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ANSYS, Inc.

Release Notes

ANSYS, Inc. Release 14.0


Southpointe November 2011
275 Technology Drive 000285
Canonsburg, PA 15317 ANSYS, Inc. is
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http://www.ansys.com 9001:2008.
(T) 724-746-3304
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Copyright and Trademark Information
2011 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use, distribution or duplication is
prohibited.

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CFX, FLUENT, HFSS and any and all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service and feature names,
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product, service and feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective
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Disclaimer Notice
THIS ANSYS SOFTWARE PRODUCT AND PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION INCLUDE TRADE
SECRETS AND ARE CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS OF ANSYS, INC., ITS
SUBSIDIARIES, OR LICENSORS. The software products and documentation are furnished
by ANSYS, Inc., its subsidiaries, or affiliates under a software license agreement that
contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, com-
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and other provisions. The software products and documentation may be used, disclosed,
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cense agreement, the use, duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government
is subject to restrictions stated in the ANSYS, Inc. software license agreement and FAR
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Third-Party Software
See the legal information in the product help files for the complete Legal Notice for
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Legal Notice, please contact ANSYS, Inc.

Published in the U.S.A.


Table of Contents
1. Global .................................................................................................................. 1
1.1. Advisories ..................................................................................................... 1
1.2. Installation ................................................................................................... 1
1.3. Licensing ...................................................................................................... 2
1.4. The ANSYS Customer Portal .......................................................................... 3
2. Workbench .......................................................................................................... 5
2.1. ANSYS Workbench 14.0 ................................................................................. 5
2.1.1. Design Point Enhancements ................................................................. 5
2.1.2. Reporting ............................................................................................ 6
2.1.3. Workbench Options ............................................................................. 6
2.1.4. Tighter Integration Between ANSYS Workbench and EKM ..................... 7
2.1.5. Incompatibilities .................................................................................. 7
2.2. DesignModeler Release Notes ....................................................................... 7
2.3.TurboSystem Release Notes ......................................................................... 13
2.3.1. ANSYS BladeModeler ......................................................................... 13
2.3.1.1. BladeGen .................................................................................. 13
2.3.1.1.1. BladeGen New Features and Enhancements ...................... 14
2.3.1.1.2. BladeGen Limitations ........................................................ 14
2.3.1.2. BladeEditor ............................................................................... 14
2.3.1.2.1. BladeEditor New Features and Enhancements ................... 14
2.3.2. Vista CCD ........................................................................................... 15
2.3.2.1. Vista CCD New Features and Enhancements ............................... 15
2.3.2.2. Vista CCD Incompatibilities ........................................................ 15
2.4. Meshing Application Release Notes ............................................................. 15
2.5. Mechanical Application Release Notes ......................................................... 29
2.6. DesignXplorer Release Notes ...................................................................... 43
2.6.1. DesignXplorer General Enhancements ................................................ 44
2.6.2. DesignXplorer Manufacturable Values Enhancements ......................... 46
2.6.3. DesignXplorer Design Point Update Enhancements ............................ 47
2.6.4. DesignXplorer Remote Design Point Update Enhancements ............... 48
2.6.5. Response Surface Enhancements ....................................................... 50
2.6.6. DesignXplorer Chart Enhancements ................................................... 50
2.7. Remote Solve Manager Release Notes ......................................................... 51
2.8. Engineering Data Workspace Release Notes ................................................ 55
2.9. EKM Release Notes ...................................................................................... 56
2.9.1. EKM ................................................................................................... 57
2.9.2. EKM Desktop ..................................................................................... 59
2.10. System Coupling ....................................................................................... 60
2.11. IC Engine .................................................................................................. 60

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ANSYS, Inc. Release Notes

2.11.1. Advantages of the IC Engine System ................................................. 60


2.11.2. IC Engine System Features ................................................................ 61
3. Mechanical APDL .............................................................................................. 63
3.1. Structural ................................................................................................... 63
3.1.1. Contact .............................................................................................. 64
3.1.1.1. Contact Stabilization Damping .................................................. 64
3.1.1.2. Squeal Damping ........................................................................ 64
3.1.1.3. Surface-Projection-Based Contact for 2-D Models ....................... 65
3.1.1.4. Surface-Projection-Based Contact with MPC Contact .................. 65
3.1.1.5. Geometry Correction for 2-D Contact and Target Surfaces .......... 66
3.1.1.6. Bonding Temperature ................................................................ 66
3.1.1.7. Other Contact Enhancements .................................................... 66
3.1.2. Elements and Nonlinear Technology ................................................... 66
3.1.2.1. Rezoning ................................................................................... 67
3.1.2.2. Ocean Loading .......................................................................... 67
3.1.2.2.1. Ocean Wave Loading in a Harmonic Analysis ..................... 67
3.1.2.2.2. Diffracted Wave Support ................................................... 68
3.1.2.3. Beam Elements with Shape Memory Alloy and Hyperelasticity
(Solid Pipe Section) ............................................................................... 68
3.1.2.4. Coupled Aeroelastic-Structural Analysis ..................................... 68
3.1.2.5. Discrete-Thickness Shells with 2-D Array .................................... 69
3.1.2.6. Enhanced Body Force Loading for Pipe and Elbow Elements ....... 69
3.1.2.7. Soil-Pile-Structure Analysis ......................................................... 69
3.1.3. Linear Dynamics ................................................................................ 69
3.1.3.1. Damping ................................................................................... 70
3.1.3.2. Linear Non-Prestressed Modal Analysis ...................................... 70
3.1.3.3. Mode Superposition (MSUP) Enhancements ............................... 70
3.1.3.4. Thermal Loads in Modal and Prestressed Harmonic Analyses ...... 71
3.1.3.5. Rotordynamics ......................................................................... 71
3.1.3.6. Spectrum Analysis .................................................................... 71
3.1.3.7. Spectrum Combination ............................................................. 71
3.1.3.8. Other Linear Dynamics Enhancements ....................................... 72
3.1.4. Materials and Fracture ........................................................................ 72
3.1.4.1. VCCT-Based Crack Growth Simulation ........................................ 72
3.1.4.2. Chaboche Material Curve Fitting ................................................ 73
3.1.4.3. Shape Memory Alloy ................................................................. 73
3.1.4.4. Microplane Material Model for Concrete Modeling ..................... 73
3.1.4.5. Enhanced Initial State Capability ................................................ 74
3.1.4.6.Viscoelastic Response of Materials with Anisotropic Hyperelasticity
............................................................................................................. 74
3.1.4.7. Harmonic Viscoelasticity ............................................................ 75
3.1.4.8. Coupled Pore Fluid Diffusion Analysis ........................................ 75

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iv Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
ANSYS, Inc. Release Notes

3.1.4.9. Interface Delamination Modeling with Interface Elements .......... 75


3.1.4.10. Swelling .................................................................................. 75
3.1.4.11. Anisotropic Hyperelasticity ...................................................... 76
3.1.4.12. Progressive Damage of Fiber-Reinforced Composites ............... 76
3.2. Coupled-Field ............................................................................................. 76
3.2.1. Structural-Thermal Analysis ................................................................ 76
3.2.2. Coupled-Diffusion Analysis ................................................................. 77
3.3. Acoustics .................................................................................................... 77
3.4. Radiation Analysis ....................................................................................... 79
3.4.1. Energy Balance .................................................................................. 79
3.4.2. View Factor Calculations ..................................................................... 79
3.4.3. Radiosity Solver Parallelization ........................................................... 79
3.5. Solvers ....................................................................................................... 79
3.5.1. Distributed ANSYS Enhancements ...................................................... 80
3.5.2. GPU Acceleration Enhancements ....................................................... 80
3.5.3. Subspace Eigensolver for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis ....................... 81
3.5.4. Overconstraint Detection ................................................................... 81
3.5.5. Other Solver Changes and Enhancements .......................................... 81
3.6. Linear Perturbation Analysis ........................................................................ 82
3.6.1. Support for More Analysis Types ......................................................... 82
3.6.2. Linear Behavior Based on a Prior Preloaded Status .............................. 82
3.6.3. Linear Perturbation Tangent Option .................................................... 83
3.7. Commands ................................................................................................. 83
3.7.1. New Commands ................................................................................. 83
3.7.2. Modified Commands .......................................................................... 84
3.7.3. Undocumented Commands ............................................................... 88
3.7.4. Archived Commands .......................................................................... 89
3.8. Elements .................................................................................................... 89
3.8.1. Modified Elements ............................................................................. 89
3.8.2. Undocumented Elements ................................................................... 90
3.9. Other Enhancements .................................................................................. 91
3.9.1. Documentation .................................................................................. 91
3.9.1.1. Technology Demonstration Guide ................................................ 91
3.9.1.1.1. Hydrostatic Fluid Analysis of an Inflating and Rolling
Tire ................................................................................................ 91
3.9.1.1.2. Cardiovascular Stent Simulation ........................................ 92
3.9.1.1.3. Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal ........................... 92
3.9.1.1.4. Rocket Nozzle Extension Simulation: Operation ................. 92
3.9.1.1.5. Hot-Rolling Structural Steel Analysis with 3-D Rezon-
ing ................................................................................................. 92
3.9.1.1.6. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Simulation ............................... 93
3.9.1.1.7. Acoustic Analysis of a Small Speaker System ...................... 93

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Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. v
ANSYS, Inc. Release Notes

3.9.1.2. Feature Archive ........................................................................... 93


3.9.1.3. Material Reference ...................................................................... 93
3.9.1.4. Element Reference ...................................................................... 94
3.9.1.5. Parallel Processing Guide ............................................................. 94
3.9.1.6. Documentation Updates for Programmers ................................. 94
3.9.1.6.1. Routines and Functions Updated ....................................... 94
3.9.2. Preprocessing .................................................................................... 94
3.9.3. Postprocessing ................................................................................... 94
3.9.3.1. Load Case Combination of Complex Results ............................... 95
3.9.3.2. Fatigue ...................................................................................... 95
3.9.3.3. Failure Criteria ........................................................................... 95
3.9.4. Memory Management ........................................................................ 95
3.9.5. APDL Math Enhancements ................................................................. 95
3.9.6. File Splitting ....................................................................................... 96
3.10. Known Incompatibilities ........................................................................... 96
3.10.1. Release 13 Compatibility with Platform MPI ...................................... 96
3.10.2. BUCOPT Command Changes ............................................................ 97
3.10.3. Multiframe Restart Files Are Overwritten by Default .......................... 97
3.10.4. RESUME Command with POST1 Fatigue ............................................ 97
3.10.5. Writing and Reading Geometry Items ............................................... 97
3.10.6. Results File Format Change .............................................................. 97
3.10.7. Substructure File Format Change ...................................................... 98
4. AUTODYN .......................................................................................................... 99
4.1. 3D Parallel Simulations with Parts Containing Rigid Body Material(s) ............ 99
4.2. Forces on Rigid Bodies ................................................................................ 99
4.3. Nodal Based Strain Tetrahedra ..................................................................... 99
4.4. Performance Enhancements ..................................................................... 100
5. ICEM CFD ......................................................................................................... 101
5.1. Highlights of ANSYS ICEM CFD 14.0 ........................................................... 101
5.2. Key New Features/Improvements .............................................................. 101
5.2.1. General ............................................................................................ 101
5.2.2. Blocking ........................................................................................... 102
5.2.3. Mesh Editing .................................................................................... 103
5.2.4. Output Interfaces ............................................................................. 103
5.3. Known Incompatibilities ........................................................................... 104
5.4. Documentation ........................................................................................ 104
5.4.1. Tutorials ........................................................................................... 104
6. TurboGrid ........................................................................................................ 105
7. FLUENT ............................................................................................................ 107
7.1. Introduction ............................................................................................. 107
7.2. New Features in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 ......................................................... 107
7.3. Supported Platforms for ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 ............................................. 114

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vi Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
ANSYS, Inc. Release Notes

7.4. Known Limitations in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 .................................................. 115


7.5. Limitations That No Longer Apply in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 ........................... 119
7.6. Updates Affecting Code Behavior .............................................................. 120
8. CFX .................................................................................................................. 127
8.1. New Features and Enhancements .............................................................. 127
8.1.1. General Changes to ANSYS CFX ....................................................... 127
8.1.2. ANSYS CFX-Solver ............................................................................ 127
8.1.2.1. CFX-Solver .............................................................................. 127
8.1.3. ANSYS CFX-Pre ................................................................................. 128
8.1.4. ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager .............................................................. 128
8.1.5. ANSYS CFD-Post ............................................................................... 128
8.1.6. ANSYS CFX Documentation .............................................................. 130
8.1.7. ANSYS CFX in Workbench ................................................................. 130
8.2. Incompatibilities ....................................................................................... 130
8.2.1. CFX-Solver ....................................................................................... 130
8.2.2. CFX-Pre ............................................................................................ 132
8.2.3. CFX-Solver Manager ......................................................................... 132
8.2.4. CFD-Post .......................................................................................... 132
9. POLYFLOW ....................................................................................................... 135
9.1. Introduction ............................................................................................. 135
9.2. New Features ............................................................................................ 135
9.3. Defect Fixes .............................................................................................. 137
9.4. Known Limitations .................................................................................... 139
10. Icepak ............................................................................................................ 141
10.1. Introduction ........................................................................................... 141
10.2. New and Modified Features in ANSYS Icepak 14 ....................................... 141
11. CFD-Post ........................................................................................................ 145
11.1. New Features and Enhancements ............................................................ 145
11.2. Incompatibilities ..................................................................................... 146
12. AQWA ............................................................................................................ 149
12.1. ANSYS AQWA .......................................................................................... 149
13. ASAS .............................................................................................................. 151
13.1. ANSYS ASAS ............................................................................................ 151
13.2. ANSYS BEAMCHECK ................................................................................ 151
13.3. ANSYS FATJACK ....................................................................................... 151
13.4. FEMGV .................................................................................................... 151
14. TGrid .............................................................................................................. 153
14.1. Introduction ........................................................................................... 153
14.2. New Features in TGrid 14.0 ...................................................................... 153
14.3. Supported Platforms for TGrid 14.0 .......................................................... 154

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viii Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 1: Global
The information shown below apply to all ANSYS, Inc. products at the 14.0 release.
Be sure to read the Release Notes for your individual product(s) for additional
installation and licensing changes specific to your product(s).

To access Release Notes for previous ANSYS, Inc. releases, follow these links:

Version 13.0
Version 12.1 for Linux
Version 12.1
Version 12.0

1.1. Advisories
In addition to the incompatibilities noted within the release notes, known non-
operational behavior, errors and/or limitations at the time of release are docu-
mented in the Known Issues and Limitations document, although not accessible
via the ANSYS Help Viewer. See the ANSYS Customer Portal for information about
the documentation errata, ANSYS service packs and any additional items not
included in the Known Issues and Limitations document. First-time users of
the customer portal must register to create a password.

1.2. Installation
ANSYS, Inc. has discontinued support for the HP-UX Itanium 64, the Sun Solaris
x64, IBM AIX 64, and the Linux 32-bit platforms for all products.
ANSYS, Inc. has discontinued support for the Linux Itanium 64 platform for the
ICEM CFD product.
Third-party products that are used as part of the installation process are now
documented in the ANSYS, Inc. Installation Guides.
The ASAS product has been retired. The FATJACK, BEAMCHECK, and Splinter
products are now installed automatically with the Mechanical application.

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Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 1
Chapter 1: Global

The Pro/ENGINEER CAD product has been rebranded to Creo Parametric.


The ANSYS, Inc. product installation now supports Creo Parametric, NX, Solid-
Works, and Autodesk Inventor reader options. You can now choose to install the
Reader (no CAD installation required) or the Associative Plug-in (CAD installation
required) options for these CAD products.
The release version now appears with each product selection in the Start menu
on Windows.
You can now specify two DVD drives during a silent installation to accommodate
the installation process spanning two DVDs. See the discussion on Silent Mode
Operations in the Installation Guide for your platform for more information.
You can now choose to install and uninstall only Remote Solve Manager (RSM).
RSM will continue to be installed as part of ANSYS Workbench.
You can now choose to install and uninstall only the EKM Server on Windows
platforms.
The use of files requiring 777 permissions on Linux has been minimized. For
more information on remaining full-permission files and softlinks, see the section
Third-Party Software and Other Security Considerations in the ANSYS, Inc. Linux
Installation Guide.
The PDF version of the documentation that is available on the Customer Portal
is now unprotected, allowing you to copy and paste content from the PDFs into
other locations. This capability is especially useful if you want to use command
snippets that are available throughout the documentation.

1.3. Licensing
The following enhancements have been made to ANSYS, Inc. Licensing for Release
14.0:

ANSYS, Inc. has discontinued support for the HP-UX Itanium 64 and the IBM AIX
64 platforms for the ANSYS, Inc. License Manager.
At ANSYS Release 14.0, the license manager daemons (lmgrd and ansyslmd)
have been upgraded to FLEXlm 11.9.1 (FLEXnet 11.9.1). We strongly recommend
that you upgrade to this version of the license manager, regardless of whether
you are upgrading to ANSYS Release 14.0.
You can now use the -setliclang option to change the language used by
ANSLIC_ADMIN and the ANSYS, Inc. Licensing Interconnect log file. This option
changes the language for all users running the ANSLIC_ADMIN utility (only the
server ANSLIC_ADMIN on Windows).

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2 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
The ANSYS Customer Portal

To change the language setting locally for only the current session of the
ANSLIC_ADMIN utility, you can launch the utility using the -lang option.
To always use this setting locally without having to set this command line
option each time, you can set an alias on UNIX/Linux or modify your Start
menu shortcut on Windows. Please refer to your operating system document-
ation for those instructions.

For more information on using these language settings, please see the silent
license manager installation instructions in the ANSYS, Inc. Installation Guide
for your platform and the ANSLIC_ADMIN discussion in the ANSYS, Inc. Li-
censing Guide.
ANSYS HPC Pack licenses are now available for borrowing. Only a single HPC
Pack license can be borrowed at one time.
CFX now respects licensing preferences. Previously, CFX would always use the
lowest capability first. It will now use the licenses specified with User License
Preferences. See the ANSYS, Inc. Licensing Guide for more information on setting
licensing preferences.
The default handling of the FLEXlm options file has changed. The Licensing In-
terconnect will no longer process the FLEXlm options file by default. If you need
to have the Licensing Interconnect process the FLEXlm options file (needed when
the FLEXlm options file contains IP addresses), add the following entry to the
ansyslmd.ini file on the license server:
ANSYSLI_USE_FLEXOPTS=1

Then, either reread or restart the Licensing Interconnect.

1.4. The ANSYS Customer Portal


If you have a password to the ANSYS Customer Portal (https://www1.an-
sys.com/customer/), you can view additional documentation information and
late changes. The portal is also your source for ANSYS, Inc. software downloads,
service packs, product information (including example applications, current and
archived documentation, undocumented commands, input files, and product
previews), and online support.

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4 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 2: Workbench
2.1. ANSYS Workbench 14.0
2.1.1. Design Point Enhancements
The following enhancements have been made to design point behavior:

Specify Design Point Update Order at the Project Level


You can now specify the order in which Design Points are updated at the project
level. When multiple Design Points share the same geometry or mesh, you can
improve the efficiency of the computations by specifying an update order in
which only those Design Points that change are updated. You can change the
sequence of updates manually, by a column sort, or by using the automatic op-
timization feature. For more information, see Design Point Update Order in the
Workbench User Guide.

The ability to change the order of Design Point updates is also available at the
DesignXplorer level. See Design Point Update Order in the DesignXplorer help
for more information.

Added Support for Simultaneous Update of Design Points via RSM


You can now use the Remote Solve Manager (RSM) to enable simultaneous exe-
cution of design points, allowing you to decrease the overall time required to
complete parametric what-if and design exploration studies. In the Parameter
Set Properties view, use the new Default Job Submission property to specify
how design points sent to Remote Solve Manager for update will be submitted.

For more information, see Updating Design Points via Remote Solve Manager
(RSM) in the Workbench Users Guide.

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Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 5
Chapter 2: Workbench

Submit Design Point Updates to RSM from DesignXplorer


You can now submit Design Point updates to RSM from DesignXplorer (DX). The
Pending state is also now supported for DX, which means if you submit a design
point update to RSM from DX, you can continue interacting with the project on
a limited basis and can view intermediate results of individual design point up-
dates via the Table of Design Points while the remote update is in progress.
Additionally, if you exit the project, when you reopen it the Resume button allows
you to resume the update.

For additional information, see Using Remote Solve Manager with DesignXplorer
in the DesignXplorer help.

2.1.2. Reporting
You can now write out a report of the current project in .html/.htm format. To
write a report, choose File> Export Report. The report will be written to the
user_files directory under the project directory by default. You can control
whether the report opens by default using the Options>Project Reporting
settings.

The report contains basic project information, including a graphic of the systems
as shown in the project schematic, parameter and design point information, and
system and cell information. The specific information provided will vary depending
on the contents of the project. Additional information may be available from
the individual applications. Not all applications provide reporting information.

2.1.3. Workbench Options


Enhancements to Named Ranges Filtering Prefix for Microsoft
Excel Systems
For a project that includes a Microsoft Excel component, the Named Ranges
prefix can now be specified at the global level (via the ANSYS Workbench Options
dialog) as well as at the project level (via the Named Range Key property of the
Analysis component). Additionally, the Named Ranges filtering prefix now
conveniently defaults to blank or no filter.

For more information, see Microsoft Office Excel or Microsoft Office Excel Options
in the Workbench Users Guide.

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6 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
DesignModeler Release Notes

2.1.4. Tighter Integration Between ANSYS Workbench and


EKM
The ANSYS Engineering Knowledge Manager (EKM) is a Simulation Process and
Data Management (SPDM) software system that allows you to store, share, report,
and operate on your simulation data in an accessible, web-based environment.
While EKM can operate as a stand-alone system, its integration with ANSYS
Workbench streamlines the process of storing, retrieving, and sharing your
Workbench projects within an EKM repository. Through the provided Repository
capabilities in the Workbench File menu, you have access to powerful SPDM
capabilities that allow you to:

archive completed projects or store works in progress to local or remote storage


share and collaborate on your projects
search projects based on names, dates, simulation type, or other criteria
retrieve your own projects or those shared by other users

ANSYS EKM provides access to a simulation data repository, which may exist
locally on your workstation (for individual repositories) or reside on a larger
dedicated server for enterprise-level data management.

2.1.5. Incompatibilities
There are no known incompatibilities to date in release 14.0.

2.2. DesignModeler Release Notes


The following general enhancements have been made in release 14.0:

Project Schematic Connections


You may now connect HFSS, Q3D, and Maxwell systems to downstream Geometry
cells via a provides-to connection in the project schematic.

Expanded Boolean Feature Capability


The Boolean feature now includes the ability to Imprint Faces from a list of target
and tool bodies. Either the target or tool bodies can be frozen.

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Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 7
Chapter 2: Workbench

Named Selection Feature Property Enhancement


An additional property named Export Selection is now available via the Named
Selection feature. Selection of the property via the Details View controls the
transfer of Named Selections to downstream applications such as ANSYS Mech-
anical. Note that the Named Selection option and the filter properties in the
Geometry cell of the Project Schematic are no longer available if the Geometry
cell specifies an ANSYS DesignModeler database.

GAMBIT Reader Upgrade


Beginning with the release 14 of ANSYS Workbench, GAMBIT real and non-real
(virtual, faceted, CAD) geometry may be processed. An option allows you to
choose whether to process both real and non-real data or just real only. Prior to
release 14, only GAMBIT real geometry (including hidden real geometry) would
be processed. By processing real and non-real geometry, the GAMBIT geometry
can be more accurately represented in ANSYS Workbench.

Transfer Enhancements
The transfer capabilities between ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Mechanical
have been enhanced, most notably:

When transferring an ANSYS DesignModeler application to ANSYS Mechan-


ical for the first time, the order of bodies seen in ANSYS DesignModeler is
retained in ANSYS Mechanical.
Previously new bodies were created in ANSYS DesignModeler when
multibody parts, with shared topology created via the automatic method,
included overlapping surface bodies. Now the overlapping bodies are
transferred as separate bodies to ANSYS Mechanical instead of being asso-
ciated with one of the original bodies.
Vertex persistence in ANSYS Mechanical for concept parts transferred from
ANSYS DesignModeler has been improved although when refreshing older
databases in ANSYS Mechanical, vertex persistence might break the first
time. Once the vertex persistence is corrected the databases will persist for
further refresh operations.

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8 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
DesignModeler Release Notes

Direct Entity Selection for Modeling Operations


Geometric entities such as faces, edges, vertices, or point feature points can now
be selected as input for the modeling operations. These operations include the
Extrude, Revolve, Sweep and Skin/Loft features.

Face Thickness Displayed by Color


Via the Graphics Options toolbar or the View menu, you can display face thickness
using colors. Each thickness is represented by a separate color.

Display Edge Direction


Via the Graphics Options toolbar or the View menu, you can display a models
edge directions. The direction arrow appears at the midpoint of the edge.

Automatic Promotion of Parameters


All parameters can now be automatically published to ANSYS Workbench when
geometry is imported or refreshed from the CAD source. The default for this
property is no, meaning all parameters are not published by default.

Display Vertices Option


Via the Graphics Options toolbar or the View menu, you can view all the vertices
in the model.

Toolbar Customization
Feature toolbars have been separated into smaller groups, making it easier to
access many features/tools directly from the toolbars.

Select Mode Functionality


Single Select and Box Select are now more quickly accessible by toggling the
right mouse button down, followed by the left mouse button down.

Hot Keys
New hot keys (short cut) are available for frequently repeated operations:

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F3: Apply
F4: Cancel
F6: Toggle display (shaded+edges/shaded/wireframe)
F7: Zoom to Fit
Ctrl-A: Select All
Ctrl-P: Toggle Point selection filter
Ctrl-E: Toggle Edge selection filter
Ctrl-F: Toggle Face selection filter
Ctrl-B: Toggle Body selection filter
Ctrl-Z: Undo (sketching mode only)
Ctrl-Y: Redo (sketching mode only)
Ctrl-C: Copy (sketching mode only)
Ctrl-X: Cut (sketching mode only)
Ctrl-V: Paste (sketching mode only)

Electronics Tool Enhancements


The Electronics tool, available for preparing the model for thermal-flow analysis
using IcePak, is significantly enhanced with following improvements:

New ANSYS IcePak Object Types Three new IcePak object types are supported:

Axis Aligned Annular Cylinder: a cylindrical solid body with a concentric


cylindrical through-hole whose axis is aligned with one of the coordinate
planes.
Axis Aligned Conical Frustum: a solid conical frustum with the axis of the
conical surface aligned with one of the coordinate axis.
Axis Aligned Annular Conical Frustum: a solid conical frustum or cylinder
with a concentric cylindrical or conical through-hole whose axis is aligned
with one of the coordinate planes.

Enhanced Support for Polygonal Extrusion Level 2 geometry simplification


now supports polygonal extraction for parts with circular segments. Controls
available include:

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10 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
DesignModeler Release Notes

Points on Arc: specifies the number of interior points that are placed at an
equal distance within the curved edges in the polygonal profile.
Length Threshold Percentage: specifies the threshold value to represent
the curved edges using interior points.
Enforce Axis: forces the DesignModeler application to look for polygon
profiles only in the normal plane of the selected axis.

Electronics Tool Usability Improvements

Part Structure Transfer to ANSYS IcePak: DesignModelers part-body


structure is retained during ANSYS DesignModeler to ANSYS IcePak model
transfer.
Rename Multiple Bodies in a Single Step: You can rename selected nodes
in the Tree Outline as a group. The single-step process is accessible via the
context menu.
Display of IcePak Icons for IcePak Bodies: DesignModeler now supports
IcePak icons in the tree outline for bodies converted into IcePak objects.

Shaft Feature
The Import Shaft Geometry feature has been introduced as part of ANSYS
DesignModeler. The feature uses a text file to generate a collection of line bodies
with circular or circular tube cross sections. You may specify the units of the data
in the text file and a base plane to orient the line bodies it creates.

Skin/Loft Property Enhancement


The Profile Selection method property in the Skin/Loft feature includes two new
options to select either all or individual profiles.

Automatic Freeze during Slicing


Active bodies are now frozen automatically during use of the Slice feature, Slice
Targets property, and the Slice Material operation. In addition, ANSYS Design-
Modeler no longer requires that a model be completely frozen before allowing
slice operations.

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AutoCAD Support
ANSYS DesignModeler now supports the AutoCAD file format in both plug-in
(requires CAD system to be running) and pseudo-reader (does not require CAD
system to be running) modes.

Error Messages
Error reporting has been improved for the Share Topology feature and Import/At-
tach features to give more detailed error information.

Geometry Interfaces Update for New CAD Releases


Geometry interfaces are updated to support new CAD releases including:

AutoCAD 2012
Autodesk Inventor 2012
Creo Elements/Direct Modeling 18.0
Creo Parametric (formerly Pro/ENGINEER) 1.0
NX 8.0
Parasolid 24.0
Solid Edge ST4 (104)
SolidWorks 2011
ANSYS SpaceClaim Direct Modeler 2011+
Teamcenter 8.0, 8.1 and 8.3

New File Based CAD Readers


File based CAD readers are expanded to include support for additional CAD
systems

NX
Autodesk Inventor
SolidWorks

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12 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
TurboSystem Release Notes

CATIA V5 R21 Support


CADNexus Capri gateway for CATIA V5 is updated to include support for CATIA
V5 R21.

2.3. TurboSystem Release Notes


TurboSystem is a set of software applications and software features that help
you to perform turbomachinery analyses in ANSYS Workbench.

ANSYS TurboGrid is a meshing tool for turbomachinery blade rows. The release
notes for ANSYS TurboGrid are given at ANSYS, Inc. Release Notes > "TurboGrid
Release Notes".

CFX-Pre, a CFD preprocesor, and CFD-Post, a CFD postprocessor, are part of the
ANSYS CFX product. Both of these products have Turbomachinery-specific fea-
tures. The release notes for CFX-Pre are given at ANSYS, Inc. Release Notes >
"CFX Release Notes". The release notes for CFD-Post are given at ANSYS, Inc.
Release Notes > "CFD-Post Release Notes".

Release notes for the remaining TurboSystem applications are provided in the
following sections:

BladeGen (p. 13)


BladeEditor (p. 14)
Vista CCD (p. 15)

Note

After reviewing these release notes, you are encouraged to see Usage
Notes, which describes some known TurboSystem-related workflow
issues and recommended practices for overcoming these issues.

2.3.1. ANSYS BladeModeler


2.3.1.1. BladeGen
BladeGen is a geometry-creation tool for turbomachinery blade rows.

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Chapter 2: Workbench

2.3.1.1.1. BladeGen New Features and Enhancements


Vista AFD is no longer available from BladeGen, after having moved to Workbench.
For details, see "Vista AFD".

2.3.1.1.2. BladeGen Limitations


For the Quasi-Orthogonal Area Graph, in some special cases involving sharp
bends in the hub or shroud, the Quasi-Orthogonal Area with the blades can give
incorrect results. This is the case regardless of the flow angle correction. The area
curves without the blades are not affected by this defect.

2.3.1.2. BladeEditor
ANSYS BladeEditor is a plugin for ANSYS DesignModeler for creating, importing,
and editing blade geometry.

2.3.1.2.1. BladeEditor New Features and Enhancements


Camberline Thickness Mode

The workflow has been changed so that camberline/thickness definitions


now appear exclusively as sub-features of the Blade/Splitter feature. For
details, see Blades made using Camberline/Thickness sub-features in the
TurboSystem User Guide. The splitter camberlines can now reference data
from the main blade. For details, see Camberline/Thickness Definition Sub-
features of Independent Splitters in the TurboSystem User Guide.
Auxiliary view

This view now shows meridional curvature for the hub and shroud. For de-
tails, see Meridional Curvature View in the TurboSystem User Guide.
Added Blade Clearance properties to the Blade feature. For details, see Blade
Feature in the TurboSystem User Guide.
User-defined layers

You can create layers based on sketch curves. For details, see FlowPath
Feature in the TurboSystem User Guide. Data layers in BladeGen models are
converted to user-defined layers when loaded into BladeEditor.
BladeEditor has been made consistent with BladeGen in that, by default, both
now read and write files that express angles in radians instead of degrees.

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Meshing Application Release Notes

2.3.2. Vista CCD


Vista CCD is a program for the preliminary design of centrifugal compressors.
See "TurboSystem: Vista CCD" for details on using this new version of Vista CCD.

Vista CCD was developed by PCA Engineers Limited, Lincoln, England.

2.3.2.1. Vista CCD New Features and Enhancements


Vista CCD has been improved to work for a wider range of operating conditions.

Enhancements to Vista CCD:

Real gas capability was enhanced for "highly imperfect" gases.

2.3.2.2. Vista CCD Incompatibilities


The new version of Vista CCD is not backwards-compatible with versions earlier
than Release 13.0. You must use the earlier versions if you want to view the Vista
data for previous BladeGen models.

2.4. Meshing Application Release Notes


This release of the Meshing application contains many new features and enhance-
ments. Areas where you will find changes and new capabilities include the fol-
lowing:

Resuming Databases from Previous Releases


Note the following when resuming databases from previous releases:

Upon import of a legacy model into release 14.0, suppressed virtual topology
entities will be deleted. This includes any virtual topology entities that were
suppressed manually (for example, by right-clicking on the virtual topology entity
in the Tree Outline and selecting Suppress from the context menu), but it does
not include virtual topology entities that are suppressed because the body con-
taining them is suppressed. If entities are deleted, a warning message will be is-
sued advising you to import the model into an earlier release, unsuppress the
affected entities, and save the model for use in release 14.0. Also see the Virtual
Topology section below.

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Chapter 2: Workbench

At release 13.0, all mesh connections were pre, but at release 14.0, all mesh
connections are post. Upon import of a release 13.0 database into release 14.0,
all mesh connections are updated accordingly.
When assembly meshing algorithms are used in release 14.0, Program Controlled
inflation is not supported on solid bodies. The solid bodies will not be inflated.
If you import a release 13.0 database that specifies the CutCell meshing algorithm
and Program Controlled inflation is defined on a solid body, you must either
change the Fluid/Solid designation of the solid body to Fluid or set Use Auto-
matic Inflation to None and define local inflation controls to obtain the release
13.0 behavior. Also see the Assembly Meshing section below.
Contact regions are now resolved automatically as interfaces for use in ANSYS
FLUENT. In support of this change, if you import a legacy model with all of the
following characteristics into release 14.0, a message will be issued to advise you
that if you do not want the contact regions to be resolved, you should delete
them:
Physics Preference is set to CFD.
Solver Preference is set to Fluent.
Contact regions are defined.

However, if you do want the legacy contact regions to be resolved, you must
clear and regenerate the mesh in the release 14.0 Meshing application prior
to exporting/opening the mesh in ANSYS FLUENT.

Also see the Miscellaneous Changes and Behaviors section below for re-
lated information.
The logic for translating material properties of bodies/parts to continuum zone
types when a mesh is exported to ANSYS FLUENT format has changed in release
14.0. Body/part names and Named Selection names are no longer considered.
However, upon import of a legacy model into release 14.0, the Fluid/Solid ma-
terial property for each body will be set based on pre-14.0 rules.

Special handling of sheet bodies occurs during migration based on whether


the model is 3D (not planar in the XYZ plane) or 2D (planar in the XYZ plane):
If 3D or in cases in which only surface mesh is being exported, migration of
sheet bodies is skipped. The pre-14.0 rules are not used to interpret the
naming of the sheet bodies, and no material properties are assigned to them.
If 2D, pre-14.0 rules are applied to the sheet bodies as follows:

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Meshing Application Release Notes

If Named Selections, part names, and/or body names are defined, they
are applied according to the following priority:
Named Selections defined for the underlying faces in a sheet body.
In such cases, a message will be issued indicating the Named Selection
definition for the faces will override the Fluid/Solid material property
for the sheet body.
Named Selections defined for sheet bodies
Part names
Body names

This means that when defined, Named Selections for underlying faces
take highest priority, then Named Selections for sheet bodies, then
part names, then body names. An exception occurs if a part name
would result in a material property of Solid but a body name would
result in a material property of Fluid. In such cases, the sheet body
is transferred as a Fluid.
If no Named Selections, part names, or body names are defined, the sheet
bodies are transferred as continuum zones and the same rules as in the
3D case are applied.

A message will be issued if the migration results in a change to the material


properties of any body, in which case you can perform a right mouse button
click and select Go To Object from the context menu to select the object
in the Tree Outline that is responsible for the message. Also see the FLUENT
Export section below.

Assembly Meshing
Assembly meshing refers to meshing an entire model as a single mesh process,
as compared to part- or body-based meshing, in which meshing occurs at the
part or body level respectively. If the assembly meshing Method control (de-
scribed below) is set to None, ANSYS Workbench meshing operates at the part
level, but if it is set to CutCell or Tetrahedrons, the entire assembly will be
meshed at one time using the selected assembly meshing algorithm.

Assembly meshing should be able to produce conformal mesh between parts if


their faces are overlapping.

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Chapter 2: Workbench

Assemblies can also be meshed using part-based meshing methods, but in such
cases the mesher operates one part at a time, and therefore cannot mesh virtual
bodies or evaluate parts that occupy the same space.

The following enhancements have been made in support of assembly meshing


at release 14.0:

Assembly MeshingOverview

The Assembly Meshing group of global mesh controls is now available. You can
use one of the controls, called Method, to choose either CutCell or Tetrahedrons
as your strategy for assembly meshing. CutCell is available only in the Meshing
application, and only when Physics Preference is set to CFD and Solver Prefer-
ence is set to Fluent. Tetrahedrons is available in both the Meshing application
and the Mechanical application, regardless of Physics Preference and Solver
Preference settings.

The Tetrahedrons assembly meshing algorithm is a derivative of the CutCell


algorithm, with strengths and weaknesses similar to those of CutCell. The
Tetrahedrons method starts from the CutCell mesh and through various
mesh manipulations creates a high quality unstructured tet mesh.

Named Selections are supported for assembly meshing. However, the


mesher will not fail if a Named Selection is not protected; it will issue a
warning.

Assembly MeshingGlobal Improvements

A Fluid/Solid material property setting is now available in the Meshing applica-


tion. This property, which appears in the Details view if you select a prototype
(i.e., Body object) in the Tree Outline, allows you to control the physics that occur
on a model. It affects how material properties are translated when you export a
mesh for use in ANSYS FLUENT. Valid options are Fluid, Solid, and Defined By
Geometry. When set to Defined By Geometry, the value is based on the Flu-
id/Solid material property that was assigned to the body in the DesignModeler
application. The Fluid/Solid property also appears in the Details view if you select
a Virtual Body object in the Tree Outline, but in such cases it is always set to
Fluid (read-only). This property is not available if you are using the meshing
capabilities from within the Mechanical application.
When setting local (scoped) sizing controls, the Body of Influence option for
Type is supported. The body of influence cannot be scoped to a line body.

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Meshing Application Release Notes

The default for Proximity Size Function Sources has been changed to Edges.
This setting is sufficient for most models.

Assembly MeshingVirtual Bodies

In principal, there are two approaches for extracting fluid domains from CAD:

1. For internal flow, cap the inlets, outlets, and any other leakage of the solid do-
main and perform a Boolean subtraction operation inside the CAD system to
extract the flow volume.
2. For external flow, create a large external domain outside of the solid object,
perform a Boolean subtraction operation inside the CAD system, and delete
any remaining interior voids inside the solid.

However, depending on the number of solids and the quality (or cleanliness)
of the original CAD, these Boolean operations may fail.

Assembly meshing provides the means of extracting and meshing the flow
volume within both these scenarios in one operation, and hence eliminates the
need for the Boolean operations. To use these approaches, capping faces or
large external domains need to be created in the CAD system. These fluid domains
are represented by virtual bodies in the Meshing application. You also need to
define a coordinate system at any location inside the extracted fluid domain.
When you insert a virtual body into the Tree Outline, a Virtual Body Group,
representing the fluid type, is created with a Virtual Body as a child object. In
the Details view settings for the Virtual Body, you associate the material point
with the coordinate system.

Often, you are interested only in the fluid flow and hence the solid mesh is not
needed. The Keep Solid Mesh control determines whether the mesh for any
body marked as a solid is discarded or kept.

Since meshing all of the solids and then discarding the solid mesh would not
be efficient, you can provide the Fluid Surface in addition to the material point
inside the Virtual Body definition, thereby eliminating the need to mesh the
solid and leading to improved meshing performance by a factor of two or more.

To aid in finding all the faces that are needed to create a Fluid Surface object,
a new Extend to Connection option has been added to the Extend Selection
drop-down menu. Before you use this tool, make sure that the global size function
option Min Size/Proximity Min Size is set appropriately and that the Find
Contacts tool has been executed.

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Due to missing rubber seals, bolt threading, or other simplifications, the solid
CAD may not be watertight. In these situations, the assembly meshing al-
gorithms can trace the leaks and display their leak paths graphically to help you
with troubleshooting.

Leakage usually occurs if any contact is larger than 1/10 of the local minimum
size. If a leak is up to 1/3 of the local minimum size, you can use contact sizing
to close the gap.

Assembly MeshingDiagnostics Tools

For performing diagnostics for assembly meshing problems, the Find Thin Sec-
tions and Find Contacts tools are available. These tools return lists of contact
regions based on the global size function option Min Size/Proximity Min Size,
which should be set appropriately before you invoke them. When Find Thin
Sections is executed (using RMB), each of the contact regions it returns contains
faces on the same body that will not be resolved properly based on the current
global minimum size. When Find Contacts is executed (using RMB), the tool re-
turns a list of contacts, which is used to pass feature information down to the
meshing algorithm. The Find Contacts tool is particularly useful for assemblies
in which fillets of bodies are adjacent to other bodies, forming a sharp angle.
Find Contacts will preserve the edges of these fillets independent of the feature
angle settings.

Related to these tools, the Use Range option has been added as a global
connection setting so that searches can operate on a range of values.

Assembly MeshingInflation

For the CutCell algorithm, inflation is neither Pre nor Post. Rather, it may be
considered a hybrid of the two, in that the technology used is like that of the
Pre algorithm, but inflation occurs Post mesh generation. For the Tetrahedrons
algorithm, Pre inflation is used, with inflation behaviors and limitations very
similar to those of the Patch Conforming Tetrahedron mesh method.
When an assembly meshing algorithm is being used, a mixture of global (auto-
matic Program Controlled) and local (scoped) inflation is not supported; you
must choose between the two approaches:
For inflation on virtual bodies, you must use automatic Program Controlled
inflation; you cannot use local controls to inflate virtual bodies. Thus in gen-
eral, if you are using virtual bodies to represent flow volumes in your model,
plan to use automatic inflation. Automatic inflation is specified globally by
setting Use Automatic Inflation to Program Controlled. With Program

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Meshing Application Release Notes

Controlled inflation, faces on real solid bodies will inflate into the virtual
bodies. The Fluid/Solid designation on real bodies will be respected (that is,
faces on real fluid bodies will inflate into the fluid region, but the solid region
will not be inflated).
Alternatively, you can set Use Automatic Inflation to None and define local
inflation controls. This approach is appropriate if your model contains real
bodies that represent the fluid regions.

If any global or local inflation settings are modified and you re-mesh, only
the inflation layers are regenerated. This is true for both approaches, regard-
less of which assembly meshing algorithm is selected.
Assembly meshing algorithms support 3D inflation only. Unlike 3D inflation for
part/body level meshing, for assembly level meshing the scoped body and the
face that you select to be the inflation boundary do not have to be on the same
part.
By default, Gap Factor is set to 1.5 for the CutCell algorithm. For the Tetrahed-
rons algorithm, Gap Factor is set equal to the value that is specified for non-
assembly mesh methods (0.5 by default) and is updated accordingly if that value
is changed.

Assembly MeshingAdditional Tools

The new Sharp Angle Tool lets you control the capture of features with sharp
angles, such as the edge of a knife or the region where a tire meets the road. It
can also be used for improved feature capturing in general, even if the faces
that you pick to define a control do not form a sharp angle. The Sharp Angle
Tool is available only when assembly meshing algorithms are being used and
ensures that the desired features are captured in the assembly mesh.
Mesh groups are used to merge adjacent bodies into one body. The grouping
tells the mesher to treat certain solid parts as one part and ensures that the mesh
generated on the combined parts is associated with the mesh of the selected
master body. Mesh grouping is available only when assembly meshing algorithms
are being used. Mesh Group objects appear in the Tree Outline under the Mesh
object.

Also see the Miscellaneous Changes and Behaviors section below.

Post Pinch Controls and Mesh Connections


At release 14.0, either the pinch control feature or the mesh connection feature
can be used to join shell meshed parts after meshing.

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In support of this functionality, a new option for specifying PinchBehavior is


available for local pinch controls. Edge-to-edge pinch controls can be pre or
post, but edge-to-face pinch controls are always post. When set to Pre, pinches
are processed before face meshing, and when set to Post, pinches are processed
in a separate step after all meshing is complete.

At release 13.0, all mesh connections were pre, but at release 14.0, all mesh
connections are post. The mesh connection feature leverages the Post pinch
technology to automatically generate Post pinch controls internally at meshing
time. This technology allows mesh connections to work across parts so that a
multibody part is no longer required.

The Snap to Boundary option, which was already available for edge-to-face
pinch controls, is now supported for edge-to-face mesh connections as well.
When Snap to Boundary is set to Yes (the default) and the distance from a
slave edge to the closest mesh boundary of the master face is within the specified
snap to boundary tolerance, nodes from the slave edge are projected onto the
boundary of the master face. In addition, you have more control over the snap
type and snap tolerance. By default the snap tolerance is set equal to pinch tol-
erance, but setting the Snap Type option to Manual Tolerance lets you override
it. Alternatively, you can set Snap Type to Element Size Factor to enter a factor
of the local element size of the master topology. For edge-to-edge pinch controls
or edge-to-edge mesh connections, the snap tolerance is set equal to the pinch
tolerance internally and cannot be modified.

When used on parts and bodies that have been joined by mesh connections or
post pinch controls, the Clear Generated Data option now works as follows,
where the "base" mesh, which is stored in a temporary file, is the mesh in its
unsewn (pre-joined) state:

If a base mesh is available, the mesh is reverted to the base mesh and the reques-
ted parts/bodies are cleared.
If no base mesh is available, the entire mesh is cleared and a warning message
is issued. Reasons the base mesh may not be available include situations in which
you have deleted your temporary files, exported a .mechdat file for someone
else to use, or moved your project database to a different computer.

Selective Meshing (formerly Direct Meshing)


The selective meshing process (formerly known as direct meshing) has been
improved at release 14.0. You can use the Mesh worksheet to create a selective
meshing history, so that your meshing steps can be repeated in the desired se-

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Meshing Application Release Notes

quence for any geometry update or re-mesh operation. You can populate the
worksheet either by recording meshing steps as you perform them or by adding
meshing steps to the worksheet manually. In each meshing step, the bodies as-
sociated with a given Named Selection are meshed. For greater flexibility, you
can activate and deactivate steps in the worksheet to control whether they are
processed or skipped during mesh generation and other worksheet operations.

The worksheet is dockable. Once you toggle it on, you can move it to the desired
location which will persist whenever the Mesh object or one of its child objects
is highlighted in the Tree Outline. For example, you may want to dock the
worksheet alongside the Geometry window, allowing you to view both at once.

Also see the Miscellaneous Changes and Behaviors section below.

Patch Conforming Meshing


A new global group of meshing controls, called Patch Conforming Options,
has been added at release 14.0. The first of these new options is Triangle Surface
Mesher, which determines which triangle surface meshing strategy will be used
by patch conforming mesherseither Program Controlled or Advancing Front.
When set to Program Controlled, the mesher determines whether to use the
Delaunay or advancing front algorithm based on a variety of factors such as
surface type, face topology, and defeatured boundaries. When set to Advancing
Front, the mesher uses advancing front as its primary algorithm, but falls back
to Delaunay if problems occur.

The Triangle Surface Mesher control has no effect on parts or bodies being
meshed with the Patch Independent Tetra mesh method. The Patch Conform-
ing Options group of controls is inaccessible when an assembly meshing al-
gorithm is selected.

MultiZone Mesh Method


The following enhancements related to the MultiZone mesh method have been
made at release 14.0:

Improved handling of imprints. This includes imprinting through multiple bodies,


through multiple levels in the same body, and through long stretches of side
faces. Improvements have been made to submapping of cylindrical faces with
side cutouts, especially those used as side faces along the sweep path.
Support for match controls on faces has been added, with certain limitations.

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A new Prism option is available for Mapped Mesh Type. The Prism option
generates a mesh of all prism elements for the part the method is scoped to.
This option is sometimes useful if the source face mesh is being shared with a
tet mesh, as pyramids are not required to transition to the tet mesh.
Improved handling of edge splits.

Uniform Quad/Tri and Uniform Quad Mesh Methods


The following enhancements related to the Uniform Quad/Tri and Uniform Quad
mesh methods have been made at release 14.0:

Edge, face, and body sizing are supported. When using edge sizing, you can
specify a Type of either Element Size or Number of Divisions. For face and
body sizing, Type is always Element Size. The Sphere of Influence and Body
of Influence options are not supported for Uniform Quad/Tri and Uniform Quad.
The Uniform Quad/Tri and Uniform Quad mesh methods support mesh connec-
tions and pinch controls (post pinch only).

Size Function Handling


The following enhancements and guidelines relate to size function handling at
release 14.0:

When Use Advanced Size Function is set to On: Proximity and Curvature, you
now have the option to specify a global Proximity Min Size to be used in
proximity size function calculations, in addition to specifying a global Min Size.
By default, Proximity Min Size is set equal to the default of Min Size. Any feature
that operates based on minimum element size (for example, Defeaturing Toler-
ance, Pinch Tolerance, and Find Thin Sections), will now be based on the smaller
of the two minimum size values.

When Use Advanced Size Function is set to On: Proximity, only Proximity
Min Size is available.
In cases where you applied a hard size that is smaller than the minimum size,
there may be a poor size transition in proximity to the entity with the hard size.
To obtain a proper size transition, reduce the Defeaturing Tolerance used by
the Automatic Mesh Based Defeaturing control (or turn off Automatic Mesh
Based Defeaturing entirely).

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24 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Meshing Application Release Notes

Virtual Topology
The following enhancements related to virtual topology have been made at re-
lease 14.0:

You can select specific regions (i.e., bodies or faces) before running automatic
virtual cell creation so that it operates on the selected regions only. The software
groups adjacent entities appropriately to form the virtual cell(s).
To facilitate more efficient virtual topology operations, Virtual Cell and Virtual
Split Edge objects no longer appear in the Tree Outline. This provides improved
usability in cases involving very large numbers of virtual entities. The Virtual To-
pology object still appears in the Tree Outline and can be used for setting
global virtual topology options. Other enhancements described in this section
can be used for creating, deleting, and editing virtual entities.
A new Virtual Topology Properties dialog has been implemented. You can use
this dialog to edit the properties of multiple selected virtual topology entities,
and your changes will be applied to all selected entities at one time. You can
access the dialog via right-mouse button click or by choosing the Edit button
on the Virtual Topology context toolbar.
You can insert multiple virtual cells at one time when creating virtual cells
manually. Select one or more faces or one or more edges and from the selected
set of faces or edges, the software creates the virtual cell(s). During this process,
adjacent selected entities are grouped appropriately to form virtual cell(s), while
any single selected entity (that is, one that is selected but is not adjacent to any
other selected entity) forms its own virtual cell.
You can select two vertices on a face to split the face, thereby creating 1 to N
virtual faces. To facilitate split face operations, you can create a virtual hard vertex,
which allows you to define a hard point according to your cursor location on a
face, and then use that hard point in a split face operation. In support of these
features, two new objects are available (Virtual Split Face and Virtual Hard Vertex).
Similar to Virtual Cell and Virtual Split Edge objects, Virtual Split Face and Vir-
tual Hard Vertex objects do not appear in the Tree Outline.
When you define a virtual split edge by selecting Insert> Virtual Split Edge
from the context menu or by choosing Split Edge on the Virtual Topology
context toolbar, the split location is set to 0.5 by default. You can change the
value later by using the Virtual Topology Properties dialog, or by modifying
the edge split interactively as described below.

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Using the F4 key, you can interactively adjust previously defined virtual split
edges and virtual hard vertices. In either case, any virtual split faces affected by
the change are adjusted accordingly.
A Statistics group has been added to the Virtual Topology Details view. Here
you can view counts of the virtual faces, virtual edges, virtual split edges, virtual
split faces, virtual hard vertices, and total virtual entities that exist within the
model.
The virtual topology feature is more flexible, with the addition of more options
for deleting virtual topology entities. Regardless of which object is highlighted
in the Tree Outline (for example, Geometry, Virtual Topology, Mesh, etc.), you
can now select virtual entities in the Geometry window, right-click, and delete
the selected virtual entities (and dependents if applicable). When the Virtual
Topology object is highlighted, you have the additional option of selecting the
Delete button on the Virtual Topology context toolbar. You also have the option
to delete all virtual entities at one timeeither by RMB click on the Virtual To-
pology object in the Tree Outline, or by RMB click on any virtual topology entity
in the Geometry window.
Left/right arrow buttons have been added to the Virtual Topology context
toolbar so that you can cycle through virtual topology entities in the sequence
in which they were created and display them in the Geometry window.
Suppression of virtual entities has been disabled.

POLYFLOW Export
The following enhancements related to POLYFLOW Export have been made at
release 14.0:

Named Selections are supported. When you export a mesh file from the Meshing
application to POLYFLOW format (File> Export from the Meshing application
main menu, then Save as type POLYFLOW Input Files), the Named Selections
that were defined will appear in the exported mesh file.
PMeshes are supported. You can create Named Selections to specify specialized
modeling conditions on edges for 2-D or shell geometry; and edges and faces
for 3-D geometry. The exported mesh file will contain the mesh nodes and ele-
ments associated with those Named Selections in PMesh format.

CGNS Export
Release 14.0 provides greater control over CGNS export operations. Using the
Options dialog box, you can choose a file format (ADF or HDF5) and CGNS

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26 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Meshing Application Release Notes

version (3.1, 3.0, 2.5, 2.4, 2.3, 2.2, or 2.1). The defaults are ADF and 3.1 respect-
ively.

FLUENT Export
The following enhancements related to FLUENT Export have been made at release
14.0:

Body/part names and Named Selection names are no longer considered when
assigning continuum zone types for use in ANSYS FLUENT. For databases created
in release 14.0, the following logic is used to translate the material properties of
the bodies/parts in the model to continuum zone types:
1. If Physics Preference is set to CFD and you do not set the Fluid/Solid
material property as described in steps 2 and 3 below, all zones are exported
to ANSYS FLUENT mesh format as FLUID zones by default.
2. The Fluid/Solid material property assigned in the DesignModeler application
is considered next. This setting overrides the default behavior described in
step 1.
3. The Fluid/Solid material property assigned in the Meshing application is
considered next. This setting overrides the default behavior described in
step 1 and the Fluid/Solid material property assigned in the DesignModeler
application.

For information about this change and migration of legacy models into re-
lease 14.0, see the Resuming Databases from Previous Releases section
above.
Using the Options dialog box, you can choose either the Binary or ASCII file
format for greater control over FLUENT export operations.
At the time of mesh export, a boundary zone type of INTERFACE is now assigned
automatically to the contact source and contact target entities that compose
contact regions. When reading the mesh file, ANSYS FLUENT creates a mesh in-
terface for each contact region automatically. For related information, also see
the Resuming Databases from Previous Releases section above, and the Mis-
cellaneous Changes and Behaviors section below.

Shell Meshing Improvements


Better quad smoothing occurs at release 14.0:

Improved Laplacian smoothing

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Chapter 2: Workbench

More ruled mesh on rectangles, etc.

Miscellaneous Changes and Behaviors


The following changes and behaviors are new at release 14.0:

The Meshing Options panel has been removed.


The CutCellMeshing group of global mesh controls has been renamed the As-
sembly Meshing group. One of the controls, which used to be called the Active
control, has been renamed the Method control. It lets you choose the CutCell
or Tetrahedrons method for assembly meshing.
The default for Proximity Size Function Sources has been changed to Edges.
For assembly meshing algorithms in release 14.0, Named Selection names for
internal face zones are not interpreted. In cases where two enclosed voids share
a face, the face zone is assigned type WALL automatically regardless of whether
a Named Selection has been defined for the face. In these cases, the mesh gen-
eration cannot cross any boundary so you must define a virtual body with ma-
terial point for each flow volume void in order for the volumes to be meshed.
This is a change from release 13.0, in which Named Selection names matching
FAN, RADIATOR, or POROUS-JUMP were interpreted as FAN, RADIATOR, and POR-
OUS-JUMP face zone types respectively, so that when two enclosed voids shared
such a face, mesh generation did not stop at the boundary.
The direct meshing feature has been renamed selective meshing. In support of
this change, the Allow Direct Meshing option on the Options dialog box is now
Allow Selective Meshing. Also see the Selective Meshing (formerly Direct
Meshing) section above.
Virtual Cell and Virtual Split Edge objects no longer appear in the Tree Outline.
In addition, suppression of virtual entities has been disabled. Refer to the Virtual
Topology section above for related information.
The Virtual Topology object that appears in the Tree Outline represents all
definitions of virtual face or virtual edge groups, and all definitions of virtual split
edges, virtual split faces, and virtual hard vertices within a model. As described
above, individual objects for these virtual entities do not appear in the Tree. If
a geometry operation invalidates a virtual entity, refreshing the geometry no
longer causes the Virtual Topology object in the Tree Outline to become under-
defined. For example, if you include a fillet and one neighboring face in the
creation of a virtual cell, but later remove the fillet from the CAD model and re-
fresh the geometry, that individual virtual cell will become underdefined (as it
only includes the one neighboring face), but it will not be deleted, and there

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28 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Mechanical Application Release Notes

will be no change in the Tree Outline. If in a later operation, the fillet is re-added
to the CAD model and refreshed, the virtual cell will be restored. When a virtual
entity becomes underdefined due to a geometry operation, a message is issued
indicating that the last operation resulted in an incomplete virtual entity and
advises you to check your model.
The Send to Solver option, which used to be available in the Mechanical applic-
ation only, is now available in the Meshing application as well. When you are
defining Named Selections, the Send to Solver option lets you control whether
the selected Named Selection is passed to the solver. The default is Yes for
Named Selections that you create, and No for Named Selections that are gener-
ated automatically by the Mesh worksheet.
Pre-inflation with patch conforming is now 2030% faster.
When you export a mesh to ANSYS FLUENT mesh format, contact source and
contact target entities in contact regions are now resolved as INTERFACE zones
and mesh interfaces are created for the contact regions automatically. This
eliminates the steps required in previous releases, which involved defining Named
Selections for the contact regions in the Meshing application and then in ANSYS
FLUENT, ensuring the INTERFACE zone type was assigned properly and creating
a mesh interface for each contact region manually. For related information, also
see the Resuming Databases from Previous Releases and FLUENT Export
sections above.
The Smooth Transition option for the Inflation Option control is now supported
when defining 2D local inflation.
The Auto Detect Contact On Attach option, which used to be available in the
Options dialog box within the Mechanical application, has been moved. This
option, which controls whether contact detection is computed upon geometry
import, can now be accessed by selecting Tools> Options from the ANSYS
Workbench main menu, and then selecting either the Mechanical or Meshing
category as appropriate. The option is enabled by default in both applications.

2.5. Mechanical Application Release Notes


This release of the Mechanical application contains all of the capabilities from
previous releases plus many new features and enhancements. Areas where you
will find changes and new capabilities include the following:

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Chapter 2: Workbench

Incompatibilities and Changes in Product Behavior from


Previous Releases
Release 14.0 includes several new features and enhancements that result in
product behaviors that differ from previous releases. These behavior changes
are presented below.

By default, a model's node and element numbering will not be condensing when
actions such as body suppression occurs. Thus gaps in numbering can occur in
the solver input file. This change was done in order to preserve the integrity of
nodal based named selections. The ability to compress the numbers can be
achieved by a setting in the Details view of the Mesh Numbering folder.
The default values used for contact Formulation, Update Stiffness, and Behavior
have changed. The new defaults were chosen to give best solution to a wide
range of contact situations. See Connection Enhancements below for further in-
formation.
The Auto Detection Value for a contact pinball region is only available for contacts
that are generated automatically.
The Bending option for the Shell Entry will not be available in the Stress/Strains
details view, however you can calculate this result using User defined results.
For a more meaningful result, see the new Bending and Membrane Stress Results.
An Imported Body Temperature object in a 3D analysis no longer supports
scoping surface bodies with other geometry types. You will now be required to
create a separate Imported Body Temperature object for surface bodies. This
change was made to support applying temperatures to the Top, Bottom, or Both
face selections of surface bodies.
When using an Imported Body Temperature or an Imported Heat Generation
object to transfer and apply loads from an upstream Mechanical analysis, the
following changes have been made to the Data View worksheet to allow for
more efficient data transfers:
The addition or removal of rows in the worksheet is no longer controlled by
the program. You can add rows in the worksheet to specify additional data
for a different analysis time.
When resuming legacy databases, rows in the worksheet will be removed if
the Source Time value of the row matches that of the previous row. This has
been done to prevent importing redundant data.
The Active column will no longer be available for activating or deactivating
the load at different steps. Activation or deactivation of these loads can now

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30 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Mechanical Application Release Notes

be done from the Graph or Tabular Data window of the object. Legacy
databases will be migrated to handle this change.
The Auto Detect Contact On Attach option, which used to be available in the
Options dialog box within the Mechanical application, has been moved. See
Miscellaneous Changes and Behaviors in the Meshing Application Release
Notes for details.
In an effort to reduce disk space usage, by default, Nodal Forces are not written
to the result file. However, this output is required to perform post-processing
tasks on the results for most contact force reactions. This default setting can be
changed under the Output Controls category of the Mechanical Application
Options dialog box (Tools>Options).
By default, changes to solution level command objects will not invalidate an up-
to-date solution.
Following the import of a Load History, the Magnitude field displays the label
"Tabular Data". If this Load History data is duplicated, the newly created data is
independent of the original load.

The Import Load History feature has undergone a behavior change. In


prior releases, the name of the imported Load History was displayed in the
Details view Magnitude field, reflecting an object in memory. If this load
was duplicated, the new duplicate showed the same name because it was
the same object in memory. Any change to either objects tabular data
changed the underlying objects data and therefore each Load History was
changed they used the same data. Now, this field displays the label/name
Tabular Data and duplications are unique and independent of one another.
Harmonic Analysis: thermally induced harmonic loading is now ignored by all
Harmonic Analysis.
Random Vibration Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis: In prior releases,
an effective material damping ratio can be defined via Damping Factor () in
Engineering Data. In release 14.0, the Damping Factor () has changed to provide
a material-dependent stiffness coefficient based damping, which is not supported,
and is ignored in solution. As a result, differences in the solution are therefore
observed between the prior releases and the release 14.0 when the analysis is
cleared and re-solved. Currently, there is no equivalent damping behavior sup-
ported in the release 14.0. To have an equivalent damping behavior in a Modal
Analysis using release 14.0, issue the Command Snippet mp,dmpr.

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General Enhancements
The following general enhancements have been made at release 14.0:

Support for Cyclic Symmetry on Surface Bodies. Analyses that include cyclic
symmetry can now be performed on surface bodies as well as solid bodies.
Expanded Criterion Based Named Selections. More options have been to added
for creating named selections by criteria (Worksheet Scoping). Additional options
include:
Criterion based on radius
Ability to build up selections from other Named Selections.
Tolerance used for numerical evaluation.
Whether a row is included as a part of the criterion.
Implementation of Materials as Criterion.
Implementation of Smallest and Largest as available Operators.
Mesh Based Named Selections. Mesh based Named Selections are available as
an alternative to geometric based selections and include the following features:
Scope Named Selections based upon things such as interactive picking, node
Ids, location, midside nodes, and corner nodes.
Convert geometric Named Selection to mesh based Named Selection using
the Convert To option.
Apply the mesh based Named Selections to certain boundary conditions and
results.
View properties of the selection in the Selection Information Window or Export
to a file.

Performance Enhancements
Release 14.0 has given special attention to the performance of Mechanical in
various areas in order to provide a better responding product for both small and
large models:

Improved application start time. Mechanical is now preloaded when a Mech-


anical system is detected in the schematic. This can result in a significant reduction
of fixed cost overhead when opening Mechanical through the "Edit" command.
For example, an "Edit" of a simple model can be as more than 10 times faster.

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32 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Mechanical Application Release Notes

Better system performance when postprocessing large result files. Prior to


release 14.0, if the result file was much larger than the amount of physical memory
on the computer, severe performance degradation could happen when evaluating
results, especially when multiple result sets were present. Mechanical has changed
how it reads result files from disk which has addressed this degradation.
Creation of objects that scope to a large number of entities (on the order of
thousands) has been improved. Additionally the database resume time for an
"Edit" operation with large numbers of entities in the tree or scoping has been
improved.
Improvements for Imported Loads.
Faster graphics response. The time to display contours for an Imported
Load has been improved. Speedups of a factor of 2-3 can be seen on larger
models.
Faster save/resume times. The time required to save and resume Imported
Loads has been made significantly faster. For example, an Imported Load
that took 20 seconds to save and 10 seconds to resume in release 13.0 now
saves in 3 seconds and resumes in less than 1 second. For larger models,
speedups of a factor of 8-10 are now achievable for save and a factor of 15
and greater for resume.
Improved memory usage for save/resume. Memory usage when Imported
Loads are saved or resumed has been greatly reduced. Improvements of a
factor of 15 or more can been seen.
Improved Automatic Contact Detection. Automatic contact detection speeds
have increased. For models where a large number of contacts are created, im-
provements of a factor of two or more can be seen.
Faster weight-calculation time for Triangulation and Distance Based Average
mapping. Triangulation and Distance Based Average weighting calculation times
have improved by utilizing multiple cores. For larger meshes utilizing 8 cores, a
3 to 4 times speedup can be seen.

Analysis Enhancements
The following analysis enhancements have been made at release 14.0:

Damped Modal Analysis Results. Results for damped modal analyses are now
available directly in Mechanical, including, for a damped analysis, the option to
allow or ignore the time decay animation for complex modes.

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Transient Response Analysis Using Linked Modal Analysis System. A transient


structural analysis using the Mode Superposition method can now be accom-
plished by linking a Transient Structural analysis system to an existing Modal
analysis system on the Project Schematic. This new solution methodology can
result in much faster solution times for a linear transient structural analysis.
Rotordynamics. A type of modal analysis to analyze dynamic characteristics of
rotating systems with the effects of damping, Coriolis, and different rotational
velocities. The analysis helps you produce Campbell plots to identify critical
speeds. It is supported for all body types; solid, shell and line bodies, but limited
to single spool systems.
MSUP Harmonic Analysis. You can now perform the Mode Superposition har-
monic analysis linked to a pre-stressed modal analysis.
Double precision is now the default for Explicit Dynamics analyses.
Composites. Mechanical now has support for modeling layered shells (compos-
ites) for both Mechanical APDL and Explicit solvers. Features include:
Engineering Data Support for orthotropic strength material properties
A Layered Section Object to define and setup simple layered shells
Support for Imported Layered Sections from external sources such as ANSYS
Composite PrepPost (ACP)
Post processing on a per layer basis
The following features are now supported for Explicit Dynamics 2D Plane Strain
Analyses:
Coordinate Systems
Initial Condition - Velocity and Angular Velocity
Inertial Loads - Acceleration and Gravity
Supports (Constraints) - Fixed Support, Displacement, Velocity
Loads- Pressure, Force, Hydrostatic Pressure
Connections - Frictional/Frictionless for Manual Contacts and Body Interactions
Geometry
Symmetry
Results/Probes
Analysis Settings
Axisymmetric Analysis

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34 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Mechanical Application Release Notes

Geometry Enhancements
The following geometry enhancements have been made at release 14.0:

Compare Parts on Update. Can now be set to Associative or Non-Associative.


Searching Faces With Multiple Thicknesses. Faces with multiple thicknesses
can now be easily identified.
Line Body Definition Extended to Pipes. Line bodies can now optionally
modeled as pipes or beams. Modeling as pipes allows for specialized pipe loading
as well as options to account for cross section distortion.
External Thickness Import. This feature enables you to import and map X, Y, Z
thickness data for a 3D surface body or a 2D plane stress body.

Contact and Connection Enhancements


The following contact and connection enhancements have been made at release
14.0:

Expanded Contact to Line Bodies. Edges and vertices of line bodies can now
be scoped to the contact side of a Contact Region.
Expanded Support for Normal Lagrange Formulation. The Normal Lagrange
contact formulation is now available for all contact regions regardless of scoping
type or underlying geometry.
Stabilization Damping Factor. The Damping Stabilization Factor is now available
to damp relative motion and provides a certain amount of resistance to reduce
the risk of rigid body motion because of open contacts.
Program Controlled Defaults Added To Behavior Contact Property. The Be-
havior contact property now includes a Program Controlled default setting that
automatically adjusts depending on the presence of rigid body faces (3-D) or
edges (2-D).
Program Controlled Defaults Added To Formulation and Update Stiffness
Contact Properties. Formulation and Update Stiffness properties now each in-
clude Program Controlled default settings that automatically adjust depending
on the presence of rigid body contacts.
Contact Detection. Nodal detection is now supported for 3D face-face contacts
and 2D edge-edge contacts.
Joint Availability. Joints are now available for use in harmonic, random vibration,
and response spectrum analyses.

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Mesh Connections Common to Selected bodies. This new option highlights the
mesh connections that are common to the bodies selected in the Graphics
viewer.
Mesh Connection Across Parts. The Mesh Connection feature leverages the
Post Pinch technology to automatically generate Post Pinch controls internally
at meshing time. This technology allows Mesh Connections to work across parts
so that a multi-body part is no longer required.

Graphics Enhancements
The following graphical enhancements have been made at release 14.0:

Selection Information Window. A new window can now be displayed that


provides an efficient way to obtain geometric information on selected items in
the model.
Viewing Line Body Cross Sections as 3-D Geometry. A feature has been added
to the View menu that displays a line body with defined cross sections in 3-D
geometry.
Show Mesh. Displays the models mesh regardless of the selected tree object.
Graphical Based Node Selection. Nodes can now be selected in the graphics
view. Additionally, there are several selection modes available to choose the
desired nodes.
Show Coordinate Systems. Displays all of the Coordinate Systems that are asso-
ciated with the model.
Viewing and Exporting Finite Element Connections. The new FE Connections
Visibility option, Draw Connections Attached To All, allows you to display All
Nodes associated with Solution Information or to view nodes scoped to a Named
Selection. Connections can also be viewed as Lines or as Points.
Display Edge Direction. You can now display model edge directions.
Create Section Plane. You can now create a section plane on your model that
is based on a predefined Coordinate System.

Loads/Supports/Conditions Enhancements
The following loads/supports/conditions enhancements have been made at re-
lease 14.0:

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36 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Mechanical Application Release Notes

Pipe Pressure for Line Bodies. Pressure can now be applied to line bodies
defined as pipes. The Pipe Pressure load can be applied as a constant, tabular,
or function load.
Pipe Temperature for Line Bodies. Temperature can now be applied to line
bodies defined as pipes. The Pipe Temperature load can be applied as a constant,
tabular, or function load.
Direct FE is a new Menu of options in the Mechanical Application that contains
specific Finite Element (FE) boundary conditions in the form of forces, supports,
and conditions, and includes:
Nodal Orientation. A nodal coordinate system can be created for later use
in applying nodal rotations to displacements. This is represented by a Orient-
ation object and is available in the Direct FE menu.
Nodal Force - A force can now be applied to individual nodes or a group of
nodes by scoping Nodal Force to a node-based Named Selection.
Nodal Pressure - A pressure can now be applied to individual nodes or a
group of nodes by scoping Nodal Pressure to a node-based Named Selection.
FE Displacement - A node-based displacement can now be applied.
FE Rotation - A fixed rotation can now be applied to the nodes of a body.
Lock at Load Step. A joint can now be locked at a specific load step during a
multi-step analysis. This feature is available for both a static or a transient analysis.
PSD Loading to Multiple Remote Displacements (and Fixed Supports). For a
Modal Analysis, you can now apply a PSD Excitation load to all remote displace-
ments or to all remote displacements and all fixed supports.
Ansoft-Mechanical Data Transfer. Imported Loads from HFSS, Maxwell, or Q3D
now support the ability to import data from multiple times/frequencies and apply
them at different times using a single Imported Load object.
Mechanical-Maxwell Stress Feedback. Deformation results can now be exported
from a structural analysis in Mechanical and used in a Maxwell analysis.
Activation/Deactivation Support for Imported Loads. Imported loads can now
be activated or deactivated on a step basis from the Graph or Tabular Data
window of the object.
Heat Flux and Heat Generation Import from External Files. Heat Flux and Heat
Generation data, specified in the External Data system, can now be imported
and applied in a steady-state or transient thermal analysis.

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Chapter 2: Workbench

Imported Body Temperature Loads Enhanced for Surface body Selections. Tem-
peratures imported into a structural analysis can now be applied to the Top,
Bottom, or Both face selections of surface bodies.
Convection. A convection load (film coefficient and ambient temperature) can
be applied as a tabular load or a function of x or y or z and/or time.

Mapping Enhancements
The following mapping enhancements have been made at Release 14.0:

Scan For File Changes, a context menu option on an External Data System's
Setup cell, checks each Data Source file and validates that inputs are correct.
Named Selection Creation. Automatic named selection creation for unmapped,
mapped, and outside nodes.
Mapping Settings. Imported loads settings have been changed:
Triangulation. Weighting setting Radial Basis Functions has been changed
to Triangulation to better describe the technique used in calculating source
point load contributions.
Distance Based Average. A new weighting option Distance Based Average
has replaced Closest Point allowing input from the user to specify how many
closest points to use when calculating source point contributions.

Databases from previous releases with Closest Point weighting will be


migrated to Distance Based Average with the Advanced setting Number
of Points set to 1.

Better control of outside nodes during weight calculation. Nodes


found outside the boundaries of the surface/volume elements created
during mapping can now be handled using Distance Based Average
or Projection techniques.
Kriging Weighting Type. Kriging is a regression-based interpolation technique
that assigns weights to surrounding source points according to their spatial
covariance values and can provide for smoother mapping compared to other
weighting techniques.
Validation. A new Validation object has been added to help in determining the
quality of the mapping.
Multiple File Inputs. Importing loads from upstream External Data system con-
taining multiple data files. See External Data in the Workbench User Guide and
External Data Import in the ANSYS Mechanical Application User's Guide for details.

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38 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Mechanical Application Release Notes

New Source Geometry Analytical Transformation Capabilities. Analytical


Transformation of source point locations using scale factors or functions. This
feature can be useful to help account for differences between the source and
target geometry.
Export. Imported data (loads and thicknesses) can be exported to a file.
Shell Thickness Factor. When mapping data from an External Data system onto
surface bodies, a new Shell Thickness Factor property allows you to account for
the thickness at each target node, and consequently modify the location used
for each target node during the mapping process.

Solution Enhancements
The following solution enhancements have been made at release 14.0:

Save Project Before and After Solution. As a safeguard in protecting a Work-


bench database, a project can now be saved before a solve is requested as well
as after it is solved, before postprocessing.
Restart Enhancements
Loads values can be modified. Load values for most boundary conditions can
now be modified.
Nodal forces and pressures can be added. Nodal Force and Nodal Pressure
objects can be created without loss of restart points.
Improved License Management for RSM Jobs There is a new Workbench
preference, Release License for Pending Jobs, which enables you to control
when the Mechanical application holds its license during batch mode operations
while the Solution cell is in the pending state. Releasing the license may lengthen
the time required to perform the batch run. See Mechanical for details.
Expanded Output Controls: The output controls have been expanded and now
support controls such as nodal forces, miscellaneous records, and the maximum
number of results sets to write.
Distributed Solver For Pre-Stress Modal Analysis. Pre-stress modal analysis
can now be performed via the Distributed solver option (DANSYS) when using
the MAPDL solver.
License Queuing. You may now instruct the MAPDL solver to wait for an available
license by using a configuring settings when solving remotely via RSM.
Post Processing Commands. You can now add or modify solution level command
objects for a solved analysis without invalidating your existing solution.

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Chapter 2: Workbench

Results Enhancements
The following results enhancements have been made at release 14.0:

Display Finite Element Beams, Weak Springs and Constraint Equations. The
Solution Information object now includes properties to control the ability to
display internal beams, weak springs and constraint equations that are generated
during solution.
Results Scoping Extended to Meshing Entities. Using criteria based named
selections, scoping for several results is now available on underlying meshing
entities, in addition to geometric entities.
Forces/Moment Reactions . Force Reaction probes and Moment Reaction probes
are now available for use in Harmonic and Modal analyses. In Random Vibration
and Response Spectrum analyses, they can only be scoped to Remote Displace-
ment boundary condition.
Bending and Membrane Stresses. Two new result objects, Bending Stress and
Membrane stress, are added to calculate membrane and bending stresses and
strains. These results are available only when you solve using the Mechanical
APDL solver for surface bodies and solid bodies that are meshed using the thin-
solid option.
Force Reaction Probe Support for Cylindrical Coordinates. Force Reaction
probes can now be displayed in either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinate systems.
PSD Probes Scoping Extended to Remote Points. Scoping for Response PSD
probes is now available at remote points.
Duplication for User Defined Results. User defined results can now be duplic-
ated, with and without the result, and across analysis systems.
Force Reaction Result Trackers. Force Reaction result trackers that can be
scoped to boundary conditions and geometry are available for explicit dynamics
analyses. Geometry scoped Force Reaction trackers can show results for the fol-
lowing force components:
Support - specifies that the tracker show results for the forces that will be
generated due to supports that are present in the model.
Euler/Lagrange Coupling - specifies that the tracker show results for the forces
exerted by any material in bodies assigned with an Eulerian reference frame
that interact with the scoped region.
Contact - specifies that the tracker show results for the total force resulting
from the contact forces acting on the scoped area.

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40 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Mechanical Application Release Notes

All - specifies that the tracker show results for the sum of all three compon-
ents.
Design Assessment. The following enhancements have been made to the Design
Assessment system:
The Design Assessment system can now accept upstream connections from
the following systems: Static Structural, Modal, Harmonic Response, Random
Vibration, Response Spectrum, Explicit Dynamics and Transient Structural.
Solution Combination can be performed with Static Structural, Modal, Har-
monic Response, Random Vibration, Response Spectrum and Transient
Structural systems.
Additional BEAMST results are available in the DA Result object when the
BEAMCHECK assessment type is specified.
FATJACK (within Design Assessment) enhanced for additional analysis types:
Stress History, Spectral, Deterministic.
Units support for attribute input.
Script locations can be defined relative to various locations.
User defined results are now available.
Upstream results are programmatically accessible, enabling direct access
through the API to custom results.
Solve and Evaluate script output is now displayed within Design Assessment.
Design Assessment results are now available at nodes, and nodes on elements.
Results can also be assigned units and can be presented in vector or tensor
forms. The units systems of upstream results can be obtained and mesh data
is now provided in the Design Assessment analysis units rather than geometry
units.
Design Assessment can now access shell thickness information, including
varying thickness definitions.
Design Assessment is now available for Linux platforms.
Result Suppression. Result objects including result Probes can now be suppressed.
These suppressed result objects are excluded from the solution.
Create Contour Result From Result. You can now create a contour result from
a Frequency Response result type in a Harmonic Analysis. This feature creates
a new result object in the tree with the same type, orientation, frequency, and
phase angle as the frequency result type.

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Chapter 2: Workbench

Expanded User Defined Result Types. Element attribute numbers such as ma-
terial or type used for the Mechanical APDL solution can now be accessed using
User Defined Result Types.
Generate Path from Edge Result. You can now generate a Path form results
scoped to contiguous edges.
Enhanced Chart. The Chart object has been enhanced to provide scaling (such
as semi-log) and plot options. Additionally, the charts can now plot harmonic
Frequency Response objects in order to easily compare and collate result data.

Ease of Use Enhancements


The following usage enhancements have been made in release 14.0:

For Windows users, the solution file folder can be displayed using the Open
Solver Files Directory feature.
Convenience MAPDL Parameter: The Mechanical input file to the MAPDL solver
now contains a parameter that points to the user_files directory in the Workbench
project structure. This can be used by those familiar with MAPDL commands to
perform useful file operations.

Notes on Equivalent Strains in Mechanical at Revision 14.0


There are two distinct techniques for calculating Equivalent Strain.

1. The calculation for Technique One proceeds as follows:


Average the component (X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ) strain values from the elements
at a common node;
Calculate the equivalent strain from the averaged component strains.
2. The calculation for Technique Two proceeds as follows:
Calculate the equivalent strain values (from the six component strains) on
a per element basis;
Average these values from the elements at a common node.

The two techniques produce similar (but not necessarily identical) contours.

New at 14.0, when Mechanical post-processes MAPDL and AUTODYN result files,
the equivalent strain formulations are the same as those in MAPDL POST1. That
is, Mechanical will use Technique Two at 14.0.

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42 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
DesignXplorer Release Notes

Before 14.0, Mechanical used Technique One, except for Equivalent Total Strain
results(Solution->Strain->Equivalent Total). Equivalent Total Strain results were
always derived via Technique Two.

Effect Upon the Solution Worksheet (User Defined Result Expressions):

The user defined results EPELEQV, EPPLEQV, EPCREQV, EPTTEQV, and EPTOEQV,
which represent the pre-14.0 formulation, are no longer listed in the Worksheet
at 14.0.

The Worksheet (for structural analyses) will list (if they exist) EPELEQV_RST, EP-
PLEQV_RST, EPCREQV_RST, EPTTEQV_RST, and EPTOEQV_RST, which represent
Technique Two.

Exceptions

1. Technique Two has NOT been installed into the post-processing of result files
for other solvers (e.g. SAMCEF and SNECMA).
2. For cyclic symmetric models in modal environments, the older (pre-14.0) formu-
lation is still in effect.
3. If the MAPDL/AUTODYN result files were created by a revision previous to 14.0
(e.g., 13.0), then equivalent strain contours (and probes) will employ the older
(pre-14.0) formulation. Hence, if you resume a pre-14.0 database with pre-14.0
result files and insert an equivalent strain, then Technique One will be attempted.
4. If you resume a pre-14.0 database which already contains an equivalent strain
result/probe in the Solution tree, then the older (pre-14.0) formulation remains
in effect.

2.6. DesignXplorer Release Notes


Release 14.0 of the ANSYS DesignXplorer application contains all of the capabil-
ities from prior releases plus many new features and enhancements. Areas where
you will find improvements and new capabilities include:
2.6.1. DesignXplorer General Enhancements
2.6.2. DesignXplorer Manufacturable Values Enhancements
2.6.3. DesignXplorer Design Point Update Enhancements
2.6.4. DesignXplorer Remote Design Point Update Enhancements
2.6.5. Response Surface Enhancements
2.6.6. DesignXplorer Chart Enhancements

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Chapter 2: Workbench

2.6.1. DesignXplorer General Enhancements


Import Refinement and Verification Points
Via the Table view, refinement and verification points of a response surface can
now be added and edited to increase the ease of use and refinement capabilities.
Specifically, an external CSV file can be imported to create design points in a
custom design of experiments component, or refinement and verification points
in a Response Surface component.

Add and Remove Derived Output Parameters


Previous design point updates are no longer invalidated when a derived output
parameter is added or removed. When you add or remove a derived output
parameter and then update the first component of a DesignXplorer system, the
design points are not resubmitted for update; instead, the system evaluates the
derived output parameter for each design point and then rebuilds the rest of
the results.

Additional Optimization Options


The Goal Driven Optimization component now offers additional optimization
options. In the optimization Table of Schematic:

A new Optimization Domain section allows you to define the parameter space
for each input parameter by setting the Lower Bound and Upper Bound. For
the NLPQL optimization method, you can also set an Initial Value to specify
where optimization starts for each input.
The Optimization Study section has been renamed Optimization Objectives
and contains the following modifications:
The Seek Midpoint option for continuous input parameters has been changed
to Seek Target. The default target is the midpoint.
You can now set Constraint Handling preferences at the parameter level
for constrained parameters (i.e., parameters for which a constraint objective
is defined).

For more information on optimization options, see Defining the Optimization


Domain and Defining Optimization Objectives in the DesignXplorer help.

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44 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
DesignXplorer Release Notes

Duplication of DX System User Data


When you duplicate a design exploration system, the user data associated with
it (response points, charts, and metrics objects) are also duplicated. You can opt
to duplicate all user data or can select individual objects for duplication.

Dynamic Convergence Feedback


DesignXplorer now provides dynamic feedback during Parameter Correlation
component updates and Response Surface refinement via the Kriging meta-
model, allowing you to monitor the refinement process and convergence status.

During updates of Parameter Correlation components, generated points are


displayed in the Table view as soon as they are solved. During Response Surface
refinements via the Kriging meta-model, the Table view and the Kriging Conver-
gence Curves chart are dynamically updated as each refinement point is solved.
Also, the Kriging refinement controls have been modified to better support this
enhancement.

Generate DesignXplorer Project Reports


DesignXplorer now has project reporting functionality for Goal Driven Optimiza-
tion, Parameters Correlation, and Six Sigma Analysis systems, providing a project
snapshot that you can use to capture the design process. Each report contains
general sections for the Project Schematic, DOE, and Response Surface, a system-
specific section (GDO, Parameters Correlation, or SSA), and incorporates chart
graphics and table summaries.

For more detailed information on project reporting functionality, see Using Design
Exploration Project Reports in the DesignXplorer help and Project Reporting in
the Workbench Users Guide.

New Options when Editing DesignXplorer Components


When you are editing a design exploration component, the tool bar and context
menu now include four new options: Update, Preview, Clear Generated Data,
and Refresh. These options display when relevant to the component state and
are performed only on the selected component.

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New Best Practices Documentation


In this release, the documentation offers best practice recommendations on
the following topics:

Working with failed design points.

In Failed Design Points, see subsections Preventing Design Point Update


Failures, Preserving Design Points and Files, and Handling Failed Design
Points.
Selecting a meta-model to improve a response surfaces Goodness of Fit.

In Meta-Model Refinement, see subsections Working with Meta-Models and


Changing the Meta-Model. The Goodness of Fit section includes expanded
descriptions of Goodness of Fit criteria.

Improved Quick Help Messages


The Quick Help messages for DesignXplorer system cells provide detailed inform-
ation on cell states and now include links to relevant topics in the DesignXplorer
help or the Workbench Users Guide.

2.6.2. DesignXplorer Manufacturable Values Enhancements


Manufacturable Values Filter
You can represent real-world manufacturing or production constraints by applying
a Manufacturable Values filter to continuous input parameters. The application
of this filter ensures that only values that realistically represent manufacturing
capabilities are included in the postprocessing analysis. This feature replaces the
Usability input parameter classification that was available previously.

Local Sensitivity Charts Support Manufacturable Values


The Local Sensitivity charts now support the use of continuous parameters with
Manufacturable Values.

On the Local Sensitivity Curves chart, you can view the placement of each Man-
ufacturable Value along the curve. For continuous parameters with Manufactur-
able Values:

Continuous values are represented by a transparent gray curve.

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46 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
DesignXplorer Release Notes

Manufacturable Values are represented by colored markers.

On the Local Sensitivity chart, each bar is defined by the Min-Max of the Manu-
facturable Values and the average calculated from the support curve; this chart
allows you to view the differences in the output Min-Max according to whether
Manufacturable Values are considered or discounted. For continuous parameters
with Manufacturable Values:

Continuous values are represented by a gray bar.


Manufacturable Values are represented by a colored bar in front of the gray
bar.
If Manufacturable Values are used, both the colored bar and the gray bar
are visible on the chart.
If the parameter range extends beyond the actual Manufacturable Values
defined, the bar is topped with a gray line to indicate the sensitivity obtained
when the Manufacturable Values are discounted.

Improved Response Chart Display of Manufacturable Values


The Response chart display has been improved to distinguish between continuous
parameters with Manufacturable Values and discrete parameters, allowing you
to gain a better understanding of your design. For continuous parameters with
Manufacturable Values, the bars or curves representing the continuous values
(depending on the type of Response chart) are now rendered in gray, with colored
bars or markers to represent each of the Manufacturable Values.

2.6.3. DesignXplorer Design Point Update Enhancements


Specify Design Point Update Order at DesignXplorer Level
You can now specify the order in which design points are updated at the
DesignXplorer level. When multiple design points share the same geometry or
mesh, you can improve the efficiency of the design point updates by specifying
an update order ithat groups identical geometry or mesh parameters and reduces
the number of geometry or mesh updates required. You can change the sequence
of design point updates by entering values manually, according to a column
sort, or by using the automatic sort feature. For more information, see Design
Point Update Order in the Workbench Users Guide.

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Design Point Log Files


As each point in a design point update is solved, DesignXplorer now writes its
full definition to a design point log file as a backup. The log file is written to the
user_files directory of the Workbench project and is in the Extended CSV
File Format used by ANSYS DesignXplorer to export table and chart data and
to import/export data from external CSV file. If the project ever fails or becomes
corrupted in some way, you can use this log file to import the design point data
back into the Table of Design Points in the Design of Experiments component
of any design exploration system.

For more information, see Design Point Log Files and Extended CSV File Format
in the DesignXplorer help.

Note

When updating design points via RSM, if you exit the project or switch
to another project during the update, the design point log file will
not be updated when you resume the update.

2.6.4. DesignXplorer Remote Design Point Update Enhance-


ments
Submit Design Point Updates to Remote Solve Manager
You can now submit design points from DesignXplorer to RSM for background
or remote processing. Also, it is now possible to specify different update methods
for solution cell and design point updates. The update method for solution cells
is determined by the settings in the Solution Process dialog, accessed via the
Tools > Options > Solution Process menu option. The update method for
design point updates is determined by the Design Point Update Process settings
in the Properties view for the Parameter Set bus bar.

For more detailed information, see Using Remote Solve Manager with
DesignXplorer in the DesignXplorer help.

Specify Job Submission Method for Design Point Updates via RSM
In the Parameter Set Properties view, use the new Default Job Submission
property to specify how design points sent to Remote Solve Manager for update
will be submitted. Submission options are as follows:

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48 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
DesignXplorer Release Notes

One Job for All Design Points: All design points being sent for update are
submitted as a single job.
One Job per Design Point: Each design point being sent for update is submitted
as a separate job.
Specify Maximum Number of Jobs: Design points being sent for update are
distributed among and submitted in multiple jobs, up to the maximum number
of jobs specified.

For more information, see Updating Design Points via Remote Solve Manager
(RSM) in the Workbench Users Guide.

Note

The failure of design points to update or merge back into the project
will not affect any design points that updated and merged success-
fully. If you encounter any failed design points, simply resubmit those
design points for updating. When submitting design points as separate
jobs using this release, you may encounter occasional failures with
the design point updates. These failures are most likely to occur if
submitting design points from a DesignXplorer design exploration
system and generally occur when ANSYS Workbench attempts to
merge the results back into the project.

Pending State for DX Remote Design Point Updates


The Pending state is available for design point updates submitted by
DesignXplorer to the Remote Solve Manager (RSM). With the Pending state,
you can continue interacting with the project on a limited basis or view interme-
diate results in the Table view while the update is in progress. Additionally, if
you exit the project and then reopen it, the Resume button allows you to resume
the update.

For more detailed information on the Pending state, see Using Remote Solve
Manager with DesignXplorer in the DesignXplorer help.

Differentiation of Failed Design Points


When you submit a design point update to Remote Solve Manager from
DesignXplorer, the Parameter Set Table of Design Points now displays icons to
differentiate between failed design points and out-of-date design points.

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For more detailed information on how failed and out-of-date designs are dis-
played, see Design Point States in the Workbench Users Guide.

2.6.5. Response Surface Enhancements


Enhanced Sparse Grid Refinement Capabilities
In this release, the Sparse Grid meta-model provides enhanced refinement
capabilities. When the Sparse Grid response surface is generated, it decomposes
the domain into subdomains with a linear basis function for each point of dis-
cretization; this allows for a more local refinement process that uses fewer design
points and reaches the requested accuracy faster.

For more information, see Sparse Grid in the Design Explorer help.

Define Maximum Number of Points for Sparse Grid Refinement


You can now specify the maximum number of refinement points that can be
generated as part of the Sparse Grid refinement process via the new Maximum
Number of Refinement Points response surface property. The Sparse Grid al-
gorithm will continue the refinement process until the response surface reaches
the requested level of accuracy, the maximum depth is reached, or the maximum
number of refinement points has been created.

2.6.6. DesignXplorer Chart Enhancements


Insert Refinement Point from Predicted vs. Observed Chart
On the Predicted vs. Observed chart, you can now right-click a point and add it
as a new refinement point that will be taken into account during the next gen-
eration of the Response Surface. To determine whether a particular point on the
chart is a candidate for being inserted as a refinement point, you can position
your mouse cursor over the point; the corresponding values for parameters, in-
cluding the predicted and observed values for output parameters, display in the
Properties view.

New Local Sensitivity Curves Chart


A new Local Sensitivity Curves chart allows you further focus your analysis by
viewing independent parameter variations within the standard Local Sensitivity
chart. This multi-curve chart displays individual local sensitivities, with a separate

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50 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Remote Solve Manager Release Notes

curve to represent the impact of each input parameter on one or two output
parameters.

For more information, see Using the Local Sensitivity Curves Chart in the
DesignXplorer help.

New 2D Slices Response Chart


The new 2D Slices Response chart combines the advantages of both the 2D and
3D graph Response charts, compressing the data of a three-dimensional surface
into an easy-to-read, two-dimensional chart. Essentially, this chart is a projection
of the 3D response surface onto the XY plane, with the X-axis input varying
continuously while the Y-axis input determines the number of curves or slices
to be displayed.

For more information, see Using the 2D Slices Response Chart in the
DesignXplorer help.

Chart Context Menu Options to Enable/Disable Parameters


In this release, you can enable or disable DesignXplorer chart parameters quickly
and easily via new context menu options. When you right-click a chart entity,
the context menu now contains options that allow you to enable/disable the
selected parameter, all inputs except the selected parameter (for inputs), or all
outputs except the selected parameter (for outputs). If at least one parameter is
already disabled, you can right-click anywhere in the chart and opt to reverse
all enabled/disabled parameters (an operation that disables all enabled paramet-
ers, and vice versa).

This functionality is currently available for the Predicted vs. Observed chart, the
Sensitivities chart, the Local Sensitivity chart, the Local Sensitivity Curves chart,
the Correlation Matrix chart, and the Determination Matrix chart.

For more information, see Using DesignXplorer Charts in the DesignXplorer help.

2.7. Remote Solve Manager Release Notes


The following enhancements have been made to the Remote Solve Manager
(RSM) in release 14.0.

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RSM Batch Queue Support for FLUENT, CFX, and ANSYS


Mechanical APDL
Remote Solve Manager now provides Batch Queue support for FLUENT, CFX, and
ANSYS Mechanical APDL. For solutions that will be submitted to RSM, the solver
Properties view now allows you to specify remote execution options. Except
where otherwise noted, these solvers now support the following modes of exe-
cution on remote queues:

Serial
Shared memory parallel
Distributed parallel on Linux clusters via PBS and LSF, and on Windows clusters
via Windows HPC and LSF

CFX also has extended support for CFX external files (e.g., BC profiles, .csv vari-
ables, etc.). See Using Remote Solve Manager with ANSYS CFX in the CFX docu-
mentation for a complete list of which files are and are not supported.

Limitation: In release 14.0, RSM does not support Windows clusters via LSF for
the submission of FLUENT solutions.

Local Scratch Directory for RSM Batch Queue Jobs


When you submit Batch Queue jobs via Remote Solve Manager, you can now
specify that you want to store solver files in local directory on the Compute
Server machine (i.e., in a local scratch directory on the execution node), rather
than in the shared cluster directory that serves as the central RSM file-staging
directory. By using a local directory on the execution node, you could optimize
performance by reducing the need to copy files. The location in which solver
files are stored is controlled by the File Management property of the Compute
Server Properties dialog.

Limitation: Note that this option is not available if you are sending CFX jobs to
a Microsoft HPC Compute Server; in this case, the shared cluster directory is always
used.

Option to Retain Temporary Job Files


You now have the option to retain temporary RSM job files created in the
Working Directory on the Compute Server. In the release, the General tab of
the redesigned Compute Server Properties dialog includes a new Delete Job

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Remote Solve Manager Release Notes

Files in Working Directory property that allows you to specify whether the
temporary job files will be saved or deleted upon completion of the associated
job. You can save these temporary job files and use them for troubleshooting
purposes.

Enhanced RSM Service Scripts for Linux


Modifications to the RSM installation and initialization scripts for Linux allow you
to install RSM services and configure them as daemons (i.e., to start up automat-
ically when the machine is booted). Once the RSM daemon services are installed,
they can be configured so that non-root users can run, stop, and restart them.

For more information, see Starting RSM Services Automatically at Boot Time for
Linux in the Remote Solve Manager documentation.

Specify Job Submission Method for Design Point Updates via


RSM
In the Parameter Set Properties view, use the new Default Job Submission
property to specify how design points sent to Remote Solve Manager for update
will be submitted. Submission options are as follows:

One Job for All Design Points: All design points being sent for update are
submitted as a single job.
One Job per Design Point: Each design point being sent for update is submitted
as a separate job.
Specify Maximum Number of Jobs: Design points being sent for update are
distributed among and submitted in multiple jobs, up to the maximum number
of jobs specified.

For more information, see Updating Design Points via Remote Solve Manager
(RSM) in the Workbench Users Guide.

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Note

The failure of design points to update or merge back into the project
will not affect any design points that updated and merged success-
fully. If you encounter any failed design points, simply resubmit those
design points for updating. When submitting design points as separate
jobs using this release, you may encounter occasional failures with
the design point updates. These failures are most likely to occur if
submitting design points from a DesignXplorer design exploration
system and generally occur when ANSYS Workbench attempts to
merge the results back into the project.

Submit Design Point Updates to RSM from DesignXplorer


You can now submit Design Point updates to RSM from DesignXplorer (DX). The
Pending state is also now supported for DX, which means if you submit a design
point update to RSM from DX, you can continue interacting with the project on
a limited basis and can view intermediate results of individual design point up-
dates via the Table of Design Points while the remote update is in progress.
Additionally, if you exit the project, when you reopen it the Resume button allows
you to resume the update.

For additional information, see Using Remote Solve Manager with DesignXplorer
in the DesignXplorer help.

Submit Geometry-Only Updates for All Design Points to RSM


In this release, the new Pre-RSM Foreground Update property in the Parameter
Set Properties view allows you to update the geometry locally before submitting
design points to RSM. This feature enables remote update of design points in
situations where remote machines do not have access to CAD software, or suffi-
cient licenses for CAD, CAD connections, or geometry components. It also allows
you to interrupt an update earlier in the process if failures are found during
geometry update. Output files for the geometry update for all design points are
then retained and reused for the remainder of the design point updates.

This functionality is available for RSM remote server machines on which both
Workbench and necessary CAD software have been installed.

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Engineering Data Workspace Release Notes

For more detailed information on geometry-only design point updates, see


Solution Process or Updating Design Points via Remote Solve Manager (RSM)
in the Workbench Users Guide .

Redesigned Compute Server Properties Interface


The Compute Server Properties dialog has a new, more intuitive design, allowing
you to configure and administrate RSM more easily. The Compute Server
Properties dialog now offers a three-tab design (with General, Cluster, and SSH
tabs), context-sensitive help, a clearer presentation of options, and properties
that have been modified to enhance clarity and ease of use.

For more information, see Adding a Compute Server in the Remote Solve Manager
help.

Revised Remote Solve Manager Installation and Configuration


Instructions
There have been significant revisions to the Installation and Configuration section
and the Appendices of the Remote Solve Manager help. The instructions have
been updated, consolidated where possible, and reorganized for clarity and ease
of use.

Fluent in Workbench with RSM Submission


UDFs are now supported for Solution Update via RSM, with the following limita-
tions:

Automatic compilation of UDFs (when submitting to a host with different oper-


ating system or architecture) requires that the UDF directory be in the same
location as the case data within the project directory structure.
Automatic compilation of UDFs also requires that a suitable compiler be installed
on the remote system, and that the remote system environment be configured
so that the compiler can be located. See the compiler documentation.

Submission of Fluent via RSM to a LSF batch queue is supported on Linux only.

2.8. Engineering Data Workspace Release Notes


The following new material models are now available in Engineering Data.

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Viscoelastic- These material models are available for Static Structural and Transient
Structural analysis.
Prony Shear Relaxation
Prony Volumetric Relaxation
Williams-Landel-Ferry Shift Function
Tool-Narayanaswamy Shift Function
Tool-Narayanaswamy with Fictive Temperature Shift Function
Material Strength Limits- These material models are available for Static Structural,
Transient Structural, Modal, Linear Buckling, Random Vibration and Response
Spectrum analysis.
Orthotropic Stress Limits
Orthotropic Strain Limits
Tsai-Wu Constants
Puck Constants
LaRc03/04 Constants

Gasket material model is now also available for

Pre-stress modal analysis


Pre-stress modal based Random Vibration analysis
Pre-stress modal based Random Response Spectrum analysis

Hyper-elastic material models are now also available for

Pre-stress modal analysis


Pre-stress Linear Buckling analysis
Pre-stress modal based Random Vibration analysis
Pre-stress modal based Random Response Spectrum analysis

In the thermal materials library, the default value for Thermal Conductivity
changed from 0.26 W/m-sec to 0.026 W/m-sec for the air material.

2.9. EKM Release Notes


ANSYS Engineering Knowledge Manger (EKM) 14.0 consists of EKM, the EKM
server product, and EKM Desktop, its companion desktop client application. New

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56 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
EKM Release Notes

features that are available in ANSYS EKM 14.0 are listed below in EKM (p. 57)
and EKM Desktop (p. 59).

2.9.1. EKM
If you have used previous versions of EKM, version 14.0 offers many significant
changes and improvements that are listed below:

Product Installation and Setup: An EKM server can now be installed and
set up on a local machine for a single user, or on shared hardware for mul-
tiple users using the ANSYS 14.0 installation media.
EKM Individual Server: This setup type allows an EKM server to be set up
for an individual user on their own machine. In this single-user mode, a user
can access their private repository on their individual server, as well as
have access to the full capabilities of EKM.
EKM Shared Server: This setup type allows an EKM server to be set up on
a shared device that can be accessed by multiple users in a collaborative
mode. Multiple users can access a shared repository in their LAN (Local Area
Network) or across a WAN (Wide Area Network). A shared basic EKM server
can be quickly and easily set up with minimal effort in your LAN for a
workgroup of typically up to 10 users. A shared advanced EKM server can
be set up in a non-cluster or cluster configuration in a WAN for a large
workgroup of any number of users. A shared advanced EKM server can be
configured in a variety of topologies that best meet your organizations
needs. In addition to accessing shared repositories, users accessing a shared
server also have access to the full capabilities of EKM.
Integration with ANSYS Workbench: When you install ANSYS Workbench,
the EKM Desktop client is automatically installed on your hardware. You can
save your current Workbench project directly to a selected repository, and
search for a Workbench project and open it from a selected repository. After
updating the local copy of your Workbench project, you can then send
changes to the copy of the project that resides in the EKM repository. Other
users who have updated the same Workbench project can get your changes
in order to access the most-up-to-date version. Tighter integration with
Workbench facilitates collaboration with ongoing projects and allows multiple
users to leverage on the work that is being done by their colleagues.
ANSYS Workbench Project Representation in EKM: When a Workbench
project is saved to an EKM repository from Workbench or EKM Desktop, the
project is automatically saved as a Workbench Project Archive File type
(with .wbpz extension), making it easier to manage and act on the project

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Chapter 2: Workbench

as a single object in EKM. Project-level metadata are extracted and an ex-


tensive Workbench Project Report is auto-generated that summarizes com-
ponent systems and all aspects of the Workbench project. The data can be
used to display, identify, search, and reuse Workbench projects
Migration from EKM Individual to Shared Repository: You can use the
export and import features of EKM when you want to migrate data from
one repository to another. You can either migrate a complete workspace or
just a subset. For example, you can use this to migrate all of the data and
configuration contained in an individual server to a new workspace in a
shared server.
EKM Desktop Enhancements: The local repository feature has been re-
placed by the EKM individual server. File transfers have been made more
robust. Advanced search and reporting features have also been improved
for this release. See EKM Desktop (p. 59) for additional changes.
Record and Replay of Journals: You can now create journal script files by
recording your interactive actions in the EKM web client. This can be helpful
when you want to automate tasks that are repetitious in nature, especially
system administration tasks. Recorded journals can be replayed easily from
the user interface.
Audit Trail: A feature available in the Process Player that can be used to
track the decisions and actions that are made during a workflow process
for work items that have been completed. This helps in fulfilling audit needs
for regulatory compliance.
Licensing Enhancements: In EKM 14.0, the licensing framework has been
simplified. Now, you will only need an EKM individual user license key or an
EKM shared user license key to access EKM, based on the type of server you
are accessing.
Usability Enhancements: Numerous other usability enhancements have
been made to EKM. These include:
Search results can be displayed in a Tree view, and search snippets for
the results can also be displayed
Default metadata and report extraction methods can be extended by
the use of additional user-defined extractors
A user-defined cleanup policy for deleted items in the Recycle Bin can
be specified
The ability to execute a scriptable action as a scheduled task has been
added

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58 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
EKM Release Notes

A private search query for any user can be added to the built-in Sys-
tems/Public Shared Queries folder so that it can be accessed
by all users
A Quick Compare report option now allows you to compare multiple
files using default settings with a single click; improvements to custom-
ized comparison report formats have also been made

2.9.2. EKM Desktop


If you have used previous versions of EKM Desktop, version 14.0 provides many
significant changes and improvements that are summarized below:

Wizards and Dialogs: New wizards and enhancements to existing wizards


and dialogs have been made. These include:
Setup wizard
Advanced search wizard
Comparison Report wizard
New Connection wizard
Upgrade wizard
Server Diagnostics Tool dialog
Actions: New actions and enhancements to existing actions have been
made. These include:
Upload a Workbench project as a Workbench Project Archive File (.wbpz
format)
Create new branches and revert to previous versions of version-controlled
objects in EKM repositories from within EKM Desktop
Synchronize remote items
Edit shortcut
Displays: New displays and enhancements to existing displays have been
made. These include:
Display HTML report in object view
Display properties as per display order in the following dialogs:
Edit Properties
Upload

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Chapter 2: Workbench

New Folder
New Catalog

Display My Data folder in navigation tree

2.10. System Coupling


System Coupling is a new component system that allows you to perform fluid-
structure (FSI) analyses using the FLUENT and Mechanical systems in Workbench.
In this release, one- and two-way transfers between running solvers, also referred
to as co-simulation, is supported.

System Coupling has the following main features:

A progressive workflow that standardizes and simplifies the setup and coordinated
execution, interruption, restart and post-processing of coupled analyses
A workflow designed to minimize the effect on the setup and execution of the
participating solvers (e.g. solver specific physics and capabilities like parallel
processing are unaffected by System Coupling)
Comprehensive control over the coupled analysis, including transient and
steady/static couplings, and multiple coupling iterations per coupling step
Comprehensive control over data transfers, including any number of force and
displacement transfers on surface regions, and data transfer specific under-relax-
ation and convergence targets
Complete support for the execution of coupled analyses outside and independent
of the Workbench environment

2.11. IC Engine
IC Engine is a new analysis system for release 14.0. It is a customized tool for
setting up and solving the flow inside an IC Engine with moving geometry. It is
used for the quantification of flow rate, swirl and tumble, and other flow para-
meters during the engine cycle. The IC Engine system uses the ANSYS FLUENT
solver for fluid flow analysis.

2.11.1. Advantages of the IC Engine System


Modeling in-cylinder simulations has been a complex and time consuming task,
because specific decomposition methods are required for modeling the motion
of the valves and piston. Manual decomposition and meshing can take from 6

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60 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
IC Engine

hours to a couple of days. Furthermore, getting all the required inputs to accur-
ately model the physics in the in-cylinder simulation is tedious and difficult.

The IC Engine reduces the time for setting up the in-cylinder simulation from a
few hours to a few minutes by automating the decomposition of the geometry
and the mesh generation. The dynamic mesh setup and solver setup are also
done automatically. The IC Engine system requires minimum inputs to complete
the simulation. This significantly reduces the effort required to setup the IC Engine
case and eliminates the need for a long, tedious, and error prone manual prepar-
ation of the geometry, mesh, and solver set up.

2.11.2. IC Engine System Features


IC Engine System Properties
Engine Inputs: A centralized engine specific data management is imple-
mented for all the engine parameters like connecting rod length, crank
radius, valve and piston-motion profile, engine speed, and also piston
offset.
All the engine inputs are parametrized.
Solver Setup: During the geometry preparation, the IC Engine system
automatically writes down all the required inputs for dynamic mesh
setup and also provides a default set of boundary conditions.
Journal Customization: The IC Engine system provides a mechanism to
control simulation using journal hooks during different phases of simu-
lation.
Geometry
A dedicated feature is included in the Design Modeler to capture the IC
Engine geometry inputs.
You can animate the valve motion, piston motion, and the spray cone
during the entire cycle of simulation at the geometry level.
You can have automatic geometry decomposition, depending on the
engine type for the IC Engine simulation.
You can perform geometry decomposition at different crank angles.
Geometry data required for the IC Engine Setup is automatically gener-
ated.
Mesh

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Chapter 2: Workbench

A dedicated user interface is provided to control the mesh parameters


for generating the IC Engine specific mesh.
The system uses the named selection created in the decomposition to
identify different zones and automatically assigns appropriate mesh al-
gorithms and required mesh controls.
Mesh quality is improved by creating automatic virtual topology and
pinch controls.
Solver
The system automatically validates the different mesh zones required
for the given type of engine.
The system automatically creates grid interfaces.
The system automatically sets up the various dynamic mesh controls,
zones, and events.
The system automatically sets up the models, boundary conditions, de-
fault monitors and user defined settings, depending on the simulation
type.
You can customize the simulation using the journal hooks.
Postprocessing
The system automatically generates an IC Engine specific report.
It creates animations of the mesh and velocity contours as the solution
progresses.
You can enhance the default report with the custom images generated
in CFD-Post.
The system creates the charts for swirl and tumble.
The system automatically creates the contour images at different crank
angles.

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62 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 3: Mechanical APDL
Release 14.0 of the Mechanical APDL application contains all of the capabilities
from prior releases plus many new features and enhancements. Areas where you
will find changes and new capabilities include the following:

Structural (p. 63)


Coupled-Field (p. 76)
Acoustics (p. 77)
Radiation Analysis (p. 79)
Solvers (p. 79)
Linear Perturbation Analysis (p. 82)
Commands (p. 83)
Elements (p. 89)
Other Enhancements (p. 91)

Also see Known Incompatibilities (p. 96) and The ANSYS Customer Portal (p. 3)
for important information about this release.

For information about changes to the ANSYS Workbench Products, see the ANSYS
Workbench Products Release Notes.

3.1. Structural
Release 14.0 includes the following new features and enhancements for structural
analyses:
3.1.1. Contact
3.1.2. Elements and Nonlinear Technology
3.1.3. Linear Dynamics
3.1.4. Materials and Fracture

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Chapter 3: Mechanical APDL

3.1.1. Contact
Release 14.0 includes the following enhancements for structural analyses involving
contact:
3.1.1.1. Contact Stabilization Damping
3.1.1.2. Squeal Damping
3.1.1.3. Surface-Projection-Based Contact for 2-D Models
3.1.1.4. Surface-Projection-Based Contact with MPC Contact
3.1.1.5. Geometry Correction for 2-D Contact and Target Surfaces
3.1.1.6. Bonding Temperature
3.1.1.7. Other Contact Enhancements

3.1.1.1. Contact Stabilization Damping


Rigid body motion often occurs in the beginning of an analysis because the initial
contact condition is not well established. For example, you may encounter
problems such as small gaps between element meshes on both sides of the
contact pair or between the integration points of the contact elements and target
elements. The new contact-stabilization damping feature provides a means to
avoid these problems.

For standard contact or rough contact, you can use real constants FDMN and
FDMT to define contact damping scaling factors along contact normal and tan-
gential directions. KEYOPT(15) of the contact elements offers further controls on
the effect of stabilization damping.

The new contact-stabilization technique damps relative motions between the


contact and target surfaces for open contact. It provides a certain amount of
resistance to reduce the risk of rigid body motion. For more information, see
Applying Contact Stabilization Damping in the Contact Technology Guide.

3.1.1.2. Squeal Damping


A brake squeal analysis involves sliding contact at frictional sliding interfaces. In
a complex eigenvalue extraction analysis using the QR damped (QRDAMP) or
damped (DAMP) mode extraction method, the effects of squeal damping contrib-
ute to the damping matrix.

Squeal damping is identified in two parts: destabilizing and stabilizing damping.


Two new real constants on the contact elements, FDMD and FDMS, allow you
to control how squeal damping is applied. You can use these real constants to
apply a scaling factor to the internally calculated destabilizing and stabilizing

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64 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Structural

damping or to input the destabilizing and stabilizing squeal damping coefficients


directly. KEYOPT(16) of the contact elements allows further control of how FDMD
and FDMS are interpreted during the analysis.

For more information, see Forced Frictional Sliding Using Velocity Input in the
Contact Technology Guide.

3.1.1.3. Surface-Projection-Based Contact for 2-D Models


Surface-projection-based contact, previously available for 3-D surface-to-surface
contact only, has been extended to the 2-D contact elements CONTA171 and
CONTA172.

Surface-projection-based contact enforces contact constraints on an overlapping


region of contact and target surfaces rather than on individual contact nodes or
Gauss points, significantly improving the accuracy of contact results and
providing smoother stress distributions in underlying elements for the case of
dissimilar meshes at the contact interface. The surface-projection-based contact
method is implemented by setting KEYOPT(4) = 3 on the contact element.

For more information, see Using the Surface Projection Based Contact Method
(KEYOPT(4) = 3) in the Contact Technology Guide.

3.1.1.4. Surface-Projection-Based Contact with MPC Contact


Surface-projection-based contact (KEYOPT(4) = 3) has been extended to support
the multipoint constraint (MPC) approach (KEYOPT(2) = 2) for all surface-to-surface
contact elements (CONTA171, CONTA172, CONTA173, and CONTA174).

In general, the new method provides significantly more accurate and smoother
stress distributions near the contact interface of dissimilar meshes compared to
the other existing contact options (KEYOPT(4) = 1 and 2), especially for higher-
order elements involved in contact.

The surface-projection-based method usually increases computational costs;


therefore, it is best used for contact regions where the accuracy of local stresses
is critical.

For more information, see Modeling Solid-Solid and Shell-Shell Assemblies in the
Contact Technology Guide.

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Chapter 3: Mechanical APDL

3.1.1.5. Geometry Correction for 2-D Contact and Target Surfaces


The geometry-correction feature, previously available for 3-D surface-to-surface
contact only, has been extended to the 2-D contact elements TARGE169, CON-
TA171, and CONTA172. Applying a geometry correction to circular (or nearly
circular) contact surfaces (via the SECTYPE and SECDATA section commands)
reduces the discretization error associated with linear contact elements and can
greatly improve the accuracy of contact stresses for certain types of curved 2-D
contact/target surfaces.

For more information, see Geometry Correction for Contact and Target Surfaces
in the Contact Technology Guide.

3.1.1.6. Bonding Temperature


In most welding processes, after materials around contacting surfaces exceed a
critical temperature, the surfaces begin to melt and bond with each other. The
new TBND real constant on the contact elements (CONTA171 to CONTA177) allows
you to specify this critical temperature in order to model such behavior. When
the temperature at the contact surface exceeds the specified melting temperature,
the contact changes to bonded and remains bonded for the remainder of the
analysis.

For more information, see Using TBND in the Contact Technology Guide.

3.1.1.7. Other Contact Enhancements


The following additional contact enhancements are available:

The surface-projection-based contact method (KEYOPT(4) = 3) now supports


the HHT time-integration method for transient dynamic analyses.
Both accuracy and performance have been improved for transient dynamic
analyses that include contact and use the HHT time-integration method.

3.1.2. Elements and Nonlinear Technology


Release 14.0 includes the following enhancements to elements and nonlinear
technology:
3.1.2.1. Rezoning
3.1.2.2. Ocean Loading
3.1.2.3. Beam Elements with Shape Memory Alloy and Hyperelasticity (Solid Pipe Section)
3.1.2.4. Coupled Aeroelastic-Structural Analysis

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Structural

3.1.2.5. Discrete-Thickness Shells with 2-D Array


3.1.2.6. Enhanced Body Force Loading for Pipe and Elbow Elements
3.1.2.7. Soil-Pile-Structure Analysis

3.1.2.1. Rezoning
Rezoning for 3-D analyses now supports tabular loading. For more information
about loads and boundary conditions, see Rezoning Requirements in the Advanced
Analysis Techniques Guide.

Nearly all structural materials are now supported. (The exceptions are CAST (cast
iron), CONCR (concrete), MPLANE (microplane), SMA (shape memory alloy), and
SWELL (swelling)). Material models can be combined, as described in Material
Model Combinations in the Material Reference.

The new MAPVAR command defines tensors and vectors in user-defined state
variables for rezoning.

3.1.2.2. Ocean Loading


The following enhancements have been added to support analyses involving
ocean loading:
3.1.2.2.1. Ocean Wave Loading in a Harmonic Analysis
3.1.2.2.2. Diffracted Wave Support

3.1.2.2.1. Ocean Wave Loading in a Harmonic Analysis


A harmonic analysis can now include all relevant ocean wave loading effects. A
specialized variation of the harmonic analysis is available, applicable to regular
waves (Airy and Wheeler single-component waves, as well as Stokes and Deans
Stream Function waves). The new harmonic analysis capability is accessed via
the HROCEAN command.

The frequency is obtained automatically, directly from the specified ocean inform-
ation (OCDATA and OCTABLE). As with a standard harmonic analysis, a damping
matrix must be added separately if desired. Ocean loads are calculated with the
assumption that the structure is stationary.

For more information, see the HROCEAN command documentation and Harmonic
Ocean Wave Procedure (HOWP) in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

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Chapter 3: Mechanical APDL

3.1.2.2.2. Diffracted Wave Support


In addition to wave-theory-derived ocean loading (implemented via KWAVE = 0
through 7 on the OCDATA command), it is now possible to import ocean data
that has been defined externally (for example, via the Hydrodynamic Diffraction
System (AQWA)).

The new capability is activated by setting KWAVE = 8 on the OCDATA command.


The externally defined ocean data is read into the program via the OCREAD
command.

For more information, see Applying Ocean Loading from a Hydrodynamic Ana-
lysis in the Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide, the documentation for the
OCREAD command, and Diffracted Wave on Line and Surface Elements (Kw = 8)
in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

3.1.2.3. Beam Elements with Shape Memory Alloy and Hyperelasticity


(Solid Pipe Section)
A new solid circular cross section for pipes is now available. Using PIPE288 and
PIPE289 elements and the solid pipe section, you can easily simulate beam
structures with special materials, such as rubber and shape memory alloy, which
must be represented with 3-D constitutive models and are not available for
standard beam elements.

3.1.2.4. Coupled Aeroelastic-Structural Analysis


A new aeroelastic-structural analysis capability allows you to design the structures
upon which wind turbines are positioned. In the sequential aeroelastic coupling
method, the aeroelastic analysis is performed by the aeroelastic code with the
effects of the supporting structure incorporated as a superelement to the solution.
The program provides the supporting structure-substructure matrices and loading
data that are required as input to the aeroelastic code (via the OUTAERO macro).
Following the aeroelastic analysis, the results can be read back in to recover the
element forces inside the supporting structure.

For more information, see Coupling to External Aeroelastic Analysis of Wind


Turbines in the Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.

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Structural

3.1.2.5. Discrete-Thickness Shells with 2-D Array


Support has been added for discrete-thickness shells. When specifying shell
section thickness as a tabular function (SECFUNCTION), the prior NODE option
(still available in this release) uses a 1-D array where the thicknesses are associated
to the nodes via array index; this pattern works well but requires large array di-
mensions when gaps in node numbering exist.

The new NOD2 option allows you to vary shell thicknesses versus node number
in the form of a 2-D array, relating thickness to node number directly. The size
of the array is proportional (2X) to the number of nodes with thicknesses and is
independent of node numbering. This capability is particularly useful for tapered
shells, where a single part may have large node IDs, but a relatively small number
of nodes relative to the entire model.

3.1.2.6. Enhanced Body Force Loading for Pipe and Elbow Elements
You can now define element body force loads for pipe and elbow elements, al-
lowing you to specify radial and axial temperature variations on those elements.
You can also specify a table name for beam and pipe elements that allow multiple
temperature inputs per node; you need only define the tabular load for the first
node (Node I), as loads on the remaining nodes are applied automatically. For
more information, see the documentation for the BFE command.

3.1.2.7. Soil-Pile-Structure Analysis


It is now possible to analysis the interaction of a structure supported on one or
more piles with an elastic or inelastic soil. You can input data to describe the
lateral force-displacement, and the end-bearing and skin-friction responses of
the soil layers occurring at the pile location. It is not necessary for all piles in the
analysis to be situated in identical geological strata. For more information, see
Soil-Pile-Structure Analysis in the Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide, and the
documentation for the PILExxxx family of commands.

3.1.3. Linear Dynamics


Release 14.0 includes the following enhancements in the area of linear dynamics:
3.1.3.1. Damping
3.1.3.2. Linear Non-Prestressed Modal Analysis
3.1.3.3. Mode Superposition (MSUP) Enhancements
3.1.3.4.Thermal Loads in Modal and Prestressed Harmonic Analyses
3.1.3.5. Rotordynamics

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Chapter 3: Mechanical APDL

3.1.3.6. Spectrum Analysis


3.1.3.7. Spectrum Combination
3.1.3.8. Other Linear Dynamics Enhancements

3.1.3.1. Damping
Material-dependent damping proportional to the mass is now available in full
harmonic and transient analyses (Lab = ALPD on the MP command). In these
analyses, the damping proportional to the stiffness is now specified via Lab =
BETD on the MP command (replacing the obsolete DAMP label). For mode-su-
perposition methods, the material-dependent damping ratio is now input via
Lab = DMPR on the MP command (replacing the obsolete DAMP label). For
more information, see Damping in the Structural Analysis Guide.

3.1.3.2. Linear Non-Prestressed Modal Analysis


The procedure for a linear non-prestressed modal analysis for a brake squeal
system has been simplified and streamlined so that it follows the conventional
linear modal procedure in conjunction with the CMROTATE command. The
solution accuracy of the QRDAMP eigensolver for brake squeal analysis has been
greatly improved. In addition, the new squeal damping feature also works with
the linear non-prestressed modal analysis. For more information, see Linear Non-
prestressed Modal Analysis in the Structural Analysis Guide.

3.1.3.3. Mode Superposition (MSUP) Enhancements


For multiple load steps applied to mode-superposition harmonic and transient
analysis, surface elements (SURF153, SURF154, and SURF156), FOLLW201, and
remote-load (RBE3) contact elements can now be specified within multiple load
steps.

Eigenvalues and mode shapes from a linear perturbation modal analysis can be
used in downstream analyses of mode-superposition harmonic and transient
analysis, as well as in power spectral density (PSD) and response-spectrum ana-
lyses. The prestressed effects from the linear perturbation modal analyses are
retained and passed into the downstream analyses.

In mode-superposition harmonic analyses that use the modal stresses in the ex-
pansion pass of the modal analysis (MXPAND,,,,YES,,YES), the nodal and reaction
forces now contain the damping and inertial components.

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Structural

3.1.3.4.Thermal Loads in Modal and Prestressed Harmonic Analyses


If a thermal load is defined in a modal or harmonic analysis (including the static
part of a prestressed harmonic analysis), you can now use the new THEXPAND
command to ignore its contribution to the modal and harmonic loads.

3.1.3.5. Rotordynamics
You can now import variable bearing characteristics used for bearing element
COMBI214 real constants into table parameters from an ASCII file via the import-
bearing1 macro. The file format is described in Bearing Characteristics File
Format in the Rotordynamic Analysis Guide.

The critspeedmap macro is now available to generate the critical speed map
of a rotor. For a usage example, see Example: Critical Speed Map Generation in
the Rotordynamic Analysis Guide.

The bearing element COMBI214 now supports stiffness and damping character-
istics dependent upon the eccentricity. The table parameters definition is given
in Using the COMBI214 Element in the Rotordynamic Analysis Guide.

3.1.3.6. Spectrum Analysis


The damping proportional to the mass (ALPHAD) is now supported in spectrum
and power spectral density (PSD) analyses.

Enhancements to the RESP command allow you to generate the response


spectrum from an acceleration input, and to determine the pseudo-velocity and
pseudo-acceleration response spectrum.

In PSD and multi-point response spectrum (MPRS) analyses, the maximum


number of input tables is now 200, while the maximum number of participation
factor calculations (PFACT command) is 300.

3.1.3.7. Spectrum Combination


An option is now available on the mode-combination commands (CQC, DSUM,
GRP, NRLSUM, PSDCOM, ROSE, SRSS) to combine the summed modal static
and inertial forces. The default (and prior release behavior) is to combine the
modal static forces (that is, only the stiffness multiplied by mode shape forces,
both of which are the stress-causing forces). An option is now available to com-

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Chapter 3: Mechanical APDL

bine the summed modal static forces and inertia forces (both stiffness and mass
forces, which are the forces acting on the supports).

3.1.3.8. Other Linear Dynamics Enhancements


Load case combinations (LCOPER) now add the element nodal forces in the
FORCE,TOTAL case before the combination yielding correct total (static, plus
damping, plus inertial) forces. Also, SET,,,,,AMPL and SET,,,,PHASE yield the correct
force amplitudes and phase angles when FORCE,TOTAL is set.

The modal assurance criterion values obtained via the RSTMAC command can
be retrieved as APDL parameters for further processing. See the *GET command.

3.1.4. Materials and Fracture


Release 14.0 includes the following enhancements to materials and fracture
technology:
3.1.4.1. VCCT-Based Crack Growth Simulation
3.1.4.2. Chaboche Material Curve Fitting
3.1.4.3. Shape Memory Alloy
3.1.4.4. Microplane Material Model for Concrete Modeling
3.1.4.5. Enhanced Initial State Capability
3.1.4.6. Viscoelastic Response of Materials with Anisotropic Hyperelasticity
3.1.4.7. Harmonic Viscoelasticity
3.1.4.8. Coupled Pore Fluid Diffusion Analysis
3.1.4.9. Interface Delamination Modeling with Interface Elements
3.1.4.10. Swelling
3.1.4.11. Anisotropic Hyperelasticity
3.1.4.12. Progressive Damage of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Some material properties are not available via the material property menus of
the GUI. For a list of such material properties, see GUI-Inaccessible Material
Properties.

3.1.4.1. VCCT-Based Crack Growth Simulation


This release includes a new approach to crack growth simulation. The method
is based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) with interface elements
to model the crack growth. The method is very suitable for interfacial delamina-
tion of laminate composites, and is also applicable to crack growth simulation
in homogeneous material. A number of fracture criteria are available, including
critical energy-release rate, linear, bilinear, B-K, modified B-K (Reeder), power law,

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and user-defined. A material data table can be used to define the fracture criterion
and associated material properties.

Support for the new crack growth simulation technology is available via the
PLANE182 and SOLID185 elements. The new CGROW command defines all ne-
cessary parameters for the crack growth simulation.

For more information, see VCCT-Based Crack Growth Simulation in the Structural
Analysis Guide.

3.1.4.2. Chaboche Material Curve Fitting


Material curve fitting allows you to derive coefficients from experimental data
that you provide for your material. Curve fitting involves comparing your exper-
imental data to certain preexisting nonlinear material models to determine the
best material model to use during solution.

A new material curve-fitting option determines your material constants by relating


your experimental data to the Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening model.
Curve fitting is performed either interactively or via batch commands. You can
fit uniaxial plastic strain vs. stress data, along with discrete temperature depend-
encies for multiple data sets.

For more information, see Chaboche Material Curve Fitting in the Material Refer-
ence.

3.1.4.3. Shape Memory Alloy


The shape memory alloy (SMA) can undergo large deformation without showing
residual strains (pseudoelasticity effect, also often called superelasticity), and can
then recover its original shape through thermal cycles (the shape memory effect).
As such, the SMA material models (TB,SMA) can now be used to model both the
superelastic behavior and the shape memory effect behavior of shape memory
alloys.

For more information, see Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Material Model in the
Material Reference.

3.1.4.4. Microplane Material Model for Concrete Modeling


The new microplane material (TB,MPLANE) models material behavior through
uniaxial stress-strain laws on various planes. Directional-dependent stiffness de-

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gradation is modeled through uniaxial damage laws on individual potential failure


planes, leading to a macroscopic anisotropic damage formulation.

The model is well suited for simulating engineering materials consisting of various
aggregate compositions with differing properties (for example, concrete modeling,
in which rock and sand are embedded in a weak matrix of cements).

For more information, see Microplane Material Model in the Material Reference.

3.1.4.5. Enhanced Initial State Capability


The initial state capability allows you to define a nontrivial state from which to
start an analysis. The initial state capability has been enhanced to include initial
creep strain, user-defined state variables, and a node-based option.

Initial state application has always been element-based, but a new node-based
option is available for current-technology elements. For layered elements, you
can apply an initial state to each layer at every node within the element. For
beam elements, you can apply an initial state to each cell number at every node
within the element. For all other elements, the initial state is applied at each
node within the element.

For more information, see Initial State in the Basic Analysis Guide and the docu-
mentation for the INISTATE command.

3.1.4.6. Viscoelastic Response of Materials with Anisotropic Hyper-


elasticity
You can now model the response of materials with viscoelasticity and anisotropic
hyperelasticity behavior (combining TB,PRONY and TB,AHYPER).

The viscoelasticity is assumed to be isotropic (that is, independent from the


loading direction), and is defined via the Prony series (TB,PRONY) and shift
function (TB,SHIFT) to model the strain rate effect. The new capability supports
most current-technology elements (the exceptions being beam and link elements).

For more information, see Material Model Combinations in the Material Reference,
AHYPER and PRONY (Anisotropic Hyperelasticity and Viscoelasticity (Implicit))
Example in the Structural Analysis Guide, and Large Strain Visco-Anisotropic Hy-
perelasticity in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

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3.1.4.7. Harmonic Viscoelasticity


A new viscoelastic constitutive model for the harmonic domain (using the gen-
eralized Maxwell model) is now available for modeling the steady-state response
of viscoelastic materials in small-deformation models. For more information, see
Harmonic Viscoelasticity in the Material Reference and Viscoelasticity in the
Structural Analysis Guide.

3.1.4.8. Coupled Pore Fluid Diffusion Analysis


Coupled pore fluid diffusion and structural analysis now supports hyperelastic
materials, allowing for an initial, efficient analysis of porous materials with hyper-
elasticity models. In this case, the program assumes that all Biot and permeability
parameters remain constant during deformation.

The coupled pore-pressure thermal elements used in analyses involving porous


media are listed in Coupled Pore-Pressure Element Support in the Coupled-Field
Analysis Guide. For more information, see Porous Media Flow in the Mechanical
APDL Theory Reference.

3.1.4.9. Interface Delamination Modeling with Interface Elements


In addition to the existing exponential option, a new bilinear option
(TB,CZM,,,,BILI) is available for modeling interface delamination using interface
elements (INTER202 through INTER205) with a cohesive zone material (CZM)
model. The new CZM model option uses bilinear traction-separation laws.

Unlike an exponential model, a bilinear model gives correct results for linearly
debonding material interfaces, and makes it possible to simulate Mode I or Mode
II dominated (or mixed-mode) debonding.

For more information, see Interface Delamination and Failure Simulation in the
Structural Analysis Guide, Cohesive Zone Material in the Material Reference, and
Cohesive Zone Material (CZM) Model in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

3.1.4.10. Swelling
Swelling is a material enlargement (volume expansion) caused by neutron
bombardment or other effects (such as moisture). The swelling strain rate is
generally nonlinear and is a function of factors such as temperature, time, neutron
flux level, stress, and moisture content. Several options are now available for

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modeling swelling effects (TB,SWELL), and element support has been greatly
expanded. For more information, see Swelling Model in the Material Reference.

3.1.4.11. Anisotropic Hyperelasticity


For the anisotropic hyperelasticity material model (TB,AHYPER), a new exponen-
tial-based strain energy potential function is available for characterizing the iso-
choric part of strain energy potential. For more information, see Anisotropic
Hyperelastic Material in the Material Reference and Anisotropic Hyperelasticity in
the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.

3.1.4.12. Progressive Damage of Fiber-Reinforced Composites


The damage initiation and propagation in fiber-reinforced composites can now
be simulated with a nonlinear solution process. Different than the postprocessing
failure analysis, the new capability allows you to estimate ultimate composite
strength under complex stress states.

The material damage initiation and evolution laws are specified via two new
material models (TB, DMGI and TB,DMGE, respectively). Currently, only failure-
criteria-based initiation laws and instant-stiffness-reduction evolution laws are
supported (TB, FCLI).

The new damage models are compatible with linear elastic orthotropic materials,
which are commonly used for representing the homogenized properties of fiber-
reinforced composites.

For more information, see Damage Initiation Criteria and Damage Evolution Law
in the Material Reference.

3.2. Coupled-Field
Release 14.0 includes the following enhancement in the area of coupled-field
analysis:

3.2.1. Structural-Thermal Analysis


Coupled-field elements PLANE223, SOLID226, and SOLID227 now support plasti-
city, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity and creep in structural-thermal analyses. A
thermoplastic effect can now be included in structural-thermal and structural-
thermoelectric analyses. The amount of plastic work converted to heat is con-
trolled by the Taylor-Quinney coefficient (via the MP,QRATE command). For more

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information about structural-thermal analyses using these elements, see Struc-


tural-Thermal Analysis in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.

The ETCONTROL command can now be used with PLANE223, SOLID226, and
SOLID227 to control the element technology in structural-thermal and structural-
thermoelectric analyses.

3.2.2. Coupled-Diffusion Analysis


You can now use current-technology coupled-field elements PLANE223, SOLID226,
and SOLID227 to perform structural-diffusion (KEYOPT(1) = 100001), thermal-
diffusion (KEYOPT(1) = 100010), and structural-thermal-diffusion (KEYOPT(1) =
100011) analyses. Example uses for these analyses include modeling temperature-
dependent moisture migration and hygrothermal strains in electronic packages
or sodium migration in aluminum reduction cells.

To support the new diffusion field, a new concentration degree of freedom


(CONC) has been introduced along with the diffusion flow rate force (RATE).
The diffusivity coefficients are input via new MP command labels DXX, DYY, and
DZZ. Saturated concentration is input via the MP,CSAT command. The new
concentration gradient (CG) and diffusion flux (DF) result items are now available
for diffusion-field postprocessing.

In structural-diffusion and structural-thermal-diffusion analyses, the displacement


and concentration degrees of freedom are coupled by the diffusion expansion
coefficients input via the new MP command labels BETX, BETY, and BETZ. The
reference concentration for the diffusion strain calculation is input via the
MP,CREF command. The calculated diffusion strain is available for postprocessing
using the output via the EPDI label.

For more information, see PLANE223, SOLID226, and SOLID227 in the Element
Reference. Also see Structural-Diffusion Analysis, Thermal-Diffusion Analysis, and
Structural-Thermal-Diffusion Analysis in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.

3.3. Acoustics
A number of enhancements to acoustic analysis are available in this release. You
can now:

Simulate temperature-dependent nonuniform ideal gas medium via the BF, TREF,
TOFFST, MP, MPTEMP and MPDATA commands.
Simulate the propagation of sound in viscous medium via the MP command.

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Apply the various analytic sources (in an acoustic radiation or scattering analysis)
to the inside or outside of the model via the AWAVE command. Analytic sources
include plane wave, monopole/pulsating sphere, dipole, bare loudspeaker, and
back-enclosed loudspeaker sources.
Apply the various mass sources to the model via the BF, BFK, BFL, BFA and BFV
commands. Mass sources include point, line, surface, and volume sources.
Apply the surface normal velocity to the exterior surface of the model via the
SF and SFA commands.
Apply the impedance boundary to the acoustic-structural interface via the SF
and SFA commands.
Apply the impedance sheet load to the inside of the model via the BF and BFA
commands.
Apply the Robin boundary condition to the exterior surface of model for radiation
or scattering analysis via the SF and SFA commands.
Select the symmetric algorithm for FSI modal analysis via KEYOPT(2) = 2, or for
full harmonic FSI analysis via using KEYOPT(2) = 3, when using fluid elements
FLUID30, FLUID220 and FLUID221.
Select the total-field method for acoustic scattering analysis with analytic wave
sources and PML or Robin boundary condition.
Select the pure scattered-field method for either acoustic scattering or radiation
analysis with analytic wave sources and PML or Robin boundary condition via
the HFSCAT command.
Define a sloshing surface via the SF and SFA commands.
Plot and print near- and far-field pressure, sound pressure level, directivity, sound
power level, far-field scattered pressure, and target strength values via the PL-
NEAR, PLFAR, PRNEAR, and PRFAR commands.
Plot and print the nodal sound pressure level (SPL) and contour pattern via the
PLNSOL, PRNSOL, NSOL, PLVAR and PRVAR commands.
Plot and print nodal velocity for modal and harmonic analyses via the PLNSOL,
PRNSOL, PLESOL, PRESOL and PLVECT commands.

The following additional enhancements for acoustic analysis are available:

The pressure L2-norm squares are stored in the element summable miscellaneous
table for fluid elements FLUID30, FLUID220 and FLUID221.

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The FSI surface between the acoustic elements and solid structural elements can
be automatically identified if the SF command is not issued.
The equivalent source surface for near- and far-field can be automatically identi-
fied if the SF command is not issued.

3.4. Radiation Analysis


The following enhancements to radiation analysis are available in this release:
3.4.1. Energy Balance
3.4.2. View Factor Calculations
3.4.3. Radiosity Solver Parallelization

3.4.1. Energy Balance


You can now ensure a good energy balance by adjusting the view factor matrix.
The VFSM command can adjust the view factor matrix to satisfy reciprocity
and/or row sum properties. You may also see small changes in the temperature
solution for a radiosity model compared to results from previous releases. These
differences are due to a more accurate area calculation for the radiation facets
and will yield a more accurate energy balance.

3.4.2. View Factor Calculations


For 3-D analyses, two options are now available for calculating view factors when
running Distributed ANSYS:

If you issue the SOLVE command, view factors are calculated in parallel
mode if no view factors were previously calculated.
If you issue a VFOPT,NEW command, view factors are calculated in serial
mode.

3.4.3. Radiosity Solver Parallelization


A new Jacobi iterative solver option has been implemented for radiosity analyses.
The Jacobi solver is applicable when using Distributed ANSYS. For more inform-
ation, see the documentation for the RADOPT command.

3.5. Solvers
Release 14.0 includes the following new enhancements that improve solution
procedures and features.

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3.5.1. Distributed ANSYS Enhancements


3.5.2. GPU Acceleration Enhancements
3.5.3. Subspace Eigensolver for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis
3.5.4. Overconstraint Detection
3.5.5. Other Solver Changes and Enhancements

3.5.1. Distributed ANSYS Enhancements


The following enhancements are available for Distributed ANSYS:

Support for GPU acceleration has been added. See GPU Acceleration Enhance-
ments for more details.
You can now avoid combining the local or distributed results files into a single,
global results file upon completion of the solution. The file-combination control
is also available for other solution files. See the DMPOPTION and RESCOMBINE
commands for more information.
Support for the new subspace iteration (SUBSP) eigensolver (for eigenvalue
buckling analyses only) is available. See the BUCOPT command for more inform-
ation.
Support for TRANS126, INFIN110, INFIN111, PLANE121, and PLANE230 element
types has been added.
Support is available for the EFLG option on the NLDIAG command.
Analyses involving contact elements are much more robust when restarting the
analysis (that is, when performing a multiframe restart).
New error-handling logic has been added to avoid deadlocks (hung jobs) if any
unexpected error occurs during the parallel job execution. If such an error occurs,
diagnostic information is now printed into one of the output files written by
each Distributed ANSYS process.
Radiosity surface elements SURF251 and SURF252 are now supported.

3.5.2. GPU Acceleration Enhancements


The following enhancements are available for the GPU Accelerator capability.

Support for Distributed ANSYS.

Support includes both multicore servers and clusters (that is, single-machine
and multiple-machine hardware). In this release, only one GPU per machine
or computing node is supported. For example, when using Distributed ANSYS

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on a cluster involving eight computing nodes with each computing node


having two GPUs, only a single GPU per node (a total of eight GPUs) can
be used to accelerate the simulation.
Support for the NVIDIA Quadro 6000 card.
Support for modal analyses using the unsymmetric or damped eigensolver
(MODOPT,UNSYM or MODOPT,DAMP).
Improved performance relative to the previous release.

When using the sparse solver, the solver kernel running on the GPU hardware
is up to 25 percent faster than the prior release. When using the PCG/JCG
solvers, the solver kernel that is run on the GPU hardware is up to 40 percent
faster than the prior release.

3.5.3. Subspace Eigensolver for Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis


A new subspace eigensolver (BUCOPT,SUBSP) is available for eigenvalue buckling
analyses. The eigensolver uses essentially the same algorithm as the unsymmetric
eigensolver (MODOPT,UNSYM) to solve the generalized eigenvalue problem.

The subspace eigensolver is most appropriate for linear perturbation eigenvalue


buckling analyses in which the tangent stiffness matrix becomes indefinite. In
such cases, the subspace eigensolver is more likely to achieve a successful solution
compared to the Block Lanczos eigensolver.

3.5.4. Overconstraint Detection


Overconstraint detection is now available and includes the topological method
and the algebraic method. In the algebraic method, the constraint equations
introduced by the CE and CP commands, and by P (pressure) variables from the
element u-P formulation, are taken into account.

3.5.5. Other Solver Changes and Enhancements


The following are solver-related changes and enhancements.

The performance of the sparse solvers (both shared memory and distributed
memory; EQSLV,SPARSE) has been enhanced when running on "AVX SIMD"
capable Intel and AMD processors (for example, Intel Xeon processors code-
named "Sandy Bridge"). In some cases, the solver performance can be up to 50
percent faster than the previous release when running on this specific hardware.

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The performance of the multiframe restart procedure has been greatly improved,
particularly when many boundary condition specifications exist (D, F, CE, etc.)
or when many load steps are involved. In some cases, the performance of the
restart action is now five times faster than the previous release.
The performance of the shared memory sparse solver (EQSLV,SPARSE) has been
enhanced. In some cases, the solver performance can be up to 40 percent faster
than the previous release, regardless of the processor hardware used.
The PCG solver now supports the Lagrange multiplier method of the MPC184
family of elements. The imposed Lagrange multipliers are transferred into multiple
point constraints so that the PCG solver can be used to obtain a solution. To
activate this functionality, the LM_Key field on the PCGOPT command must be
set to ON.

3.6. Linear Perturbation Analysis


The following enhancements for linear perturbation analyses have been added:
3.6.1. Support for More Analysis Types
3.6.2. Linear Behavior Based on a Prior Preloaded Status
3.6.3. Linear Perturbation Tangent Option

For more information, see Linear Perturbation Analysis in the Structural Analysis
Guide and the theoretical discussion of linear perturbation in the Mechanical
APDL Theory Reference.

3.6.1. Support for More Analysis Types


Linear perturbation support is now available for buckling analysis, full harmonic
analysis, and for subsequent mode-superposition, PSD, or other type of modal-
based linear dynamic analysis.

3.6.2. Linear Behavior Based on a Prior Preloaded Status


In many engineering applications, the linear behavior of a structure based on a
prior linear or nonlinear preloaded status is of interest. In addition to prior support
of linear perturbation modal analysis, you can now use the linear perturbation
analysis procedure to solve a linear problem from this preloaded case for eigen-
value buckling analyses and full harmonic analyses. The preloaded case can in-
clude any nonlinear materials and geometric and contact nonlinearities. The
linear perturbation full harmonic analysis also supports cyclic symmetric and VT
full harmonic options.

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Commands

To perform a linear perturbation buckling or full harmonic analysis after a static


or full transient analysis, restart the analysis at the load point of interest, apply
your perturbation load, and then use the PERTURB and SOLVE commands to
execute the linear perturbation analysis.

3.6.3. Linear Perturbation Tangent Option


A new option for linear perturbation uses the tangent (material Jacobian) on the
material constitutive curve as the material property. The material property remains
linear in linear perturbation and is obtained at the point of the base analysis
where restart occurs. The option is primarily for nonlinear materials other than
hyperelastic materials. For more information, see the documentation for the
PERTURB command and Specifying Material Behavior in Linear Perturbation in
the Element Reference.

3.7. Commands
This section describes changes to commands at Release 14.0.

Some commands are not accessible from menus. The documentation for each
command indicates whether or not a menu path is available for that command
operation. For a list of commands not available from within the GUI, see Menu-
Inaccessible Commands in the Command Reference.
3.7.1. New Commands
3.7.2. Modified Commands
3.7.3. Undocumented Commands
3.7.4. Archived Commands

3.7.1. New Commands


The following new commands are available in this release:

AWAVE -- Specifies input data for an acoustic incident wave.


DMPOPTION -- Specifies distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) options.
CGROW -- Defines crack-growth information.
*DOT -- Calculates the dot (or inner) product of two vectors (APDL Math).
*FFT -- Computes the fast Fourier transformation of a specified matrix or vector
(APDL Math).
HROCEAN -- Initiates the harmonic ocean wave procedure (HOWP) to include
all relevant ocean wave effects in a harmonic analysis (ANTYPE,HARMIC).

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*INIT -- Initializes a vector or dense matrix (APDL Math).


OCREAD -- Imports ocean data that has been defined externally (for example,
via the Hydrodynamic Diffraction System (AQWA)).
OVCHECK -- Checks for overconstraint among constraint equations and Lagrange
multipliers.
MAPVAR -- Defines tensors and vectors in user-defined state variables for
rezoning.
PILECALC -- Initiates soil-pile calculations.
PILEDISPSET -- Sets up pile cap displacement data for soil-pile analysis.
PILEGEN -- Generates data for elements used in soil-pile analysis.
PILELOAD -- Applies pile cap loads to the specified node.
PILEMASS -- Gets pile cap mass and applies it to the specified element.
PILERUN -- Runs a soil-pile analysis.
PILESEL -- Selects all pile elements.
PILESTIF -- Gets pile cap stiffness and applies it to the specified element.
RESCOMBINE -- Reads results from local results files into the database after a
distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS) solution.
THEXPAND -- Enables or disables thermal loading.
WTBCREATE -- Creates a USER300 element to model the turbine for wind
coupling analysis and specifies relevant settings for the analysis.

3.7.2. Modified Commands


The following commands have been enhanced or otherwise modified in this re-
lease:

BFE -- Defines an element body force load. Support is now available for pipe
and elbow elements. You can also specify a table name for beam and pipe ele-
ments that allow multiple temperature inputs per node.
BUCOPT -- Specifies buckling analysis options. The Subspace iteration eigensolver
has been added to the list of available eigensolvers. Also, the default behavior
has been changed to find the lowest magnitude negative and positive modes
centered around 0.0. Previously, the lowest magnitude positive modes were
found by default.

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Commands

CINT -- Defines parameters associated with fracture parameter calculations. The


new VCCT option (for CINT,TYPE) calculates energy-release rate parameters using
the VCCT method
/CONFIG -- Assigns values to ANSYS configuration parameters. The default value
for the maximum number of results sets allowed on the results file (the NRES
parameter) has increased from 1000 to 10000. Similarly, the default for the
NUMRESLT keyword in the config140.ans file has changed to 10000.
/COPY -- Copies a file. In distributed parallel mode (Distributed ANSYS), you can
now specify that the copy operation be performed on all distributed processes.
CQC -- Specifies the complete quadratic mode combination method. The new
ForceType option allows you to specify the forces being combined.
CYCOPT -- Specifies solution options for a cyclic symmetry analysis. A new option
for HINDEX allows control of the tolerance used in determining if a Fourier con-
tribution to the load is significant in static and harmonic analyses with non-cyclic
loadings.
/DELETE -- Deletes a file. In distributed parallel mode (Distributed ANSYS), you
can now specify that the delete operation be performed on all distributed pro-
cesses.
*DIM -- Defines an array parameter and its dimensions. An array-parameter size
is no longer restricted to be 231 bytes. Also, for Type = STRING, the maximum
IMAX value has been reduced to 248 (from 256).
DJ -- Specifies boundary conditions on the components of relative motion of a
joint element. This command now allows the predefined %_FIX% table name for
input of the boundary condition value, meaning that the program will prescribe
(lock) the degree of freedom to the current displacement value.
*DMAT -- Creates a dense matrix (APDL Math). The new Method = RESIZE option
allows you to resize an existing matrix. The new Method = LINK option allows
you to link to an existing matrix, thus providing a means to manipulate a sub-
matrix of the original matrix.
DSUM -- Specifies the double sum mode combination method. The new Force-
Type option allows you to specify the forces being combined.
EQSLV -- Specifies the type of equation solver. The AMG solver has been undoc-
umented; it is recommended that you use the PCG solver instead.
ETCONTROL -- Controlsthe element technologies used in element formulation
(for applicable elements). You can now use the command with elements
PLANE223, SOLID226, and SOLID227 to control the element technology in
structural-thermal and structural-thermoelectric analyses.

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*EXPORT -- Exports a matrix to a file (APDL Math). You can now export a matrix
in the DMIG file format.
FS -- Stores fatigue stress components at a node. Now allows the input of time.
*GET -- Retrieves a value and stores it as a scalar parameter or part of an array
parameter. Capabilities have been extended after a Campbell analysis (Entity =
CAMP). You can now retrieve the stability (real part of the eigenvalue) for each
mode and rotational velocity step as well as the instability key. Also, modal as-
surance criterion values can now be retrieved as parameters using Entity =
RSTMAC.
GRP -- Specifies the grouping mode combination method. The new ForceType
option allows you to specify the forces being combined.
MP -- Defines a linear material property as a constant or a function of temperat-
ure.

You can now define a mass matrix multiplier for damping proportional to
the mass with Lab = ALPD. The stiffness matrix multiplier is now defined
with Lab = BETD. These options replace the Lab = DAMP option.

This command and the MPxxxxxx family of commands have been enhanced
to provide additional support for coupled-field analyses.
MODCONT -- Specifies additional modal analysis options. The functionality of
the IgnoreThermalStrain key has been replaced by the THEXPAND com-
mand.
*NRM -- Computes the norm of the specified matrix or vector (APDL Math). The
new Normalize argument allows you to normalize a vector created by the
*VEC command.
NRLSUM -- Specifies the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) sum mode combination
method. The new ForceType option allows you to specify the forces being
combined.
PCGOPT -- Controls PCG solver options. The new LM_Key option allows use of
the PCG solver when MPC184 Lagrange multiplier method elements are present
in the model.
PERTURB -- Sets linear perturbation analysis options. Support for linear perturb-
ation eigenvalue buckling and full harmonic analyses has been added. In addition,
the new MatKey = TANGENT is an alternate material option which specifies that
material properties in the perturbation analysis be accounted for by using the
tangent (material Jacobian) on the material constitutive curve at the restart point
of the base analysis.

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Commands

PLCAMP -- Plots Campbell diagram data for applications involving rotating


structure dynamics. Support is now available for the plotting of all frequencies
(positive and negative) obtained with the DAMP eigensolver. This new option
(keyNegFreq) may be needed when damping is important and overdamped
frequencies are present.
PRCAMP -- Prints Campbell diagram data for applications involving rotating
structure dynamics. Support is now available for the printing of all frequencies
(positive and negative) obtained with the DAMP eigensolver. This new option
(keyNegFreq) may be needed when damping is important and overdamped
frequencies are present.
PSDCOM -- Specifies the power spectral density mode combination method.
The new ForceType option allows you to specify the forces being combined.
/RENAME -- Renames a file. In distributed parallel mode (Distributed ANSYS),
you can now specify that the rename operation be performed on all distributed
processes.
RESCONTROL -- Controls file writing for multiframe restarts. The new MAXFILES
= -1 option allows restart files (Jobname.Xnnn) to continue to be written after
the maximum limit of 999 files is reached; the .Xnnn file numbering is reset to
1, and existing Jobname.Xnnn files are overwritten. (This is the new default
behavior.)
RESP -- Generates a response spectrum. You can now specify an acceleration
input time-history (inputType = 1).
RESWRITE -- Appends results data from the database to a results file. This com-
mand can now be used (in conjunction with the RESCOMBINE command) to
write a global results file for a distributed parallel (Distributed ANSYS) solution.
ROSE -- Specifies the Rosenblueth mode combination method. The new Force-
Type option allows you to specify the forces being combined.
SECDATA -- Describes the geometry of a section. This command now supports
the definition of circular contact sections associated with 2-D contact/target
elements.
SECFUNCTION -- Specifies shell section thickness as a tabular function. The
command now accepts (via KCN) either a local coordinate system reference
number or an array interpretation pattern for the tabular function evaluation.
When KCN = NOD2, the program interprets TABLE as a 2-D array parameter
(where columns contain node numbers and rows contain the corresponding
thicknesses) that expresses the function to be mapped.

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SECTYPE -- Associates section type information with a section ID number. The


command now has support for circular contact sections associated with 2-D
contact/target elements.
*STATUS -- Lists the current parameters and abbreviations. The new Par = MATH
option allows you to list APDL Math parameters.
SRSS -- Specifies the square root of sum of squares mode combination method.
The new ForceType option allows you to specify the forces being combined.
TB -- Activates a data table for material properties or special element input. The
new CGCR option specifies the fracture criterion for crack growth simulation
(CGROW).
TBFT -- Performs material curve-fitting operations. The command now supports
curve-fitting based on the Chaboche kinematic hardening plasticity model.
*VEC -- Creates a vector (APDL Math). The new Method = RESIZE option allows
you to resize an existing vector.
VFOPT -- Specifies options for view factor file. For 3-D analyses using Distributed
ANSYS, you can now issue a VFOPT,NEW command to specify a serial mode
calculation of the view factors.

3.7.3. Undocumented Commands


The following features have been undocumented at this release:

The Trefftz method for electrostatic analyses


Optimization
Topological optimization

The following legacy commands have therefore been undocumented:

/OPT OPADD OPRFA TOPLOT


OPEQN OPCLR OPRGR TOPRINT
OPFACT OPDEL OPRSW TOSTAT
OPFRST OPMAKE PLVAROPT TZAMESH
OPGRAD OPSEL PRVAROPT TZDELE
OPKEEP OPANL TOCOMP TZEGEN
OPLOOP OPDATA TODEF XVAROPT
OPPRNT OPRESU TOFREQ
OPRAND OPSAVE TOTYPE
OPSUBP OPEXE TOVAR

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Elements

OPSWEEP OPLFA TOEXE


OPTYPE OPLGR TOLOOP
OPUSER OPLIST TOGRAPH
OPVAR OPLSW TOLIST

For optimization, use ANSYS DesignXplorer.

For information about commands that have been undocumented in prior releases,
see the archived release notes on the ANSYS Customer Portal.

3.7.4. Archived Commands


The following legacy commands have been moved to the Feature Archive:

SSTIF
PSOLVE

Use NLGEOM in place of SSTIF and linear perturbation instead of PSOLVE.

3.8. Elements
This section describes changes to elements at Release 14.0.

Some elements are not available from within the GUI. For a list of those elements,
see GUI-Inaccessible Elements in the Element Reference.
3.8.1. Modified Elements
3.8.2. Undocumented Elements

3.8.1. Modified Elements


The following elements have been enhanced in this release:

TARGE169 and TARGE170 -- These target segment elements now have an option
to define the symmetry condition of a constrained surface. This option applies
when a force distributed constraint uses a single pilot node for the target element.
The new KEYOPT(6) allows you to define the symmetry condition with respect
to the nodal coordinate system of the pilot node.
TARGE169, CONTA171, and CONTA172 -- These 2-D surface-to-surface target and
contact elements now support a geometry correction feature that can be applied
to circular contact and target surfaces to reduce discretization errors associated
with linear elements.

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CONTA171 and CONTA172 -- These 2-D surface-to-surface contact elements now


support the surface-projection-based method specified by setting KEYOPT(4) =
3 for the contact detection option.
CONTA173, CONTA174, CONTA175 -- These 3-D contact elements now include
squeal damping for use in brake squeal analyses via the new real constants FDMB
and FDMS and the new KEYOPT(16).
CONTA171, CONTA172, CONTA173, and CONTA174 -- For these 2-D and 3-D
surface-to-surface contact elements, the surface projection method of contact
detection (KEYOPT(4) = 3) can now be used in conjunction with the MPC contact
option (KEYOPT(2) = 2).
CONTA171, CONTA172, CONTA173, CONTA174, CONTA175, CONTA176, and
CONTA177 -- These 2-D and 3-D contact elements now offer the following new
or enhanced features:
Contact stabilization damping is now available via the new real constants
FDMN and FDMT and the new KEYOPT(15). As a result of this new method,
the use of real constant FKOP to input a damping coefficient for standard or
rough contact is undocumented.
A critical temperature for bonding can be input via the new real constant
TBND.
For the birth and death option, contact elements are no longer restricted to
following the birth and death status of the underlying elements.
INTER202 and INTER205 -- These linear interface elements can now simulate in-
terfacial delamination of laminate composites and VCCT-based general crack
growth. The new KEYOPT(2) allows you to select whether the element is to be
used with a cohesive zone material or for crack growth simulation using VCCT.
PLANE223, SOLID226, and SOLID227 -- These coupled-field solid elements have
a new option (KEYOPT10) to control the diagonalization of the element damping
matrix in coupled-field analyses with thermal and diffusion degrees of freedom.
HSFLD241 and HSFLD242 -- These hydrostatic fluid elements can now be used
in a linear perturbation analysis.

3.8.2. Undocumented Elements


The following legacy element has been undocumented at this release:

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Other Enhancements

Suggested Cur-
Undocumented
rent-Techno- Recommendations
Legacy Element
logy Element
TRANS109 PLANE223 Set KEYOPT(1) = 1001.
SOLID117 SOLID236 --

For information about other elements that have been undocumented in prior
releases, see the archived release notes on the ANSYS Customer Portal.

3.9. Other Enhancements


This section contains information about Release 14.0 enhancements not listed
elsewhere in this document.

3.9.1. Documentation
ANSYS, Inc. continues to refine the Mechanical APDL documentation set. To that
end, the following changes and enhancements to the documentation have oc-
curred with this release:

3.9.1.1. Technology Demonstration Guide


The following new example problems have been added to the Technology
Demonstration Guide:
3.9.1.1.1. Hydrostatic Fluid Analysis of an Inflating and Rolling Tire
3.9.1.1.2. Cardiovascular Stent Simulation
3.9.1.1.3. Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal
3.9.1.1.4. Rocket Nozzle Extension Simulation: Operation
3.9.1.1.5. Hot-Rolling Structural Steel Analysis with 3-D Rezoning
3.9.1.1.6. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Simulation
3.9.1.1.7. Acoustic Analysis of a Small Speaker System

3.9.1.1.1. Hydrostatic Fluid Analysis of an Inflating and Rolling Tire


This example problem demonstrates how to model a fluid that is fully enclosed
by a solid (the container). The problem shows how loading on the container and
container deformation affect the pressure, volume, density and mass of the
contained fluid. Highlights include modeling hydrostatic fluid elements with
negative and positive volumes, use of a gas material model, and reinforcing.

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3.9.1.1.2. Cardiovascular Stent Simulation


This example problem demonstrates how to simulate stent-artery interaction
during and after stent placement in an occluded artery. The analysis uses ad-
vanced modeling techniques including contact, element birth and death, mixed
u-P formulation, and nonlinear stabilization.

3.9.1.1.3. Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Boot Seal


This example problem demonstrates the capabilities and advantages of the sur-
face-projection-based contact method in a highly nonlinear problem. This ana-
lysis of a rubber boot seal model includes geometric, material, and changing
status nonlinearities (contact). Highlighted analysis capabilities include 3-D sur-
face-to-surface contact element technology, surface-projection-based contact,
and the use of Neo-Hookean hyperelastic material.

3.9.1.1.4. Rocket Nozzle Extension Simulation: Operation


This example problem is the second of two problems that simulate a rocket
nozzle. The new problem demonstrates how to simulate the thermal stresses
induced during the operation of the nozzle. (The existing problem demonstrates
how to simulate the thermal stresses during the manufacturing stage of a rocket
nozzle.)

It is assumed that the rocket has been launched and that hot gases are flowing
through the nozzle, subjecting the inside and outside of the nozzle body to
convection heat loading. The heat loading leads to a significant thermal gradient
through the thickness of the body that manifests as high thermal stresses. Solid
thermal and structural elements accurately simulate the multiphysics of the
problem. While a fully coupled element could solve the problem, a loose coupling
method is used instead. Because the body material could be homogenous or a
layered composite, the simulation requires a solid element type with both homo-
geneous and layered material capabilities.

3.9.1.1.5. Hot-Rolling Structural Steel Analysis with 3-D Rezoning


Hot-rolling is a metal-forming process occurring above the recrystallization
temperature of the material. Many types of hot-rolling processes exist, including
structural shape rolling, where a component is passed through rollers to achieve
the desired shape and cross section. Structural steel is the most common hot-
rolled material.

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Other Enhancements

In this example problem, the hot-rolling process to form the I-beam is simulated
statically using rezoning to repair a severely distorted mesh in a 3-D large-de-
formation analysis. The analysis also uses contact technology and symmetric
expansion.

3.9.1.1.6. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Simulation


This example problem demonstrates how to simulate the friction stir welding
(FSW) process. Several typical characteristics of FSW are presented, including
plastic deformation, tool-workpiece surface interaction, and heat generation due
to friction and plastic deformation. Thermal and mechanical behaviors are mutu-
ally dependent and coupled together during the process. A nonlinear direct
coupled-field analysis is performed. Highlighted analysis capabilities include
direct structural-thermal analysis using solid coupled-field elements, frictional
heat generation using contact elements, plastic heat generation in coupled-field
elements, and use of surface-projection-based contact.

3.9.1.1.7. Acoustic Analysis of a Small Speaker System


This example problem demonstrates the use of acoustic elements coupled with
structural elements to analyze the performance of a speaker assembly. Highlights
include structural-acoustic coupling using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) in 3-D,
a symmetric FSI algorithm, perfectly matched layers (PML) to absorb outgoing
acoustic waves, sound pressure level (SPL) and velocity postprocessing, far-field
postprocessing of acoustic field, and user-defined symmetric expansion options.

3.9.1.2. Feature Archive


Additional legacy features, commands, elements, and theory information have
been moved to the Feature Archive. While ANSYS, Inc. continues to support these
legacy capabilities for the immediate future, some may be undocumented in
future releases. You are urged to consider moving to their recommended replace-
ments.

3.9.1.3. Material Reference


Release 14.0 offers the new Material Reference. The reference provides a single,
convenient resource for information about the available material models, linear
and nonlinear material properties, material data tables, material model combin-
ations, explicit dynamics materials, element support for material models, and
other important information. Expect to see ongoing improvements in subsequent
releases.

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3.9.1.4. Element Reference


Release 14.0 offers an improved Element Reference. The reference provides a
single, convenient resource for information about element classifications, types,
and features. Expect to see ongoing improvements in subsequent releases. To
get started immediately, see Selecting Elements for Your Analysis.

3.9.1.5. Parallel Processing Guide


All topics related to parallel processing have been moved into the new Parallel
Processing Guide. The guide includes the following primary topics: shared memory
parallel, distributed memory parallel (Distributed ANSYS), and GPU acceleration.
All of these topics had been previously located in various other guides.

3.9.1.6. Documentation Updates for Programmers


The following documentation updates are available for programmers:

3.9.1.6.1. Routines and Functions Updated


Routines and functions documented in the Programmer's Manual have been
updated to reflect the current source code. To see specific changes in a file,
ANSYS, Inc. recommends opening both the old and current files (using a text
editor that displays line numbers), then comparing the two to determine which
lines have changed. You can copy the updated files to your system by performing
a custom installation of the product.

3.9.2. Preprocessing
Memory and CPU time have been significantly reduced when large element
and/or node IDs are used, especially when large gaps exist in the element or
node numbering.

Many more compute-intensive operations, including graphics, are now using


shared-memory parallel if activated.

3.9.3. Postprocessing
The following enhancements have been made to the POST1 general database
results postprocessor.

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Other Enhancements

3.9.3.1. Load Case Combination of Complex Results


LCOPER with Oper2 = CPXMAX now calculates the equivalent strain.

3.9.3.2. Fatigue
The time at which fatigue stresses occurred (from the SET command or manually
input via the FS command) is now captured. Time is not used in the fatigue
calculation and is only for reference purposes.

3.9.3.3. Failure Criteria


LaRc03/04 failure criteria are now available for failure analysis with both plain
stress and full 3-D stress states. The two new failure criteria sets are based on
various composite fiber and matrix failure mechanisms and account specifically
for failure due to fiber kinking. While LaRc03/04 failure criteria can apply to
general orthotropic materials, they are most suitable for unidirectional fiber-re-
inforced composites.

3.9.4. Memory Management


If you wish to control the maximum amount of memory that the program uses,
you can do so by specifying a negative value for -m on the command line, or
by specifying a negative value for the Total Workspace in the Command
Launcher. By default, the program continues to dynamically grow memory as
needed; however, specifying the negative value allows you to stop this dynamic
growth. If the program requires additional memory beyond what is available,
however, it will fail to proceed rather than use disk space as virtual memory.

The database (-db) memory space may grow dynamically as well if system re-
sources (RAM and paging space) are sufficient. To use a fixed space instead,
specify a negative value for -db on the command line, or specify a negative value
for the database in the Command Launcher. If you use a fixed space and the
database requires more space, the program writes to Jobname.page as in
prior releases.

3.9.5. APDL Math Enhancements


APDL Math extends the APDL scripting environment of Mechanical APDL to give
you access to the powerful matrix manipulation routines in the Mechanical APDL
product. A number of new functionalities have been added to the APDL Math
feature in this release. These enhancements give you the ability to:

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Perform a dot (or inner) product of two vectors (new *DOT command).
Perform a Fast Fourier transformation of a specified matrix or vector (new
*FFT command).
Initialize a vector or dense matrix (new *INIT command).
Link to an existing matrix, thus providing a means to manipulate a submatrix
of the original matrix (*DMAT command).
Export a matrix in the DMIG file format (*EXPORT command).
Normalize a vector (*NRM command).
Resize an existing matrix or vector (*DMAT and *VEC commands).
Compute absolute values of complex numbers via the new CXABS parametric
function.
Access real and imaginary parts of complex numbers.
List all APDL Math objects (*STATUS,MATH command).

For more information, see "APDL Math" in the ANSYS Parametric Design Language
Guide.

3.9.6. File Splitting


The default file split size (/CONFIG,FSPLT) of 2000 GB (2 TB) has been removed.
Files will no longer split by default.

3.10. Known Incompatibilities


The following incompatibilities with prior releases of are known to exist at release
14.0.
3.10.1. Release 13 Compatibility with Platform MPI
3.10.2. BUCOPT Command Changes
3.10.3. Multiframe Restart Files Are Overwritten by Default
3.10.4. RESUME Command with POST1 Fatigue
3.10.5. Writing and Reading Geometry Items
3.10.6. Results File Format Change
3.10.7. Substructure File Format Change

3.10.1. Release 13 Compatibility with Platform MPI


To continue use of an installed version of Release 13 with ANSYS Mechanical
running HPC with HP-MPI, issue the following command to ensure compatibility:

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Known Incompatibilities

%AWP_ROOT140%\commonfiles\MPI\Platform\8.1.2\Windows\HP-
MPICOMPAT\hpmpicompat.bat

The command displays the "ANSYS 13.0 SP1 Help" dialog box.

3.10.2. BUCOPT Command Changes


The default behavior of the BUCOPT command, which controls buckling analysis
options, has changed. Previously, the default behavior was to find the lowest-
magnitude positive buckling modes. At Release 14.0, the default behavior is to
find the lowest-magnitude negative and positive modes centered on 0.0.

3.10.3. Multiframe Restart Files Are Overwritten by Default


The default behavior for creation of multiframe restart files (Jobname.Xnnn)
has changed. If the maximum limit of 999 files is reached before the analysis is
complete, the Jobname.Xnnn files are now overwritten by default; the program
resets the .Xnnn file numbering back to 1 and continues to write .Xnnn files.
Previously, the analysis would continue but no additional .Xnnn files were
written after Jobname.X999. See the MAXFILES description on the RESCON-
TROL command for more information.

3.10.4. RESUME Command with POST1 Fatigue


Upon resuming a database via the RESUME command, any POST1 fatigue data
is deleted. You must reenter the data before performing any fatigue calculations.

3.10.5. Writing and Reading Geometry Items


The accuracy of nodal coordinates in the .cdb file generated via the CDWRITE
command has been increased. Although the .cdb files are forward- and back-
ward-compatible between this release and prior releases, some third-party ap-
plications may encounter difficulty when reading the program-generated .cdb
file.

3.10.6. Results File Format Change


The default for the maximum number of results sets (resmax) in the results file
has been increased from 1000 to 10000. The data set indices (DSI, TIM, LSP) on
the results file will therefore be larger compared to prior releases.

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3.10.7. Substructure File Format Change


The global degree-of-freedom record (GDF) is now LONGINT rather than integer.

The substructure file access routine provided with the release (documented in
the Programmer's Manual) has been upgraded to reflect this change, and can
read current results files as well as files from prior releases.

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Chapter 4: AUTODYN
The following new features are exposed in ANSYS AUTODYN for Release 14.0:

4.1. 3D Parallel Simulations with Parts Containing Rigid


Body Material(s)
At Release 14.0, the limitation that forced all unstructured parts containing rigid
body material to be assigned to the last task of the parallel decomposition has
been removed. A user can decompose unstructured parts containing rigid body
material on as many tasks as desired. Parallel automatic decomposition(s) will
treat unstructured parts containing rigid body material like any other unstructured
parts in the model.

4.2. Forces on Rigid Bodies


In Release 14.0 it is now allowed to have one or more force boundary conditions
scoped to a rigid body node, edge, or face. In the case of scoping to an edge or
face, the underlying nodes will pick up an equal part of the applied force. Each
force on a rigid node is taken into account relatively to the center of gravity of
the rigid body. For example this could induce a rotational motion of the total
rigid body.

Also, rigid bodies run in parallel support the force boundary condition.

4.3. Nodal Based Strain Tetrahedra


The NBS (nodal based strain) solver option is now available in AUTODYN and
the Explicit Dynamics System for tetrahedra filled with ductile materials. The
advantage of the NBS tetrahedra over the Average Nodal Pressure (ANP) tetra-
hedra is that it can avoid shear locking. In AUTODYN, the NBS solver can be
specified on a part by part basis under the Parts>Solver menu. Additionally, a
non-zero PUSO stability coefficient is used by default to prevent models from
exhibiting spurious low energy modes. In the Explicit Dynamics System, the
choice of solver for tetrahedra is a global option which is set in Analysis Settings.

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Known Issues and Limitations with NBS tetrahedra


Kinematic bilinear and kinematic multilinear hardening have not been implemen-
ted for NBS tetrahedra.
Only a selection of element variables are currently calculated for NBS tetrahedra.

4.4. Performance Enhancements


Faster merging of joined nodes
The time it takes to merge joined nodes has been improved and should corres-
pond properly to the model size now.

Faster initialization of bonded contact


The time it takes to initialize bonded contact in a model has been improved
significantly. Especially large models with many bonded parts will benefit tre-
mendously from this update.

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Chapter 5: ICEM CFD
5.1. Highlights of ANSYS ICEM CFD 14.0
Release 14.0 development efforts included enhancement of ANSYS ICEM CFD as
a standalone application as well as continued development of its underlying
technology exposed within the ANSYS Workbench-based Meshing application.
The focus has been on defect reduction and usability with nearly 200 defect and
feature requests resolved in key areas. Specific enhancements are outlined in
the following sections.

5.2. Key New Features/Improvements


ANSYS ICEM CFD 14.0 includes the following new features and improvements:
5.2.1. General
5.2.2. Blocking
5.2.3. Mesh Editing
5.2.4. Output Interfaces

5.2.1. General
Cart3D is no longer available in ANSYS ICEM CFD.
Visual3 (post-processing) is no longer available in ANSYS ICEM CFD. You can use
ANSYS CFD-Post instead.
A number of MultiZone improvements have been made.
The Shape source option in the model tree (Blocking > Edges > Shape source)
displays the edge linking factor (if any).
Two new unstructured mesh selection bar menus have been added:
Select all surface elements > Triangles, Quads
Select all volume elements > Tetrahedra, Hexahedra, Prisms, Pyramids
The parts information also includes details of hidden geometry/mesh component
parts.

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A button to reverse curve direction has been added under Curve Mesh Setup
(Mesh > Curve Mesh Setup).
Selection and display speed have been improved.
Improved geometry support.
Added support for Creo Parametric 1.0.

5.2.2. Blocking
The Inherit Part Name option has been added for the extrude faces and 2D to
3D rotate and translate operations.
The creation of sheet blocks (2D blocks) has been improved.
The Index Sets option in the Index Control window contains options for saving
and managing index sets based on the index control values.
The up/down arrow buttons in the Scan Planes window allow you to scroll
through the Block/Grid index.
The blocking edge information also reports the number of edge segments (if
any).
The shared wall information is also available.
Projected blocking faces are displayed based on their association.
The block split can now be extended through all blocks or all visible blocks.
An unstructured block can be split using a structured sheet block.
Reset Association (Blocking > Associate > Reset Association) has two new
options: Vertices > Only visible and Faces > Only visible.
Link Edge (Blocking > Edit Edge > Link Edge) has a new option called Inter-
active that includes a slider to adjust the edge linking factor.
Split Edge and Move Vertex have been enhanced so that they can be used
when edges are displayed in the Projected Edge Shape, Projected Mesh
Shape, and Shape source modes also.
Split Edge is now enabled to split in the Output Blocks mode also.
Split Edge contains an option to split all edges into linear edges.
The Change Edge Split Type option allows you to change the edge split type
to spline, linear, or control point.

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Key New Features/Improvements

While setting the blocking edge length explicitly (Move Vertex > Set Edge
Length), you can select multiple vertices to be frozen when the edge length
is modified.
The Select next edge segment option allows you to select the next edge seg-
ment cyclically, when the blocking edge comprises multiple segments. The selec-
tion of edge segments is available for the Associate Edge to Curve, Associate
Edge to Surface, and Disassociate from Geometry operations.
The Run Check/Fix Blocks option allows you to check for inconsistencies in the
internal block data structures and fix them if possible.
The Min overview option for Pre-Mesh Quality reports the minimum quality
for all applicable quality metrics in the message window.
The Aspect Ratio metric has been improved.
Multiblock output contains an option to select the blocks to output.

5.2.3. Mesh Editing


The Redistribute Prism Edge operation has an additional option allowing you
to redistribute locked prism elements.
The following mesh refinement options have been added:
For the Pure refinement method, the option By Mid Side Nodes Only allows
you to globally refine the mesh using mid side nodes.
For the Pure refinement and Surface Deviation methods, an additional
option allows you to refine only the surface mesh.
The following smoothing improvements have been made:
The hex smoothing quality has been improved.
The smoother speed has been improved by 25%.
The smoother interface and defaults have been improved for ease of use.
Support for active parts has been added.

5.2.4. Output Interfaces


Added output to CGNS 3.1.
Improved output to ANSYS FLUENT.

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5.3. Known Incompatibilities


Tetin File Format Change
There are some differences in the Tetin file format at Release 14.0, particularly
with respect to the added parameter related to curves and surfaces. This para-
meter is introduced because of changes to AutoVT in ANSYS Workbench and
can be introduced when the model comes through ANSYS Workbench, including
with the Workbench CAD interfaces.

You can use the File > Save Geometry As Version... > Version 13 File option
to make sure the Tetin file can be read back into the older version of ANSYS
ICEM CFD.

5.4. Documentation
All documentation for ANSYS ICEM CFD 14.0 is accessible using the Help menu.
Please contact us if you would like to attend training. Please visit the ANSYS
ICEM CFD website for more information.

5.4.1. Tutorials
Some tutorial examples are available within the Help. Additional tutorials, input
files, as well as the solved tutorials are available at http://www.ansys.com/tutorials.

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Chapter 6: TurboGrid
This section summarizes the new features in ANSYS TurboGrid Release 14.0.

New Features and Enhancements


The following is a list of new features and enhancements in ANSYS TurboGrid:

ATM meshes have been improved for cut-off blades.


The ATM method now supports splitter blades with the following limitations:
The main and splitter blades must have rounded leading edges and cut-off
trailing edges.
The leading edge for the main blade is assumed to be positioned ahead
(meridionally) of the splitter leading edge.
The trailing edges for both blades must be located at the same meridional
position.

Due to enhancements to the ATM method, meshes produced in Release


14.0 will differ slightly from those produced in Release 13.0. It is recommen-
ded that you start cleanly (by selecting File > New Case in standalone
mode), rather than loading an existing Release 13.0 case, in order to get the
full benefit of these enhancements.
Robustness has been improved for the TurboSystem tools.
You can reduce the mesh size around five-edge vertices (which are a feature of
ATM meshes). For details, see Five-Edge Vertex Mesh Size Reduction.

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Chapter 7: FLUENT
7.1. Introduction
The ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 release notes contain information on New Features in
ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 (p. 107), Supported Platforms for ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 (p. 114),
Known Limitations in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 (p. 115), Limitations That No Longer Apply
in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 (p. 119), and Updates Affecting Code Behavior (p. 120).

7.2. New Features in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0


New features available in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 are listed below. References to the
appropriate section in the User's Guide is provided for each new feature (unless
otherwise noted).

Solver-Numerics
Second order advection scheme is the default setting for all models, except
for the mixture and Eulerian multiphase flows, which will remain first order
by default
Hybrid initialization method as default with enhanced initialization option
settings (Steps in Using Hybrid Initialization)
Convergence acceleration available for meshes containing highly stretched
cells for the implicit density based solver (Convergence Acceleration for
Stretched Meshes (CASM))
High order term relaxation available when applying higher order spatial
discretization (High Order Term Relaxation (HOTR))
Preconditioned conjugate gradient method (CG) available as a stabilization
method for the AMG linear equation solver (Setting the AMG Method and
the Stabilization Method)
Modifications to the expert settings for the pseudo transient method. Note
that the old case settings for the pseudo transient method in the Expert
tab of the Advanced Solution Controls dialog box are now obsolete and

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

no backward compatibility is provided. Please update case files using FLUENT


14.0. (Setting Solution Controls for the Pseudo Transient Method)

Solver-Meshing
Remeshing
Option to preserve interior surfaces for postprocessing following poly-
hedral mesh conversion via a TUI command (Converting the Domain to
a Polyhedra)
Ability to switch from hanging node mesh representation to polyhedral
mesh representation via a TUI command (Converting Cells with Hanging
Nodes / Edges to Polyhedra)
Ability to remesh 3D wedge/prism cells in a boundary layer mesh as part
of cell zone and face region remeshing methods (Cell Zone Remeshing
Method and Face Region Remeshing with Prism Layers)
Ability to print the poor element statistics in the console via the Solution
Methods task page (Repairing Meshes and Robustness on Meshes of
Poor Quality)
Ability to automatically convert the cells that have hanging nodes /
edges as a result of the CutCell zone remeshing to polyhedral cells (Using
the CutCell Zone Remeshing Method)
Dynamic Meshes
Ability to include polyhedral cells in dynamic mesh problems (Limitations)
Ability to specify that the diffusion coefficient is a function of the cell
volume, when diffusion-based smoothing is used to update a dynamic
mesh (Diffusivity Based on Cell Volume)
Ability to specify a piston pin offset for in-cylinder dynamic mesh applic-
ations (In-Cylinder Settings).
Moving Meshes
Automatic calculation of rotational axis origin for nested sliding mesh
reference frames
Ability to associate zone specific boundary motion with data from system
couplings

Models
Turbulence

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New Features in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0

Compatibility of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model with enhanced


wall treatment (Spalart-Allmaras One-Equation Model)
Curvature correction available, but not applicable for 2d axisymmetric
geometries (Including the Curvature Correction for the Spalart-Allmaras
and Two-Equation Turbulence Models)
Algebraic Wall-Modeled LES available for the subgrid-scale models (Al-
gebraic Wall-Modeled LES Model (WMLES) in the Theory Guide)
The implementation of the Delayed DES (DDES) shielding function, fd
(Equation 4228 in the Theory Guide), has been optimized in the SST
and Realizable k- Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) models to provide
effective shielding. The constant was changed from 8 to 20. With this
change, DDES is now the recommended shielding function for the SST
k-omega model with Delayed DES enabled and is used by default.
Heat Transfer
Ability to model heat transfer in porous media without the assumption
of thermal equilibrium between the media and the fluid flow, via a dual
cell approach (Non-Equilibrium Thermal Model)
Ability to create a duplicate mesh for a single fluid zone directly in FLU-
ENT, e.g. when setting up a dual cell heat exchanger (Copying Cell Zones)
Finite-Rate Chemistry Model
Ability to set the surface reaction parameters for the Non-Equilibrium
Thermal Model using the define/models/species/surf-reac-
tion-netm-param text command.
Ability to model chemically activated bimolecular pressure dependent
reaction types (Inputs for Reaction Definition)
Partially Premixed Combustion Model
Ability for internal combustion engines to convert products at the end
of one cycle to inert for the next cycle when using the partially premixed
combustion model (Modeling In Cylinder Combustion)
Ability to include the effects of heat loss or gain in the unburnt mixture,
as well as equivalence-ratio fluctuations, on the laminar flame speed
(Laminar Flame Speed in the Theory Guide)
Reacting Channel Model

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

Ability to efficiently solve reacting flow in shell and tube heat exchangers
(including curvilinear configurations) with long and thin channels (React-
ing Channel Model)
Solidification and Melting Model
Thermal and solutal buoyancy options available as full features (beta
features in Release 13) (Modeling Thermal and Solutal Buoyancy )
Discrete Phase Model
Stochastic secondary droplet (SSD) model available as full feature (beta
feature in Release 13) (Modeling Spray Breakup)
Discrete Element Method (DEM) available as full feature (beta feature in
Release 13) (Modeling Collision Using the DEM Model)
Implementation of a boiling rate equation for multicomponent particles
to be able to simulate multicomponent vaporization when the total vapor
pressure at the droplet surface exceeds the cell pressure
Improvements for handling particle interactions with moving walls for
general meshes
Extension visualization of particle data, including filtering of particle
tracks, sizing of particle spheres with any particle variable, and displaying
DEM specific data to understand the particle physics (Specifying Particles
for Display and Particle Filtering)
Ability to control the coupled heat-mass solution of droplets and mul-
ticomponent particles (Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Effects on
the Particles) and to include vaporization options (Enabling Pressure
Dependent Boiling and Including the Effect of Droplet Temperature on
Latent Heat)
VOF
Ability to model surface tension using continuum surface stress method
(beta feature in Release 13) (Including Surface Tension and Adhesion
Effects)
Coupled with volume fractions option for solving equations (Coupled
Solution for VOF and Mixture Multiphase Flows, Selecting the Pressure-
Velocity Coupling Method, and Controlling the Volume Fraction Coupled
Solution)
Eulerian Multiphase Model

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New Features in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0

Critical heat flux for wall boiling models available as full feature (beta
feature in Release 13), including boiling model parameters (Including
the Boiling Model)
Yao and Morel extension of the volumetric interfacial area transport
model to include mass transfer and nucleation effects (beta feature in
Release 13) (Defining the Interfacial Area Concentration)
Two new drag functions are available for granular flow: the Huilin and
Gidaspow drag law and the Gibilaro drag law (Specifying the Drag
Function)
The Immiscible Fluid Model from previous releases of ANSYS FLUENT
has been renamed to Multi-Fluid VoF Model.
The Full Multiphase Coupled pressure-velocity coupling scheme from
previous releases of ANSYS FLUENT has been renamed to Coupled with
Volume Fractions and is now selected by choosing Coupled in the
Solution Methods task page and enabling the Coupled with Volume
Fractions option (Selecting the Pressure-Velocity Coupling Method).
Eulerian Wall Film Model
Eulerian wall film model available as full feature (beta feature in Release
13) ("Modeling Eulerian Wall Films")
Heat transfer support for the Eulerian wall film model ("Modeling Eulerian
Wall Films")
Population Balance
Ability to include growth and nucleation phenomena for the Inhomogen-
eous Discrete population balance model
Availability of the DQMOM method in serial only (beta feature in Release
13) (Enabling the Population Balance Model)
Acoustics
Ability to use the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings model to include con-
vective effects (The Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings Model in the Theory
Guide) and specify the locations of moving receivers (Specifying Acoustic
Receivers)

Material Properties
Convection/diffusion controlled vaporization for droplets (Spalding mass
transfer)

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

Urea material extended to include droplet, particle mixture (urea-water) and


mixture (urea-water-air) materials
film-averaged temperature used for binary diffusivity of vaporizing droplets
(Description of the Properties)

Mesh Morpher/Optimizer
Ability to define the objective function that is minimized by the mesh
morpher/optimizer as a custom function of output parameters, i.e., values
from flux, force, surface integral, or volume integral reports (Setting Up the
Mesh Morpher/Optimizer)
Ability to define constraints on the boundary zones, in order to limit the
freedom of particular zones that fall within the deformation region(s) during
the morphing of the mesh (Setting Up the Mesh Morpher/Optimizer)
Ability to specify commands that are executed before or after the calculation
is run for each design stage generated by the mesh morpher/optimizer
(Setting Up the Mesh Morpher/Optimizer)

Parallel Processing
Improved distributed/shared memory hybrid AMG algorithm leading to
significant improvements in solver scalability.
Architecture-aware partitioning has been improved and is performed by
default when the case file is read (Partitioning in the Users Guide).
Ability to extend exterior cell creation based on interface face and node
coverage (Extended Neighborhood in the UDF Manual).
Ability to use Laplacian-coefficient-based AMG coarsening to partition cases
with highly stretched cells (Partition Methods in the Users Guide)
FLUENT now makes use of Platform MPI technology (formerly referred to as HP-
MPI) from Platform Computing Corporation ("Parallel Processing")
Support for PBS Professional in interactive mode (Starting ANSYS FLUENT Us-
ing FLUENT Launcher in the Users Guide).
Changes to supported platforms. (refer to the updated tables in "Parallel Pro-
cessing").
Increased performance of view factor calculations utilizing the GPGPU
hardware (beta feature).
Enable FLUENT UDFs to execute on GPUS (beta feature).

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New Features in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0

User-Defined Functions (UDFs) and User-Defined Scalars (UDSs)


UDF access to model boiling parameters and quenching correction (
DEFINE_BOILING_PROPERTY in the UDF Manual)
Linearized mass transfer UDF to model mass transfer in multiphase flows
(beta feature in Release 13) ( DEFINE_LINEARIZED_MASS_TRANSFER in the
UDF Manual)
UDF access to customize the variables in the PDF look-up table (
DEFINE_PDF_TABLE in the UDF Manual)

Data Import and Export


Ability to export solution data from select cell zone(s) to ANSYS CFD-Post,
EnSight Case Gold, or FieldView formats (Exporting Solution Data after a
Calculation)
Ability to export a .cdat file for CFD-Post without also writing a case (.cas)
file (ANSYS CFD-Post-Compatible Files and Exporting to ANSYS CFD-Post)
Ability to export state (.cst) files , so that you can use CFD-Post to view
most of the types of postprocessing surfaces created within FLUENT (e.g.,
isosurfaces) (ANSYS CFD-Post-Compatible Files and Exporting to ANSYS CFD-
Post)

Graphics, Postprocessing, and Reporting


Improved parallel simulation performance when using monitors
Ability to calculate and postprocess time-averaged custom field functions
Ability to display the time period over which data has been sampled for the
postprocessing of the mean and RMS values
Ability to set up multiple monitors in a single case for each one of the fol-
lowing: drag, lift, and moment (Setting Up Force and Moment Coefficient
Monitors and Defining an Animation Sequence)
Ability to plot and/or record how the objective function varies with each
design stage when using the mesh morpher/optimizer (Setting Up the Mesh
Morpher/Optimizer)
Ability to postprocess the external temperature (shell), i.e., the temperature on
the surface of a shell conduction wall that is away from the adjacent fluid/solid
cell zone (Alphabetical Listing of Field Variables and Their Definitions)

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

Ability to monitor and compute the uniformity index (weighted by area or


mass) of a specified quantity over selected surfaces (Overview of Defining
Surface Monitors and Generating a Surface Integral Report)
The default settings for the Save Picture dialog box have been changed to
save a color-scale copy of the picture in a JPEG format (Using the Save Picture
Dialog Box)

User Interface
Ability to set boundary conditions of same type using wildcards

Workbench
Ability to perform one-way or two-way coupling with FLUENT and Ansoft
products (Maxwell) (Performing FLUENT and Ansoft Coupling in Workbench)
Output parameter support for drag, lift, and moments (Creating Output
Parameters in the Users Guide).
Automatic compilation of UDF libraries by FLUENT ("Compiling UDFs" in the
UDF Manual).
Source term parameters no longer need to only be specified using SI units
(FLUENT in Workbench User's Guide).
New text user interface commands (/solve/set/number-of-iterations;
/solve/set/number-of-time-steps; and /solve/set/max-iterations-per-time-
step) to set the number of iterations or time-steps (applicable to FLUENT in
Workbench) (FLUENT Text Command List).

Add-Ons
Ability to extend a CFD analysis with detailed sensitivity data using the
FLUENT Adjoint Model add-on (FLUENT Adjoint Solver Module Manual).
Ability to perform battery modeling using FLUENT Battery Model add-on
(FLUENT Battery Module Manual).

7.3. Supported Platforms for ANSYS FLUENT 14.0


Platform/OS levels that are supported in the current release are posted on the
ANSYS website.

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Known Limitations in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0

7.4. Known Limitations in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0


The following is a list of known limitations in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0.

File import/export (for a list of supported files, please refer to the table in this
section, under Third-party software)
Data export to Mechanical APDL result file is not available on the linx64 and
linia64 platforms. (Mechanical APDL data export to .cdb file is available on
all platforms)
When exporting EnSight Case Gold files for transient simulations, the solver
cannot be switched between serial and parallel, and the number of compute
nodes cannot be changed for a given parallel run. Otherwise, the exported
EnSight Case Gold files for each time step will not be compatible
EnSight export with topology changes is not supported
To properly view Fieldview Unstructured (.fvuns) results from a parallel ANSYS
FLUENT simulation
Mesh files must be exported from the parallel solver via the TUI command
fieldview-unstruct-grid
Mesh and data files should all be exported from parallel ANSYS FLUENT
sessions with the same number of nodes
Tecplot file import does not support the Tecplot360 file format
Mesh
Boundary zone extrusion is not possible from faces that have hanging nodes
The following features are incompatible with polyhedral cell types:
Moving/deforming mesh
Models
ANSYS FLUENT supports the Chemkin II format for Oppdif flamelet import
only
The surface-to-surface (S2S) radiation model does not work with sliding and
moving/deforming meshes
The work pile algorithm is not compatible with the wall film boundary condi-
tion
The shell conduction model is not applicable on moving walls
The heat exchanger model is not compatible with mesh adaption

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

The FLUENT/REACTION DESIGN KINetics coupling is not available on the win64


platform
DO-Energy coupling is recommended for large optical thickness cases (> 10)
only
FMG initialization is not available with the shell conduction model
FMG initialization is not compatible with the unsteady solver
The MHD module is not compatible with Eulerian multiphase models
Bounded 2nd order discretization in time is not compatible with moving and
deforming meshes.
When simulating porous media, the value of the Porosity (defined in the
Fluid dialog box) cannot be 0 or 1 (i.e., it must be in between these values)
if the non-equilibrium thermal model is enabled
When simulating porous media, the non-equilibrium thermal model is not
supported with radiation and/or multiphase models
Parallel processing
These features are currently unavailable in the parallel solver:
Discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM)
Continuous Fiber Model (CFM) add-on module
Data export to non-native formats other than EnSight, FIELDVIEW, Tecplot,
and the generic heat flux data file
Platform support and drivers
ANSYS FLUENT is not compatible with the job scheduler on HPC Server 2008
with the packaged version of HPMPI. The default MPI (MSMPI) should be used
The minimum OS requirements for Linux are SLES 10 or Red Hat Enterprise
5.0
The path name length to the cpropep.so library (including the lib name) is
limited to 80 characters. (Linux Opteron cluster using Infiniband interconnect
only)
On Linux platforms, including a space character in the current working direct-
ory path is not supported.
Visit the ANSYS Customer Portal for the latest Windows graphics FAQ. Version
2.0 or higher of .NET Framework must be installed in order to run ANSYS
FLUENT on the winx64 platform.

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Known Limitations in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0

On Windows platforms, if you are installing ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 on a machine


already having ANSYS FLUENT 13.0, then after installing Platform and Intel
MPI libraries from the pre-requisites, make sure to delete the environment
variables MPI_ROOT (for Platform MPI) and I_MPI_ROOT (for Intel MPI), other-
wise it will conflict while running ANSYS FLUENT 13.0 in parallel mode.
Remote Solver Facility (RSF) is no longer supported in ANSYS FLUENT.
Solver
The non-iterative time advancement (NITA) solver is applicable with only a
limited set of models. See the ANSYS FLUENT User's Guide for more details.
NITA (using fractional time step method) is not compatible with porous media
The following models are not available for the density-based solvers:
Volume-of-fluid (VOF) model
Multiphase mixture model
Eulerian multiphase model
Non-premixed combustion model
Premixed combustion model
Partially premixed combustion model
Composition PDF transport model
Soot model
Rosseland radiation model
Melting/solidification model
Enhanced Coherent Flamelet model
Inert model: transport of inert species (EGR in IC engines)
Dense discrete phase model
Shell conduction model
Floating operating pressure
Spark ignition and auto-ignition models
Physical velocity formulation for porous media
Selective multigrid (SAMG)
The pressure-based coupled solver is not available with the following features:

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

Porous jump boundary condition


Fixed velocity
User-defined functions (UDFs)
Interpreted UDFs cannot be used while running in parallel with an Infiniband
interconnect. The compiled UDF approach should be used in this case
Third-party software
FLUENT-Platform LSF integration is not supported on the MS Windows plat-
form
FLUENT-SGE integration is supported only on Linux platforms
Wave and GT-Power coupling are available only with stand-alone ANSYS
FLUENT and not in the Workbench environment
Wave is not supported on Windows 64bit platforms
ANSYS FLUENT 14 uses the CHEMKIN-CFD KINetics library 2.4. This version
no longer supports the linia64 platforms
GT-Power is supported on the 32- and 64-bit Linux and Windows plat-
forms.
Supported versions of third party software are listed below:

Third Party Software Supported Version


Abaqus 6.9
Altair HYPERMESH 5.1
ANSOFT-MAXWELL 15.0
AVS 5.0
CGNS 2.53
CHEMKIN 2.4
Data Explorer 4.2
Ensight 9.1.2
EnSight 6 (TUI only) 7.6
EnSight Case Gold 9.1.2
FAST 1.3
Fieldview 12.2.1
Gambit 2.4

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Limitations That No Longer Apply in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0

GT-POWER 7.0
HOOPS 17.15
I-DEAS IDEAS NX Series 11
LSTC-DYNA 970.0
MPCCI 3.0.5
MPI-HP/Platform 8.1.2
MPI-Intel 4.02
MPI-OpenMPI 1.3.3
NASTRAN Bulk data input file - MSC.NAS-
TRAN 2007
PATRAN 3.0
PTC MECHANICA PTC/Mechanica Wildfire 4.0
TECPLOT 9.0 (Export). Tecplot file format,
version 11.2 (Import)
VKI 3.6.0
WAVE 8.3

Other
The IRIS Image and HPGL hardcopy formats are no longer supported in ANSYS
FLUENT
When using ANSYS FLUENT with the Remove Solve Manager (RSM):
Only one copy of a saved project that is in the pending state can reconnect
successfully.
System Coupling is not supported.
Ansoft Coupling is not supported.
UDFs are supported with limitations as detailed in Submitting FLUENT
Jobs to RSM in Workbench User Guide

7.5. Limitations That No Longer Apply in ANSYS FLUENT


14.0
All drag laws are now available with the Multi-Fluid VOF model.

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

Note

The Multi-Fluid VOF Model was previously referred to as the


Immiscible Fluid Model.

The shell conduction model can now be used with the non-premixed and
partially premixed combustion models.
The CutCell zone remeshing method can now be used on polyhedral cells.
2nd order discretization in time with moving and deforming meshes is now
supported as a beta feature. Note that bounded 2nd order discretization in
time with moving and deforming meshes remains unavailable.
Non-reflecting boundary conditions are now supported in the pressure-
based solver as a beta feature.

7.6. Updates Affecting Code Behavior


The sections in this chapter contain a comprehensive list of the code changes
implemented in ANSYS FLUENT 14 which may affect the ANSYS FLUENT 13
solutions.

Please note that text that is in bold font represents key words that may facilitate
your search for the changes in code behavior.

Solver-Numerics
Change to second order spatial discretization as the default method for the
pressure based solver.
The second order discretization scheme will provide improved solutions
compared to the first order scheme used in previous releases. However, cases
may take more iterations to converge and/or need changes to the solver
settings for optimal convergence.
Previously setup cases are not affected and will retain the old default. New
cases will use the updated default method.
Change in default method of boundary limiting.
The new default boundary gradient limiting procedure improves solutions,
particularly for cases with coarse meshes near boundaries. It also improves
convergence by avoiding out of bound values during iterations. To revert to
pre-FLUENT 14 code behavior, use the following rpvar command:

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Updates Affecting Code Behavior

(rpsetvar recon/bc-minmax-id-new 1)

Solver-Meshing
Several dynamic mesh algorithms related to remeshing and smoothing have
been improved. These changes can result in slightly different meshes for dynamic
mesh simulations that can effect the solution.
The polyhedra conversion algorithm has been improved. Using the same mesh
as a starting mesh, the polyhedra conversion might produce a slightly different
polyhedra mesh.
The quality based mesh smoothing (in the Smooth/Swap menu) has been
improved and might return meshes of better quality.

Turbulence
The new default near-wall treatment for the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence
model is now the enhanced wall treatment with the Low-Re damping option
enabled. The Low-Re damping option has been removed from the GUI. To revert
to FLUENT 13 settings, first turn off the enhanced wall treatment for the Spalart-
Allmaras model via the /define/models/viscous> sa-enhanced-wall-
treatment? text command.

A new text command is then available that allows you to turn the Low-Re
Damping on or off: /define/models/viscous> sa-damping?
Improvements have been made to scale-resolving turbulence simulations em-
ploying an underlying one- or two-equation RANS model (i.e. SAS or DES) and
using a synthetic turbulence generator at an inlet or at a RANS/LES interface.
Results may vary from previous releases.
Rough wall treatment has been improved for epsilon-equation based
turbulence models to avoid reduction in effective roughness when the
near-wall mesh is refined. This is the new default treatment. Set the following
rpvar command to false to return to pre-FLUENT 14 code behavior.

(ke-rough-wall-treatment-r14? #f)
The implementation of the Delayed DES (DDES) shielding function, fd
(Equation 4228 in the Theory Guide), has been optimized in the SST and
Realizable k- Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) models to provide effective
shielding. The constant was changed from 8 to 20. With this change, DDES
is now the recommended shielding function for the SST k-omega model
with Delayed DES enabled and is used by default.

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

The calculation of SAS-specific terms at periodic boundary conditions has


been corrected and will yield improved model behavior.

Heat Transfer
For the shell conduction model at T-junctions formed with 2 walls, the heat-
conduction treatment has been corrected and will yield improved results.
Postprocessing Wall Function Heat Transfer Coefficient (WFHTC) has been
corrected. FLUENT no longer reports a value of zero for WFHTC on adiabatic
walls. The previous behavior can be recovered with the following rpvar command.

(rpsetvar 'wf/zero-wfhtc-on-adiabatic-walls? #t)

Reacting Flow
The diffusion for the spark model is now limited to cells in close proximity
to the spark region specified. This results in a more realistic prediction of
spark propagation. Historically, the spark model would affect diffusion
throughout the flow domain, and the new treatment only affects diffusion
around the location of the spark.

Discrete Phase Model


Movement and deformation of sliding, moving, and deforming meshes are
now considered during the particle tracking. This improves the accuracy of
particle tracks when particles are reflected from moving walls, especially in
cases without wall boundary layers. Results may vary from previous releases.
This effect can be disabled by using the following scheme commands:

(rpsetvar 'dpm/consider-transient-mesh-movement? #f)

(check-mesh-interpolate-in-time)
A boiling rate equation for multi-component particles has been introduced,
which has been derived consistently with the existing vaporization and boiling
models in ANSYS FLUENT. This boiling rate replaces the rate equation used pre-
viously for the multicomponent particle boiling regime. The documentation has
been updated in the Theory Guide. This change cannot be reversed through an
rpvar.
For multicomponent particles, the true boiling temperature is used to limit the
Langrangian wall film model. Previously, the minimum of the component boiling
points was used. The user cannot change this selection.

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Updates Affecting Code Behavior

In the DPM energy balance, the latent heat is computed consistently in the
droplet and Lagrangian film models. Previously, the film model always used a
constant latent heat value. The user cannot revert to the old method.
Improvements to the droplet Vaporization Law numerics result in a more accur-
ate vaporization history. As a result of the improved accuracy, computed traject-
ories may be longer compared with FLUENT 13.0. In addition, computational
time may increase compared to FLUENT 13.0 if the computed vaporization time
is longer. The change can be reverted by issuing the following commands in
sequence:

(rpsetvar dpm/limiting-time-algorithm? #f)

(rpsetvar dpm/minimum-vapor-fraction-new 0.01)

(dpm-parameters-changed)
The Multicomponent Law numerics have been revised to speed up the compu-
tation. When importing case files from previous versions, you will need to disable
Coupled Heat-Mass Solution for Multicomponent droplets to take advantage
of the increased computational speed. This setting is found on the Numerics
tab of the of the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.
Several changes have been made to the Lagrangian wall film model that lead
to more consistent evaporation of the wall film for pure and multi-component
wall films. In addition, splashing of droplets has been improved to consider
only one sampling from the cumulative probability density function of the un-
derlying size distribution. These changes cannot be reversed.

Eulerian Multiphase Models


The expression for b in the Luo breakage kernel model in Table 2.1: "Luo
Model Parameters" of the Population Balance Manual has been changed by
a scaling factor, -1, where =2.047. A domainvar, pb/luo-beta-
factor, has been introduced to make this factor user-modifiable using the
following scheme command:

(domainsetvar <pb-domain-id> 'pb/luo-beta-factor


<value>)

The FLUENT 13 behavior can be recovered by issuing the preceding com-


mand with <value>=1.

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Chapter 7: FLUENT

Acoustics
Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver: reception time calculation is improved by
interpolating the emitted timestep signal between the receiver timesteps covered
by the received signal.

UDF Programming Interface


Node unions replaced with node SVARs.
Two node union data members n1 and n2 in node_struct have been
replaced by SV_N_TMP_0 and SV_N_TMP_1. SV_N_TMP_2 is also
available if needed. Unlike previous versions, UDF developers will need
to allocate/deallocate this storage in order to use the following node
union macros:
NODE_MARK (uses SV_N_TMP_0)
NODE_RVAL1 (uses SV_N_TMP_0)
NODE_VISIT (uses SV_N_TMP_1)
NODE_RVAL2 (uses SV_N_TMP_1)
For your convenience, two macros (ALLOCATE_NODE_SVAR and
DEALLOCATE_NODE_SVAR) have been added to facilitate allocating
this storage. For example, in order to use NODE_MARK, you would use
the commands:

ALLOCATE_NODE_SVAR(SV_N_TMP_0)

DEALLOCATE_NODE_SVAR(SV_N_TMP_0)
Many node union macros such as NODE_VISIT and NODE_MARK have
been used for flagging the nodes, so it is not really necessary to use a
node union variable to do it. For your convenience, 3 new macros have
been added. Please use CLEAR_NODE_VISITED to initialize a node
flag, SET_NODE_VISITED to mark a node, and NODE_IS_VISITED
to check the node status. You may also use function
Clear_Node_Flags (domain, NODE_VISITED_FLAG) to initialize
all nodes in the domain, and use Exchange_Node_Flags (domain,
NODE_VISITED_FLAG) to exchange node flags in parallel.
For multiphase simulations, the linearized mass transfer UDF is now used by
default. To revert to the previous behavior, use the TUI command
solve/set/expert and enter no at the Linearized Mass Transfer
UDF? prompt. Alternatively, you can use the following scheme command:

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Updates Affecting Code Behavior

(rpsetvar mp/mt/udf/linearized? #f)

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126 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 8: CFX
This section summarizes the new features in ANSYS CFX and CFD-Post Release
14.0.
8.1. New Features and Enhancements
8.2. Incompatibilities

8.1. New Features and Enhancements


New features and enhancements to ANSYS CFX and CFD-Post introduced in Re-
lease 14.0 are highlighted in this section.

8.1.1. General Changes to ANSYS CFX


Parallel Processing
The HP MPI parallel communications method has been replaced by the Platform
MPI method, which is fundamentally the same, and you should not see any
change in performance. When loaded into ANSYS CFX, old cases that used HP
MPI will automatically be updated to use Platform MPI.
The MPICH2 parallel communications method has been withdrawn from use on
Windows. When loaded into ANSYS CFX, old cases that used MPICH2 will auto-
matically be updated to use Platform MPI.

8.1.2. ANSYS CFX-Solver


New features and enhancements to the CFX-Solver introduced in Release 14.0
are highlighted in this section.

8.1.2.1. CFX-Solver
To improve the efficiency of calculations for turbomachinery applications, the
Time Transformation and Fourier Transformation methods for Transient Blade
Row cases have been introduced.

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Chapter 8: CFX

The default intersection method at Generalized Grid Interfaces has been changed
from the Bitmap method to the Direct method. This should improve the accuracy
of intersection and performance.
Prior to this release, the CFX-Solver determined the license it would check out
based on a set of internal algorithms. This sometimes was inconsistent with the
license preferences, as these were not necessarily respected by the solver.

In Release 14, license checkouts use the license preferences and follow the
checkout order you specify (consistent with product capability levels), which
enables you to control the license checkout order.

8.1.3. ANSYS CFX-Pre


No changes have been made to CFX-Pre in this release.

8.1.4. ANSYS CFX-Solver Manager


New features and enhancements to CFX-Solver Manager introduced in Release
14.0 are highlighted in this section.

In previous versions of ANSYS CFX, CGNS 2.4 ADF files were written by CFX-
Solver Manager and scripts provided with CFX. Starting with Release 14.0, the
capability has been extended so that you can also write to CGNS 3.0 files in either
ADF or HTF5 format. Noise source strength files written by CFX-Solver are still
exported using CGNS 2.4.
In previous versions of ANSYS CFX, CGNS files that were written by CFX-Solver
Manager and then loaded into CFD-Post had variable names that were limited
to 32 characters. Whenever the name of the variable exceeded 32 characters,
the internal name for the variable, which is shorter but more cryptic, was written
instead. Starting with Release 14.0, CGNS files written by CFX-Solver Manager
may optionally use a new additional data tag that is not subject to the 32-char-
acter limit, and that holds the ANSYS CFX Solver Name for each variable. CFD-
Post reads the new tag in preference to the old tag, if the new tag exists.

8.1.5. ANSYS CFD-Post


New features and enhancements to CFD-Post introduced in Release 14.0 are
highlighted in this section.

Hub-to-Shroud Plots

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New Features and Enhancements

You can create hub-to-shroud plots based on two streamwise locations (or blade
aligned, or blade aligned linear). The plots will show a difference in the circum-
ferentially averaged variable between the two locations.

Vectors of Particle Variables on Particle Tracks

You can plot vectors of particle variables on FLUENT particle tracks.

High-definition Movie Output

You can create high-definition movies ("HD Video 720p" and "HD Video 1080p")
that play on all typical players.

Transient Blade Row Post-processing

Solution variables are loaded and are available for plots.


The file behaves like a transient case. Timestep switching, time charts, and anim-
ations are supported. In addition, uniform and custom timestep sampling is
supported.

FLUENT Internal Combustion (IC) Engine Cases

IC engine cases with changing topology are now supported. Boundaries and
domains that are not available at the selected timestep are greyed out in the
Outline tree.

CGNS Files

Face based boundary definition (in addition to nodal definition) is now supported.
Files written with CGNS library version 3.0 or below are now supported.

Time Chart Performance

The calculation of time charts has been sped up significantly, in cases where
unrelated objects (such as streamlines, planes, and so on) are present in the
state.

CFD-Post installation Size

The disk size of the stand-alone CFD-Post installation has been significantly re-
duced.

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Chapter 8: CFX

8.1.6. ANSYS CFX Documentation


No organizational or display mechanism changes have been made to the ANSYS
CFX documentation in this release.

8.1.7. ANSYS CFX in Workbench


No changes have been made to ANSYS CFX in Workbench in this release.

8.2. Incompatibilities
This sections highlights differences in the behavior between Release 13.0 and
Release 14.0 of ANSYS CFX and CFD-Post.

8.2.1. CFX-Solver
The Release 14.0 version of CFX-Solver is compatible with the Release 14.0 license
server but is not compatible with the Release 13.0 license server.

CFX Distributed Parallel in ANSYS CFX 13 uses HP-MPI while CFX Distributed
Parallel in ANSYS CFX 14 uses PCMPI. These different installations of MPI can
have a conflict when installed on the same Windows machine. To avoid such a
conflict, be sure to follow the installation instructions that appear during Platform
MPI installation.

Below is a list of numerics improvements and other changes made for the CFX-
Solver in Release 14.0. The changes are believed to be generally helpful and
should be reverted only in the event of a problem.

Convergence behavior changes (that do not affect the converged


solution):
Multiphase Flow

In order to mitigate against convergence difficulties encountered in some mul-


tiphase flow problems, the value of the expert parameter ggi ap relaxation is
multiplied internally by 0.75. This occurs in the following situation only

Multiphase flow
Non-trivial turbulence dispersion force included
Coupled volume fraction solution algorithm.

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Incompatibilities

Thus, the default value of 1.0 is converted internally to 0.75. If you override the
default by a smaller value, then the new value is also multiplied internally by
0.75. This ensures that you retain some control over this parameter. The above
restrictions ensure that the numerics changes are focused on a narrow range of
problems, hence do not deteriorate convergence of other classes of problems.
The changes occur in CS 44468.

Miscellaneous

A bug has been fixed that could cause convergence differences depending on
the solver internal memory structure.
A bug has been fixed which could influence the convergence behavior of cases
with CEL expressions based on the shear strain rate.

Discretization changes (that affect the converged solution):


Boundary Conditions/GGI Interfaces

A new default for the intersection method: Direct instead of Bitmap.


The usage of the discernible area fraction parameter has been modified for the
direct intersector. This can cause small differences for GGI cases.

Multiphase

A bug has been fixed that permitted coalescence of certain size groups in the
MUSIG model. This bug is platform-dependent. The fix can be reverted by setting
the expert parameter: musig mass coalescence tolerance = 0.0.

Properties

The default value for the expert parameter 'alternate saturation clipping' has
been changed to true. This resolves some incorrect behavior when inverting
property tables in which the saturation curve passes through the 2d table, and
may lead to different results for cases involving phase change (for example, real
gas cavitation and equilibrium phase change).

Miscellaneous

The accuracy of the units [debye,D], [rankine,R] and [revolution,rev] in


etc/units.cfx has been improved. This can have an influence on the results
if those units are used in the CCL file.
A bug has been fixed in the Bounded CDS advection scheme.

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Chapter 8: CFX

Parallel

The coupled partitioning method has been improved. The requirement that each
partition owns at least one core vertex in each domain no longer exists. This can
be reverted by setting the following expert parameter: part_multizone_core_ver-
tex = T.

8.2.2. CFX-Pre
No changes have been made to CFX-Pre in this release.

8.2.3. CFX-Solver Manager


No changes have been made to CFX-Solver Manager in this release.

8.2.4. CFD-Post
This section describes the operational changes, the procedural changes (actions
that have to be done differently in this release to get an outcome available in
previous releases), and the support changes (functionality that is no longer
supported) in Release 14.0 of CFD-Post.

Operational Changes

In Release 13.0, forces at interfaces or cut planes were approximated by adding


pressure and mass flow force. However, this calculation will not balance the
forces at walls. Release 14.0 has a more accurate calculation of the approximate
force, which is derived by subtracting the mass flow force from the pressure
force at interfaces and cut planes.

In FLUENT there is an option to have additional post-processing variables written


to FLUENT DAT files. There is a change in behavior in the reading of variables
from FLUENT files. In Release 13, when selecting to output additional variables
in a DAT file in FLUENT (via the Data File Quantities panel), you had to choose
only the variables that were not automatically output to DAT file. Otherwise, the
chosen variable would show up in CFD-Post with a numerical suffix (for example,
you will see 'Velocity 1' in addition to 'Velocity'). As an alternative, you could use
the CDAT file format to specify exactly which variables to output to CFD-Post.
As of Release 14, when a variable is written to the user-specified section of a
DAT file, CFD-Post will check to see if the same variable is available in the basic
section of the DAT file. If so, the variable from the basic section will not be read

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Incompatibilities

in CFD-Post, only the variables from the user-specified section of the DAT file
will be read.

Reading of 13.0 FLUENT cases that have multi-configuration information can fail
in CFD-Post 14.0. A workaround is to set the FLUENT_MULTICONFIG_OFF=1
environment variable before running CFD-Post.

Procedural Changes

There are no procedural changes in this release.

Support Changes

There are no support changes in this release.

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134 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 9: POLYFLOW
9.1. Introduction
ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0 is the third version of ANSYS POLYFLOW to be integrated
into ANSYS Workbench. Starting in version 12.1, ANSYS POLYFLOW users were
able to create interlinked systems with geometry, meshing, solution setup, solver
and postprocessing inside ANSYS Workbench, using shared licensing and HPC.
Blow molding and extrusion application-specific versions of ANSYS POLYFLOW
were introduced to allow specific industrial processes to be simulated. With regard
to modeling, two new models were introduced: the volume of fluid (VOF) model
for free surface modeling in a fixed domain; and the discrete ordinates (DO)
model for radiation.

In ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0, the ANSYS Workbench integration, licensing, and


modeling capabilities have been further enhanced to meet the needs of ANSYS
POLYFLOW users.

Note

ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0 is installed under ANSYS


Inc\v140\polyflow on Windows and ansys_inc/v140/poly-
flow on Linux platforms.

ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0 is available within ANSYS Workbench for


Windows and Linux platforms.

9.2. New Features


The new features in ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0 are as follows:

ANSYS POLYFLOW can use Named Selections from ANSYS Meshing.


ANSYS POLYFLOW can read meshes created using the Assembly Meshing
group in ANSYS Meshing or the CutCell mesher in TGrid.

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Chapter 9: POLYFLOW

You can create user-defined templates via the UPDT button to paramet-
erize the values for the absissa and/or ordinate of:
multi-ramp functions of time or S (for evolution problems), when the
multi-ramp functions are applied on a parameter of a model (e.g., fac,
vn, cp)
multi-ramp functions of X, Y, or Z coordinates when defining the average
temperature, the average concentration, the initial fluid fraction for
volume of fluid (VOF) problems, or the initial thickness distribution of
films or the parison for shell models.
ANSYS POLYFLOW allows you to define force-driven mold motion for
shell surface parisons, with limitations on the maximum displacement.
A new heuristic technique has been implemented for defining the order
of elimination of the equations in the AMF linear solver (which is the
default solver in ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0). This technique can lead to
significant reductions in CPU time and memory requirements under
certain circumstances. Improvements should be observed for fixed and
deforming domain simulations when the mini-element interpolation is
used. The new heuristic technique does not make any difference when
pressure stabilization is enabled (linear interpolation of velocities).
ANSYS POLYFLOW provides further options for decoupling the calcula-
tion of various fields:
For internal radiation, you can decouple the calculation of the velocities,
irradiance, and/or temperatures.
For transport of species, you can decouple the calculation of the velocities
and species.
ANSYS POLYFLOW allows you to export temperature and thickness data
to results files that can be used for further simulations in ANSYS
Mechanical.
ANSYS POLYFLOW allows you to simulate contact release (i.e., the de-
tachment of a free surface that has come into contact with a wall) for
a 3D or shell model, as part of a blow molding or thermoforming sim-
ulation.
ANSYS POLYFLOW allows you to convert .poly files written by ANSYS
Meshing to the POLYFLOW format.
ANSYS POLYFLOW can read and recognize 1D and 2D PMeshes exported
from ANSYS ICEM CFD and ANSYS Meshing.

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Defect Fixes

POLYFLOW allows you to convert a mesh into a sliceable mesh in


POLYDATA, so that you can employ certain remeshing techniques that
are otherwise incompatible with the mesh or easily modify aspects of
an existing sliceable mesh.
A POLYFLOW system can be connected to an ANSYS Mechanical system
in Workbench, so that you can transfer thickness and temperature data.
A series of templates are available. These templates are in the form of
Workbench projects, and each contains a complete simulation from
geometry to postprocessing, including design parameters. You are thus
able to connect your own geometry, adapt the design parameters in
ANSYS DesignXplorer, and simply update the project. A predefined re-
port is then automatically created in ANSYS CFD-Post. These templates
currently cover the main applications of POLYFLOW: extrusion, blow
molding, and thermoforming.
POLYFLOW documentation is available via the Help pull-down menu
in the various POLYFLOW applications, as well as the Help chart button
in ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE.
For a boundary that experiences both incoming and outgoing flows
(e.g., an outlet with backflow) as part of a nonisothermal simulation,
ANSYS POLYFLOW allows you to impose a temperature on the flow
that enters the domain via the Incoming fluid temperature thermal
boundary condition.
The view in the ANSYS POLYFUSE Graphics Display window can be
manipulated via a graphics toolbar (which replaces the View Options
panel), as well as shortcut keys.
A more user-friendly graphical user interface has been introduced for
ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYSTAT. The updated GUI provides a
higher quality display of the results and allows an interactive manipu-
lation of graphical objects.
POLYFLOW provides access to POLYFLOW project templates, which are
Workbench project files that you can modify in order to quickly and
easily set up your own problem. These templates include blow molding,
extrusion, and thermoforming problems.

9.3. Defect Fixes


The defect fixes in ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0 are as follows:

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Chapter 9: POLYFLOW

It is now possible to get the ideal (pointwise) thickness distribution when


optimizing parison in blow molding/thermoforming simulations.
Error messages about inconsistencies between mesh and data files has been
corrected in ANSYS POLYDATA.
A fix was introduced to avoid the solver crashes when solving a pressing
simulation with the secant method.
It is now possible to display fields on PMeshes in CFD-Post.
Force fields on boundaries now have units in CFD-Post.
Error messages about problems during mesh conversion have been corrected.
A fix was introduced to avoid a crash of ANSYS POLYDATA when switching
from the sliding mesh setup to steady state.
A fix was introduced for shell blow molding / thermoforming problems that
use the non-isothermal KBKZ model, to ensure that the temperature depend-
ence is applied to the additional viscosity.
A fix was introduced to avoid POLYDATA crashes as a result of double-
clicking in the tree view.
The Set units for CFD-Post or Ansys Mapper menu item has been removed
from the Outputs menu for mixing tasks.
The unsupported Mini-element for velocities, linear pressure interpolation
for viscoelastic flows is no longer accessible in the Interpolation menu of
POLYDATA.
The formulation and interpolation of the Lagrange multiplier for slipping
and fluid-structure interaction has been corrected.
A fix was introduced to avoid POLYDATA crashes as a result of converting
a viscoelastic VOF sub-task into a Newtonian VOF sub-task.
For shell blow molding problems in which evolution is applied on the infla-
tion pressure, the EVOL summary menu (opened via the LSEV button) has
been corrected so that it no longer reports an inflation pressure of zero.
A fix was introduced to avoid POLYDATA crashes as a result of reading a
material data file for a contact case.
The POLYFLOW listing file has been improved for cases when the solver
stops due to insufficient memory.
A fix was introduced to ensure that the POLYFLOW listing file reports the
correct number of processors when running in parallel.

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Known Limitations

A fix was introduced to ensure that the mathematical library does not use
more processors than the number you specified.
A fix was introduced to ensure that the ordering of input parameters in
DesignXplorer is not inconsistent when template parameters are modified
in POLYDATA.
The direction of the rotation axis of a moving part (that employs the mesh
superposition technique) no longer affects its velocity.
Contact detection has been improved for shell molds.
A fix was introduced to avoid POLYDATA crashes when you modify the dir-
ection of generation during the creation of a 3D mesh from a shell result.
Running POLYFLOW in standalone mode under ANSYS licensing is now
easier, as you no longer have to set the environment variable.
DOS windows no longer pop up repeatedly when updating a series of Design
Points for POLYFLOW systems in Workbench.
The axis and speed of rotation of a moving part (that employs the mesh
superposition technique) can now be flagged as a parameter of a user-
defined template.
A fix was introduced to avoid POLYDATA crashes when you modify the type
of a mold during a contact problem.
A fix was introduced to avoid POLYDATA crashes when a change of units
is rejected.
It is now possible to define all components of the force applied on a mold
as template parameters.
It is now possible to define independent time histories for the transient
shear rate and the transient elongational rate when fitting material paramet-
ers to your data in POLYMAT.

9.4. Known Limitations


The known limitations for ANSYS POLYFLOW 14.0 are as follows:

The Interrupt action in ANSYS Workbench has no effect on an ANSYS


POLYFLOW solver run.
You cannot perform any actions that modify an ANSYS POLYFLOW system
(e.g., saving or closing a project, duplicating an ANSYS POLYFLOW system)
while an ANSYS POLYFLOW tool is open. In some cases, ANSYS Workbench
will allow such an action, but an error is generated.

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Chapter 9: POLYFLOW

CutCell meshes are not compatible with mixing or volume of fluid (VOF)
tasks, viscoelastic flow sub-tasks, contact detection, internal radiation,
the Narayanaswamy model, flow-induced crystallization, or the adaptive
meshing technique. Moreover, the interpolation for the velocity field
is limited: for a pure CutCell mesh, it must be the linear element; for a
portion of a CutCell mesh that has been converted into a sliceable
mesh, it can be either the linear element or the mini-element.
Due to some modifications of the contact algorithm to accommodate
the needs of the automatic contact release feature, you may need to
make small revisions to the contact parameters of a blow molding or
thermoforming problem that was originally set up using version 13.0,
in order to run it using version 14.0.
IGES files exported by POLYFLOW always use millimeters for the unit
of length. When planning to export an IGES file from POLYFLOW, it is
highly recommended that you use millimeters in your original CAD
model or when creating the geometry in ANSYS DesignModeler. You
should then use the mm/g/s unit system in POLYFLOW. If another unit
systems is used, you may have difficulties importing the IGES file of the
deformed geometry back into ANSYS DesignModeler or any other CAD
tool.
If you are using Windows XP, POLYDATA may crash when importing a
material data file. This can be avoided if you change the default TEMP
directory to a directory that is not deeply nested in other directories
(e.g., change it to D:\temp).

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Chapter 10: Icepak
10.1. Introduction
ANSYS Icepak 14 is a release of ANSYS Icepak that has new features and defect
fixes. New features are listed in the following section of this document. A list of
defects fixed in this release is accessible on the ANSYS Customer Portal
(www.ansys.com/customerportal).

10.2. New and Modified Features in ANSYS Icepak 14


Graphical User Interface
Redesigned basic parameters, solve, preference, utility dialog and forms, ob-
jects and mesh panels.
Redesigned file browser dialogs, top menus, post-object right click menus,
right click menus of object trees, post, report, optimization/trials, radiation,
plot dialogs and more.
Redesigned tables for better editing and clarity.
Redesigned Model manager window with multiple tabs. See The Model
manager Window of the User's Guide.
Implemented new icons for all buttons.
Implemented context-aware right click menus in graphics window.
Implemented Selected solid, solid/wire functionality and improved high-
lighted background color. See Using the Context Menus in the Graphics Dis-
play Window of the User's Guide.
Implemented color selection of object mesh lines. See Displaying the Mesh
on Individual Objects of the User's Guide.
Implemented rotation of an object about a point or its centroid. See Reposi-
tioning an Object of the User's Guide.
Implemented Surface mesh color and Plane mesh color in the Mesh control
panel. See Displaying the Mesh of the User's Guide.

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Chapter 10: Icepak

Implemented an additional option to specify transparency using the object


right click menu in the Model tree or graphics window. See Using the Context
Menus in the Graphics Display Window of the User's Guide.
Implemented default locations for projects and files. See Miscellaneous Options
of the User's Guide.
ECAD Import/Export
Implemented import of stacked die packages using MCM/SIP databases. See
User Inputs for Stacked Die Packages of the User's Guide.
Implemented import of stacked die packages using ANF files. See Adding a
Package to Your ANSYS Icepak Model of the User's Guide.
Implemented the modification of mcm/sip import for stacked die packages.
See User Inputs for Stacked Die Packages of the User's Guide.
Implemented import of POP (Package on package) packages for package
modeling. See User Inputs for Package on Package of the User's Guide.
Implemented import of ODB++ format for block and package modeling. See
Adding a Block to Your ANSYS Icepak Model and Adding a Package to Your
ANSYS Icepak Model of the User's Guide.
QFN package type is available for lead frame package modeling. See User
Inputs for Lead-Frame Packages of the User's Guide.
QFP package object has been enhanced to model additional details. See User
Inputs for Lead-Frame Packages of the User's Guide.
Enhanced trace and via modeling for pcb boards and packages.
Implemented 64-bit utilities for trace and via modeling.
Model Import/Export
CSV export/import capabilities for variables and trials in parametric runs. See
Import and Export of Trial Data of the User's Guide.
CSV import capabilities for polygonal sources. See CSV/Excel Files of the User's
Guide.
Modeling and meshing
Implemented 2D objects, except for conducting thin plates and sides of
network objects and network blocks, permitted on a zero slack boundary.
Implemented transparency option for surfaces when using the solar loading
model. See User Inputs for the Solar Load Model of the User's Guide.

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142 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
New and Modified Features in ANSYS Icepak 14

Implemented new ANSYS Workbench color palette for Icepak objects. See
Editing the Graphical Styles of the User's Guide.
Improved interpolation method for 3D spatial power profile modeling. See
Miscellaneous Options of the User's Guide.
Implemented new and improved 2D interpolation methods for point profiles.
See Miscellaneous Options of the User's Guide.
Redesigned the power and temperature table for quick editing of network
nodal powers. See Setting Up the Power and Temperature Limit Values of
the User's Guide.
Optimized meshing design incorporates importing meshes of pre-meshed
assemblies.
Implemented layer stack-up design for PCB objects. See Adding a PCB to
Your ANSYS Icepak Model of the User's Guide.
Implemented user specified flow direction for resistances. See Adding a Res-
istance to Your ANSYS Icepak Model of the User's Guide.
Implemented CAD shapes for sources. See CAD Objects of the User's Guide.
Implemented temperature dependent piecewise linear power for 3D objects.
Implemented transient variation for fixed temperature boundary condition
for block sides.
Solving
Implement non-uniform auto save solution intervals for transient simulations.
See User Inputs for Transient Simulations of the User's Guide.
Implemented option to save .dat and .fdat files. See Using the Solve Panel
to Set the Solver Controls of the User's Guide.
User definable setting for UDS (joule heating).
Implemented solar load model for parallel processing.
Postprocessing and reporting
Implemented the option to display specific postprocessing levels and to orient
a legend vertically or horizontally. See Using the Context Menus in the
Graphics Display Window of the User's Guide.
Implemented plotting of temperatures of internal nodes of network objects
and network blocks. See Network Temperature Plots of the User's Guide.
Implemented the export of Heat Flux Vectors data into CFD-Post. See Results
Solution Control Options of the User's Guide.

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Chapter 10: Icepak

Implemented Thermal Cross and Thermal Chokepoint variables in CFD-Post.


Miscellaneous
Improved translation of CAD objects using the mouse.
Implemented temperature dependent piecewise linear power for 3D objects.
Implemented convergence setting for joule equation. See Judging Conver-
gence of the User's Guide.
Implemented PNG image file format. PNG is the default file type for images.
See The File Menu of the User's Guide.
Implemented the High Density Datacenter component macro. See Data
Center Components of the User's Guide.
Implemented the LED Source macro to model temperature dependent power
of LEDs using forward current and forward voltage relationship. See The
Macros Menu of the User's Guide.
Implemented the Arc Fin macro to create arc shaped heatsinks using poly-
gonal approximations.
Implemented the Thermostat transient feedback (source/block) macro to
control the power of heat sources by monitoring temperatures.
Implemented the Thermostat transient feedback (fan strength) macro to
control the rotational strength of fans by monitoring temperatures.
Enhanced libraries of fans including new ADDA, Panasonic and Sunon fans.
New blower library consisting of ADDA, Minebea and Sunon blowers.
Implemented object alignment bubble help.

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Chapter 11: CFD-Post
This chapter summarizes the new features and incompatibilities in CFD-Post Re-
lease 14.0.

11.1. New Features and Enhancements


Hub-to-Shroud Plots

You can create hub-to-shroud plots based on two streamwise locations (or blade
aligned, or blade aligned linear). The plots will show a difference in the circum-
ferentially averaged variable between the two locations.

Vectors of Particle Variables on Particle Tracks

You can plot vectors of particle variables on FLUENT particle tracks.

High-definition Movie Output

You can create high-definition movies ("HD Video 720p" and "HD Video 1080p")
that play on all typical players.

Transient Blade Row Post-processing

Solution variables are loaded and are available for plots.


The file behaves like a transient case. Timestep switching, time charts, and anim-
ations are supported. In addition, uniform and custom timestep sampling is
supported.

FLUENT Internal Combustion (IC) Engine Cases

IC engine cases with changing topology are now supported. Boundaries and
domains that are not available at the selected timestep are greyed out in the
Outline tree.

CGNS Files

Face based boundary definition (in addition to nodal definition) is now supported.

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Chapter 11: CFD-Post

Files written with CGNS library version 3.0 or below are now supported.

Time Chart Performance

The calculation of time charts has been sped up significantly, in cases where
unrelated objects (such as streamlines, planes, and so on) are present in the
state.

CFD-Post installation Size

The disk size of the stand-alone CFD-Post installation has been significantly re-
duced.

11.2. Incompatibilities
This section describes the operational changes, the procedural changes (actions
that have to be done differently in this release to get an outcome available in
previous releases), and the support changes (functionality that is no longer
supported) in Release 14.0 of CFD-Post.

Operational Changes

In Release 13.0, forces at interfaces or cut planes were approximated by adding


pressure and mass flow force. However, this calculation will not balance the
forces at walls. Release 14.0 has a more accurate calculation of the approximate
force, which is derived by subtracting the mass flow force from the pressure
force at interfaces and cut planes.

In FLUENT there is an option to have additional post-processing variables written


to FLUENT DAT files. There is a change in behavior in the reading of variables
from FLUENT files. In Release 13, when selecting to output additional variables
in a DAT file in FLUENT (via the Data File Quantities panel), you had to choose
only the variables that were not automatically output to DAT file. Otherwise, the
chosen variable would show up in CFD-Post with a numerical suffix (for example,
you will see 'Velocity 1' in addition to 'Velocity'). As an alternative, you could use
the CDAT file format to specify exactly which variables to output to CFD-Post.
As of Release 14, when a variable is written to the user-specified section of a
DAT file, CFD-Post will check to see if the same variable is available in the basic
section of the DAT file. If so, the variable from the basic section will not be read
in CFD-Post, only the variables from the user-specified section of the DAT file
will be read.

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Incompatibilities

Reading of 13.0 FLUENT cases that have multi-configuration information can fail
in CFD-Post 14.0. A workaround is to set the FLUENT_MULTICONFIG_OFF=1
environment variable before running CFD-Post.

Procedural Changes

There are no procedural changes in this release.

Support Changes

There are no support changes in this release.

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148 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 12: AQWA
This release of the AQWA related products contains all capabilities from previous
releases plus many new features and enhancements. The following enhancements
are available in release 14.0. Please refer to the product specific documentation
for full details of the new features

12.1. ANSYS AQWA


The Following New Features Provide Extended Capabilities
in ANSYS AQWA:
The non-linear axial stiffness definition of the dynamic cable has been extended
to the quasi-static elastic composite catenary cable. The non-linear axial stiffness
of each section of a quasi-static composite line can be defined in the same
manner as in the dynamic cable case.
The second order force/moment calculation related to any specified wave spec-
trum can be optionally switched off by a new data record NODR in Data Cat-
egory13 (SPEC).
Results from the hydrodynamic diffraction analysis can be generated in a text
file format to use for ocean wave loading in Mechanical APDL analyses. This can
be achieved by running the AQWA2NEUT program after the hydrodynamic dif-
fraction analysis.
The AQWA Reference Manual is now accessible from the ANSYS Help Viewer.
Gaussian wave spectrum is now available for the main spectrum in addition to
a cross-swell spectrum. Gaussian is available as a Wave Type for the Irregular
Wave object in a Hydrodynamic analysis in Workbench.
Multiple directional spectra are now available in core AQWA-LIBRIUM and DRIFT,
and the Hydrodynamic Time Response system in Workbench (implemented as
the Irregular Wave Group). 2nd order interaction between different directions is
included in the core applications only. This effectively allows spreading in AQWA-
DRIFT.

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Chapter 12: AQWA

Linearized Morison drag on TUBE elements has been added to AQWA-LINE. When
AQWA-LINE stage 5 is run with a new LDRG option a set of modified RAOs is
calculated and written out to the .LIS and .PLT files. Linearized Tube Drag is also
available as an Analysis Settings option in the Workbench Hydrodynamic Diffrac-
tion system.
Two new capabilities have been added to allow the distribution of bending
moment and shear force down a truss spar structure to be plotted in the AGS.
See the AGS Help (Start > All Programs > ANSYS 14.0 > Help > AQWA > AGS
Help 14.0) for more information.
Wheeler stretching has been introduced for the calculation of wave pressure in
AQWA-NAUT (WHLS option).

Hydrodynamic Analysis System Enhancements


New Model Components have been added to the Hydrodynamic Analysis system:

Fenders (under Connections)


Joints (under Connections)
Connection Points (under Parts), which allow Connection Points to be defined
on structures

Revised Model Components for the Hydrodynamic Analysis system:

Fixed Points (under Geometry) have the same behavior as Connection Points
did in the previous release

Result Graphs have been enhanced.

Linearized Tube Drag Forces, as an individual graph or included in the reporting


of total forces, are available for Hydrodynamic Diffraction Results
Fender Forces and Joint Forces graphs are available for Hydrodynamic Time
Response Results

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150 Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 13: ASAS
The following enhancements are available in release 14.0. Please refer to the
product specific documentation for full details of the new features.

13.1. ANSYS ASAS


The following new features are available in Release 14.0 of ANSYS ASAS:

ASAS has been removed from the main installation and will be provided as a
separate downloadable installation. BEAMCHECK and FATJACK products will be
installed by default with Mechanical products and SPLINTER is now delivered as
part of Mechanical APDL (although this continues to require an ASAS Offshore
license). SPLINTER documentation is now included as a part of the ANSYS
Mechanical APDL Advanced Analysis Guide.

SPLINTER has been enhanced to support code checking and additional analysis
options when used in conjunction with the Mechanical APDL application.

13.2. ANSYS BEAMCHECK


No new features for this release.

13.3. ANSYS FATJACK


The following new features are available in Release 14.0 of ANSYS FATJACK:

The FATJACK User Manual is now included in the ANSYS Help Viewer.

FATJACK can be used to read harmonic load cases when a harmonic analysis
has been performed in Mechanical applications.

13.4. FEMGV
No new features for this release.

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Chapter 14: TGrid
14.1. Introduction
The TGrid 14.0 release includes material point based flow volume extraction and
other improvements to the CutCell technology, the Cut-tet meshing workflow,
improved prism meshing, enhancements to many existing features, and improved
robustness through defect fixes.

The new features in TGrid 14.0 are listed in New Features in TGrid 14.0 (p. 153).
Information about all the features is provided in the TGrid 14.0 User's Guide.

14.2. New Features in TGrid 14.0


CutCell Meshing
The following CutCell enhancements have been made in TGrid 14.0:
General improvements have been made in the areas of feature capturing,
cell sorting and quality.
Fluid and Dead CutCell zones can be automatically separated using material
points. The main advantage is the ability to extract flow volumes from sur-
rounding solid CutCell objects and capping faces.
Material points can be created, listed, and deleted.
After material point based separation, the remaining dead and solid cell
zones can be automatically deleted.
Overlapping boundaries between CutCell objects are properly resolved into
a single interior zone and renamed based on object priority.
Sharp trailing edges and thin regions can be resolved using two separate
commands for faces and edges.
Prism Meshing
The following prism meshing enhancements have been made in TGrid 14.0:
Special corner treatment has been added to improve CutCell prism quality.

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Chapter 14: TGrid

Speedup of the prism generation up to a factor of two depending on the


number of layers created.
Improved quality and stability of mesh morphing as part of Cutcell prism
generation.
Cut-Tet Meshing Workflow
The Cut-Tet workflow is a new approach to create a tetrahedral, hexcore, or prism
mesh based on a triangulated and improved CutCell surface mesh.
Miscellaneous Enhancements
The following miscellaneous enhancements have been made in TGrid 14.0:
Edge operations:
An improved algorithm for creating the intersection edge results in a
speedup by a factor of 2 or more.
The ability to delete small edges has been added.
Tetrahedral Meshing Enhancements:
Tetrahedral meshing robustness has been improved.

14.3. Supported Platforms for TGrid 14.0


Platform/OS levels that are supported for the current release are posted on the
ANSYS website.

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