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# ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING GIBILISCO Visible light is converted into electricity

CHAPTER 1

## The atomic number of an element is determined by CHAPTER 2

Ans: the number of protons
A positive electric pole
The atomic weight of an element is approximately Ans: has fewer electrons than the negative pole/
determined by
Ans: the number protons plus the number of An EMF of 1 V
neutrons Ans: can sometimes produce a large current

Suppose there is an atom oxygen. Containing eight A potentially lethal electric current is on the order of
protons and eight neutrons in the nucleus, and the two Ans: 0.1 A
neutrons are added to the nucleus. What is the resulting
atomic weight? A current of 25 A is most likely drawn by
Ans: 18 Ans: a typical household

An ion You are told that an air conditioner has cooled a room
Ans: can have either positive or negative charge by 500 BTU over a certain period of time. What is this
amount of energy in kWh?
An isotope Ans: 0.147 kWh
Ans: can have either positive or negative charge
Of the following energy units, the most often used to
A molecule define electrical energy is
Ans: can consist of a single atom of an element Ans: the kilowatt-hour

## In a compound, The frequency of common household ac in the United

Ans: There must always be two or more elements States is
Ans: 60 Hz
An electrical insulator can made a conductor
Ans: by ionizing it. Half-wave rectification means that
Ans: half of the ac wave is cut-off.
Of the following substances, the worst conductor is
Ans: air. In the output of a half-wave rectifier,
Ans: the effective voltage is less than that of the ac
Of the following substances, the best conductor is input wave.
Ans: copper
In the output of a full wave rectifier,
Movement of holes in a semiconductor Ans: the effective voltage is the same as that of the
Ans: results in a certain amount of electric current. ac input wave.

## If a material has low resistance, then A low voltage, such as 12 V,

Ans: it is a good conductor. Ans: can be dangerous under certain conditions.

## A coulomb Which of the following units can represent

Ans: is an extremely large of charge carriers. magnetomotive force?
Ans: The ampere-turn
A stroke of lightning
Ans: is a discharge of static electricity. Which of the foloowing units can represent magnetic
flux density?
The volt is the standard unit of Ans: the gauss.
Ans: electromotive force
A ferromagnetic material
If an EMF of 1 volt is placed across a resistance of 2 Ans: concentrates magnetic flux lines within itself.
ohms, then the current is
Ans: half an ampere
CHAPTER 3
In a battery, chemical energy can sometimes be
replenished by The attraction or repulsion between two electrically
Ans: charging it. charged object is called
Ans: Electrostatic force
A fluctuating magnetic field
Ans: produces a fluctuating electric field.

1
The change in the direction of a compass needle, when An oscilloscope cannot be used to indicate
current carrying wire is brought near, is called Ans: Energy
Ans: Electromagnetic deflection

## Suppose a certain current in a galvanometer causes the CHAPTER 4

needle to deflect by 20 degrees, and then this current is
doubled while the polarity stays the same. The angle of Suppose you double the voltage in a somple dc circuit,
the deflection will and cut the resistance in half. The current will
Ans: increase. Ans: becomes four times as great.

One important advantage of an electrostatic meter is You can expect to find a wiring diagram
the fact that Ans: in the service/repair manual for a two-way
Ans: it can detect and indicate ac voltages as well radio.
as dc voltages.
Suppose you have an unlimited supply of 1-W, 100-
A thermocouple resistors. You need to get a 100- , 10-W resistor. This
Ans: gets warm when dc flows though it. can be done most cheaply by means of a series-parallel
matrix of
An important advantage of an electromagnet type meter Ans: 4x4 resistors.
over a permanent magnet meter is the fact that
Ans: the electromagnet meter gets more rugged. Suppose you have an unlimited supply of 1-W, 1000-
resistors and you need a 500- resistance rated at 7 W
Ammeter shunts are useful because or more. This can be done by assembling
Ans: they allow for measurements of large currents. Ans: four sets of resitors in series, and connecting
these four sets in parallel.
Voltmeters should have
Ans: high internal resistance. Suppose you have an unlimited supply of 1-W, 1000-
resistors and you need to get a 3000-, 5-W resistance.
In order to measure the power-supply voltage that is The best way is to
applied to an electrical circuit, a voltmeter should be Ans: do something other than any of the above
placed
Ans: in parallel with the circuit that works from the Good engineering practice usually requires that a
supply. series-parallel resistive network be assembled
Ans: form resistors that are all identical.
Which of the following will not normally cause a large
Ans: A small change in the resistance to be CHAPTER 5
measured.
In a series-connected string of ornament bulbs, if one
The main advantage of FETVM over a conventional bulb gets shorted out, which of the following will occur?
voltmeter is the fact that the FETVM Ans: The current in the string will go up.
Ans: draws less current from the circuit under test.
Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true:
Which of the following is not a function of a fuse? In a series or parallel dc circuit sum of the ___s in each
Ans: To ensure there is enough current available for component is equal to the ___ provided by the power
an appliance to work right. supply.
Ans: wattage
The utilitys motor speed depends directly on
Ans: the number of watt-hours being used at the In a voltage divider network, the total resistance
time. Ans: should be as small as the power supply will
allow.
Ans: energy. The maximum voltage output from a voltage divider
Ans: is equal to the supply voltage.
A typical frequency counter
Ans: is accurate to six digits or more.
CHAPTER 6
A VU meter is never used to get a general indication of
Ans: visible light intensity. Proper biasing in an amplifier circuit
Ans: can be obtained using a voltage divider
The meter movement in an illumination meter directly network.
measures
Ans: current.

2
A transistor can be protected from needless overheating Alkaline cells
by Ans: generally work better in radios than zinc-
Ans: a current limiting resistor. carbon cells.

## A bleeder resistor The energy in a cell or battery depends mainly on

Ans: is connected across the capacitor in a power Ans: its physical size.
supply.
In which of the following devices would a lantern battery
Carbon composition resitors most likely be found?
Ans: have essentially no capacitance or inductance. Ans: a two-way portable radio.

A logical place for a wirewound resistor In which of the following devices would a transistor
Ans: in a high power dc circuit. battery be the best power choice?
Ans: an electronic calculator
A metal film resistor
Ans: does not have much inductance. For which of the following applications would you
choose a lithium battery?
What type of resistor, or combination of resistors, would Ans: A microcomputer memory backup.
you use as the meter-sensitivity control in a test
instrument, when continuous adjustment is desired? Where would you most likely find a lead-acid battery?
Ans: A linear taper potentiometer. Ans: In an uninterruptible power supply.

What type of resistor, or combination of resistors, would A cell or battery that maintains a constant current-
you use as the volume control in a stereo compact-disc delivering capability almost until it dies is said to have
(CD) player? Ans: A flat discharge curve.
Ans: An audio taper potentiometer.
Where might you find a nickel-based battery?
An advantage of rheostat over a potentiometer is the Ans: More than one of the above.
fact that
Ans: a rheostat can handle more current. A disadvantage of mercury cells and batteries is the fact
that
A resistor has a value of 680 , and you expect that it Ans: mercury is destructive to the environment.
will have to draw 1 mA maximum continuous current in
a circuit youre building. What power rating is good for What kind of battery should never be used until it dies?
this application, but not needlessly high? Ans: Nickel based.
Ans: W
The useful current that is delivered by a solar power
Suppose a 1 k resistor will dissipate 1.05 W, and you system
have a good supply of 1 W resistors of various ohmic Ans: connecting two or more groups of solar cells
values. If theres room for 20 percent resistance error, in parallel.
the cheapest solution is to use
Ans: a pair of 2.2 k, 1-W resistors in parallel. An interactive solar power system
Ans: allows a homeowner to sell power to the
electric company.
CHAPTER 7
An advantage of methanol over hydrogen for use in fuel
The chemical energy in a battery or cell cells is the fact that
Ans: changes to electrical energy when the cell is Ans: methanol is easier to transport and store.
used.

## A cell cannot be recharged is known as CHAPTER 8

Ans: a primary cell.
The geomagnetic field
A Weston cell is generally used Ans: makes a compass work.
Ans: as a voltage reference source.
Geomagnetic lines of flux
The voltage produced by a battery of multiple cells Ans: are horizontal at the geomagnetic equator.
connected in series is
Ans: more than the voltage produced by a cell of A material that can be permanently magnetized is
the same composition. generally said to be
Ans: ferromagnetic.
A direct short-circuit of a large battery can cause
Ans: a physical rupture or explosion. The force between a magnet and a piece of
ferromagnetic metal that has not been magnetized
Ans: is never be repulsive.

3
The presence of a magnetic field can always be The ohm is a unit of
attributed to Ans: opposition to electrical current.
Ans: motion of electric charge carriers.
A wiring diagram differs from a schematic diagram in
Lines of magnetic flux are said to origniate that
Ans: at a north magnetic pole. Ans: A wiring diagram shows the component
values, but a schematic diagram might not.
The magnetic flux around a straight, current-carrying
wire In which of the following places would you be most
Ans: is strongest near the wire. likely to find a wirewound resistor?
Ans: A dc circuit location where a large amount of
The gauss is a unit of power must be dissipated.
Ans: magnetic flux density
The number of protons in the nucleus of an element is
A unit of overall magnetic field quantity is the known as the
Ans: Maxwell. Ans: atomic number.

Which of the following can occur during a geomagnetic A hot wire ammeter
storm? Ans: can measure ac as well as dc.
Ans: More than one above can occur.
Which of the following units indicates at which energy is
An ac electromagnet expended?
Ans: attracts pure, unmagnetized iron. Ans: Watt

An advantage of an electromaganet over a permanent Which of the following states Ohms Law?
magnet is a fact that Ans: Ohms equal volts divided by amperes.
Ans: an electromagnet can be switched on and off.
The current flowing into a power in a dc circuit is equal
A substance with high retentivity to the current
Ans: is well suited to making a permanent magnet. Ans: Flowing out of that point.

Suppose a relay is connected into a circuit so that a In a loudness meter in a hi-fi system is generally
device gets a signal only when the relay coil carries calibrated in
current. The relay is Ans: Decibels.
Ans: normally open.
An electrically charged atom (either positive or
A device that repeatedly reverses the polarity of a negative) is known as
magnetic field in order to keep a dc motor rotating is Ans: an ion.
known as
Ans: A commutator. The peak voltage in an ac wave is always
Ans: is greater than or equal to the average voltage.
A high tape-recorder motor speed is generally used for
Ans: video recording and playback. A primitive device for indicating the presence of an
electric current is
An advantage of a magnetic disk, compared with Ans: a galvanometer.
magnetic tape, for data storage and retrieval is that
Ans: data can be stored and retrieved more quickly A disadvantage of mercury cells is the fact that they
with disks than tapes. Ans: can adversely affect the environment when
A magnetic hard disk is usually part of
Ans: A computer. Which of the following is not a common use for a
resistor or set of resistors
Ans: Helping a capacitor to hold its charge for a
TEST: PART 1 long time.

An application in which an analog meter would almost When an electrical charge exists but there is no flow of
always be preferred over a digital meter is current, the charge is said to be
Ans: the signal strength indicator in a radio Ans: static.
The sum of the voltages, going around a dc circuit, but
Which of the following statement is false? not including the power supply, has
Ans: The current in a dc circuit is divided up among Ans: an equal value, but the opposite polarity from,
the resistances. the supply.

4
A watt-hour meter measures Memory in nickel-based cell or battery
Ans: Energy. Ans: can usually be remedied by repeated
discharging and recharging.
Every chemical element has its own unique type of
particle, which is known as its A material with high permeability
Ans: Proton. Ans: concentrates the magnetic lines of flux.

## An advantage of magnetic disk over magnetic tape for A chemical compound

data storage is the fact that Ans: consists of two or more atoms.
Ans: data storage and retrieval is faster on disk.
The main problem with bar-graph meters is the fact that
A sample of material with resistance so high that it can Ans: they cannot give very precise readings.
be considered infinite for most practical purposes is
known as
Ans: an insulator. CHAPTER 9

Primary cells Which of the following can vary with ac, but never with
Ans: cannot be recharged. dc?
Ans: Frequency
A rheostat
Ans: can be used in high voltage and/or high power The length of time between a point in one cycle and the
dc circuits. same point in the next cycle of an ac wave is the
Ans: Period
How much a typical dry cell provide?
Ans: 1.5 V. On a spectrum analyzer, an ac signal having only one
frequency component looks like
A geomagnetic storm Ans: A single pip.
Ans: can disturb the earths magnetic field.
The period of an ac wave, in seconds, is
The advantage of an alkaline cell over a carbon zinc cell Ans: equal to 1 divided by the frequency in Hertz
is the fact that
Ans: the alkaline cell can deliver useful current at The 6th harmonic of an ac wave whose period is 1.000
low temperatures. millisecond (1.000 ms) has a frequency of
Ans: 6.000 kHz
A unit of electrical charge quantity is the
Ans: Coulomb. A degree of phase represents
Ans: 1/360 of a cycle
A unit of conductance is the
Ans: Siemens. Suppose that two ac waves have the same frequency
but differ in phase by exactly 1/20 of a cycle. What is
The main difference between a lantern battery and a the phase difference between these two waves?
transistor battery is the fact that Ans: 180 degrees.
Ans: A lantern battery has more energy stored in it
than a fresh transistor battery. A triangular wave exhibits
Ans: a defined rise and a defined decay, and the
Nickel based batteries would most likely be found two are equal.
Three phase ac
A voltmeter should have Ans: consists of three sine waves in different
Ans: High internal resistance. phases.

The purpose of a bleeder resistor is to If two perfect sine waves have the same frequency and
Ans: protect people against the danger of electric the same amplitude, but are in opposite phase, the
shock. composite wave
Ans: has zero amplitude (that is, it does noe exist),
A dc electromagnet because the two input waves cancel each other out.
Ans: has constant polarity.
If two perfect sine waves have the same frequency and
The rate at which charged carriers flow is measured in the same phase. The composite wave
Ans: Amperes Ans: is a sine wave with an amplitude equal to the
sum of the amplitudes of the two original waves.
A device commonly used for remote switching of high-
current circuits is In a perfect sine wave, the peak-to-peak amplitude is
Ans: A relay. equal to
Ans: twice the peak amplitude

5
Which one of the following does not affect the power CHAPTER 11
output available from a particular ac generator?
Ans: The type of natural energy source used. Capacitance acts to store electrical energy as
Ans: electric field.
If a 175 V dc source were connected in series with the
utility mains from a standard wall outlet, the result would As capacitor plate area increases, all other things being
be equal,
Ans: Fluctuating dc. Ans: the capacitance increases.

An advantage of ac over dc in utility applications is the As the spacing between plates in a capacitor is smaller,
fact that all other things being equal,
Ans: ac is easier to transform one voltage to Ans: the capacitance increases.
another.
A material with a high dielectric constant
Ans: acts to increase capacitance per unit volume.
CHAPTER 10
The main advantage of air as a dielectric material for
An inductor works by capacitors is the fact that it
Ans: storing energy as a magnetic field. Ans: has low loss.

Which of the following does not affect inductance of an Which of the following is not a characteristic of mica
air-core coil, if all other factors are held constant? capacitors?
Ans: frequency Ans: Small size, even for large values of
capacitance.
In a small inductance
Ans: energy is stored and released quickly. The main problem with bar-graph meters is the fact that
Ans: they cannot give very precise readings.
A ferromagnetic core is placed in an inductor mainly to
Ans: increase the inductance. Which of the following capacitance values is most
typical of a disk-ceramic capacitor?
Inductors in series, assuming there is no mutual Ans: 100 pF
inductance, combine
Ans: like resistors in series. Which of the following capacitance values is most
typical of a paper capacitor?
With permeability tuning, moving the coil further into a Ans: 0.01 uF
solenoidal coil
Ans: increases the inductance. Which of the following capacitance values is most
typical of an air-variable capacitor?
A significant advantage in some situations of a toroidal Ans: 1 to 100 pF
core over a solenoid is the fact that
Ans: the magnetic flux in a toroid is practically all Which of the following capacitors is polarized?
within the core. Ans: Electrolytic

A major feature of a pot core inductor is If a capacitor has a negative temperature coefficient,
Ans: large inductance in small volume. then
Ans: its capacitance decreases as the temperature
As an inductor core material, air rises.
Ans: has high permeability.

## At a frequency of 400 Hz, which is in the AF range, the CHAPTER 12

most likely form for an inductor would be
Ans: toroidal. Which of the following is not a general characteristic of
an ac wave?
At a frequency of 95.7 MHz, which is in the frequency- Ans: The electrons flow in the same direction.
modulation (FM) broadcast band and is considered part
of the very high frequency (VHF) radio spectrum, a All sine waves
good form for an inductor would be Ans: have similar general appearance.
Ans: air-core.
The derivative of a sine wave
The main problem with bar-graph meters is the fact that Ans: is the rate of change in the instantaneous
Ans: they cannot give very precise readings. value.

## A phase difference of 180 in the circular motion model

of a sine wave represents
Ans: revolution

6
You can add or subtract a certain number of degrees of Each point in the RL plane.
phase to or from a wave, and end up with exactly the Ans: corresponds to a unique combination of
same wave again. This number is resistance and inductive reactance.
Ans: 360, or any whole-number multiple of it.
If the resistance R and the inductive reactance XL both
You can add or subtract a certain number of degrees of are allowed to vary from zero to unlimited values, but
phase or to from a sine wave, and end up with an are always in the ratio 3:1, the points in the RL plane for
inverted (upside down) representation of the original. all the resulting impedances will lie along
This number is Ans: a ray of indefinite length, pointing outward the
Ans: 180, or any odd-whole number multiple of it. origin.

Suppose two waves are in phase coincidence. One has Each specific complex impedance value defined in the
peak values of 3 V and the other has peak values of form R + jXL
5 V. The resultant has voltages of Ans: All of the above are true.
Ans: 8 V pk, in phase with the composites.
A vector is defined as mathematical quantity that has
As shown on a graph, shifting the phase of an ac sine Ans: magnitude and direction
wave by 90 is the same thing as
Ans: moving it right or left by cycle. In a circuit containing inductive reactance but no
resistance, the phase angle is
Two pure sine wave differ in phase by 180 can be Ans: equal to 90.
considered to
Ans: be in phase opposition If the inductive reactance and resistance in an RL circuit
are equal (as expressed in ohms) then what is the
Suppose two sine waves are in phase opposition. Wave phase angle?
X has a peak amplitude of 4 V and wave Y has a peak Ans: 45
amplitude of 8 V. The resultant has voltages of
Ans: 4 V pk, in phase with wave Y.
CHAPTER 14
If wave X leads wave Y by 45, then
Ans: Wave Y is 1/8 cycle behind wave X. As the size of the plates in a capacitor increases, all
other things are being equal
If wave X lags wave Y by 1/3 cycle, then Ans: the value of xC decreases negatively.
Ans: WAye Y is 120 ahead of wave X.
If the dielectric material between the plates of a
In vector diagram, the length of the vector represents capacitor is changed, all other things being equal.
Ans: the peak amplitude of a sine wave Ans: we cannot say what happens to xC without
more data.
In vector diagram, the angle between two vectors
represents As the frequency of a wave gets lower, all other things
Ans: the phase difference between two sine waves. being equal, the value of xC for a capacitor
Ans: increases negatively.
In vector diagrams, the distance from the center of the
graph represents Each point in the RC plane
Ans: peak amplitude Ans: corresponds to a unique combination of
resistance and reactance.
In diagrams, the progression, of the is sometimes
depicted as If R increases in an RC circuit, but the capacitance and
Ans: counterclockwise rotation of a vector the frequency are nonzero and constant, then the vector
in the RC plane will
Ans: get longer and rotate counterclockwise.
CHAPTER 13
Each complex impedance value R - jXC
As the number of turns in a coil that carries ac Ans: represents a unique combination of resistance
increases without limit, the current in the coil will and reactance.
Ans: decrease, approaching zero
In an RC circuit, as the ratio xC/R approaches zero, the
As the number of turns in a coil increases, the phase angle
reactance at a constant frequency Ans: approaches 0.
Ans: increases
In a purely resistive circuit, the phase angle is
As the frequency of an ac wave gets lower, the value of Ans: 0
xL for a particular coil of wire
Ans: decreases. If xC/R = -1 then what is the phase angle?
Ans: -45

7
CHAPTER 15 Power factor is equal to
Ans: true power divided by apparent power.
The square of an imaginary number
Ans: can never be positive The phase angle in an ac circuit is equal to
Ans: arctan (R/Z)
A complex number
Ans: has a real number part and an imaginary part. Which of the following should be minimized in an RF
transmission line?
The complex impedance value 5 + j0 represents Ans: The line loss
Ans: a pure resistance
Which of the following does not increase the loss in the
The complex impedance value 0 j22 represents transmission line?
Ans: a pure capacitance Ans: Reducing the power output of the source.

If the center conductor of a coaxial cable is made to Which of the following is a significant problem that
have a smaller diameter, all other things being equal, standing waves can cause in an RF transmission line?
what will happen to the Zo of the transmission line? Ans: All of the above
Ans: It will increase,

## Susceptance and conductance add to form CHAPTER 18

In a step-up transformer,
Absolute value impedance is equal to the square root of Ans: the primary voltage is less than the secondary
which of the following? voltage.
Ans: R2 + X2
The capacitance between the primary and the
Inductive susceptance is defined in secondary windings of a transformer can be minimized
Ans: imaginary siemens by
Ans: placing the windings on opposite sides of a
Capacitive susceptance values can be defined by toroidal core.
Ans: positive imaginary numbers
A transformer has a secondary to primary turns ratio of
Which of the following is false? 0.167. This transformer is
Ans: Characteristic impedance is complex. Ans: a step down unit.

In general, as the absolute value of the impedance in a Which of the following statements is false, concerning
circuit increases air cores compared with ferromagnetic cores?
Ans: the flow of ac decreases Ans: Air concentrates the magnetic lines of flux

## Eddy currents cause

CHAPTER 16 Ans: an increase in core loss.

When R = 0 in a series RLC circuit, but the net The shell method of transformer winding
reactance is not zero, the impedance vector Ans: provides maximum coupling
Ans: none of the above is correct
Which of these core types is best if you need a winding
What will happen to the susceptance of a capacitor if inductance of 1.5 H?
the frequency is doubled and all other factors remain Ans: Ferromagnetic pot core
constant?
Ans: It will double An advantage of toroid core over a solenoid core is the
fact that
A vector pointing southeast in the GB plane would Ans: the toroid confines the magnetic flux
indicate
Ans: conductance and inductive susceptance High voltage is used in long-distance power
transmission because
Ans: the I2R losses are minimized
CHAPTER 17
In a household circuit, 234-V rms electricity usually has
The power in a pure reactance is Ans: three phases.
Ans: imaginary.
In a transformer, a center tap often exists in
Which of the following is not an example of true power? Ans: the secondary winding
Ans: The product of the rms ac through capacitor
and the rms voltage across it. An autotransformer
Ans: consists of a single tap winding

8
If there is reactance in the load to which a transformer is The inductance of a coil can be adjusted in a practical
connected, then way by
Ans: a perfect impedance match cannot be Ans: varying the number of turns using multiple
obtained. taps.

## Power factor is defined as the ratio of

TEST: PART 2 Ans: true power to VA power.

Mutual inductance causes the net value of a set of coils The vector 40 + j30 in the RX plane represents
Ans: vary, depending on the extent and phase of Ans: 40 of resistance and 30 of inductive
mutual coupling. reactance.

In a series RL circuit, as the resistance becomes small In a series RC circuit where R = 300 and xC = -30 ,
compared with the reactance, the angle of lag Ans: the current leads the voltage by a few degrees.
approaches which of the following?
Ans: 90 In a step down transformer,
Ans: the primary voltage is greater than the
In a parallel configuration, susceptances secondary voltage.
A pure sine wave contains energy at
If two sine waves are 180 out of phase, it represents a Ans: only one specific frequency.
difference of
Ans: of a cycle. Inductive susceptance is
Ans: negative imaginary
If R denotes resistance and Z denotes absolute-value
impedance then R/Z represents the The rate of change (derivative)_ of a pure sine wave is
Ans: power factor another pure sine wave that has the same frequency as
the original wave, and
Which of the following capacitor is polarized? Ans: leads the original wave by 90.
Ans: Electrolytic
True power is equal to
A coil with a toroidal, ferromagnetic core Ans: the vector difference between VA and reactive
Ans: is essentially self shielding. power.

The efficiency of electric generator The reactance of a section of transmission line depends
Ans: is equal to the electrical output power divided on all of the following factors except
by the mechanical input power. Ans: the current in the line.

## Admittance is When analyzing a parallel RLC circuit to find the

Ans: a measure of the ease which a circuit passes complex impedance, you should
ac. Ans: find the net conductance and susceptance,
convert to resiatnce and reactance, and then add
The absolute value of impedance Z of a parallel RLC these to get R + jX
circuit, where R is the resistance and X is the net
reactance, is found according to which of the following Suppose that two pure sine waves have no dc
formulas? components, have the same frequency, and have the
Ans: Z2 = R2X2/(R2+X2) same peak-to-peak voltages, but they cancel each other
out when they combined. What is the phase difference
Complex numbers are used to represent impedance between the waves?
because Ans: 180
Ans: they provide a way to represent what happens
in resistance-reactance circuits. The characteristic impedance of a transmission line
Ans: depends on the construction of a line.
Which of the following (within reason) has no effect on
the value, in farads, of a capacitor? A capacitor with a negative temperature coefficient
Ans: The frequency. Ans: exhibits increasing capacitance as the
temperature drops.
The 0 phase point in an ac sine wave is usually
considered to be the point in time at which the
instantaneous amplitude is
Ans: zero and positive going.

9
CHAPTER 19 If the reverse bias exceeds the avalanche voltage in a
P-N junction,
The term semiconductor arises from Ans: the junction will conduct current.
Ans: variable conductive properties of some
materials. Avalanche voltage is routinely exceeded when a P-N
junction acts as a
Which of the following is not an advantage of Ans: voltage regulator
semiconductor devices over vacuum tubes?
Ans: Ability to withstand high voltage spikes. Which of the following does not affect the junction
capacitance of a diode?
Of the following substances, which is the most Ans: the phase of an applied ac signal
commonly used semiconductor?
Ans: Silicon
CHAPTER 20
GaAs is
Ans: a compound When a diode is forward biased, the anode voltage
Ans: is positive relative to the cathode voltage
A disadvantage of MOS devices is the fact that
Ans: they can be damaged by electrostatic If a diode is connected in series with the secondary
discharges. winding of an ac transformer, and if the peak voltage
across the diode never exceeds the avalanche voltage,
Selenium works especially well in then the output of the complete transformer diode circuit
Ans: photocells is
Ans: none of the above
Of the following, which material allows the lowest
forward voltage drop in a diode? A crystal set
Ans: Germanium Ans: requires no battery

## A CMOS integrated circuit A diode detector

Ans: requires very little power to function. Ans: is employed in some radio receivers

The purpose of doping is to If the output wave in a circuit has the same shape as
Ans: gives a semiconductor material specific the input wave, then
properties. Ans: the circuit is operating in a linear manner.

A semiconductor material is made into N type Suppose of the two input signal frequencies to a mixer
Ans: adding a donor impurity circuit are 3.522 MHz and 3.977 MHz. At which of the
following frequencies can we expect a signal to exist at
Which of the following does not result from adding an the output?
acceptor impurity? Ans: 455 kHz
Ans: The substance requires an electron surplus
Fill in the blanks to make the sentence correct: A
In a P type material, electrons are spectrum analyzer provides a display of ___ as a
Ans: the minority carriers function of ____.
Ans: amplitude/frequency
Holes move from
Ans: P-type to N-type material Zener voltage is a specialized manifestation of
Ans: avalanche voltage
When a P-N junction does not conduct even though a
voltage is applied, the junction is The forward breakover voltage of a silicon diode is
Ans: reverse biased at a voltage less than the Ans: about 0.6 V
avalanche voltage.
A diode audio limiter circuit
Holes flow the opposite way from electrons because Ans: can cause distortion under some conditions.
Ans: they have opposite electric charge
The capacitance of a varactor varies with the
If an electron is considered to have a charge of -1 unit, Ans: reverse voltage
then a hole can be considered to have
Ans: a charge of + 1 unit The purpose of the I layer in a PIN diode is to
Ans: minimize the junction capacitance
When a PN junction is forward biased, condiction will
not occur unless Which of these diode types can be used as the key
Ans: the applied volktage exceeds the forward element in the oscillator circuit of a microwave radio
breakover voltage. transmitter?
Ans: An IMPATT diode

10
A Gunnplexer is often used as a What is the principal disadvantage of a voltage-doubler
Ans: microwave communications device power supply circuit?
Ans: Poor regulation under heavy loads.
The most likely place you would find an LED would be
in Suppose a transformer secondary provides 10 V rms ac
Ans: a digital frequency display to a voltage doubler circuit. What is the approximate dc
Coherent electromagnetic radiation is produced by Ans: 28 V
Ans: laser diode
The ripple frequency from a full wave rectifier is
Suppose you want a circuit to operate in a stable Ans: twice that from a half-wave circuit
manner when the load impedance varies. You might
consider a coupling method that employs Which of the following would make the best filter for a
Ans: an optoisolator power supply?
Ans: A capacitor in parallel and a choke in series.
The electrical power that a solar panel can provide
either in direct sunlight depends on all of the following If you need exceptionally good ripple filtering for a
factors except power supply, which of the following alternatives will
Ans: the ac voltage applied to the panel yield the best results?
Ans: Use two capacitor/choke filtering sections in
Emission of energy in an IRED is caused by cascade.
Ans: changes in electron energy within atoms.
Voltage regulation can be accomplished by a Zener
A photodiode, when not used as a photovoltaic cell, has diode connected in
Ans: reverse bias. Ans: parallel with the filter output, reverse biased.

## A current surge takes place when a power supply is first

CHAPTER 21 turned on because
Ans: the filter capacitor(s) must be initially charged.
The output of a rectifier circuit without a filter
Ans: pulsating dc Transient suppression is of importance mainly because
it minimizes the risk of
Which of the following components is not necessarilt Ans: diode failure
required in a power supply designed to produce 12-V dc
output with 117-V rms ac input? If a fuse blows, and it is replaced with one having a
Ans: All of the above (transformer, rectifier, and lower current rating, there is a good chance that
filter) Ans: the fuse will blow out right away.

Of the following appliances, which need the biggest Suppose you set a fuse with nothing but a straight wire
transformer? inside. You can assume that this fuse
Ans: A television broadcast transmitter Ans: is a quick break type.

An advantage of full-wave bridge rectification is the fact In order to minimize the risk of diode destruction as a
that result of surge current that can occur when a power
Ans: it uses the whole transformer secondary for supply is first switched on, which of the following
the entire ac input cycle. techniques can be useful?
Ans: Connecting multiple diodes in parallel, with
In a power supply designed to provide high power at low-value resistors in series with each diode.
low voltage, the best rectifier circuit would probably be
the To repair a damaged power supply with which you are
Ans: full wave, center tap arrangement not completely familiar, you should
Ans: leave it alone and have a professional work on
The part of a power supply preceding the regulator is it.
Ans: the filter

## If a half wave rectifier is used with 165 V pk ac input, CHAPTER 22

the effective dc output voltage is
Ans: considerably less than 165 V. In a PNP circuit, the collector
Ans: is negative with respect to the emitter.
If a full wave bridge circuit is used with a transformer
whose secondary provides 50 V rms, the peak voltage In many cases, a PNP transistor can be replaced with
that occurs across the diodes in the reverse direction is an NPN device and the circuit will do the same thing,
approximately provided that
Ans: 70 V pk Ans: the power supply or battery polarity is
reversed.

11
A bipolar transistor has Suppose that the gain of a transistor in a common
Ans: three semiconductor layers. emitter circuit is 100 at a frequency of 1 kHz, and the
gain is 70.7 at 335 kHz. The gain drops to 1 at 210
In the dual-diode model of an NPN transistor, the MHz. the alpha cutoff frequency is
emitter corresponds to Ans: 335 kHz
Ans: either of the diode cathodes.

## The current through a transistors depends on CHAPTER 23

Ans: more than one of the above.
The current through the channel of a JFET is directly
With no signal input, a bipolar transistor would have the affected by all of the following except
least Ic when Ans: gate bias
Ans: The E-B junction is reverse biased.
In an N channel JFET, pinchoff occurs when the gate
When a transistor is conducting as much as it can, it is bias is
said to be Ans: large and negative
Ans: in state of saturation.
The current consists mainly of holes when a JFET
Which of the operating point is best if a large Ans: has a P-type channel
amplification factor is desired with a weak signal input?
Ans: Point C A JFET might work better than a bipolar transistor in
Ans: a weak signal RF amplifier
The forward breakover pojnt for the E-B junction is
nearest to In a P-channel JFET,
Ans: point B Ans: the drain is negative relative to the source

## Saturation is nearest to A JFET is sometimes biased at or beyond pinchoff in

Ans: point D Ans: a power amplifier

## The greatest gain occurs at The gate of a JFET exhibits

Ans: point C Ans: high impedance

In a common emitter circuit, the gain bandwidth product Which of the following conditions is not normally
is desirable in a JFET?
Ans: the frequency at which the gain is 1. Ans: A forward biased PN junction.

The bipolar transistor configuration most often used for When a JFET is pinched off,
matching a high input impedance to a low output Ans: the value of dID/dEG is zero with no signal
impedance puts signal ground at input.
Ans: the collector
Transconductance is a ratio of
The output is in phase with the input in Ans: a change in drain current to a change in gate
Ans: more than one of the above. voltage.

The greatest possible amplification is obtained in Characteristic curves for JFETs generally show
Ans: a common emitter circuit. Ans: drain current as a function of drain voltage.

The input is applied to the collector in A disadvantage of MOS components is the fact that
Ans: none of the above. Ans: they can be easily damaged by static
electricity.
The configuration noted for its stability in RF power
amplifiers is the The input impedance of a MOSFET is
Ans: common base circuit. Ans: extremely high.

In a common base circuit, the output is taken from the A significant between MOSFETs and JFETs is the fact
Ans: collector. that
Ans: MOSFETs can handle a wider range of gate
Suppose that the input signal to a transistor amplifier bias voltage.
results in saturation during part of the cycle. This
produces The channel in a zero-biased JFET is normally
Ans: the greatest possible amplification. Ans: in a conducting state.

## When an enhancement mode MOSFET is at zero bias,

Ans: the drain current fluctuates with no signal.

12
An enhancement mode MOSFET can be recognized in An RF oscillator usually
schematic diagrams by the presence of Ans: has most or all of its energy at a single
Ans: a broken vertical line inside the circle. frequency.

In a source follower, which of the electrodes receives A class C amplifier can be made linear by
the input signal? Ans: no means; a class C amplifier is always
Ans: The gate nonlinear.

Which of the following circuits produces an output signal A frequency synthesizer has
wave that is 180 out of phase with the input signal Ans: exceptional stability
wave?
Ans: The common source circuit. A graphic equalizer is a form of
Ans: tone control that can be used in an audio
Which of the following circuits can produce the greatest amplifier.
gain (amplification factor)?
Ans: The common source circuit If the impedance of the load connected to the output of
an oscillator is extremely high,
Ans: it is no cause for concern; in fact, it is a good
CHAPTER 24 thing.

## The decibel is a unit of Suppose a certain bipolar-transistor PA is 66 percent

Ans: relative signal strength efficient. The output power is 33 W. the dc collector
power input is
An oscillator at RF amplifier requires the use of Ans: 50 W
Ans: a stage with gain
The arrangement in the block diagram represents
Suppose a circuit is found to have a gain figure of 15 Ans: a waveform analyzer
dB. Which of the following statements is true?
Ans: The input signal is stronger than the output A tuned RF PA must always be
signal. Ans: adjusted for maximum power output.

In an oscillator circuit, the feedback should be Class B amplification can be used to obtain low
Ans: just enough to sustain oscillation. distortion for audio applications
Ans: by connecting two identical bipolar transistors
A power gain of 44 dB is equivalent to which of the or FETs, biased exactly at cutoff or pinchoff, in a
following output/input power ratios? push-pull configuration.
Ans: 25,000:1

An RF choke CHAPTER 25
Ans: passes dc but blocks RF signals.
A radio wave has a frequency of 1.55 MHz. The highest
The optimum capacitance values in an amplifier circuit modulating frequency can be used effectively is
depend on Ans: 155 kHz
Ans: the input signal frequency.
The reflected wave
An oscillator might fail to start for any of the following Ans: arrives in a variable phase compared with the
reasons, except direct wave.
Ans: in-phase feedback.
An advantage of FSK over on/off keying is the fact that
In which of the following FET amplifier types does drain Ans: reduces the number of receiving errors.
current flow for exactly 50 percent of the signal cycle?
Ans: Class B The highest layer of the ionosphere is
Ans: F layer
The frequency at which a quartz crystal oscillator
produces energy is largely dependent on An LSB suppressed carrier signal can be demodulated
Ans: the physical thickness of the quartz wafer. by
Ans: a product detector.
What bipolar amplifier type has some distortion in the
signal wave, with collector during most, but not all, of Which of the following modes is used to send image
the cycle? data over telephone lines?
Ans: class AB2 Ans: Fax

## The S/N is a measure of

Ans: the sensitivity of a receiver.

13
Suppose an SSB suppressed carrier is at 14.335 MHz, If the output to a logical inverter is low, it means that
and audio data is contained in a band from 14.335 to Ans: the single input is high
13.338 MHz. What is this mode?
Ans: USB The output of an AND gate is high if and only if
Ans: all inputs are high
A receiver that responds to a desired signal, but not to
another signal very close by in frequency, has good De Mrogans Theorem states that, for all logical
Ans: selectivity. statements X and Y,
Ans: (-X) + (-Y) is equivalent to (X*Y).
Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true:
The deviation of a narrowband voice FM signal If you see a number represented by FF in the
normally extends up to ____ either side of the documentation of an electronic circuit or system, you
unmodulated-carrier frequency. can be certain that the number is
Ans: 5 kHz Ans: radix 16

## An FM detector with built-in limiting is Which of the following codes is digital?

Ans: a ratio detector Ans: Morse, Baudot and ASCII (all of the above).

A continuously variable signal (Such as music audio) Which of the following voltages coulde normally
can be recovered from a signal having only a few represent a 1 in positive logic?
discrete levels or states by means of Ans: +5 V
Ans: a D/A converter.
Which of the following voltages might normally
In which mode are signals interwined in the time domain represent a 1 in negative logic?
at the transmitter, and then separated again at the Ans: 0.0 V
Ans: None of the above. Fill in the blank to make the following sentence true:
___ data transmission refers to digital bits sent along a
Which of the following modes can be demodulated by single line, one bit after another.
an enevelope detector? Ans: Serial
Ans: AM
The inputs of an R-S flip-flop are known as
The bandwidth of a fax signal is kept narrow by Ans: reset and set.
Ans: sending the data at a slow rate of speed.
When both inputs of an R-S flip-flop are zero,
The dynamic range in a superhet is largely influenced Ans: the outputs stay as they are.
by the performance of the
Ans: front end. The fifth digit from the right in a binary number carries
which decimal value?
Frequency sweeping can be used to get a transmitter to Ans: 16
produce
Ans: spread-spectrum signals. What is the octal equivalent of binary 1010?
Ans: 12
Fill in the blank to make the sentence true: The
reception of ____ can be improved by the use of DSP. What is the largest possible radix 10 number
Ans: any of the above (SSB signals, SSTV signals, represented as a six-digit binary number?
synchronized communications signals) Ans: 63

## If one of the inputs to a two-input NOR gate is high,

CHAPTER 26 what is the output state?
Ans: Low
Suppose inverters are placed in series with both inputs
of an AND gate. Under what conditions is the output of Suppose a logic circuit has four inputs W,X, Y, and Z.
the resulting black box high? How many possible input combinations are there?
Ans: If and only if both inverter inputs are low. Ans: 16

## Suppose an AND gat is followed by an inverter. Under

what conditions is the output of the resulting black box TEST 3
is low?
Ans: if and only if both inputs are high In a JFET, the control electrode is usually the
Ans: gate
Ans: the logical OR operation. A diode can be used as a frequency multiplier because
of its
Ans: nonlinearity.

14
Which of the following is not a common form of data Which type of PA circuit provides the highest efficiency
transmission? when used with the appropriate amount of driving
Ans: Polarization modulation. power?
Ans: Class C
A very brief, high voltage spike on an ac power line is
called Baudot is a form of
Ans: a transient. Ans: digital code.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an The most stable type of oscillator is
oscillator? Ans: a quartz crystal.
Ans: Negative feedback.
If the source-gate junction in an FET conducts,
Which of the layer of the ionosphere exists at the lowest Ans: it is a sign of improper bias.
altitude?
Ans: D layer. What is the radix of the octal number system?
Ans: 23
The beta of a bipolar transistor is another name for its
Ans: current amplification factor. Signal to noise ratio (S?N) is often specified when
stating
In a schematic diagram, the symbol for a PNP bipolar Ans: the sensitivity of a receiver.
transistor can be recognized by
Ans: an arrow inside the symbol circle, pointing In a reverse biased semiconductor diode, the junction
from the emitter toward the base. capacitance depends on the
Ans: the width of the depletion region.
Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true:
An oscillator, ____ is an expression of the extent to A simple power supply filter can be built with
which the circuit maintains constant signal frequency Ans: a capacitor in parallel with the dc output.
output under variable operating conditions, and is also
an expression of its overall reliability. Which of the following bipolar transistor circuits can, in
Ans: stability. theory, provide the most amplification?
Ans: Common Emitter.
A Zener diode would most likely be found in
Ans: the voltage regulator in a power supply. The ratio of the difference in IC to the difference in IB
that occurs when a small signal is applied to the base of
When the bias in an FET stops the flow of current, the a bipolar transistor is called the
condition is called Ans: dynamic current amplification.
Ans: pinchoff
An example of a device that is commonly used as an
The VA rating of a transformer is an expression of oscillator at microwave frequencies is
Ans: none of the above Ans: A Gunn diode.

In an N-type semiconductor, the minority carriers are In the operation of a PNP bipolar transistor, which of the
Ans: holes following is normal concerning the emitter and collector
voltages?
A disadvantage of a full wave rectifier is the fact that Ans: The collector is negative relative to the emitter.
Ans: the output waveform is harder to filter than is
the case with a full-wave rectifier. What can be done to minimize the capacitance of the P-
N junction in a semiconductor diode, thereby making
A power gain of 30 dB is equivalent to which the component effective as a high-speed RF switch?
amplification factor Ans: A layer of intrinsic semiconductor can be
Ans: 1000 placed between the P- and N-type material.

If a listener is not expecting any change in the intensity Which type of modulation consists of one voice
of a signal or sound, the smallest change that can be sideband, with a suppressed carrier?
noticed is approximately which of the following? Ans: LSB
Ans: 3 dB
In an AND gate, the output is high
A common base circuit is commonly employed as Ans: only when all inputs are high.
Ans: an RF power amplifier
A voltage controlled oscillator makes use of
A semiconductor material especially noted for its Ans: a varactor diode.
photoconductivity, and which is often used in making
photocells is The best electrical ground for a power supply is
Ans: selenium. obtained by

15
Ans: ensuring that the ground wire from the power A driven element in a parasitic array is
supply is connected to the third wire hole in one of Ans: connected to the feed line
the utility outlets of a properly installed three-wire
electrical circuit. In a zepp antenna, feed-line radiation can be minimized
by
In an exclusive OR circuit, the output is high Ans: using the antenna only at frequencies where
Ans: only when the inputs have opposite logic its length is a whole number multiple of /2.
states.
Consider a single turn, closed loop having a
A ratio detector is a circuit for demodulating which of the circumference of 95 ft. suppose this loop is circular lies
following? entirely in a single plane, is fed with open wire
Ans: FM transmission line and an antenna tuner, and is operated
at 20 MHz. The maximum radiation and response for
Suppose there is a binary digital black box with two this loop can be expected to occur
inputs, called X and Y, and an output called Z. if X = 0 Ans: along a line perpendicular to the plane
and Y = 1, then Z = 0. In all other instances Z = 1. containing the loop.
Which of the following logical expressions respresents
the content of the black box? Suppose an antenna has a radiation resistance of 40
Ans: X + (-Y) at 8.5 MHz. What is the efficiency of this system?
Ans: Impossible to determine without more
A method of modulation in which the strength of pulses information.
varies
Ans: pulse amplitude modulation Suppose an antenna system has a radiation resistance
of 40 and a loss resistance of 10 . What is the
Boolean algebra is efficiency of this system?
Ans: a useful toll in binary digital circuit design Ans: 80 percent

A voltage doubler power supply is best use for The null in a loopstick antenna exists
Ans: circuits that need high voltage but do not draw Ans: in the line that coincides with the coil axis.
much current.
All elements are added to a properly designed Yagi
An optoisolator consists of an antenna,
Ans: LED and a photodiode. Ans: the f/s ratio increases.

When a semiconductor is reverse-biased with a large When the radiation resistance in an antenna system
enough voltage, it will conduct. This phenomenon is represents most of the total system resistance,
known as Ans: the system can be expected to have high
Ans: avalanche effect. efficiency.

## Synchronizing pulses in a conventional analog TV What state of affairs is optimal in a waveguide?

signal Ans: None of the above.
Ans: keep the image from tearing or rolling.
Consider a single turn, closed loop having a
In an enhancement mode MOSFET, circumference of 65 ft. Suppose this loop is circular, lies
Ans: the channel does not conduct with zero gate entirely in a single plane, is fed with open-wire
bias. transmission line and an antenna tuner, and is operated
at 75 MHz. The maximum radiation and response for
In a step up transformer, this loop can be expected to occur
Ans: the secondary voltage is more than the Ans: in the plane containing the loop
primary voltage.
In a parasitic array, a director is usually
Ans: tuned to a slightly higher frequency than the
CHAPTER 27 driven element.

Imagine a center fed, straight wire antenna in free A J pole is a modified form of
space, whose length can be varied at will. At which of Ans: zepp antenna
the following lengths is the radiation resistance at the
feedpoint the highest? Which of the following antenna types is well suited to
Ans: use with parallel-wire transmission line?
Ans: The folded dipole.
In order to obtain reasonable efficiency with a /4
vertical antenna mounted poorly conducting soil at a Which of the following antenna types is not designed for
frequency of 10 MHz, it is necessary to transmitting at 10GHz?
Ans: minimize the loss resistance by installing Ans: A zepp antenna

16
A vertical antenna measuring /2 in height does not With respect to memory, which of the following terms
require a ground system with low resistance because means that the data contents vanish if power is
Ans: None of the above apply. removed from a chip?
Ans: Volatility

## CHAPTER 28 In terms of the maximum number of transistors on a

single chip, how many orders of magnitude larger is
Because of the small size of ICs compared with VLSI than MLSI?
equivalent circuits made from discrete components, Ans: Four
Ans: higher switching speeds are attainable.
Which of the following shows the input and output of a
Which of the following is not an advantage of ICs over differentiator of a circuit?
discrete components? Ans: A
Ans: Lower gain.
Which of the following shows the input and output of an
In which of the following devices would never find an IC integrator of a circuit?
as the main component? Ans: C
transmitter. Flip-flops are used to store data in
Ans: none of the above
Which, if any, of the following component types is not
practical for direct fabrication on a chip? Capacitors are used to store data in
Ans: All three (Resistors, Capacitors and Diodes) of Ans: none of the above
the above component types are practical for direct
fabrication on a chip. The phase of a sine wave signal can be shifted 180 by
Ans: applying the signal to the inverting input of the
An op amp circuit usually employs negative feedback op amp.
on
Ans: control the gain
CHAPTER 29
Suppose a communications channel carries several
signals once. Which type of IC might be used to single A major difference between a triode tube and an N-
signals out of reception? channel FET is the fact that
Ans: A multiplexer/demultiplexer Ans: triodes need higher power-supply voltages.

Which type of IC is most commonly used to determine The control grid of a vacuum tube is the electrical
whether two dc voltages are the same or different? counterpart of the
Ans: A comparator. Ans: gate of an FET

Which type of digital IC is least susceptible to noise? In a tetrode tube, the charge carriers are
Ans: Transistor-transistor logic Ans: free electrons, which pass among the
electrodes.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of CMOS
chips? Which factor is most significant in limiting the maximum
Ans: Ability to handle extremely high power. frequency at which a tube can operate?
Ans: The capacitance among the electrodes.
An absolute limit to the component density that can be
achieved in IC technology is determined by In a tube with a directly heated cathode,
Ans: the size of the semiconductor atoms. Ans: the filament serves as the cathode.

## With a ROM chip, In a tube with a cold cathodes,

Ans: it is easier to read data from the device that to Ans: there is no filament.
write data into it.
A screen grid enhances tube operation by
With a RAM chip, Ans: minimizing the risk that a tube amplifier will
Ans: it is easy to read data from the device, and just break into oscillation.
as easy to write data into it.
A tube with three grids is called a
Which type of IC must be physically removed from the Ans: pentode.
circuit to have its memory contents changed?
Ans: EPROM chip A tube with four grids is called a
Ans: hexode.

17
An advantage of grounded-grid RF power amplifier over What do LORAN and the GPS have in common?
a grounded-cathode RF power amplifier is the fact that Ans: They both involve measurement of distances
the grounded grid circuit to determine the location of a receiver
Ans: is more stable
A bright spot close to, and directly to the left, the center
A heptode tube has of a conventional radar display indicates the presence
Ans: one plate of a target
Ans: at close range, west of the observing station.
The electron gun in a CRT is another name for its
Ans: cathode Which of the following system enables a vessel to
navigate entirely from its own frame of reference,
The electron beam in an electrostatic CRT is bent by without the need for any electronic devices external to
Ans: electric fields produced by charged itself?
electrodes. Ans: An epipolar navigation system.

## A grounded grid RF power amplifier Ultrasonic waves travel through a vacuum

Ans: requires more driving power, for a given RF Ans: Forget it! No form of acoustic wave can travel
power output, than a grounded-cathode RF power through a vacuum.
amplifier.
Which of the following devices or techniques makes use
In a Klystron, the electron beam density varies as a of artificially generated magnetic fields to facilitate
result of location within a work environment?
Ans: velocity modulation. Ans: None of the above.

A vidicon camera tube is noted for its Which of the following is not an example of a
Ans: slow response to image movement in dim transducer?
light. Ans: All of the above (microphone, radio antenna
and headet) are examples of transducers.
The plate in a tetrode tube is normally connected to
Ans: a positive dc power-supply voltage. A foam like material, having a resistance that varies
depending on how much it is compressed, is known as
The screen grid in a tetrode tube is normally connected Ans: an elastomer.
to
Ans: a positive dc power supply voltage. A stepper motor
Ans: results applied torque when stopped with
Which of the following is most suitable for measuring current going through its coils.
the intensity of dim light?
Ans: A photomultiplier tube A permanent magnet is a key component of
Ans: a dynamic microphone.
In a dissector tube, the aperture size is directly related
to the An electric motor is an example of
Ans: image resolution Ans: an electromechanical transducer.

## A capacitive proximity sensor should not be expected to

CHAPTER 30 detect the presence of
Ans: a steel post.
Which of the following devices would most likely be
used for adjusting the frequency setting of a digital radio A well-designed photoelectric sensor
transmitter or receiver? Ans: is not easily fooled by stray sources of light.
Ans: An optical shaft encoder.
An acoustic transducer can translate an ac electrical
Collimator of IR rays can be done by means of signal into
Ans: an ordinary lens Ans: sound or ultrasound.

## A computer map Body capacitance can be a problem with

Ans: can help a robot find its way around. Ans: capacitive pressure sensors.

The distance of a target from a radar station is called Which of the following devices can be used to limit the
Ans: the range. torque or force applied by an electromechanical device
such as robot?
Which of the following devices is best for use as an Ans: back pressure sensor.
ultrasonic pickup?
Ans: A piezoelectric transducer.

18
CHAPTER 31 Ans: Build a new transmitter that works on the
same frequencies with the same power output as
A young person can hear sounds at frequencies as high your existing transmitter.
as approximately which of the following?
Ans: 20 kHz In an analog audio tape recorder/player, the recording
Electromagnetic interference to a hi-fi amplifier can Ans: converts sound waves to fluctuating electric
occur in the presence of current.
A rack-mounted hi-fi system
The midrange audio frequencies Ans: can save floor space.
Ans: none of the above.
An audio mixer
In the acoustical design of a room intended for a home Ans: eliminates EMI problems in all but the worst
audio system, cases.
Ans: reflection of sound waves from walls should
be minimized. Which of the following devices or circuits ordinarily
employs D/A conversion?
A change of + 10 dB in an audio signal represents Ans: A portable CD player.
Ans: a tenfold increase in acoustic power.
Which of the following is an advantage of digital audio
What is the frequency of an acoustic disturbance whose over analog audio?
wave length is 120 mm in air? Ans: Digital audio is compatible with vinyl disks
Ans: 2.79 kHz and old fashioned reel to reel and cassette tape, but
analog audio is not.
What is the frequency of a sound wave that propagates
at a speed of 1100 ft/s?
Ans: Forget it! The frequency of sound wave is CHAPTER 32
independent of the propagation speed.
A network that employs one central computer and
The relative phase of two acoustic waves from the multiple personal computers is called
same source at the same time, one wave direct and one Ans: client-server network.
wave reflected from a wall, can affect
Ans: the position of antinodes and nodes. In order for a receiver to render a digitally encrypted
In an acoustic sound wave, Ans: have a decryption key.
Ans: all of the sound power is concentrated at the
single frequency. Which of the following devices or systems is not
wireless?
Vinyl disks are Ans: A computer with a telephone modem.
Ans: susceptible to physical damage.
If an amplifier introduces severe distortion in the Ans: is difficult impossible to detect.
waveforms of input signals, then that amplifier is
Ans: operating in a nonlinear function. In the United States, a license is required for
Ans: transmitting on amateur radio frequencies.
Suppose a 10-W amplifier is used with speakers
designed for a 100-W amplifier. Which of the following In a LEO satellite system, the repeaters are located
statements is true? Ans: in space.
Ans: The speakers are capable of handling the
amplifier output. In a geostationary satellite link, the repeater is located
Ans: over the equator.
Which of the following frequencies cannot be received
by an AM/FM tuner? The term shortwave, in reference to audio, refers to
Ans: 95.7 kHz signals having wavelengths of approximately
Ans: 10 m to 100 m.
Which of the following statements about woofers is
true? Which of the following is illegal to do in the United
Ans: They are specifically designed to reproduce States using a ham radio station?
low-frequency sounds. Ans: Advertise used cars for sale.

Suppose you have an amateur radio station and its A file server is
transmitter causes EMI to your hi-fi system. Which of Ans: a central computer in a local area network.
the following would almost certainly not help?

19
A device consisting of a receiver and transmitter in the The megabit per second (Mbps) is a common unit that
same case or enclosure, and commonly used for expresses
wireless communications, is called Ans: the speed of an internet connection
Ans: a transceiver.
A platter is
End-to-end encryption provides Ans: a part of hard drive
Ans: a higher degree of security than wireless only
encryption. Protocol ensures that
Ans: computers exchange data.
A LAN in which each computer has more or less equal
status, and in which each computer mores its own data, A packet is
is known as a Ans: a piece of data sent over the Net.
Ans: peer-to-peer LAN
The main microprocessor in a computer is located
With respect to security, the term mil spec refers to Ans: on the motherboard.
Ans: the highest obtainable level of security.
Cross-referencing among Web pages is done with
A radio signal is considered to be in the shortwave band Ans: hypertext links.
if its frequency is which of the following:
Ans: 5 MHz Web page addresses usually begin with the letters
http, which signifies a form of
In cellular network, the region covered by a single base Ans: protocol.
station is called a
Ans: cell. A telephone modem contains
Ans: A/D converter.
An advantage of a conventional hard-wired telephone
over a cell phone is the fact that a hardwired phone set An advantage of a flatbed scanner over a feedthrough
Ans: affords better privacy. scanner is the fact that
Ans: a flatbed scanner can be used to scan
An advantage of a cell phone over a hard-wired phone magazines or books intact, but a feedthrough
is the fact that a cell phone set scanner cannot.
Ans: offers better mobility.
Which of the following types of external storage provide
In a two way communication systems with full duplex, the fastest access time, provided no software conflicts
Ans: either party can hear the other at all times. occur?
Ans: A flash memory module.
An advantage of LRO satellite systems over
geostationary satellite is the fact that Which of the following is a serial-access medium?
Ans: the regions near the geographic poles are Ans: Magnetic tape.
covered by LEO satellite systems, but not by
geostationary satellite systems. Which of the following character strings represents the
proper format for an e-mail address?
Ans: none of the above.
CHAPTER 33
Which of the following devices is best suited for
One megabyte is the same amount of data as animated graphics work involving fast motion, such as
Ans: 1024 KB high end gaming?
Ans: A display that does not use interlacing.
The Web should be expected to work fastest for a user
in New York City at A thermal printer might be an ideal choice for
Ans: 2:00 a.m. local time on a Tuesday. Ans: a salesperson who is on the road.

## The sharpness of the image on a computer display can

be specified in terms of CHAPTER 34
Ans: dot pitch.
Android takes the form of
The term cylinder refers to Ans: the human body
Ans: a set of tracks in a hard drive.
According to Asimovs three laws, under what
An example of a mass-storage device is a circumstances is it all right for a robot to injure a human
Ans: hard drive being?
Ans: Under no circumstances.
The character string stangibilisco@rushmore.com
would most likely represent

20
An RF field strength meter can be used to Fill in the blank to make the following sentence true: A
Ans: detect the presence of a wireless bugging color vision system can use three grayscale cameras,
system. equipped with filters that pass ___ light.
Ans: blue, red, and green.
The extent to which a machine vision system can
differentiate between two objects that are close together A robot typically determines the steepness of a slope by
is called the means of
Ans: optical resolution. Ans: a clinometer.

## A robot car or truck can best keep itself traveling down

a specific lane of traffic by means of TEST 4
Ans: edge detection.
Which of the following tasks can a displacement
A rule based system is also known as transducer perform?
Ans: an expert system. Ans: It can convert and electrical signal into
mechanical rotation through a defined angle.
Suppose you are using a battery powered, multichannel
baby monitor, and you hear one end of a two-way radio Which of the following is not an advantage of an IC,
conversation on the receiver. You can check the babys compared to a circuit built with discrete components
room, and it is quiet. How might this problem be solved? (individual resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, and
Ans: Switch the monitor to a different channel. transistors)?
Ans: Unlimited power handling capacity.
In robotics, the term manipulator refers to
Ans: a robot arm, and the device at its end (such as Computer memory is typically measured in
a gripper) Ans: kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes.

A device with an IR sensor can be used to detect the A mode of communications in which either party can
presence of hear while talking, thus allowing one party to instantly
Ans: warm or hot objects. interrupt the other at any time, is called
Ans: full duplex.
Proximity sensing is most closely a kin to
Ans: range plotting. An FM stereo tuner generally covers a frequency range
of
A telechir is always used in conjunction with a Ans: 88 MHz to 108 MHz.
specialized system of
Ans: remote control. The peak power output from a multicavity Klystron
Ans: can be much greater than the average power
A limit to the distance over which telepresence is output.
practical is imposed by
Ans: the speed of EM wave propagation. To which of the following does the term platter apply?
Ans: An individual disk in a hard drive.
The ionization potential of the air can be determined in
order to Why can signals in the so-called shortwave band
Ans: detect smoke. sometimes propagate for thousands of kilometers
without the need for satellites, repeaters, or any other
Two-dimensional range plotting infrastructure?
Ans: takes place in a single geometric plane. Ans: Because EM waves at these frequencies are
often returned to the earth by the ionosphere.
Spherical coordinates can uniquely define the position
of a point in up to What is the purpose of the filament in a vacuum tube?
Ans: three dimensions. Ans: It heats the cathode, thereby increasing the
electron emission.
The total number of ways in which a robot arm can
move is known as Figure Test4-1 is a schematic diagram of
Ans: degrees of freedom. Ans: An open loop op-amp circuit.

The region in space throughout which a robot arm can Suppose that in the circuit Fig. Test 4-1, a resistor is
accomplish tasks is called its connected between the output and the inverting input.
Ans: work envelope. What effect will this have?
Ans: It will decrease the gain.
A robot arm that moves along three independent axes,
each of which is straight and perpendicular to the other Which of the following is an example of series access
two, employs storage medium for computer disk?
Ans: Cartesian coordinate geometry. Ans: A magnetic tape.

21
Which of the following is an undesirable characteristic of A loopstick antenna, oriented so its end point toward the
ELF radiation? eastern and western horizons , exhibits
Ans: None of the above apply. Ans: nulls in the response to signals coming from
the east to west.
A zepp antenna measuring /2 can be oriented
vertically, and the feed line placed so it lies in the same Fill in the blank to make the following sentence true:
line as the radiating element. This antenna is known as An ____ functions by sensing variations in the relative
Ans: A J pole. phase acoustic waves reflected from objects in the
environment.
The GPS can be used to determine the position of a Ans: ultrasonic motion detector
point in
Ans: three dimensions Which of the following is an advantage of a large LCD
over a large CRT display?
In a component type hi-fi system, the cables connecting Ans: Lighter weight.
the various devices should
Ans: be shielded whenever practicable. An op amp can produce or facilitate
Ans: a high signal gain over a wide range of
In a radar display, the azimuth of a target is equal or frequencies.
proportional to
Ans: the clockwise angle between a radial line from Which of the following is an application of gas filled
the center toward geographic north, and a radial tube?
line from the center through the blip representing Ans: Decorative lighting.
the target.
Which of the following is a characteristic of stepper
Which of the following is an example of wireless motor?
technology? Ans: It rotates in defined increments, not
Ans: The Global Positioning System. continuously.

The smoke detector can function by sensing a change With respect to ICs, terms such as MSI, LSI, and VLSI
in the define the
Ans: ionization potential of the air. Ans: maximum number of transistors per chip.

Computer disk storage is typically measured in In a tetrode vacuum tube amplifier, the screen grid
Ans: kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. Ans: reduces the capacitance between the control
grid and the plate
Which of the following antennas would most likely be
used in space communications? Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true:
Ans: A helical antenna On the Web data is transmitted by means of a ___ that
allows the files on distant computers to appear as if they
The use of a cell phone may be prohibited in a are on your own computer.
commercial aircraft in flight because Ans: protocol.
Ans: it can interfere with flight instruments and
communications. A robot arm with articulated geomtery
Ans: has joints, similar to those in a human arm.
The circuit in Fig. Test 4-2 would be a bad choice for
use as a medium power audio amplifier because The instantaneous output voltage of a differentiator is
Ans: Hold it! The circuit in Fig Test 4-2 would be a proportional to
good choice for use as a medium power audio Ans: the rate at which the instantaneous input
amplifier. voltage changes.

In an electrostatic CRT, the electron beam can be What type of devices require particular care in handling,
diverted up and down by so they are no destroyed by electrostatic discharges
Ans: charged plates that attract or repel moving can build up on a technicians body?
electrons. Ans: MOS components.

A device that translates 500-Hz sound waves into ac by According to Isaac Asimovs rules for the behavior of
means of the interaction between a permanent magnet robots, a robot must not injure, or allow the injury of any
and a coil of wire is an example of human,
Ans: a dynamic transducer. Ans: under any circumstances.

Which of the following considerations is most important Computer data speed is typically measured in
in a hi-fi audio power amplifier? Ans: kilobits per second, megabits per second, and
Ans: nulls in the response to signals coming from gigabits per second.
the north and south.

22
Doppler radar is useful for measuring or estimating In a logical AND gate with four inputs, the output is high
Ans: the wind speed in the funnel cloud of a if and only if
tornado. Ans: all four of the inputs are high, and none are
low.
A device that translates a 30 kHz ac voltage into
ultrasonic waves by producing stress on a crystal, In a power supply filter, the term L section refers to a
thereby causing the crystal to vibrate, is an example of combination of
Ans: a piezoelectric transducer. Ans: a capacitor in parallel to the rectifier output,
and a choke in series.
Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true:
A ___ is a vertical radiator, usually measuring /4, Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it
elevated above the surface of the earth, and operated correct: The peak inverse voltage rating of a rectifier
against a system of /4 horizontal or slightly drooping diode is the maximum instantaneous reverse bias
radials. voltage that it can withstand without ___ taking place.
Ans: ground plane Ans: avalanche effect

Figure Test 4-3 shows a robotic system that employs In an IC, the term linear arises from the fact that
Ans: Cylindrical coordinate geometry. Ans: the amplification factor is generally constant
as the instantaneous amplitude varies.
A satellite in a LEO system is usually placed in
Ans: a polar orbit The high input impedance of a MOSFET makes this
type of device ideal for use in
Sound waves in the atmosphere consist of Ans: weak signal amplifiers.
Ans: moving molecules.
In Figure Exam-1, the dashed lines labeled (Z) can
represent
FINAL EXAM Ans: the electric lines of flux in the vicinity of two
electrically charged objects (X and Y inside the
A wire be coiled around a magnetic compass to make black box) having opposite polarity.
Ans: a dc galvanometer
The drain of a JFET is the analog of the
The inductive reactance of a fixed air-core coil of wire, Ans: plate of a vacuum tube
assuming the wire has zero dc resistance (it conducts
perfectly), Suppose you want to obtain a 12-V battery by
Ans: increases as the frequency increases. connecting 1.5-V size D flashlight cells together. This
can be done by
Power is defined as Ans: connecting 8 cells together in series, making
Ans: the rate at which energy is radiated or sure to always connect the terminals so they are
dissipated. plus to minus.

In an amplifier that employs a P-channerl JFET, the One of the technical limitations of capacitive proximity
device can usually be replaced with an N-channel JFET sensors is the fact that they
having similar specifications provided that Ans: are not very sensitive to objects that are poor
Ans: the power supply polarity is reversed for the electrical conductors.
circuit in question.
A flute sounds different than a violine, even if two
At the exact moment a 60-Hz ac sine wave is at its instruments are played at the same picth, because of a
positive peak voltage, the instantaneous rate of change difference in the
is the voltage is Ans: waveform.
Ans: zero
In a personal computer, the internal mass storage
In order for a bipolar transistor to conduct under medium is nearly always
conditions of no signal input, the bias must be Ans: none of the above.
Ans: in the forward direction at the emitter-base (E-
B) junction, sufficient to cause forward breakover. A device which signals can be sent asking for data, and
that responds withs the requested information by means
The risk of electrocution to personnel who service libe of radio or a wireless network, is known as a
electrical or electronic equipment increases in Ans: transponder.
proportion to the
Ans: maximum potential difference, in volts, that Fill in the blank in the following statement to make it rue:
exists in the equipment. Two problems can occur with the ___ type of intrusion
alarm. First, the sun, suddenly emerging from clouds or
from shadow, might shine on the sensor and trigger the
device when there is not threat. Second, someone with
malicious intent, wearing winter clothing and entering on

23
a cold day, might fail to set off the alarm in the presence When an impurity, also called a dopant, is added to a
of a real threat. semiconductor material, it can contain either an excess
Ans: IR radiation detector of electrons or a deficiency of electrons. A dopant with
an excess of electrons, also known as a donor impurity,
Suppose that five resistors, each one having the same results in the production of
ohmic value as all the others, are connected in series Ans: an N-type semiconductor.
and the entire combination is connected to a 12-V
battery. How does the voltage across any one of the In Fig. Exam 2, suppose the value of the fixed
resistors compare with the battery voltage, assuming no capacitor, C1, is 330 pF, and the range of the variable
other loads are connected to the circuit? capacitor C2, is 10 to 365 pF. What is the span of
Ans: The voltage across any one of the resistors is capacitance values (minimum to maximum) that can be
1/5 of the battery voltage. obtained with this parallel combination with switch S
either open or closed, as desired?
When the carrier and one of the sidebands are removed Ans: 10 to 695 pF, over a continuous range
from an amplitude modulated signal, the result is
Ans: a single sideband signal. In Fig. Exam 2, suppose the value of the fixed
capacitor, C1, is 220 pF, and the range of the variable
In log polar navigation, a computer converts a polar capacitor C2, is 10 to 100 pF. What is the span of
coordinate image to capacitance values (minimum to maximum) that can be
Ans: A rectangular coordinate image. obtained with this parallel combination with switch S
either open or closed, as desired?
Which of the following functions (a), (b), (c), or (d), if Ans: 5 to 320 pF, but with a gap in the range
any. Is a semiconductor diode never used to perform?
Ans: A semiconductor diode can perform any of the Which of the following units is most often used for
above functions (Rectification, Detection, specifying data speed in digital communications
Frequency Multiplication, and Signal Mixing) systems?
Ans: Megabits b\per second.
The reactance of a fixed capacitor, assuming it has no
leakage conductance (that is, it has a theoretically In the output of a dc power supply, voltage regulation
infinite dc resistance), can be obtained by
Ans: decreases negatively (approaches zero) as the Ans: connecting a Zener diode in parallel, paying
frequency increases. attention to the polarity.

A common collector transistor circuit is often used Imagine an inductor and resistor connected in series,
Ans: to match a high impedance to a low such that the inductive reactance and the resistance are
impedance. both equal to 400 at a frequency of 100 MHz. How
are the instantaneous current and the instantaneous
The internal conductance (expressed in siemens) of an voltage related?
ammeter is generally Ans: None of the above are true.
Ans: high.
Imagine a string of 20 holiday lights, all connected in
A half0wire length of wire, fed at one end with a quarter parallel and plugged into a 120 V rms ac wall outlet. If
wave section of parallel-wire transmission line, is known one of the bulbs is short-circuited, what will happen?
as Ans: The fuse or circuit breaker will blow, and all of
Ans: a zeppelin antenna the remaining 19 bulbs will go out.

A twin T oscillator is commonly used for generating Suppose a coil and capacitor are connected in series,
Ans: AF signals. with jXL= j40 and jXc = -j70, and the coil has an internal
resistance of 10 . Suppose the frequency of operation
Suppose that five resistors, each one having the same is 12.5 MHz. this circuit will exhibit resonance at
ohmic value as all the others, are connected in series, Ans: some frequency above 12.5 MHz
and the entire combination is connected to a 12 V
battery. How does that current through any one of the Imagine a transmission line consisting of two wires,
resistors compare with the current drawn from the each having a diameter of exactly 1 mm, and uniformely
battery? spaced exactly 10 mm apart with nothing but air as the
Ans: The current through any one of the resistors is dielectric between them. If the two wires are moved so
same as the current drawn from the battery? they are uniformely spaced exactly 50 mm apart, and
the dielectric between them is nothing but air, what
When a nonzero net reactance exists in an ac circuit, happens to the characteristic impedance?
the volt-ampere (VA), power also known as the Ans: It increases.
apparent power is
Ans: greater than the true power. In an FM signal, deviation is
Ans: the maximum extent to which the
instantaneous carrier frequency differs from the
unmodulated carrier frequency.

24
A typical angular speed for an old-fashoined vinyl disk A phase comparator would most likely be found in
in a hi-fi sound system is Ans: A PLL frequency synthesizer
Ans: 33 rpm
An atom with 7 protons and 5 electrons is an example
An autotransformer can be recognized by the fact that it of
has Ans: a positive ion
Ans: a single, tapped winding
Electrical energy can be derived from hydrogen on a
One of the purposes of the suppressor grid in a pentode small scale in a device called
vacuum tube amplifier is to Ans: a fuel cell
Ans: repel secondary electrons emitted by the plate,
which could cause the power supply to burn out. The output wave of a common gate amplifier circuit with
a pure sine wave input
Consider two sine waves having identical frequency. Ans: is in phase with the input wave
Suppose that one wave leads the other by exactly 1/20
of a cycle. What is the phase difference between the Which of the following capacitors is polarized?
two waves? Ans: Electrolytic
Ans: 18
The maximum radiation and response from a full-wave
In a cellular communications system, a technology in loop antenna, assuming there are no nearby conductors
which cell overlap, but signals do not interfere with each or obstructions to distort the pattern, occurs
other because every phone set is assigned a unique Ans: perpendicular to the plane of the loop.
signal code is known as
Ans: code division multiple access. Suppose that five resistors, each having a different
ohmic value from any of the others, are connected in
A steady magnetic field can be produced by series, and the entire combincation is connected to a
Ans: any of the above. 12-V battery. How does the current through any of the
one resitors compare with the current drawn from the
In Fig. Exam-3, what type of component can the box battery?
with the query symbol (?) contain in order for the circuit Ans: The current through any of the one resistors is
to function as indicated? the same as the current drawn from the battery.
Ans: A diode.
Figure Exam 5 shows a generic circuit that can be used
In which of the following applications would you never for broadband RF power amplification. What is wrong
find an op amp used as the main active circuit with the circuit as shown?
component? Ans: The +12 V power source should be replaced
Ans: A microwave oscillator with a -12 V power source.

In a circuit containing conductance, inductive Imagine a string of 20 holiday lights, all connected in
susceptance, and capacitive susceptance, a condition parallel and plugged into a 120-V rms ac wall outlet. If
of resonance exists if and only if one of the bulbs is unscrewed and removed from the
Ans: the inductive and capacitive susceptances circuit, what will happen?
cancel out. Ans: The remaining 19 bulbs will continue to shine
exactly as before no more or less brightly.
Imagine a perfect square wave with no dc component.
That means that the positive and negative portions have When a volatile RAM chip is used in a computer,
equal amplitudes and equal durations. Suppose you are Ans: the contents of the memory can be easily
told that the voltage is 10 V pk-pk. What is the average overwritten.
voltage?
discharged until it is totally dead because
Fill in the blank in the following statement to make it Ans: the polarity of one or more cells may reverse,
true: It takes a certain minimum ___ voltage, known as ruining the battery.
the forward breakover voltage, for conduction to occur
through a P-N junction. Which of the following is an advantage of a CRT display
Ans: forward bias. over an LCD for a computing workstation?
Ans: You can get a bigger screen for a lower price.
Figure Exam 4 is a generic diagram of a device that can
be used to measure The gauss is a unit of
Ans: dc resistance Ans: magnetic flux density.

The maximum gain obtainable with an amplifier that Imagine an inductor and resistor connected in series,
employs a given bipolar transistor such that the inductive reactance is 300 and the
Ans: gradually decreases as the frequency resistance is 500 at a particular frequency. If the
increases. frequency is decreased, what happens to the relative

25
phase of the instantaneous current and the Some substances cause magnetic lines of flux to bunch
instantaneous voltage? closer together than they would be if the magnetic field
Ans: They become more nearly in phase. existed in a vacuum. This property is known as
Ans: ferromagnetism
Imagine two sine waves, one with a frequency of 50.00
Hz and the other with a frequency of 60.00 Hz. The In digital audio tape recording and reproduction, the
phase difference between these two waves is noise can be practically eliminated because
Ans: not definable. Ans: noise is analog in nature, and can be nulled or
filtered out without degrading the digital signals.
Consider a variable capacitor connected in parallel with
a fixed toroidal inductor. Suppose a signal of constant Imagine a capacitor and resistor connected in series,
frequency is applied to the combination. If the variable such that the capacitive reactance is equal to -200
capacitor is adjusted so its value changes from 200 pF and the resistance is equal to 200 at a frequency of
to 100 pF, what happens to the reactance of the 70 MHz. How are the instantaneous current and the
inductor? instantaneous voltage related.
Ans: It does not change. Ans: The current leads the voltage by 45.

When two inductors having the same value are The amount of current that a silicon photodiode can
connected in series with a small opposing mutual deliver in direct sunlight depends on
inductance (say the coefficient of coupling is 5 percent Ans: the surface area of the P-N junction.
or so), the total reactance of the combination at a
specific constant frequency is Fill in the blank to make the following sentence true:
Ans: slightly less than twice the reactance of either Electrical current can be expressed in terms of the
inductor. number of ___ passing a given point per unit time.
Ans: charge carriers.
The power factor in an ac circuit is defined as
Ans: the ratio of the true power to the apparent
power.

## Figure Exam 6 shows a radar display and a single blip,

indicating the position of a target. What is the
approximate azimuth of this target?
Ans: 238

## Which of the following is an e-mail address in the proper

format?
Ans: sciencewriter@tahoe.com

## A robot can be guided along a specific route by means

of a current carrying wire beneath the surface. The
robot detects, and follows, the magnetic field produced
by the current, thus following the wire. This is called
Ans: an embedded path.

## Which of the following substances is sometimes used

as the semiconductor material in junction field-effect
transistors (JFETs)?
Ans: Gallium Arsenide.

## Suppose that five resistors, each one having the same

ohmic value as all the others, are connected in parallel,
and the entire combination is connected to a 12 V
battery. How does the current through an one of the
resistors compare with the current drawn from the
battery?
Ans: The current though any one of the resistors is
1/5 as great as the current drawn from the battery.

## Figure Exam 7 illustrates a method of

Ans: wireless tapping of cordless phone set.

## In Figure Exam 7, the box at the top contains a query

symbol (?). What type of device should this be, in order
for the system to perform its intended task?
Ans: A wireless transmitter

26