, Wu H, 11th International Conference on 2013
piezoelectric energy harvester Zhao LY and Yang YW. Structural Safety and Reliability,
June 16-20, New York.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 24
Research Centres

Activities of Protective Technology


Research Centre (PTRC)
from November 2012 to November 2013
OUTREACH PROGRAMMES :RUNVKRS Underground Technology and Rock
Engineering Workshop  WR 
7KHRXWUHDFKSURJUDPPHVSURYLGHDSODWIRUPIRUNQRZOHGJH 1RYHPEHU 
WUDQVIHUDQGHQDEOH375&WRHVWDEOLVKUHVHDUFKFROODERUDWLRQV 6SHDNHUV  ZLWK  RYHUVHDV VSHDNHUV IURP
ZLWKORFDODQGRYHUVHDVLQVWLWXWLRQVLQWKHDUHDRISURWHFWLYH $XVWUDOLD 86$ DQG &KLQD
WHFKQRORJ\DQGKRPHODQGVHFXULW\&ORVHWRSDUWLFLSDQWV 2UJDQLVHG E\  &R&KDLUPHQ Assoc Prof Zhao Zhiye
DWWHQGHG WKH IRXUWHHQ VHPLQDUV WZR ZRUNVKRSV DQG QLQH &((  DQG Dr Zhou Yingxin '67$
VKRUW FRXUVHV RUJDQLVHG E\ 375& 6RPH RI WKH RXWUHDFK
SURJUDPPHV DUH DV IROORZV 6KRUW &RXUVH  Design of Concrete Structures
Eurocodes versus British Standards
3XEOLF 6HPLQDU 1. Research in Infrastructure Engineering (7th run)  DQG  1RYHPEHU 
at UNSW: An Overview >&RRUJDQLVHG ZLWK %&$$FDGHP\@
2. Steel Fibre and Reinforced Ultra ,QVWUXFWRU Prof Tan Kang Hai3URIHVVRU'LYLVLRQ
High-Performance Concrete: From RI 6WUXFWXUHV DQG 0HFKDQLFV &((
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6SHDNHU Prof Stephen Foster +HDG RI 6FKRRO 5HVHDUFK &HQWUH 178
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INTERNATIONAL AND LOCAL VISITORS


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S/O Organisation Visitor / Designation Visit Date


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25 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Research Centres

Visit by RADM Harris Chan,


Future Systems and Technology Architect, 31 October 2013

On-going Projects
The table below shows the current projects.

External Funds
No Project Title Principal Investigator(s)
(S$)
1 Underground Technology and A/P Zhao Zhiye (CEE) 3,850,000
Rock Engineering (UTRE) A/P Yang Yaowen (CEE)
Programme, Phase II Prof Tan Kang Hai (CEE)
A/P Chu Jian (CEE)
A/P Goh Teck Chee, Anthony (CEE)
A/P Tiong Lee Kong, Robert (CEE)
Asst/P Wong Ngai Yuen, Louis (CEE)
2 Prediction of Explosion Hazards PI: Prof Fan Sau Cheong (CEE) 2,082,350
from Earth Covered Magazines + Collaborators:
Concrete Damage Level Assessment A/P Lee Chi King (CEE)
  DQG 6FLHQWLF 4XDQWLFDWLRQ $VVW3 -RUJ 8ZH 6FKOXWHU 0$(
  %XLOGLQJ 6HFXULW\ 5HVHDUFK 
Programme with MHA
Structural Resilience Study of Prof Tan Kang Hai (CEE) 1,500,000
Concrete Pre-cast and Composite
Steel Joints subject to Missing
Column Scenarios
4 Mitigation of Pressures on A/P Leong Eng Choon (CEE) 80,000
Underground Structures due to (New JPP Project;
Ground Shock Start Date:
Total Funding $7,512,350

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 26
Research Centres

Completed Projects During the Period


$ WRWDO RI  SURMHFWV ZHUH FRPSOHWHG GXULQJ WKH UHSRUWLQJ SHULRG 7KH  SURMHFWV KDYH DFKLHYHG WKHLU GHOLYHUDEOHV DQG
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27 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

LONGITUDINAL DISPERSION
OF TURBULENT OSCILLATORY PIPE
FLOWS
Song Jie (song0084@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Adrian Wing-Keung Law (cwklaw@ntu.edu.sg)

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different conditions. DORQJ WKH ORQJLWXGLQDO GLUHFWLRQ UHVSHFWLYHO\ 0HL 
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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 28
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

COMPARISON

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theoretical predictions as a function of Reb is further
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the predicted Dl LV RUGHU RI PDJQLWXGH ODUJHU WKDQ WKH
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functions of with r0=0.001 (solid line) and
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EXPERIMENTS

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and length l PP LV EXLOW IRU WKH H[SHULPHQWDO VWXG\
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WKHRVFLOODWRU\SLSHRZV,QWKHH[SHULPHQWVWDSZDWHULV Figure 3. Comparison between experimental results and
XVHGDVWKHZRUNLQJXLGDQGWKHWUDFHULV5KRGDPLQH% theoretical predictions
7KHOLJKWVRXUFHHPSOR\HGLVDSXOVHGODVHUORFDWHGDERYH
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PV &RPSDULQJ WKH GLVSHUVLRQ FRHIFLHQW ZLWK WKH VDPH Additional details of this study can be found in Song and
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REFERENCES

>@ 0HL &&  9HUQHVFX %  Homogenization methods


for multiscale mechanics :RUOG 6FLHQWLF SXEOLVKLQJ &R
3WH /WG
>@ 0HL&&/LX<+ /DZ$:.7KHRU\RILVREDULF
SUHVVXUHH[FKDQJHUIRUGHVDOLQDWLRQDesalination and Water
Treatment    
>@ 6RQJ -  /DZ $:.  /RQJLWXGLQDO GLVSHUVLRQ LQ
WXUEXOHQW RVFLOODWRU\ SLSH RZV  0DQXVFULSW VXEPLWWHG WR
Environmental Fluid Mechanics FXUUHQWO\ XQGHU UHYLHZ
>@ 6WRYHU 5/  6HDZDWHU UHYHUVH RVPRVLV ZLWK LVREDULF
Figure 2. Relationship between the measured longitudinal energy recovery devices. Desalination    
GLVSHUVLRQ FRHIFLHQW DQG WKH 5H\QROGV QXPEHU

29 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERABSORBENT
CRYOGELS FOR EMERGENCY WATER
TREATMENT
Siew-Leng Loo (slloo1@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Anthony G. Fane (a.fane@unsw.edu.au)
William B. Krantz (krantz@colorado.edu)
Xiao Hu (asxhu@ntu.edu.sg)
Teik-Thye Lim (cttlim@ntu.edu.sg)

INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS

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WHFKQRORJLHV :7V  PXVW SRVVHVV FHUWDLQ FKDUDFWHULVWLFV FRQFHQWUDWLRQRI$J12. The potential use of the cryogels
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Figure 1. (a) Our proposed strategy for emergency water
treatment using superabsorbent cryogels involves
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(i) water absorption by a cryogel and GHIRUPDWLRQ RI  VWUDLQV
(ii) recovery of treated water via squeezing [5].

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 30
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

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Figure 4. (a) Illustration depicting the phenomena that take


Figure 2.SEM images of dried (a) PSA cryogels and place at the cryogel and water interface that enable the
(b) hydrogels. CLSM images of swollen (c) PSA cryogel FU\RJHOV WR UHPRYH SDUWLFXODWHV DQG LQDFWLYDWH PLFUREHV
and (d) PSA hydrogel.Reproduced with permission of E  %DFWHULDO ORJ UHGXFWLRQ RI 36$$J FU\RJHOV KDYLQJ
the Royal Society of Chemistry from reference [3]. GLIIHUHQW $J FRQWHQWV WKH LQVHW VKRZV WKH YLVXDO HYLGHQFH RI
LPSURYHG TXDOLW\ RI WKH WUHDWHG ZDWHU 7KH SKRWRJUDSK LQ
the inset of (b) is reproduced with permission of
the Royal Society of Chemistry from reference [3].

CONCLUSIONS

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WKH TXDOLW\ RI WUHDWHG ZDWHU WKH\ DUH DOVR OLJKWZHLJKW DQG
KLJKO\ SRUWDEOH DOORZLQJ WKHP WR EH HDVLO\ GHSOR\HG IRU
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LQ RQH VTXHH]H F\FOH +HQFH ZH EHOLHYHWKDW WKH36$$J
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that of hydrogel. The inset shows the time-dependent swelling GHVLJQ RI D SRUWDEOH DQG VLPSOH GHYLFH WKDW LQFRUSRUDWHV
of PSA cryogel in a methylene blue solution.Reproduced with WKHVH FU\RJHOV LV DOVR LPSRUWDQW IRU HIFLHQW UHFRYHU\ RI
permission of Royal Society of Chemistry from reference [3]. WUHDWHG ZDWHU )LQDOO\ WKH OLIHF\FOH LVVXHV RQ WKH XVH RI
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31 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

REFERENCES >@ /RR 6/ )DQH $* /LP 77 .UDQW] :% /LDQJ
<1 /LX ; DQG +X ; E  6XSHUDEVRUEHQW FU\RJHOV
>@ )ULVW:+  5HFRYHULQJIURPWVXQDPLN. Engl. J. Med. GHFRUDWHGZLWKVLOYHUQDQRSDUWLFOHVDVDQRYHOZDWHUWHFKQRORJ\
  IRUSRLQWRIXVHGLVLQIHFWLRQEnviron. Sci. Technol

>@ /RR 6/ )DQH$* .UDQW] :% DQG /LP 77  
(PHUJHQF\ ZDWHU VXSSO\ D UHYLHZ RI SRWHQWLDO WHFKQRORJLHV >@ /RR 6/ /LP 77 .UDQW] :% )DQH $* DQG +X
and selection criteria. Water Res.   ; F  3RWHQWLDO HYDOXDWLRQ DQG SHUVSHFWLYHV RQ XVLQJ
VSRQJHOLNHVXSHUDEVRUEHQWFU\RJHOVIRURQVLWHZDWHUWUHDWPHQW
>@ /RR 6/ .UDQW] :% /LP 77 )DQH $* DQG +X
LQ HPHUJHQFLHV VXEPLWWHG WR Desalin. Water. Treat. (:0
; D  'HVLJQ DQG V\QWKHVLV RI 36$ FU\RJHOV IRU ZDWHU
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Soft Matter  

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 32
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

NOTE ON 3D CULVERT SCOUR


Tan Sheau Maan (tans0302@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Lim Siow Yong (csylim@ntu.edu.sg)

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Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 34
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

BIOFOULING CONTROL WITH


MICROBUBBLES
Ashutosh Agarwal (ashu0002@ntu.edu.sg)
Ng Wun Jern (wjng@ntu.edu.sg)
Liu Yu (cyliu@ntu.edu.sg)

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MATERIALS AND METHODS Figure 1. 24 h-old biofouled membranes before (a) and
after (b) 1 h treatment with microbubbles.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


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35 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

)LJXUH  &/60 LPDJHV RI ELROP RQ PHPEUDQH VXUIDFH IRU Figure 4. CLSM images of PS on membrane surface for 24
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E  DIWHU  K LQ 3%6 VROXWLRQ ZLWKRXW PLFUREXEEOHV (b) after 1 h in PBS solution without microbubbles;
F  DIWHU  K WUHDWPHQW ZLWK PLFUREXEEOHV LQ 3%6 (c) after 1 h treatment with microbubbles in PBS;
(d) after 2 h treatment in 0.5% NaOCl, without microbubbles. (d) after 2 h treatment in 0.5% NaOCl, without microbubbles.
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(Agarwal, et al. 2012) (Scale bar = 10 m). (Agarwal, et al. 2012)

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Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

EVALUATION OF DYNAMICAL
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TECHNIQUES FOR
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Lu Yan (ylu11@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Qin Xiaosheng (xsqin@ntu.edu.sg)

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37 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

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RECENT CLIMATE SIMULATION

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Table 1. The RMSE values of SVM, CRCM and


GCM during baseline period 1965-1990
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Figure 2. Future climate projection using SVM approach

FUTURE CLIMATE PROJECTION


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Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

A NOVEL PYROLYSIS-REFORMING
PROCESS FOR FUEL OIL RECOVERY
FROM MIXED PLASTIC WASTE
Wang Zhonghui(wangzh@ntu.edu.sg)
Sun Xiaolong(xlsun@ntu.edu.sg)
Zhao Lei (zhaolei@ntu.edu.sg)
Yuan Guoan (gayuan@ntu.edu.sg)
Lin Shengxuan (sxlin@ntu.edu.sg)
Li Kaixin (kxli@ntu.edu.sg)
Chen Dezhen (chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn)
Yang Yanhui (yhyang@ntu.edu.sg)
Wang Jing-Yuan (jywang@ntu.edu.sg)

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Table 1. Progress of Plastic Waste Pyrolysis Technologies Development


Technology Characteristics Application Disadvantages
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on Waste Plastics Pyrolysis: Products and Emissions. Chinese
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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 40
Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL
GUIDELINE FOR THE UTILIZATION OF
MSW IBA IN LAND RECLAMATION
FOR SINGAPORE
Sun Xiaolong (xlsun@ntu.edu.sg)
Lin Wenlin Yvonne (YvonneLinWL@ntu.edu.sg)
Wang Jing-Yuan (jywang@ntu.edu.sg)

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AQUAPORIN-BASED BIOMIMETIC
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Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

MICROBIAL PROCESSES FOR


ENERGY BONUS IN
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Ricia Lee Jia Rong(rlee004@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Seow Wei Ting(wseow001@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Wong Vera(wong0822@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Raelene Ina Bianchi Mendez Dy(dy0001ez@e.ntu.edu.sg)

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PSEUDOSTATIC ANALYSIS FOR


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63 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
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MARITIME CLUSTER EVOLUTION


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65 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 66
Infrastructure Systems and Maritime Studies

TRAFFIC DELAY AT SIGNALISED


JUNCTIONS: A SINGAPORE STUDY
Chai Chen, Dora (chai0076@e.ntu.edu.sg)
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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 68
Infrastructure Systems and Maritime Studies

AN EVALUATION OF UTILISING
RECYCLED AGGREGATES IN
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Chen Mengjia (C110021@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Lim Su Qi (SQLIM3@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Soon Ning (NSOON2@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Wong Yiik Diew (CYDWONG@ntu.edu.sg)

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69 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 72
Infrastructure Systems and Maritime Studies

INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATE
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Infrastructure Systems and Maritime Studies

TRIP-CHAIN BASED MULTIMODAL


TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENT MODEL
WITH COMBINED MODES
Meng Meng (mengm@ntu.edu.sg)
Wong Yiik Diew (CYDWONG@ntu.edu.sg)

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Infrastructure Systems and Maritime Studies

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77 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Infrastructure Systems and Maritime Studies

CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION VIA


FUEL ECONOMY LABEL (FEL)
Ho Sze Hwee, NTU (ho0005ee@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Wong Yiik Diew, NTU (cydwong@ntu.edu.sg)
Chang Wei-Chung Victor, NTU (wcchang@ntu.edu.sg)

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Aine Kusumawati (aine@ftsl.itb.ac.id)
Dwi Phalita Upahita (dwiphali001@e.ntu.edu.sg)
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  /+570.521H[S 17,.  :  REFERENCES

7KH *HQHUDO 0RGHO FDQ EH XVHG LQ WROO URDG ORFDWLRQV >@ .XVXPDZDWL $    7UDIF 6DIHW\ DW 5RDG -XQFWLRQV,
PhD Thesis 1DQ\DQJ 7HFKQRORJLFDO 8QLYHUVLW\ 6LQJDSRUH
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DQG ODQG ZLGWK EHWZHHQ    PHWUHV -XQFWLRQV, Proceeding of EASTS Symposium 2010.
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Infrastructure Systems and Maritime Studies

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Nguyen Phuong Nga, NTU (pnnguyen@ntu.edu.sg)
Leow Bok Wee, NTU (bwleow@ntu.edu.sg)
Koh Puay Ping, NTU (ppkoh1@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Wong Yiik Diew, NTU (cydwong@ntu.edu.sg)

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REFERENCES

>@ 6WDWLVWLFV6LQJDSRUH  2013 Yearbook Population Table.


>@ 3DUNLQ - :DUGPDQ 0 DQG 3DJH 0  . Estimation
of the determinants of bicycle mode share for the journey to
work using census data 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ   

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83 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

SUSTAINABLE MGO CEMENTS


Cise Unluer (ucise@ntu.edu.sg)
Abir Al-Tabbaa (aa22@cam.ac.uk)

ABSTRACT: As the production of Portland cement (PC) is energy intensive and responsible for 5-8% of global anthropogenic CO2
emissions, many global initiatives have looked at the development of cements with lower carbon footprints. Reactive magnesia (MgO)
LVPDQXIDFWXUHGDWPXFKORZHUWHPSHUDWXUHVWKDQ3&DQGVHTXHVWHUVVXEVWDQWLDOTXDQWLWLHVRI&2OHDGLQJWRDVLJQLFDQWLQFUHDVHLQ
strength. The use of MgO as the binder in porous blocks is investigated for the enhancement of the carbonation process by varying
the cement and water contents. Cylindrical samples were cured under accelerated carbonation at a rate of 20% CO2 and tested at
different curing ages of up to 28 days for compressive strength, porosity, and permeability and microstructure. Results showed that
strength results increased with increasing MgO content. Including as little as 4% MgO produced strengths higher than 7 MPa, which
is the strength requirement for blocks. Formation of strength providing carbonation products happened at a faster rate during the
initial periods of carbonation.

INTRODUCTION to a minimum, compared to 30% maximum carbonation of


PC (Taylor, 1990). Enhancing the carbonation conditions
Portland cement (PC), manufactured at a rate of over 3 involves a wide range of variables such as curing conditions
billion tonnes per year, is one of the most widely used (e.g. different durations in varying elevated CO2 conditions,
building materials in the world. However, due to the fact natural carbonation under ambient conditions, varying
that the manufacturing of PC is a very energy intensive relative humidity, and temperature); block composition
process and is responsible for 5-8% of global anthropogenic (e.g. aggregate grading, particle packing, minimising
CO2HPLVVLRQV ,3&& 3&VXIIHUVIURPDVLJQLFDQW MgO content, effect of w/c ratio); and the inclusion of
environmental impact, making it a critical sector for CO2- additives and admixtures (e.g. accelerators and carbon-based
emission mitigation strategies. One of the several initiatives materials). Hence the aim of the work presented in this paper
put forward is the recently developed reactive magnesia is to investigate the potential of the carbonation of MgO
(MgO) cements. in porous blocks in terms of cement content (4-10%, the
latter being the standard PC content used in corresponding
5HDFWLYH PDJQHVLD FHPHQWV KDYH VLJQLFDQW VXVWDLQDELOLW\ blocks) and the water content (using standard consistence
advantages over PC which include: (i) lower calcination and 12.5%). This is assessed using compressive strength
temperatures than that of PC (~700-900C vs. 1450C), measurements and microstructural analysis.
LL  DELOLW\ WR VHTXHVWHU VLJQLFDQW TXDQWLWLHV RI &22, (iii)
significant durability enhancements, (iv) capability of
utilising considerable quantities of waste and industrial RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
by-products due to their insensitivity to impurities and
(v) potential to be recycled as their carbonation produces Density and compressive strength
magnesium carbonates, from which the magnesia is
then produced. Unlike dead-burned MgO (produced at The bulk density of all the mixes before carbonation ranged
a&  6KDQG   ZKRVH XVH LQ FOLQNHUV LV from 1.95 to 2.04 g/cm3, with the density increasing as
disadvantageous due to its slow hydration rate leading the water content increased, due to better compaction. At
to expansion and cracking in concrete, reactive MgO the end of the 28 day curing period, the density increased
hydrates at a similar rate to PC, thereby eliminating VLJQLFDQWO\ E\ D PD[LPXP RI  IRU WKH  0J2
these problems and forming brucite, Mg(OH)2, which mixes and 5.1% for the 10% MgO samples, which also
then reacts with CO2 to form a range of magnesium demonstrated the highest strength results. The high increase
carbonates, some of which are nesquehonite (MgCO33H2O), in density is associated with the formation of the hydrated
hydromagnesite (4MgCO3Mg(OH)24H2O) and dypingite magnesium carbonates. The direct relationship between
(4MgCO3Mg(OH)25H2O). density and strength values was observed for all mixes
containing 4%, 7% and 10% MgO, where the higher the
In porous blocks, the rate of carbonation of MgO depends increase in density after carbonation, the higher were the
on the dissolution rate of Mg2+ and partial pressure and QDO VWUHQJWK UHVXOWV
transport of CO2, which is governed by the mix design,
particle size distribution of aggregates, porosity of the The strength of the mixes with three different MgO contents
hardened concrete and particle packing and the curing over a range of water contents is presented in Figure 1. Out
conditions (i.e. relative humidity and temperature). MgO of the 10% MgO mixes, those with a w/c of 0.8 produced
has the potential to achieve close to 100% carbonation in the best results overall, reaching a strength of 24.4 MPa.
porous products which would reduce the total CO2 emissions Mixes with the smallest water content, SC-12.5%, had the

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 84
Structures and Mechanics

ORZHVWVWUHQJWKUHVXOWVZKLFKUHDFKHGDYDOXHRI03D and dypingite/hydromagnesite is obvious at the end of the


at 28 days. The reason for these lower results was due 28-day carbonation period, explaining the high strength
WR WKH LQVXIFLHQW DPRXQW RI ZDWHU XVHG WKDW ZDV QHHGHG obtained. Corresponding to the high strengths obtained
for the formation of hydrated magnesium carbonates and by mixes containing 7% MgO, a dense formation of
consequently the dry paste produced. The 10% MgO mixes nesquehonite was observed. The start of the formation of
were followed by slightly lower values obtained by the dypingite/hydromagnesite is observed for 4% MgO mixes,
 0J2 PL[HV ZKRVH VWUHQJWK UHDFKHG XS WR  03D along with a network of individually fused brucite particles.
IROORZHGE\WKH0J2PL[HVZLWKVWUHQJWKVXSWR This is an indication that carbonation was not completed
MPa. Mixes with 7% MgO and 3% pfa replacement for the by then since brucite was still present. With time, the
cement content, with a water content of SC+12.5%, resulted formation of the hydrated magnesium carbonates could be
in higher results than corresponding mixes containing 10% seen as more widely spread, especially at the end of the
MgO at earlier stages of carbonation. Mixes containing 28 day curing period, by which time most of the brucite
4% MgO contain more pfa than the other mixes (11% vs. had been converted into hydrated magnesium carbonates.
8% and 5%), which reduced the porosity and the ability
of the pastes to absorb CO2.

Most of the strength development took place during the


UVW  GD\V RI FDUERQDWLRQ VKRZLQJ WKDW WKH IRUPDWLRQ RI
carbonation products happened at a faster rate during this
period, slowing down towards the end as the available pores (a) (b) (c)
ZHUH OOHG RXW 7KHUHIRUH VKRUWHU SHULRGV RI DFFHOHUDWHG Figure 2. SEM micrographs of mixes with
FDUERQDWLRQ HJRUGD\V FDQEHVXIFLHQWLQREWDLQLQJ (a) 10%, (b) 7%, (c) 4% MgO content.
high strengths even for MgO contents as low as 4%. The
UHVXOWV DOVR KLJKOLJKW WKH EHQHWV RI SURYLGLQJ D ZHWGU\
environment for the carbonation of mixes, which occurs CONCLUSIONS
more readily when it takes place in moderate humidity.
Spraying samples regularly during carbonation provides the This work aims to enhance the sustainability as well as
right environment for CO2 ingress, involving the necessary the mechanical properties of magnesia cement blocks by
humidity which is useful for the high water consumption investigating the effects of cement and water contents
of the carbonation reaction of brucite. on the carbonation of porous blocks. Preliminary studies
explored developments in compressive strength, porosity,
permeability, and microstructure, shedding light on the
effects of MgO, pfa, and water contents within the blocks.
Further investigation is being carried out to fully understand
and maximize the carbonation process, and identify the
carbonates and the reasoning behind their formation. This
includes quantifying the amount of carbonation in each
case and explaining its effects on strength development,
which will all provide guidance towards determining the
optimal design parameters and assessment of the overall
sustainability of applications involving MgO-cements.
Figure 1. Strength results at 28 days for all mixes.

SEM REFERENCES

The SEM micrographs of mixes with 10%, 7% and 4% [1] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC 2004.
Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.
MgO with the highest strength results are presented in
IPCC. Geneva. Switzerland: 77-103
Figure 2. In the case of 10% MgO mixtures, the presence
>@ 6KDQG 0 $  The Chemistry and Technology of
of dypingite/hydromagnesite, which is the main source of
Magnesia, New York: Wiley
strength increase, was observed at the end of even only 1
[3] Taylor, F. H. W. 1990. Cement Chemistry. New York: Academic
day of carbonation. A wide spread network of nesquehonite
Press

85 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

EFFECTS OF RESIDUAL STRESS


ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF HIGH
STRENGTH STEEL PLATE JOINTS
Zhao Ming-Shan (mzhao1@ntu.edu.sg)
Chiew Sing-Ping (cspchiew@ntu.edu.sg)
Jin Yan-Fei (yfjin@ntu.edu.sg)
Lee Chi-King (ccklee@ntu.edu.sg)

ABSTRACT: High strength steel joints formed by welding contain higher level of residual stress than normal strength joints fabricated
in the same way. As it is generally believed that residual stress is harmful to structures, this study investigated the potential effects of
residual stress on the tensile behavior of high strength steel plate joints. A delicate modeling of the forming of residual stress during
ZHOGLQJ ZDV FDUULHG RXW ZLWK QLWH HOHPHQW DQDO\VLV VRIWZDUH $%$486 6XEVHTXHQWO\ WKH WHQVLOH EHKDYLRU RI WKLV W\SH RI MRLQWV ZDV
PRGHOHG DV ZHOO ,W QDOO\ WXUQHG RXW WKDW WKH HIIHFWV RI UHVLGXDO VWUHVV RQ WHQVLOH VWUHQJWK ZHUH QHJOLJLEOH

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Literature shows that the level of residual stress in the


welding zone of structural steel is positively related to
the strength level (Hanji et al. 2013). There are concerns
that high residual stresses may contribute to the premature
VXGGHQIDLOXUHRIVWUXFWXUHV &RQQRU 4XHQFKHGDQG
WHPSHUHG ORZ DOOR\ VWUXFWXUDO VWHHO 47 VWHHO  WKH PRVW
common high strength steel (yield strength more than
03D LVNQRZQIRULWVKLJKVWUHQJWKEXWEULWWOHQHVV,Q
this study, a delicate modeling of the forming of residual
VWUHVVGXULQJWKHZHOGLQJRIKLJKVWUHQJWKVWHHO6SODWH
MRLQWV ZDV FDUULHG RXW ZLWK QLWH HOHPHQW DQDO\VLV )($  )LJXUH  7KH VSHFLPHQ DQG ZHOGLQJ SUROH
VRIWZDUH $%$486 6XEVHTXHQWO\ WKH WHQVLOH EHKDYLRU
Table 1. The geometry of the joint.
of this type of joint was simulated with the presence of
residual stresses.  / O % W K /w
() (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
       
ORIGINAL JOINT SPECIMEN IN PREVIOUS
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Before the tensile test, the residual stress distributions
around the weld toe of the joints were measured by hole-
7KHUHKHDWHGTXHQFKHGDQGWHPSHUHG 547 VWUXFWXUDOVWHHO drilling strain gauge method. The detailed measurement
plates studied in this project have nominal yield strength of results can be found in a paper by Lee (Lee et al. 2012).
1PP2, tensile strength between 790 N/mm2 and 930 Subsequently, the joints were tested by static tensile loading
N/mm2 and ductility about 14%. The plate-to-plate Y joints at the brace end until failure, while both chord ends were
ZHUHIDEULFDWHGE\FRQQHFWLQJWZRPPPPRUPP [HG RQ D VSHFLDO VXSSRUW E\  EROWV
WKLFN5476VWHHOSODWHVE\IXOOSHQHWUDWLRQZHOGLQJDW
the intersections in angles of 45. In this paper, only the
PP WKLFN SODWH MRLQWV DUH GLVFXVVHG 7KH JHRPHWU\ RI RESIDUAL STRESS IN WELDING
the joint is shown in Figure 1 and table 1.
To simplify the welding procedures, the Goldaks double-
ellipsoid body heat source model (Goldak et al. 1984)
ZDVDGRSWHGWRFDOFXODWHYROXPHWULFKHDWX[GLVWULEXWLRQV
as heat inputs around the welding pool. The heat source
distribution consists of two different ellipses as shown in
Figure 2. Besides, the element birth and death technique

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 86
Structures and Mechanics

ZDV HPSOR\HG WR PRGHO WKH DGGLQJ RI ZHOG OOHU 7R
UHDOL]HWKHVHWZRWHFKQLTXHVD)2575$1VXEURXWLQHZDV
GHYHORSHG 7KH QDO GLVWULEXWLRQ RI UHVLGXDO VWUHVVHV WKDW
DUH SHUSHQGLFXODU WR WKH ZHOG WRH LV VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH 
0RUH GHWDLOV UHJDUGLQJ WKH PRGHOLQJ FDQ EH IRXQG LQ D
SDSHU E\ -LQ -LQ HW DO  

)LJXUH  7KH MRLQW EHIRUH OHIW  DQG DIWHU ULJKW  LW ZDV ORDGHG

Figure 2. The moving heat source during welding.

)LJXUH  7KH /RXGGLVSODFHPHQW FXUYHV E\ )(0 DQG WHVW

CONCLUSIONS

7KH VWDWLF WHQVLOH WHVW ZLWK GHIRUPDWLRQ ORDGLQJ RQ WKH


)LJXUH  7KH QDO WUDQVYHUVH UHVLGXDO VWUHVV GLVWULEXWLRQ EUDFH HQG RI KLJK VWUHQJWK VWHHO 6 SODWHWRSODWH MRLQWV
ZDVLQYHVWLJDWHGQXPHULFDOO\7KHFRPSDULVRQEHWZHHQWKH
THE SIMULATION OF TENSILE BEHAVIOR PRGHOLQJ UHVXOWV DQG IRUPHU H[SHULPHQWDO UHVXOWV VKRZV
WKDWUHVLGXDOVWUHVVKDVOLWWOHLQXHQFHRQWKHXOWLPDWHVWDWLF
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WKH PRGHO DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH 7KH IDLOXUH PRGH RI WKH
MRLQW LV VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  ZKLOH WKH H[SHULPHQWDO DQG REFERENCES
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87 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

FATIGUE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH


STRENGTH STEEL RECTANGULAR
HOLLOW SECTION JOINTS
Zhao Ming-Shan (mzhao1@ntu.edu.sg)
Chiew Sing-Ping (cspchiew@ntu.edu.sg)
Lee Chi-King (ccklee@ntu.edu.sg)

ABSTRACT: High strength steel has proven their merits in statically loaded structures. This study looks into the potential fatigue
LVVXH RI UHFWDQJXODU KROORZ VHFWLRQ 7MRLQWV EXLOW IURP UHKHDWHG TXHQFKHG DQG WHPSHUHG 547  KLJK VWUHQJWK VWHHO SODWHV RI JUDGH
6 ([SHULPHQWDO LQYHVWLJDWLRQV ZHUH FDUULHG RXW WR VWXG\ WKH IDWLJXH EHKDYLRU RI WZR IXOO VFDOH MRLQWV XQGHU GLIIHUHQW VWUHVV UDWLRV
Cyclic loadings in forms of axial load, in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending were employed to generate the fatigue loadings.
The stress concentration factors (SCF) at the joint intersection were measured. Subsequently, the fatigue tests are carried out under
PRQLWRULQJ RI WKH $OWHUQDWLYH &XUUHQW 3RWHQWLDO 'URS $&3'  FUDFN PRQLWRULQJ HTXLSPHQW 7KH VWXG\ FRQUPHG WKDW WKH IDWLJXH
EHKDYLRU RI UHFWDQJXODU KROORZ VHFWLRQ 7MRLQWV PDGH IURP KLJK VWUHQJWK 6 VWHHO LV QRW VLJQLFDQWO\ GLIIHUHQW IURP WKRVH PDGH RI
normal strength steel, and its fatigue resistance can still be safely predicted using the existing fatigue design curves.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS the brace end to measure the stress concentration factors
(SCF) and the hot spot stresses (HSS) under designed fatigue
+LJK VWUHQJWK WR ZHLJKW UDWLR LV EHQHFLDO WR VWUXFWXUH load cases. Subsequently, the fatigue tests were launched
design and construction, since self weight could be reduced under the continuous monitoring of the Alternative Current
remarkably. However, the attached member stiffness lose Potential Drop (ACPD) crack monitoring system.
DQG LQFUHDVH RI VWUHVV XFWXDWLRQV GXH WR OLYH ORDG EULQJ
high strength steel structure larger fatigue problems than
normal strength steel structures. This study looked into
the potential fatigue issues of built-up rectangular hollow
section joints made of reheated, quenched and tempered high
VWUHQJWKVWHHO6([SHULPHQWDOLQYHVWLJDWLRQVZHUHFDUULHG
out to study the fatigue behaviors of two full scale joints.

SPECIMEN AND SETUP DETAILS

The studied square hollow section T joints were fabricated


IURP 5476 VWHHO SODWHV E\ X[FRUHG DUF ZHOGLQJ Figure 1. The fatigue test rig _for tubular joints.
GRQH LQ WZR VWHSV 7KH UVW VWHS ZDV FXWWLQJ WKH SODWHV
into long strips and welding them into rectangular PHASE I: STATIC TEST
hollow sections. The geometry size of the chord section
is 300mm300mm12mm while that of the brace is Strain gauges were arranged around the brace-to-chord
200mm200mm12mm. In the second step, the brace intersections on both joints to capture the hot spot strain
section was welded onto the surface of the chord section distribution. As the strain distribution near the weld toe is
to form the T-joints. highly non-linear, the quadratic perpendicular strain / stress
extrapolation method was used to estimate SCF. Following
The joints were tested on a specially designed test rig that the CIDECT SCF capturing guide, three strain gauges were
could apply basic loadings in forms of axial force (AX), arrayed at each location along the line perpendicular to the
in-plane bending (IPB) and out-of-plane bending (OPB) or weld toe at distances equal to 0.4t, 0.9t and 1.4t (t is the
any combination of these three basic loadings, as shown in thickness of the chord). The locations of the strain gauges
Figure 1. Firstly, static loads in three directions (axial force, on the chord of Specimen I are shown in Fig 2-a).
in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending) were applied on

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 88
Structures and Mechanics

D  VWUDLQ JDXJH V\VWHP E  6&) XQGHU$;

Figure 4. Fatigue test results in S-N diagram.

F  6&) XQGHU ,3% G  6&) XQGHU 23%


Figure 2. SCF measurement in the static test. CONCLUSIONS

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VWUHVVHV WHQGHG WR FRQFHQWUDWH DW FRUQHUV 7KH PD[LPXP KROORZ VHFWLRQ MRLQWV LQ IDWLJXH UHVLVWDQFH 7KH WUDGLWLRQDO
KRWVSRWVWUHVVHVXQGHUHDFKORDGFRQGLWLRQYDU\DWDURXQG KRW VSRW VWUHVV PHWKRGV ZHUH VWLOODSSOLFDEOHIRU WKHEXLOW
WLPHVRIWKHQRPLQDOYDOXHLQWKHEUDFH+RZHYHU6&) XS KLJK VWUHQJWK VWHHO VHFWLRQ MRLQWV DQG WKH FXUUHQW 61
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UHFWDQJXODU KROORZ VHFWLRQ MRLQWV &KLHZ HW DO  

REFERENCES
PHASE II: FATIGUE TEST
>@ &KLHZ63&./HH67/LHDQG+/-L  )DWLJXH
%RWK VSHFLPHQV ZHUH WHVWHG XQGHU VLQXVRLGDO FRQVWDQW EHKDYLRUV RI VTXDUHWRVTXDUH KROORZ VHFWLRQ 7MRLQW ZLWK
DPSOLWXGHORDGLQJFDVHVWKDWFRQVLVWRIWKUHHEDVLFORDGLQJV FRUQHU FUDFN , ([SHULPHQWDO VWXGLHV (QJLQHHULQJ )UDFWXUH
7KH WHVWV VWRSSHG ZKHQ IDWLJXH FUDFN SHQHWUDWHG WKH 0HFKDQLFV    
WKLFNQHVV RI WKH SODWH FRPSOHWHO\ 6SHFLPHQ , ZDV WHVWHG >@ =KDR;6+HULRQ-3DFNHU53XWKOL*6HGODFHNDQG-
XQGHU KLJK VWUHVV UDQJH VWDWH LH PD[LPXP VWUHVV UDQJH :DUGHQLHU  'HVLJQJXLGHIRUFLUFXODUDQGUHFWDQJXODU
KROORZ VHFWLRQ MRLQWV XQGHU IDWLJXH ORDGLQJ &,'(&7789
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FXUUHQWSRWHQWLDOGURS $&3' FUDFNPRQLWRULQJHTXLSPHQW
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Figure 3. The crack propagation path of both specimens.

89 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

ABAQUS SIMULATIONS OF 2D RC
JOINTS IN PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE
Long Xu, (LONG0026@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Lee Chi King (ccklee@ntu.edu.sg)
Tan Kang Hai (ckhtan@ntu.edu.sg)

$%675$&7 ,Q WHUPV RI JHRPHWULF FRQJXUDWLRQ WKH FRPPRQO\ HQFRXQWHUHG WZR GLPHQVLRQDO '  EHDPFROXPQ MRLQWV FDQ EH
FODVVLHGLQWRWKUHHW\SHVWKDWLVNQHHH[WHULRUDQGLQWHULRUMRLQWV7RYDOLGDWHWKH$%$486VLPXODWLRQVRQUHLQIRUFHGFRQFUHWH 5& 
joints under the scenario of progressive collapse, appropriate specimens are selected from several series of experimental studies to be
QXPHULFDOO\ VLPXODWHG XVLQJ $%$486 DQG WKH SUHGLFWLRQV DUH FRPSDUHG ZLWK FRUUHVSRQGLQJ H[SHULPHQWDO UHVXOWV &RQFUHWH GDPDJH
plasticity is employed to simulate the concrete compression and tension behaviour. For steel reinforcement, elasto-plastic constitutive
law with ductile damage model is applied to simulate the yielding and fracturing of reinforcement. The concrete material parameters
are calibrated to give a reference for future simulations.

INTRODUCTION the potential to simulate the complete inelastic behaviour of


concrete in compression and tension. However, no damage
$V D JHQHUDOSXUSRVH QLWH HOHPHQW SURJUDP $%$486 accumulation is considered as assumed in progressive
(2009) has been globally used in both engineering and collapse.
academic areas to analyze RC structures. Compared with
H[SHULPHQWDO VWXGLHV QDQFLDO ODERU DQG WLPH FRVW IRU In the damage plasticity model, the behaviour of concrete
numerical simulations conducted on computer workstations mainly depends on four constitutive parameters. As the most
is much less. This is the most attractive advantage of the important parameter, different dilation angles in a large range
FEA software that is to be employed. have been used for various RC structures, such as beams,
columns and dams. Herein, the dilation angle is adjusted
In the studies on 2D RC joints, many of them were by trial and error to best correlate with the experimental
focused on cyclic loading or seismic loading. However, results. The value of fbo/fc is directly obtained from Kupfers
the loading condition should be monotonic under the curve. The values for e and Kc are taken as 0.1 and 2/3,
scenario of progressive collapse, in which the accumulation respectively, which are commonly utilized in practice and
of concrete damage is not considered. Therefore, the DOVRVXJJHVWHGLQWKHDQDO\VLVXVHUVPDQXDORI$%$486
experimental studies with cyclic or seismic loading cannot ,W VKRXOG EH QRWHG WKDW WKH UVW WZR SDUDPHWHUV GHVFULEH
be directly employed to validate the numerical simulations WKH VKDSH RI WKH RZ SRWHQWLDO IXQFWLRQ DFFRUGLQJ WR D
with monotonic loading. Another obstacle in obtaining QRQDVVRFLDWLYH RZ UXOH ZKLOH WKH RWKHU WZR SDUDPHWHUV
proper experimental results is that many researchers are are associated with the shape of the yield function.
only interested in the shear strength of joints and do not
publish the load-deformation curves. Thus, the comparisons In addition, uniaxial compressive strength of concrete should
between numerical and experimental studies for 2D RC be given. For the value of viscosity parameter for RC
MRLQWVVXEMHFWHGWRPRQRWRQLFORDGLQJDUHGLIFXOWWRFRQGXFW structures, it is found that the value of 0.005 works well
completely and convincingly. to overcome the convergence problem without stiffening
concrete.
With limited publications on 2D RC joints subjected to
monotonic loading, appropriate specimens are selected from As for steel, an elasto-plastic constitutive law with a
several series of experimental studies on knee, interior and ductile damage model is applied to simulate the yielding
H[WHULRUMRLQWVWREHVLPXODWHGXVLQJ$%$486WRFDOLEUDWH and fracturing of steel reinforcement. Displacement damage
concrete material parameters and give a reference in future evolution is used after the damage initiation criterion is met.
simulations. A linear softening response is selected for damage evolution.

As for the bond condition, the concrete constitutive


MATERIAL MODELS ODZ LV PRGLHG GXH WR WHQVLRQ VWLIIHQLQJ LQ ZKLFK WKH
softening portion of concrete after crushing is extended to
As for concrete, the damage plasticity model is selected as approximately simulate the residual force transfer between
the constitutive model for concrete, as this technique has concrete and reinforcing steel.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 90
Structures and Mechanics

SIMULATIONS /DVWO\DVHULHVRI'5&H[WHULRUMRLQWV 7D\RU DUH


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WKH FRPSXWDWLRQ LV GXH WR WKH VWHHO UHLQIRUFHPHQW IUDFWXUH
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Figure 3. Validation for exterior joints.

CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

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Figure 1. Validation for the knee joint. H[SHULPHQWDOUHVXOWVWKHEHVWDJUHHPHQWFDQEHUHDFKHGIRU
DGLODWLRQDQJOHEHWZHHQRDQGRIRU'5&MRLQWVYL]
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ORDGLQJDQGPRQRWRQLFORDGLQJDUHDSSOLHGRQWKHHQGVRI
WZREHDPVRIWKHVSHFLPHQ2.-DQG2.-UHVSHFWLYHO\ REFERENCES
)URPWKHFRPSDULVRQRIWKHVHWZRVSHFLPHQVJLYHQLQ)LJ
 WKH GDPDJH DFFXPXODWLRQ LQ FRQFUHWH FDQ REYLRXVO\ EH >@ 3HQJ==DQG:DQJ=4  $EDTXV)(0DQDO\VLV
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Figure 2. Validation for interior joints.

91 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR


PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE ANALYSIS
OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES
Lee Chi King (ccklee@ntu.edu.sg)
Weng Jian (jweng004@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Tan Kang Hai (ckhtan@ntu.edu.sg)

ABSTRACT: Damage assessment is essential to monitor the strength and stiffness deterioration of a structure in progressive collapse.
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are valid for damage assessment of RC frames in progressive collapse analysis.

   
INTRODUCTION 
where, E LVWKHHODVWLFPRGXOXVRIEHUi,
  i is the normal
i

VWUDLQRIEHUi,  
0LVWKHQRUPDOVWUDLQRIEHUDWWKHFHQWUDO
  
In this article, damage assessment criteria are suggested 
axial of cross-section, y
  i and A refer to the distance from
i

for progressive collapse analyses of RC frame structures. WKHFHQWHURIEHUi to the central axis of cross-section and
  
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HIIHFWRQH[XUDOGDPDJHLVFRQVLGHUHGDFFRUGLQJWRDWUXVV  
FKDQJHRIQRUPDOVWUDLQRIHDFKVWHHORUFRQFUHWHEHUGXH

PRGHO $ VKHDU GDPDJH LQGH[ RI FURVVVHFWLRQ LV GHQHG to shear of cross-section
section is obtained fiber due to shear of cross-section
by a ratio of the weighted averaging shearbystrain
a weighted
and theav-
iber in the 0.5V cot  E A
XOWLPDWH VKHDU VWUDLQ RI FURVVVHFWLRQ 7KH H[XUDO HIIHFW  sV =  cV = s sV s (2)
the buckling of Es As Ec Ac
on shear damage is presented based onage the indices
variableare
angle
estab-
truss model, whilst the the axial effectsection
maximum is added in theindices
damage shear of where
whereV is the shear
is the shearof cross-section in the
of cross-section cracking
in the crac state.
strength model. An axial damage index of cross-section is   angle
e is the inclination  of shear cracks. Es and Ec refer
obtained by a weighted averaging of axial damage index tothe  modulus of steel and concrete, while As and
 elastic
RIHDFKEHULQWKHFURVVVHFWLRQZLWKFRQVLGHUDWLRQRIWKH Ac are the area of  all steel and
 core concrete in the cross-
EXFNOLQJ RI VWHHO EHUV 7KH HOHPHQW GDPDJH LQGLFHV DUH 
section, respectively.
established from the maximum section damage indices of  
HOHPHQWFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRH[XUDOVKHDUDQGD[LDOGDPDJH  
respectively. The numerical example with a simple RC Shear damage
frame shows the validation of the given damage assessment 
criteria.  =
The shear  damage index is given based on the ultimate
shear strain of cross-section, as
mate shear strainof
 cross

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AT SECTION LEVEL D =  (3)
u
is pre- where  and 
Flexural damage where a and au arethe current average shear strain and the
rigidity. It is strain and the ultimat
ultimate average shear strain of cross-section, respectively.

7KHH[XUDOGDPDJHZLWKD[LDOORDGLQJHIIHFWLVSUHVHQWHG :LWK WKH EHU PRGHO a can be obtained by weighted
EDVHGRQDUHGXFWLRQRIH[XUDOULJLGLW\,WLVDVVXPHGWKDW DYHUDJLQJRIVKHDUVWUDLQRIHDFKEHULQWKHFURVVVHFWLRQDV
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threshold value, the ultimate capacity of the plastic hinge  A i i

LV UHDFKHG DQG WKH H[XUDO IDLOXUH RFFXUV 7KH H[XUDO = i =1


n (4)
damage index ofis cross-section
cross-section expressed by is expressed by  Ai
i =1
i
 Ei Di Ai yi2i  0
where  and 
where ai and Ai DUH WKH VKHDU VWUDLQ DQG WKH DUHD RI EHU
iteria are sug- Df = i (1) of fiber , respectively.
es of RC frame  i, respectively.
section, i Ei Ai yi  i 
2

i 0
is derived
based 
&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary
where,  is the elastic 2014 of fiber 
modulus  92 1 1
   =( + ) V

 

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 1  1
 = ( + ) V (5) UHPRYDO RI D PLGFROXPQ RQ WKH ERWWRP RRU LV VWXGLHG

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Axial damage
 Di A RIFURVVVHFWLRQ

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based on a weighted averaging of fiber damage
 i
    
   D a Ai
 
Da 
i i
=   i

i Ai
Dai = i   ei  
u e
 (6)
i    
  index of fiber      
Figure 2. Progressive collapse model due to
where 
is the axial damage a missing mid-column scenario.
where  and
ZKHUH is4WKH
   LV the
 2 D[LDO
areI axial
2
Lthe GDPDJH
damage
current
kL2 LQGH[
index
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u and   
strain,   
 and ultimate  
VWUDLQ RI EHU i UHVSHFWLYHO\7KH EXFNOLQJ
strain strain of fiber RI VWHHO LV
             
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  WR PRGLI\
 WKH XOWLPDWH FRPSUHVVLYH VWUDLQ RI
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timateEHUV DV
 2 2 strain
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 4 2 2
 
  4 I L  kL  2 
 buckling = +  y
   
AEA      
 

    (7)
   
   ,  2  
where    
 
  
  


     
  
ZKHUH  `    L = (4/ EhLN`)k = Ks  E K  DQG
 ,  and  are the elastic modulus, h
s DUH WKH HODVWLF PRGXOXV HIIHFWLYH D[LDO VWLIIQHVV DQG WKH
VSDFLQJ RI WKH WUDQVYHUVH UHLQIRUFHPHQW UHVSHFWLYHO\

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AT ELEMENT LEVEL


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H[XUDOGDPDJHDUHGHWHUPLQHGIURPWKHPD[LPXPGDPDJH CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
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Figure
D  D 
1. Element damage from section damage indices.
j 1, 2, n SURJUHVVLYH FROODSVH GXH WR D PLVVLQJ FROXPQ VFHQDULR

D e = max{Dj }   j =  n  ,W LV IRXQG WKDW WKHUH LV D JRRG DJUHHPHQW EHWZHHQ WKH
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 2,
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are given by H[SHULPHQWDO DQG QXPHULFDO UHVXOWV DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH
e
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93 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

RESISTANCE OF BUILDING TO
PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE
Namyo Salim Lim (nslim1@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Lee Chi King (ccklee@ntu.edu.sg)
Tan Kang Hai (ckhtan@ntu.edu.sg)

$%675$&7$ORQJZLWKWKHLQFUHDVLQJQXPEHURIEXLOGLQJFROODSVHFDVHVHLWKHUGXHWRPDQPDGH H[SORVLRQUH RUQDWXUDOGLVDVWHUV


(earthquake, typhoon), the question on whether a building would survive pro-gressive collapse when subjected to abnormal loading
has now become a great concern. Studies are done to develop a proper method to quantify the resistance of building to progressive
collapse accurately. Two main properties of building - i.e. strength of members (frame-slab) and continuity of joints play a major
role in averting collapse. Hence, in this article, numerical analysis and experimental studies which focus on investi-gating the strength
and continuity of a building under progressive collapse will be presented.

INTRODUCTION Fig. 2 shows that the numerical simulations agree well with
the test results which suggest that FEMFAN3D is capable
3URJUHVVLYHFROODSVH 3& FDQEHGHQHGDVGLVSURSRUWLRQDWH of assessing the structural resistance to PC.
(total or partial) collapse which is triggered only by the
damage in a small part of the building. This may happen
if the load initially taken by the damaged part could not be
redistributed or resisted safely by the remaining structure.
One of the methods commonly used in quantifying the
PC resistance of buildings is the alternate load path (ALP)
method, which is applied by statically removing the load-
bearing element (column or wall). It is a threat independent
approach, as the details on how the collapse is initiated, e.g.
ZKHWKHULWLVGXHWRUHRUH[SORVLRQQHHGQRWEHH[DPLQHG
The column/wall removal is simply used as a load initiator
and serves as a means to check whether the structure can
bridge over the removed element. To prevent collapse, the
VWUXFWXUHPXVWKDYHVXIFLHQWVWUHQJWKUHVLVWLQJPHFKDQLVP
LQWKHPHPEHUVWRZLWKVWDQGWKHORDGDQGVXIFLHQWGXFWLOLW\
in the joint to redistribute the load safely to the remaining
structure. Hence, numerical and experimental studies are
conducted to investigate the behavior of reinforced concrete
(RC) member and joint in resisting PC under a column
removal scenario.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
Figure 1. Numerical modeling of beam, slab, and beam-slab
To analyze building resistance to progressive collapse, substructure under progressive collapse scenario.
QXPHULFDO VLPXODWLRQ LV FRQVLGHUHG WR EH DQ HIFLHQW DQG
practical approach. In this study, FEMFAN3D (NTU in-
Based on the load-displacement histories in all cases, a
KRXVH GHYHORSHG QLWH HOHPHQW VRIWZDUH  LV XWLOL]HG IRU
general trend can be observed, i.e. load capacity may
numerical simulation, in which the beam-columns, slabs, and
still increase at large displacement, provided that there
connections are modeled as line, shell, and joint elements
DUH VXIFLHQW VXSSRUWV IURP WKH ERXQGDU\ FRQGLWLRQ 7KLV
respectively. The numerical analyses are performed for 3
mechanism is more commonly known as Catenary action
cases, i.e. beam, slab, and beam slab substructure which
in beam or Membrane action in slab.
are validated against Sasani (2007), Bailey (2008), and
Tsinghua (2013), respectively. The experimental tests and
Two major issues rise from the numerical simulations, 1)
numerical models are shown in Fig. 1.
modeling of joint element and 2) interaction of beam-slab
in resisting collapse. As joint is the primary component

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 94
Structures and Mechanics

WR PDLQWDLQ VWUXFWXUDO LQWHJULW\ RI D EXLOGLQJ D SURSHU CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
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Figure 3. Frame test under different column removal scenarios.

Figure 2. Comparison between numerical and experimental


result (beam, slab, beam-slab) and beam-slab interaction.

EXPERIMENTAL PLAN

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95 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

PREDICTION OF BOND STRESS-SLIP


DURING PULLOUT IN RC JOINTS
Long Xu, (LONG0026@e.ntu.edu.sg)
Tan Kang Hai (ckhtan@ntu.edu.sg)
Lee Chi King (ccklee@ntu.edu.sg)

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LQGXFHG E\ ORQJLWXGLQDO EDU VOLSV DW WKH EHDPFROXPQ HQGV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH MRLQWV FDQ EH VLJQLFDQW ,W PD\ UHVXOW LQ DGGLWLRQDO
vertical deformations not accounted for in the conventional analysis. Hence, it is important to quantify the deformations arising from
WKH [HG HQG URWDWLRQV ,Q WKLV DUWLFOH D QHZ DQDO\WLFDO PRGHO EDVHG RQ WKH ERQG VWUHVV LQWHJUDWLRQ DORQJ WKH EDU VWUHVV SURSDJDWLRQ
length is proposed to predict the bar-slip behavior in RC beam-column joints under monotonic loading. The phenomena of combined
axial pullout and transverse dowel action at the joints are considered. The proposed model is validated with experimental studies from
published literature and is shown to be simple and yet reliable.

INTRODUCTION

In this article, an analytical model is proposed to predict


the bar-slip behaviour in the RC beam-column joints under
monotonic loading. The proposed model addresses the limit
embedment length in RC joints and the coexistence of axial
pullout and dowel action. The derivations are based on
the concept of stress propagation length: steel constitutive
law, equilibrium of bond, bar forces and compatibility of
deformation along the steel reinforcement. According to
validations using experimental results, the proposed simple
and reliable analytical model is capable of effectively Figure 1. Assumed bond and bar stress distributions.
predicting the bar-slip behaviour subjected to axial pullout
In the analytical model (Long et al. 2013), reinforcement
with and without transverse dowel action in RC joints.
ZLWK VXIFLHQW HPEHGPHQW OHQJWK ZKHUH EDU IUDFWXULQJ
failure occurs, the value of 1.43fc is taken for oE, and
the value of oa is conservatively taken as 0.43fc. For
ANALYTICAL MODEL UHLQIRUFHPHQW ZLWK LQVXIFLHQW HPEHGPHQW OHQJWK ZKHUH
pullout failure dominates, the value of 2.53fc is selected
The term slip is defined as the relative longitudinal for oE. As for oa, a relatively larger value of 0.83fc is taken
displacement between main steel reinforcement and WRUHHFWDQLQFUHDVHRIHPEHGPHQWOHQJWK7KHUHDVRQRI
concrete, which can be measured at the loaded ends of increasing oE and oa is that when a pullout failure occurs,
embedded bars if careful instrumentations are made. For the initial unloaded end of the steel reinforcement will be
the surrounding concrete, no splitting failure is assumed pulled into the joint region.
to occur along the steel reinforcement. This assumption is
fairly reasonable as splitting failure is seldom observed in When considering the combination of pullout behaviour
5& MRLQWV FRQQHG E\ WUDQVYHUVH UHLQIRUFHPHQW 7KH DUHD and dowel action, the beam-on-elastic foundation theory
of steel reinforcement is considered to be small and the can be applied to model dowel action. However, because of
VWHHOVWUDLQLVVXIFLHQWO\ODUJHVRWKHLQXHQFHRIFRQFUHWH bond deterioration (due to concrete cracking and crushing
deformation on slip is negligible. around the reinforcement) and reinforcement curvature (due
to transverse shear displacement at the loaded end), two
For the bond stress-slip relationship under axial pullout empirical concepts, namely, FXUYDWXUH LQXHQFH ]RQH and
action, the non-uniform local bond stress-slip relationship ERQGGHWHULRUDWLRQ]RQH are adopted as shown in Fig. 2 to
can be expressed by an equivalent constant value with simulate the localized damage of concrete.
the same dissipated energy along the effective steel
reinforcement length, that is, bond stress distribution is
idealized as mechanical bond oE and oa frictional bond
along the whole embedment length as shown in Fig. 1 (oE,
oa and concrete cylinder strength fc in MPa).

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 96
Structures and Mechanics

D  %DU FXUYDWXUH GLVWULEXWLRQ

Figure 3. Curvature distributions along the embedded bar


with different transverse displacements.

E  %RQG VWUHVV GLVWULEXWLRQ


Figure 2. Bar curvature and bond stress distributions.

VALIDATIONS

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ORDGLQJ VFHQDULR LV YDOLGDWHG DJDLQVW H[SHULPHQWDO VWXGLHV
ZLWK FRPSUHKHQVLYH GHVFULSWLRQV RI WKH WHVW GHWDLOV DQG Figure 4. Relations between the slip at the loaded end
ZHOOFLWHG WHVW UHVXOWV 7KH SUHGLFWHG VOLS ERQG VWUHVV and the applied bar stress in Specimen 1.
VWHHO VWUHVV DQG VWUDLQ GLVWULEXWLRQV DJUHH ZHOO ZLWK WKH
H[SHULPHQWDO UHVXOWV
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
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Structural Journal DFFHSWHG

97 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
Structures and Mechanics

DAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPRESSED


NATURAL GAS (CNG) TANK BASED ON
FREQUENCY SHIFT METHOD
Lie Seng Tjhen (CSTLIE@ntu.edu.sg)
Zhang Yao (yzhang30@e.ntu.edu.sg)

ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a novel damage detection method based on frequency shift for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
tank, which has been proven effective by numerical examples and experimental tests. In fact, the natural frequencies of CNG tank
or cylinder shell will change if auxiliary mass is placed on different position of CNG tank. In particular, the natural frequencies will
drop drastically if the auxiliary mass which increases the local inertia is approaching the damage where the local stiffness decreases. In
RWKHUZRUGWKHDX[LOLDU\PDVVZRXOGHQKDQFHWKHLQXHQFHRIWKHGDPDJHDQGKHQFHLWFDQEHXVHGWRSUREHWKHGDPDJHE\WUDYHUVLQJ
it over the entire surface of CNG tank. On the other hand, the sudden drop of natural frequencies can be regarded as an anomaly
because the frequencies would change smoothly if the CNG tank is undamaged. A new damage index, which does not require the
prior information from the undamaged CNG tank, is proposed based on the curvature of frequency shift to detect the anomaly. This
approach is more accurate and sensitive than conventional vibration based methods which are usually based on mode shape instead.

INTRODUCTION on beam and plate like structures and found that it was
quite sensitive to local damages.
CNG tanks are widely used and it is necessary to be able
to detect internal damage such as corrosions and cracks This paper extends the concept of auxiliary mass induced
in order to avoid catastrophic failure. To identify damages frequency shift to cylinder shells (CNG tanks). In fact,
like corrosion and cracks, several non-destructive testing the natural frequencies will drop if the auxiliary mass is
methods have been proposed and developed, for example, approaching the damage. This drop can be considered as
ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. However, most anomaly, because the frequencies will change smoothly if
conventional non-destructive testing approaches are time- the cylinder is undamaged. Moreover, a new damage index
consuming and costly. based on the curvature of frequency shift is proposed, which
does not require the prior information of an undamaged
Because a vibration based method shows great merits, such CNG tank.
DV ORZ FRVW DQG H[LEOH PHDVXUHPHQW LW LV D SURPLVLQJ
alternative method. Several novel and advanced concepts
have been proposed, but most of them are suitable for beam THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
and plate like structures. Although a few methods were
proposed for cylinder shells like CNG tanks - for example,  WKH &1* WDQN
)RU VLPSOLFLW\  LV VLPSOLHG DV D ULQJ UVW
   
   
Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) based method (Lee The interactive system can be seen in Fig.1. 
The  has
ring    
 
et al., 2004), modal strain energy method (Srinivasan et bending stiffness E1, density 
l, cross-sectional area A and    
  
al., 1998, Marwala et al., 2000, Hu et al. 2011), split-mode radius r. The auxiliary mass M is supported  at position e0     

 
phenomenon method (Royston et al., 2000), and vibrational     on a spring

 with a large   stiffness k. Only the radial vibration 
SRZHURZPHWKRG =KXHWDO WKH\KLJKO\GHSHQG      The  governing   equation
   can
   is considered.

as:   be written as:
on the quality of measurement of mode shape or FRFs.
     
             (1)
/RZHWDO  DQDO\]HGWKHLQXHQFHRIPXOWLSOHOXPS       
   
masses on the change of beam frequencies through Rayleigh           (2)
estimation and eigen-analysis solutions. Zhong and Oyadiji (1)
 IXUWKHUDQDO\]HGWKHLQXHQFHRIDQDX[LOLDU\PDVV where q(t) and u( e  t) are the vertical and radial   
displacements the mass
of  and  thering
 measured
 from the      
on the frequencies of a cracked beam, based on which     
they (Zhong et al. 2008) developed an approach to detect   static equilibrium
   position, respectively; b is the Dirac delta 
these cracks by using wavelet transform. Subsequently, they function and f(t)b(e e0) is the contact force between the   
    
(2008) utilized the derivative of natural frequencies based mass and the ring. 
    
on auxiliary mass spatial probing and they found that it is      
sensitive to local damage in beam like structures. Zhang  
et al. (2012, 2013) analyzed analytically the relationship      
    
between natural frequencies and location of auxiliary mass

 
&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 98

        

    
               
 
   
    

                  

      
  
   
 
   
       
  
            
   
  
       
       
              

            

              
       
             
  
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Figure 
1. Circular ring and an auxiliary mass.     

  
                
  
  


 
 
  
 

       
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ncies of  the system,    
    Figure 3. Damage index of cylinder with single damage.
  ncies of WKHthe V\VWHP  
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the 
IUHTXHQFLHV RI WKH &1*
   
  ncies
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   of
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calculated
      
 entral  by central difference:     
         

(2)  

difference:
   

    
     

               

       
 
      (5)
       
vertical and radial  

he ring measured
 Then, the7KHQ mean WKH all PHDQ RI DOO
curvatures  FXUYDWXUHV
canbe FDQ EH
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of (5)
 
 
    
   
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Finally, the 
 damage index can   be
  represented as:
 

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(7)
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   NUMERICAL     
      
EXAMPLES        
           

           
             
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                 99 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK
  
 

             
             
    
        
  
   

     

          
  
    

     
  
        

       
  
  
  
Structures and Mechanics

Figure 5. Damage index of cylinder with multiple damages. Figure 7. The fundamental frequency surface on the
CNG tank with a crack damage.
Two peaks related to A and B can be seen clearly in
Fig. 5. It can also be seen that the peak indicating A
is higher than the peak related to B, which is because
A is two times deeper than B so the former is more
severe than the latter. Moreover, the areas of the two peaks
shown in the contour of the damage index are almost the
same because the sizes of the two damages are the same.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
Figure 8. Damage index of CNG tank with a crack damage.
A 7-liter CNG cylinder shown in Fig. 17 is utilized in the
experiment. The dimensions of the cylindrical shell part CONCLUSIONS
are as follows: external diameter , thickness , and length L.
7KHF\OLQGULFDOVKHOOSDUWLVPHVKHGXQLIRUPO\LQWR This paper proposes a frequency shift based damage
SDUWV DQG  FURVV SRLQWV FDQ EH REWDLQHG detection method by using auxiliary mass for CNG
cylinders. It has been found that the natural frequency
A narrow slot with a width of 1 mm and a depth of 5 mm changes with respect to the location of the auxiliary mass.
LV DUWLFLDOO\ FXW XVLQJ DQ ('0 PDFKLQH LQWR WKH &1* In paticular, when the auxiliary mass is approaching the
F\OLQGHUWRVLPXODWHWKHFUDFNGDPDJH )LJ :LWKRXWORVV local damage, the natural frequency drops drastically. This
of generality, the slot is located at (7/8+/40) [80 mm, is because the auxiliary mass increases the local inertia
240 mm] and then no cross point is located on the slot. while the local damage decreases the local stiffness.
7KHUHIRUH WKH DX[LOLDU\ PDVV DPSOLHV WKH HIIHFW RI ORFDO
damage on the dynamic properties and it can be used to
probe the local damage. In order to avoid the requirement
of prior information from the undamaged structure, a new
damage index is proposed based on the assumption that the
frequency surface of undamaged cylinder is usually smooth
while the sudden drop of natural frequencies induced by
the auxiliary mass approaching the damage is regarded as
Figure 6. The CNG tank with a crack damage. an anomaly. The proposed damage index has shown good
performance which is validated by numerical examples and
The fundamental frequency surface can be measured as experimental results. This approach is easy to implement
VKRZQLQ)LJIURPZKLFKLWFDQEHVHHQWKDWWKHLQXHQFH in practice because only a single accelerometer is required
of the crack on the frequency surface is so large that the and no eigenvalue problem or singular value problem needs
crack can be detected directly from the frequency surface; to be solved. It is also more accurate because the natural
the frequency near the crack drops drastically which can frequency can be measured more accurately than the mode
be seen in Fig. 7 clearly. From the damage index shown shapes frequently used in most conventional vibration-based
in Fig. 8, the simulated crack can be detected easily and damage detection methods.
its size can be determined as well.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 100


Structures and Mechanics

REFERENCES >@ =KDQJ < :DQJ /4 /LH 67 ;LDQJ =+  'DPDJH
GHWHFWLRQLQSODWHVVWUXFWXUHVEDVHGRQIUHTXHQF\VKLIWVXUIDFH
>@ +X + :X & /X :  'DPDJH GHWHFWLRQ RI FLUFXODU FXUYDWXUH. Journal of Sound and Vibration9RO1R
KROORZ F\OLQGHU XVLQJ PRGDO VWUDLQ HQHUJ\ DQG VFDQQLQJ 
GDPDJH LQGH[ PHWKRGV Computers and structures 9RO  >@ =KDQJ < ;LDQJ =+  )UHTXHQF\ VKLIW FXUYH EDVHG
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>@ /HH8-HRQJ:&KR-$IUHTXHQF\UHVSRQVHIXQFWLRQ Materials & Continua 9RO  1R 
EDVHG GDPDJH LGHQWLFDWLRQ PHWKRG IRU F\OLQGULFDO VKHOO >@ =KRQJ 6& 2OXWXQGH 6  $QDO\WLFDO SUHGLFWLRQV RI
VWUXFWXUHV KSME International Journal 9RO  1R  QDWXUDOIUHTXHQFLHVRIFUDFNHGVLPSO\VXSSRUWHGEHDPVZLWK
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Journal of Sound and Vibration 9RO   EHDPV ZLWK DX[LOLDU\ PDVV VSDWLDO SURELQJ E\ VWDWLRQDU\
>@ 0DUZDOD 7 +XQW +  ,V GDPDJH LGHQWLFDWLRQ XVLQJ ZDYHOHW WUDQVIRUP -RXUQDO RI 9LEUDWLRQ DQG$FRXVWLFV 9RO
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of Sound and Vibration 9RO  1R   >@=KRQJ6&2OXWXQGH6'LQJ.5HVSRQVHRQO\PHWKRG
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GHWHFWLRQZLWKDSSOLFDWLRQWRF\OLQGULFDOJHRPHWULHVJournal Journal of Sound and Vibration9RO1R
of Sound and Vibration 9RO  1R   >@=KX;/L7<=KDR<<DQ-9LEUDWLRQDOSRZHURZ
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DFLUFXODUF\OLQGULFDOVKHOOJournal of Sound and Vibration, FUDFN Journal of Sound and Vibration 9RO  1R 
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101 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Structures and Mechanics

ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF
STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS IN
CRACKED CIRCULAR HOLLOW
SECTION (CHS) T/Y-JOINTS
Lie Seng Tjhen (CSTLIE@ntu.edu.sg)
Li Tao (LITA0005@e.ntu.edu.sg)

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test results reported by other researchers, distributions of KI, KII and KIII DORQJ WKH HQWLUH FUDFN IURQW DUH GHWHUPLQHG ,W LV FRQUPHG
that values of KII and KIII are much smaller than that of KI. Therefore, effect of KII and KIII on the stress intensity factor K can be
LJQRUHG)LQDOO\VWUHVVLQWHQVLW\IDFWRUVRIDOOFUDFNHG&+67<MRLQWVDUHDOVRGHWHUPLQHGXVLQJDQDQDO\WLFDOPHWKRGLQFRUSRUDWHG
in British standard-BS7910 (2005). In order to check the accuracy of the analytical method, a comparison of the shape factors Y at
the deepest point of the surface crack is carried out. It is found that the analytical method still has a large room to be improved.

INTRODUCTION Apart from FE analysis and fatigue test, there are also some
analytical models available for calculating SIFs of cracked
Stress intensity factor (SIF) is a very important parameter CHS joints. Among them, the analytical model based on a
in fatigue and fracture analysis of any cracked component. FHQWUDOFUDFNHGDWSODWHLVZLGHO\DFFHSWHGE\UHVHDUFKHUV
In the case of fatigue analysis, it can be used to estimate 7KHDWSODWHPRGHOLVEDVHGRQWKH6,)VRIDVXUIDFHFUDFN
the fatigue life of the cracked component in conjunction LQDQLWHSODWHVXEMHFWHGWRWHQVLRQDQGEHQGLQJORDGV%\
with Paris crack propagation law. In the case of fracture LQFRUSRUDWLQJWKHHIIHFWVRIWKHZHOGSUROHORFDOKRWVSRW
analysis, it can be used to evaluate the fracture behavior of VWUHVV DQG ORFDO GHJUHH RI EHQGLQJ WKLV DW SODWH PRGHO
the cracked component. For cracked CHS T/Y-joints, many is used to estimate the SIFs of cracked CHS T/Y-joints
researchers have carried out extensive research works on containing a surface crack. This analytical model has been
WKH6,)E\XVLQJQLWHHOHPHQW )( DQDO\VLV %RZQHVV  incorporated in British standard-BS7910 (2005). However,
/HH  &DR <DQJ  /LH HW DO  $PRQJ no one carries out a comprehensive analysis on the accuracy
WKHVHUHVHDUFKHUV%RZQHVVDQG/HH  DQG/LH of this analytical method, particularly for cracked CHS
et al. (2012) carried out extensive analysis on the SIFs T/Y-joints subjected to in-plane and out-of-plane bending.
of CHS T/Y-joints, taking advantage of different mesh
generators developed on their own. However, due to the In this study, a new mesh generator is developed and
limitations of these mesh generators, most of the research YHULHG DJDLQVW H[SHULPHQWDO WHVW UHVXOWV $IWHU WKDW WKH
works concentrate on cracked CHS T-joints subjected to 6,)V RI  FUDFNHG &+6 7<MRLQWV FRQWDLQLQJ D VXUIDFH
axial tensile load. crack are calculated taking advantage of the new mesh
generator. Finally, the accuracy of the analytical model
In addition to FE analysis, researchers also carried out a incorporated in BS7910 (2005) is examined by making a
fatigue test on CHS T-joints to determine the SIF. Chiew comparison to the FE results.
et al. (2004) carried out a fatigue test on cracked CHS
T-joints under combined loads at Nanyang Technological
University (NTU). The crack propagation was monitored by FINITE ELEMENT MODELS
using alternating current potential detect (ACPD) technique,
and then the SIFs at the crack ends and the deepest point Figure 1 shows all the dimensionless parameters of a
were derived in conjunction with Paris law. In order to CHS T-joint, including     DQG  ,I  LV QRW HTXDO
calculate the SIFs of the tested CHS T-joints using FE to 90o, the CHS joint should be considered as a Y-joint.
analysis, a mesh generator was developed based on the Therefore, CHS T-joint can be taken as a particular type
model proposed originally by Wong (Lie et al., 2003), and of a Y-joint, and many researchers preferred to group CHS
then validated against experimental results. T- and Y-joints as one type and denote it as T/Y-joint.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 102


Structures and Mechanics

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Table 1. Dimensions and crack sizes of the


Figure 1. Geometry and notation of a tubular T/Y-joint. cracked CHS T-joint.
d0 d t0 t l0 l
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Figure 3. The completed mesh model of the 5th T-joint.

Figure 2. Double mapping a T-butt to form chord-brace


intersection zone of a cracked T/Y-joint.

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E\ 5LFKLH DQG +XMVNHQV   LV XVHG WR YDOLGDWH WKH )(
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DQG HVWLPDWHG WKH VWUHVV LQWHQVLW\ IDFWRUV DW WKH GHHSHVW Figure 4. Comparison of SIFs (KI) at the deepest point.
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103 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Structures and Mechanics

DQGWKHFUDFNVKDSHVLVOLVWHGLQ7DEOH7KHFUDFNHG
CHS T/Y-joints are chosen from Table 2 following the
rule to study the effect of a certain parameter on KI. The
chord thickness of all the analyzed models is 10mm and
all the other parameters can be derived from Figure 1.
Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio are 210GPa and 0.3
respectively. For the boundary condition, the two ends of
WKH FKRUG DUH [HG

7DEOH  *HRPHWULHV DQG FUDFN VKDSHV RI DQDO\]HG


cracked CHS T/Y-joints.
Group 1 2 3
  14 24 14
Figure 6. SIFs of a cracked CHS Y-joint subjected
0.3,0.4,0.5, 0.3,0.4,0.5, to in-plane bending.
0.8
    
    
    

0.8, 1 0.8, 1
  

75,90 75,90 75,90
0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5, 0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5, 0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,
a/t0
    

c/a   


7,8,9,10 7,8,9,10 7,8,9,10
Load
type Axial, OPB Axial IPB
Crack
Saddle Crown Crown
location
Figure 7. SIFs of a cracked CHS Y-joint subjected
Figures 1, 2 and 3 show the distributions of KI, KII and KIII to out-of-plane bending.
along the entire crack front of three CHS Y-joints subjected
to axial load, in-plane and out-of-plane bending respectively.
It can be seen that values of KII and KIII comparing to KI STREE INTENSITY FACTORS DETERMINED
are negligible. Moreover, values of KI and KII along the FROM ANALYTICAL MODEL
surface crack front are almost symmetrical, whereas values
of KIII are almost anti-symmetrical. The general form of the stress intensity factor of a CHS
joint is given by

K = Y(g)mn3/a (1)

where Y(g) is the shape factor depends on the geometry of


WKH&+6MRLQWDQGWKHVKDSHRIWKHFUDFNn is the nominal
stress and a is the crack depth. Lee and Bowness (2001)
approximated the shape factor Y(g) as

Y(g) = (MkmMmSCF=(1-DOB)+MkbMbSCF=DOB) (2)


where Mk LV WKH ZHOG WRH PDJQLFDWLRQ IDFWRUV M is the
plain plate shape factor, and the subscripts m and b denote
membrane and bending load respectively. SCF is the stress
Figure 5. SIFs of a cracked CHS Y-joint subjected concentration factor and DOB is the degree of bending at
to axial load. the would-be location of the crack. Equation (2) has been
incorporated in BS7910 (2005). As DOB and SCF are all
obtained from uncracked tubular joints, and Mkj, Mj (j=m,
b) can be calculated from parametric equations, it is clear
that Equation (2) is a very convenient method for estimating
the stress intensity factor of any cracked CHS joint because
it avoids the complexity of generating the mesh of the

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 104


Structures and Mechanics

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LQ $3,53$   DUH XVHG (TXDWLRQV RI MNM DQG MM Figure 10. Comparison of shape factors of cracked
M P E  FDQ EH IRXQG LQ %6   CHS T/Y-joints subjected to out-of-plane bending.

CONCLUSIONS
COMPARISON OF THE SHAPE FACTOR Y(g)
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REFERENCE

>@ $PHULFD3HWUROHXP,QVWLWXWH  Recommended Practice


for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore
Platforms-Working Stress Design $3,53$:6'
:DVKLQJWRQ 86$
>@ %6$PHQGPHQW  Guide to Methods for Assessing
the Acceptability of Flaws in Fusion Welded Structures%ULWLVK
6WDQGDUGV ,QVWLWXWLRQ /RQGRQ 8.
>@ %RZQHVV ' DQG /HH 00.   7KH 'HYHORSPHQW
RIDQ$FFXUDWH0RGHOIRUWKH)DWLJXH$VVHVVPHQWRI'RXEO\
&XUYHG &UDFNV LQ 7XEXODU -RLQWV International Journal of
Fracture 9RO  1R  SS 
Figure 8. Comparison of shape factors of >@ %RZQHVV ' DQG /HH 00.   6WUHVV ,QWHQVLW\
CHS T/Y-joints subjected to axial load. )DFWRU6ROXWLRQVIRU6HPL(OOLSWLFDO:HOG7RH&UDFNVLQ7%XWW
*HRPHWULHV Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials
& Structures 9RO  1R  SS 
>@ &DR--<DQJ*-3DFNHU-$DQG%XUGHNLQ)0  
&UDFN0RGHOLQJLQ)($QDO\VLVRI&LUFXODU7XEXODU-RLQWV
Engineering Fracture Mechanics9RO  1R  SS 

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)DWLJXH 3HUIRUPDQFH RI &UDFNHG 7XEXODU 7 -RLQWV XQGHU
&RPELQHG /RDGV , ([SHULPHQWDO Journal of Structural
Engineering 9RO  1R  SS 
>@ /LH 67 /HH &. DQG :RQJ 60   0RGHO DQG
0HVK*HQHUDWLRQRI&UDFNHG7XEXODU<-RLQWVEngineering
Fracture Mechanics 9RO  1R  SS 
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LQWHQVLW\ IDFWRUV LQ WXEXODU .MRLQWV XVLQJ GLUHFW DQG LQGLUHFW
PHWKRGV Advanced Steel Construction 9RO  1R  SS
Figure 9. Comparison of shape factors of 
CHS T/Y-joints subjected to in-plane bending.
>@ 5LWFKLH ' DQG +XLMVNHQV +$0   )UDFWXUH
0HFKDQLFV%DVHG3UHGLFWLRQRIWKH(IIHFWRI6L]HRI7XEXODU
-RLQW 7HVW 6SHFLPHQV RQ 7KHLU )DWLJXH /LIH The 8 th
International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic
Engineering 7KH +DJXH 1HWKHUODQGV SS 

105 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Structures and Mechanics

A RISK MAP STUDY OF URBAN AREAS


EXPOSED TO NATURAL HAZARDS
Chen Xianyong, Alex (xachen1@ntu.edu.sg)
Lo Yat-Man, Edmond (cymlo@ntu.edu.sg)
Pan Tso-Chien (tcpan@pmail.ntu.edu.sg)

ABSTRACT: An initial risk map study of urban areas encompassing the region of South East China is conducted by overlays of
publicly available maps of natural hazards from risk research/reinsurance companies with exposure maps of urban areas developed
from academic sources. The resulting maps readily show a high degree of exposure for current and future urban areas, including the
economically strategic areas of the Pearl River Delta region.

INTRODUCTION people), of economic importance (not dominated by primary


industries), and with presence of urban characteristics (paved
Urban populations are predicted to grow from 3.5 billion streets, sewerage etc.) (UNICEF, 2012).
in 2010 to 5 billion by 2030 (United Nations, 2012). It is
SURMHFWHGWKDWRXWRIHYHU\SHRSOHZLOOEHDQXUEDQLWH Figure 1 illustrates the forecasted expansion of urban
by 2030 and 7 out of 10 by 2050. Furthermore, half of areas in the South East China region. The darker regions
the worlds current population is living along the coast and represent areas that have a high likelihood (on a scale of
indeed 14 of the worlds 17 largest cities are coastal cities 0 to 100%) of being urban by the year 2030. It is evident
(Creel, 2003). In additional to issues of resource scarcity, that urban expansion is not evenly distributed across
infrastructure demand, and social-economic challenges, an regions; new urban areas tend to congregate around or are
ever-urbanizing world will also face natural catastrophes OLQNHGWRFXUUHQWXUEDQFHQWHUVIRUSROLWLFDOHIFLHQF\DQG
that can cause tremendous destruction to densely populated socioeconomic reasons.
urban areas and bring about a domino effect in todays
JOREDOHFRQRP\$FDVHLQSRLQWLVWKH7KDLODQGRRGV
WKDW ODVWHG VRPH  PRQWKV VKXWWLQJ GRZQ WKH LQGXVWULDO
parks located outside Bangkok and causing supply chain
disruptions that were felt worldwide. It is thus imperative
that future urban planning not only consider the resource
demand for sustaining urban areas as is traditionally done,
but also look into risk to such areas arising from natural
hazards. In this initial study, we seek to investigate the
extent to which urban areas are affected by the threat
of natural catastrophes and also to identify future urban
regions most vulnerable to natural disasters. This is done
by overlaying maps of natural hazards with urban maps
showing current and future urbanized areas.
Figure 1. Urban Expansion Forecast Map South East China
(Seto et al., 2012)

URBAN EXPANSION FORECASTS


NATURAL HAZARD MAPS
Spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of urban population
growth has been developed by Seto et al. (2012) using maps The conglomeration of urban settlements creates
of urban land cover, population density and per capita gross concentrations of risk from natural hazards. This is borne
domestic product along with spatially explicit probabilistic out in recent history where widespread destruction in
growth models. The developed forecasts show that the urban areas has been caused by natural disasters. The 2011
majority of the worlds urban growth and land increases 7KDLODQG RRGV GLVSODFHG PLOOLRQV RI SHRSOH DQG FDXVHG
are concentrated in a few regions. Notably, close to half estimated economic losses of USD45.7 billion (World
of the increase in high-probability urban growth globally %DQN   *OREDO VXSSO\ FKDLQV VSHFLFDOO\ WKRVH RI
LV SURMHFWHG WR RFFXU LQ $VLD &ODVVLFDWLRQ FULWHULRQV RI KDUGGLVNGULYHVZHUHKHDYLO\GLVUXSWHGGXHWRWKHRRGV
urban areas vary across countries: they are typically regions as Thailand was responsible for a quarter of the worlds
of a threshold population size (typically of around 2000 total production volume (Carey, 2011). The earlier 1955
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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 106


Structures and Mechanics

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REFERENCES

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Figure 2. Typhoon Flood Hazard Map - South East China +RQJ .RQJ 7UDGH 'HYHORSPHQW &RXQFLO  35' (FRQRPLF
(Swiss Re, 2013) 3UROH5HWULHYHGIURP+.7'&5HVHDUFK KWWSFKLQDWUDGH
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The State of the Worlds Children 2012. 81,&(),6%1

81+DELWDWState of the Worlds Cities 2008/2009.(DUWKVFDQ
,6%1 
:RUOG %DQN  The World Bank supports Thailands post
RRGUHFRYHU\HIIRUW5HWULHYHGIURP7KH:RUOG%DQN KWWS
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Figure 3. Earthquake Hazard Map - South East China


(Swiss Re, 2013)

107 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Structures and Mechanics

UNDERGROUND SPACE FOR A


SUSTAINABLE NTU CAMPUS
Zhao Zhiye (czzhao@ntu.edu.sg)
Zhao Jian (jian.zhao@monash.edu)
Raymond Sterling (sterling@coes.latech.edu)
John Carmody (carmo001@umn.edu)
Fan Jiancai (fanjiancia@ntu.edu.sg)
Chea Bunly (bchea@ntu.edu.sg)

ABSTRACT: Space has become a major concern in Singapore, and has a critical impact on Singapores economic and social
GHYHORSPHQW$Q LQFUHDVLQJ SRSXODWLRQ UHTXLUHV VXIFLHQW VSDFH IRU OLYLQJ DQG OHLVXUH ZKLOH QHZ LQYHVWPHQWV GHPDQG VSDFH IRU WKHLU
facilities. So far, we have used three approaches to expand our land use: by constructing high-rise buildings, by land reclamation, and
by utilizing the shallow underground space. In recent years, another option has been developed by creating space underground at a
deep depth. This research project aims to explore the potential use of the underground space underneath the campus of the Nanyang
Technological University (NTU) and to provide an integrated underground use framework, which could be incorporated into NTUs
future campus development plan.

INTRODUCTION can be used for different purposes, for example, the shallow
and the deep caverns can be used for an underground
7KLVFRQFHSWXDOVWXG\SULPDULO\SUHVHQWVWKHUVWH[DPSOH learning centre (ULC) and an underground sport hall
in utilizing the underground space in the NTU campus in (USH). The deep basements are suitable for parking lots,
response to NTUs need for future expansions. It is also a laboratories and tutorial rooms.
showcase to demonstrate the integrated underground space
development concept. NTU campus has generally favourable The selected locations for the shallow and deep caverns in
topographic as well as geological conditions, suitable for this study come from the examination of the followings:
the construction of large rock cavern groups. Those large (iii) Architectural consideration: we have incorporated the
spanned open spaces can be used for various purposes, architectural concept such as interior planning, height
such as libraries, laboratories and sport facilities. Caverns RI RRU RRU DUHD ZRUNLQJ VSDFH 0 ( DQG IXWXUH
are constructed in the deep rock layer below the existing decoration.
surface structures; therefore they can be built independently
from the buildings at the surface. However, underground (iv) Ground conditions: Soil types below existing building,
space facilities must be integrated with the above ground rock quality for the design of rock cover, rock stability,
facilities. Extensively utilizing the underground space will DQG ZDWHU LQRZ
enhance the future plans of the NTU campus, enabling it (v) The depth of the cavern: we also considered the
to showcase and lead underground space development not GHSWK RI WKH FDYHUQ VLQFH LW KDV D JUHDW LQXHQFH RQ
just nationwide but worldwide. the sustainability, surrounding environment, like air
quality, ventilation systems and accessed route for
This research project has two objectives: transport modes.
(i) to provide a conceptual plan of underground space YL  +HDOWK  VDIHW\ FRQVLGHUDWLRQ UH VDIHW\ LV DOVR
development on the NTU campus as a supplement to FRQVLGHUHG VRPH SDUWV DUH LQFOXGHG LQ 0 ( ZRUNV
the NTU campus planning; VXFK DV LQVWDOOLQJ RI UH DODUPV SURWHFWLRQ JODVVHV
and planning of emergency exits.
(ii) to provide several examples of underground cavern
development schemes on the NTU campus, including
sustainable solutions, as showcases for underground
UNDERGROUND SPACE DESIGN: LAYOUT AT
space utilisation in Singapore.
DIFFERENT DEPTHS

Underground space is the space created below the ground


DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS level and is formed by openings excavated in subsurface
rocks and soils. In general, typical subsurface geomaterials
The underground space design in the NTU campus consists
are represented by soils on the top, and rocks below.
of three parts, 1) deep basement, 2) shallow caverns and 3)
The concept for underground spaces in different layers is
deep caverns. The underground space with various depths
schematically presented in Figure 1, and shows basement

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 108


Structures and Mechanics

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ZKHQWKHVSDFHVLQWKHXSSHUDQGORZHUOD\HUVKDYHVLPLODU
IXQFWLRQV

Figure 2. Shallow and deep caverns below the existing


buildings connected by shafts. (Source: SEO project report)

:H KDYH LGHQWLHG VL[ SRVVLEOH GHHS FDYHUQ ORFDWLRQV


W\SLFDOO\ P EHORZ WKH JURXQG OHYHO RU P EHORZ WKH
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DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY

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VR WKDW RRULQJ FDQ EH LQVWDOOHG VLPLODU WR  WR  VWRUH\
EXLOGLQJ ZKLFK DOORZV IRU LQVWDOODWLRQ RI 0 ( ZRUNV DQG
Figure 1. Schematic layout of basement, shallow and deep
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caverns in three layers. (Source: SEO project report)
FRXOG RIIHU EHQHWV LQ WHUPV RI HQHUJ\ XVH DQG UHGXFWLRQ
RI DERYHJURXQG HQYLURQPHQWDO LPSDFWV 
Deep Basement
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:H KDYH LGHQWLHG SRWHQWLDO GHHS EDVHPHQW H[WHQVLRQ SURSRVHG1788QGHUJURXQG6SDFH)DFLOLWLHVGHYHORSPHQW
LGHDOO\ IRU SDUNLQJ ORWV 7KH GHHS EDVHPHQW LV H[FDYDWHG H[LW RSSRUWXQLWLHV PD\ EH OLPLWHG WR WKUHH VKDIW RSHQLQJV
DW DSSUR[LPDWHO\ P EHORZ WKH H[LVWLQJ EXLOGLQJ 7KLV DQG WKHVH VKDIWV PD\ EH VSDFHG P DSDUW RU PRUH ,Q
QHZ EDVHPHQW ZLOO RIIHU XS WR ILYH OHYHOV VSDFH IRU DGGLWLRQWKHSODQQLQJRIHDFKFDYHUQFRPSOH[FRQVLVWVRI
SDUNLQJ &XUUHQWO\ ZH DUH QRW GHDOLQJ ZLWK WKH VWUXFWXUDO DW OHDVW  H[LWV
GHVLJQ RI WKHVH GHHS EDVHPHQWV WKHUHIRUH D IXUWKHU VWXG\
LV UHFRPPHQGHG
CONCLUSIONS
Caverns at Shallow and Deep Depths 7KHFXUUHQWVWXG\SUHVHQWVWKHUVWH[DPSOHLQPD[LPL]LQJ
VSDFHXVHLQWKH178FDPSXVDQGRIIHUVSRWHQWLDORSWLRQV
,W LV LPSRUWDQW IRU WKH VWDELOLW\ RI D FDYHUQ WKDW ZH KDYH E\PDNLQJXVHRIXQGHUJURXQGVSDFHIRULWVOHDUQLQJFHQWUH
FDYHUQV DW GLIIHUHQW GHSWKV UDWKHU WKDQ RQH ODUJH FDYHUQ ODERUDWRULHVWXWRULDOURRPVVSRUWVKDOOVZLPPLQJSRRODQG
HVSHFLDOO\ ZKHQ LW VLWV EHORZ WKH H[LVWLQJ EXLOGLQJ 7KLV SDUNLQJ ORWV7KH JHRORJLFDO FRQGLWLRQ LV DOVR IRXQG WR EH
LV D FRVWHIIHFWLYH VROXWLRQ WR WKH VKDOORZ FDYHUQ DQG VXLWDEOH IRU WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI WKHVH IDFLOLWLHV
WKH GHHS FDYHUQ GXH WR GLIIHUHQW JHRORJLFDO DQG K\GUR
JHRORJLFDO FRQGLWLRQV 6KDOORZ FDYHUQV DUH ORFDWHG P
EHORZJURXQGOHYHORUPEHORZWKHGHHSEDVHPHQWDQG
REFERENCES
IXUWKHUGHWDLOVDUHVKRZQLQ)LJXUH7KHVKDOORZFDYHUQV
FRQQHFW WR WKH VXUIDFH WKURXJK SRUWDO WXQQHO DQG FRQQHFW >@ Underground Space below NTU Campus6(2SURMHFWUHSRUW
WR GHHS FDYHUQV WKURXJK VSLUDO UDPS 7KH RULHQWDWLRQ RI E\1DQ\DQJ&HQWUHIRU8QGHUJURXQG6SDFH1786HSW
WKHVKDOORZFDYHUQVLVODLG1RUWK(DVWVWUHWFKLQJIURPWKH
>@ &DUPRG\-6WHUOLQJ5Underground Space Design A
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ EXLOGLQJ WR WKH VWXGHQW VHUYLFH FHQWUH ,W LV Guide to Subsurface Utilization and Design for People in
QRWDEOHWKDWWKHRULHQWDWLRQDQGOD\RXWRIWKHFDYHUQLVDOVR Underground Space  :LOH\ SS
UHODWHGWRWKHRULHQWDWLRQRIURFNMRLQWDQGWKHFRQYHQLHQFH >@ =KDR - /LX 4 /HH .: &KRD 9 DQG 7HK &, 
RI WKH DFFHVV WR WKH OLQNHG WXQQHO 8QGHUJURXQG FDYHUQ GHYHORSPHQW LQ WKH -XURQJ VHGLPHQWDU\
URFN IRUPDWLRQ Tunnelling and Underground Space
Technology  SS 

109 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Structures and Mechanics

APPLICATION OF THE COUPLED


DDA/FEM METHOD IN SLOPE
STABILITY ANALYSIS
Tian Qian (Tian0046@ntu.edu.sg)
He Lei (Helei@ntu.edu.sg)
Zhao Zhiye (czzhao@ntu.edu.sg)
Sun Jianping (Sinjp@ntu.edu.sg)

ABSTRACT: The Nodal-based DDA method (NDDA) is a hybrid method which greatly improves the stress accuracy of the discontinuous
GHIRUPDWLRQ DQDO\VLV ''$  PHWKRG E\ FRXSOLQJ D ZHOOGHQHG QLWH HOHPHQW PHVK LQVLGH WKH ''$ EORFN 7KLV SDSHU SUHVHQWV WKH
slope stability and stabilization analysis using the NDDA method, and its performance is compared with the DDA method and the
traditional limit equilibrium method. The rock bolt element is introduced into the NDDA framework to simulate the interaction
between the rock bolt and the surrounding rock mass, and the rock slope example with different joint strengths is used to demonstrate
the effectiveness and reliability of the NDDA rock bolt model.

INTRODUCTION NDDA METHOD IN THE SLOPE STABILITY


ANALYSIS
Stability analysis is used to support the safe and functional
design of rock slope, and is a classical and challenging
problem in rock mechanics. The conventional methods for
rock slope stability analysis include the kinematic analysis,
URFNPDVVFODVVLFDWLRQDQGWKHOLPLWHTXLOLEULXPDQDO\VLV
In the past few decades, with the development of computing
power, numerical methods have become increasingly
SRSXODULQVORSHVWDELOLW\DQDO\VLV7KH1''$PHWKRGUVW
introduced by Shyu (1993), and developed to be a more
rigorous method by Bao (2010), can be regarded as a hybrid
method of FEM and DDA, in which the DDAs unique
EORFNNLQHPDWLFVLVFRXSOHGZLWKWKHZHOOGHYHORSHGQLWH
element mesh. In this paper, the performance of the NDDA
method in rock slope stability analysis is investigated, and )LJXUH  *HRPHWU\ FRQJXUDWLRQ RI WKH URFNOO VORSH
the DDA method and the limit equilibrium analysis are
also used as a comparison. The example presented here originated from Hoek (1983).
In order to save computation time, the dimension of the
rock slope is reduced. The geometry of the problem is
INTRODUCTION OF THE NDDA METHOD LOOXVWUDWHG LQ )LJXUH  ZKHUH WKH YHUWLFDO KHLJKW LV P
and the overall angle of the slope is about 30. Two
In the DDA method, the basic unknowns are the six measurement points are placed at the toe and the top of
displacements of the block {u0, v0, r0, x, y, xy} (shi, 1988) the slope. As the upper portion of the slope is comprised
while in the NDDA method, the basic unknowns are the of sands, gravels and clays while the lower part of the
displacements of the nodal points, which are the same as slope is formed by shale, the joint properties are different.
WKH QLWH HOHPHQW PHWKRG VR WKH FRXSOLQJ EHWZHHQ WKH The Poissons ratio used in the NDDA method is set as
DDA and the FEM is a natural process. 0.49 to preserve the area of the blocks in two-dimensional
DQDO\VLVDQGWKH<RXQJVPRGXOXVRIWKHEORFNLVVHWDV
Assuming there are n nodes in the system, the global GPa to reduce the deformation of the block. The penalty
equilibrium equations can be written as: YDOXH XVHG LQ WKH 1''$ VLPXODWLRQ LV  *3D DQG WKH
static analysis is used.
KD  F (1)
Table 1 lists the factor of safety obtained from the DDA
method, the NDDA method and the Sarmas method. As
where K is the global stiffness matrix, a 2n2n matrix. D
it can be seen, the NDDA method and the DDA method
is the unknown displacement vector and F is the equivalent
force vector.

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 110


Structures and Mechanics

UHVXOWLQYHU\FORVHIDFWRURIVDIHW\+RZHYHUWKH6DUPDV 7KHURFNEROWV\VWHPFDQHIIHFWLYHO\LPSURYHWKHVWDELOLW\
PHWKRG UHVXOWV LQ D PXFK KLJKHU YDOXH RIWKHVORSH7KHGLVSODFHPHQWRIWKHEORFNVRQO\LQFUHDVHV
DWWKHEHJLQQLQJGXHWRWKHHIIHFWRIJUDYLW\DQGZLOOVWD\
Table 1. Calculated factor of safety by different methods. VWDEOH DIWHUZDUGV VHH )LJXUH  D  7KH GHYHORSPHQWV RI
F6DUPD FNDDA FDDA WKHWHQVLOHIRUFHVLQWKHURFNEROWVKDYHWKHVDPHWUHQGDV
    WKHEORFNGLVSODFHPHQWVWKH\LQFUHDVHTXLFNO\DWWKHYHU\
EHJLQQLQJ DQG NHHS FRQVWDQW DV WKH VORSH LV VWDELOL]HG
VHH )LJXUH  E 
ROCK SLOPE REINFORCED BY ROCK BOLT
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7KHJHRPHWU\RIWKHVORSHLQWKLVFDVHLVWKHVDPHDVWKDW DUHGHSLFWHGLQ)LJXUH*HQHUDOO\WKHWHQVLOHIRUFHVRIDOO
VWXGLHG LQ WKH SUHYLRXV VHFWLRQ EXW WKH MRLQW VWUHQJWKV WKH URFN EROWV FRQFHQWUDWH DW WKH MRLQW RSHQLQJ FRQVLVWHQW
DUH UHGXFHG ZLWK D UHGXFWLRQ IDFWRU RI )   8QGHU WKH ZLWK WKH REVHUYDWLRQ RI WKH SXOO RXW WHVW UHSRUWHG E\ /L
JUDYLW\ IRUFH WKH XSSHU DFWLYH EORFN GHIRUPV UVW DQG  
WKH VPDOO GHIRUPDWLRQ GXULQJ WKH VLPXODWLRQ FKDQJHV WKH
LQLWLDO FRQJXUDWLRQ RI WKH VORSH DV ZHOO DV WUDQVIHUV WKH
XQEDODQFHGIRUFHIURPWKHXSSHUDFWLYHEORFNWRWKHORZHU
EORFNVDWWKHORZHUVORSH7KXVLWZLOOFDXVHWKHLQVWDELOLW\
RI WKH VORSH

Figure 4. Distribution of axial force along the rock bolt.

CONCLUSIONS

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LQ WKH VORSH VWDELOLW\ DQDO\VLV ,Q WKH 1''$ PHWKRG WKH
FRPSOHWH EORFN NLQHPDWLFV LV FRQVLGHUHG DQG WKH OLPLW
Figure 2. Rock slope reinforced by the fully grouted rock bolt. HTXLOLEULXP FRQGLWLRQ LV RQO\ RQH RI WKH DQDO\VLV UHVXOWV
7KHURFNEROWHOHPHQWLPSOHPHQWHGVKRZVWKHHIIHFWLYHQHVV
RI WKH URFN EROWV LQ VWDELOL]LQJ WKH VORSH

REFERENCES

>@ +RHN(6WUHQJWKRIMRLQWHGURFNPDVVHVGeotechnique
9RO  
>@ /L&&3HUIRUPDQFHRI'EROWVXQGHU6WDWLF/RDGLQJ
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering  
 D  E
>@ %DR + 5  1RGDO EDVHG GLVFRQWLQXRXV GHIRUPDWLRQ
Figure 3 Development of (a) block displacement and DQDO\VLVPh. D. thesis,&LYLODQG(QYLURQPHQWDO(QJLQHHULQJ
(b) maximum axial force of the rock bolt with time 1DQ\DQJ 7HFKQRORJ\ 8QLYHUVLW\
>@ 6KL * +  'LVFRQWLQXRXV GHIRUPDWLRQ DQDO\VLVD QHZ
,Q RUGHU WR VWDELOL]H WKH VORSH V\VWHP WKH IXOO\ JURXWHG
QXPHULFDOPRGHOIRUWKHVWDWLFVDQGG\QDPLFVRIEORFNV\VWHPV
URFNEROWVDUHDSSOLHGDWWKHWRHRIWKHVORSHDVVKRZQLQ ph. D. Thesis 'HSDUWPHQW RI &LYLO (QJLQHHULQJ 8QLYHUVLW\
)LJXUH  7KHUH DUH WRWDOO\ VHYHQ IXOO\ JURXWHG URFN EROWV RI &DOLIRUQLD DW %HUNHOH\ %HNHOH\
LQVWDOOHG LQ WKH URFN VORSH DQG WKH GLUHFWLRQ DQJOH RI WKH >@ 6K\X .  1RGDOEDVHG GLVFRQWLQXRXV GHIRUPDWLRQ
URFN EROWV LV  DQDO\VLV Ph.D. Thesis 'HSDUWPHQW RI &LYLO (QJLQHHULQJ
8QLYHUVLW\ RI &DOLIRUQLD DW %HUNHOH\ %HNHOH\

111 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Research Projects

ONGOING PROJECTS

PROJECT TITLE OWNERSHIP PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

A Novel extractive membrane bioreactor for recalcitrant NEWRI Anthony Gordon Fane
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composite membrane and bioaugmentation

Novel Biogenic Nanomaterials as Nanocatalysts and EWRE Div, CEE Cao Bin
Nanoantimicrobials (SCELSE)

Provision of Consultancy Services for Jurong Island NEWRI Chang Wei-Chung


Phytoremediation Study on Landscape Vegetation

Benchmarking of Indoor Air Cleaning Technologies NEWRI Chang Wei-Chung

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Post-mortem Assessment of Beaudrain-S Site Trial I3C, CEE Chu Jian

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the Removal of Phenol from Waste Water

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advances slope engineering based on therory of
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Future Scenarios

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 112


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Anaerobic Biodegradability of Sludge from Water NEWRI Ng Wun Jern


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113 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Research Projects

COMPLETED PROJECTS
Urban Development with Financially Sediment plumes in waves (Postgraduate
Sustainable Public Transit Services Student Supervised: Zhao Bing)
Principal Investigator: Wang Zhiwei Principal Investigator: Law Wing-Keung, Adrian

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important guidelines for integrating the planning of urban
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that serves to connect underground centralities intemally,
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The Essential Roles of Adenosine Triphosphate Loading
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Communication in Aerobic Granulation
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123 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Research Projects

E\ WHVW GDWD ZKLFK DJUHHG ZHOO ZLWK WKH QGLQJV  7KH experiment, and their effect on the propagation velocity is
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PRGLHG EDVHG RQ WHVW QGLQJV VR WKDW LW LV DSSOLFDEOH WR Instability of Sand under Generalized Stress
both normal strength concrete and high strength concrete Conditions
EHDPFROXPQ MRLQWV Zhang Bo

The instability behavior of sand can cause landslides and


A Tactical Planning Model for Supply Chains GHEULVRZZKHUHODUJHSODVWLFVWUDLQDUHJHQHUDWHGUDSLGO\
with Nested Ordering Policy due to the inability of soil element to sustain a given load
Seyed Mehdi Zahraei RU VWUHVV

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that incorporates the key tactical considerations in a supply RI VDQG XQGHU JHQHUDOL]HG VWUHVV FRQGLWLRQV DQG LQFOXGHV
chain, including safety stocks, production smoothing and ERWK D[LV\PPHWULF DQG SODQH VWUDLQ FRQGLWLRQV  )LUVWO\
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it processes and produces a quantity according to a linear that the instability behaviors under the extension side are
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because this phenomenon and the resultant vortex induced capacity and an extremely fragmented structure, caused
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3-dimensional pipeline scour and explore the mechanics
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direction may be divided into a rapid and a slack phase of
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based on the observations and data obtained in the scour

&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 124


Research Projects

Progressive Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Development of Novel Hollow Fiber Membranes


Building Structures for Forward Osmosis Applications
Pham Xuan Dat Laurentia E.K. Setiawan

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Molecular Mechanisms of Selection Pressure-


Driven Aerobic Granulation in Sequencing Hierarchical Assembly of Immobilized TiO2-
Batch Reactors based Nanostructured Epitaxial Films on
Xiong Yanghui Ti Substrates for Photocatalytic Water
Decontamination and Hydrogen Generation
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125 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Research Projects

Direct Numerical Simulations of Boundary Composite Effects of Filler on Properties of


Layer Transition by Combined Compact Asphalt Concrete Mixture and its Bonding
Difference Methods Characteristics with Asphalt
Chen Weijia Anggraini Zulkati

This study aims to produce a stable and accurate numerical This research study systematically investigated the role of
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random spatial locations and have distorted shapes, their The resultant properties of the mastic thus determine the
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Photocatalytic Oxidation Effects of Chlorine Exposure on Physiochemical
Han Zhenan Properties and Performance of Polyamide
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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 126


Research Projects

Application of Extended Finite Element Method Structural Behaviour and Fire-Resistant


for Plastic Hinges and Yield Lines Analysis Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns at
Xu Jin Elevated Temperatures
Nguyen Truong Thang
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Joints
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127 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Research Projects

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&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFKJanuary 2014 128


Research Projects

Fatigue Analysis of Steel Catenary Risers at Hybrid Membrane VIS-LED Photoreactor for
the Touchdown Point Simultaneous Pharmaceuticals Degradation
Li Fengzi and Photocatalysts Separation
Wang Penghua
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129 January 2014&LYLO(QJLQHHULQJ5HVHDUFK


Research Projects

Numerical Study on Reinforced Concrete Destruction of Emerging Organic Contaminants


Beam-Column Frames in Progressive Collapse and Bacteria in Water by TiO2-based
Long Xu Photocatalysts under Visible-light LED
Irradiation
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investigate the deformation behaviour of reinforced concrete
(RC) beam-column framed structures in progressive In this study, various types of highly visible-light active
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