DEFINITIONS FOR SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL PRACTICE

*
IT WAS DECIDED, for the activities of -the Committee this year, to define the terms used in sewerage and sewage disposal practice. A similar committee report in 1917 presented a valuable compilation of definitions in schematic form. These definitions have been highly commended and very useful. Therein it was recommended "that in reports, contracts and agreements prepared by engineers and health officers the terms defined in this report be used and be given the meanings designated herein." The present committee has taken a somewhat different position, in that various definitions and local usages are mentioned and no attempt is made to control or direct future use of terms except as the
* Report of the Committee on Sewerage and Sewage Disposal of the Sanitary Engineering Section, American Public Health Association, presented at a Joint Session with the Sanitary Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, at the Fifty-third Annual Meeting of the A.P.H.A. at Detroit, Michigan, October 22, 1924.

distinctions given may, by comparison, appeal to the individual. A scheme, somewhat similar to that of the former report, is herewith presented in outline only, while the definitions are given in dictionary form for ready reference. Generous quotations from the former report above mentioned, and from the tentative definitions prepared by Professor Geo. C. Whipple, Chairman of the Committee on Definitions of the Sanitary Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, have been made, and valuable ideas received by correspondence from interested members of the Association have been incorporated in the definitions. Respectfully submitted, JOHN F. SKINNER, Chairman GEo. B. GASCOIGNE JOHN H. GREGORY T. CHALKLEY HATTON F. W. MOHLMAN W. L. STEVENSON

DEFINITIONS
A.B.C. PROCESS. (Alum, Blood, Clay.) A method of deodorizing and precipitating sludge by the addition of alum, charcoal or some other material, and clay, to the raw sewage. One of the earliest satisfactory methods of clarification, by chemical precipitation. ACTIVATED SEWAGE. Sewage oxidized by the' activated sludge process. ACTIVATED SLUDGE. (1) Sludge settled out of sewage previously agitated in the presence of abundant atmospheric oxygen. (2) Sludge produced by the " Activated Sludge Process " of sewage disposal. "Activated ACTIVATED-SLUDGE METHOD. Sludge Process." ACTIVATED-SLUDGE PROCESS. Sewage treatment in which sewage standing in or flowing through a tank is brought into intimate contact with air and with biologically active sludge, previously produced by the same process. The effluent is subsequently clarified by sedimentation. AERATION. The process or method of bringing about intimate contact between air and a liquid by allowing finely divided air to pass through the liquid or the finely divided liquid to pass through air.

A

AIR LIFT. A means of raising sewage or other liquid by injecting air in and near the bottom of an open discharge pipe submerged in a well of the liquid to be raised. ALIGNMENT. The direction of the axis of a sewer in plan. ALTERNATING DEVICE. Any arrangement whereby sewage may be automatically diverted from one dosing device to another in a cycle following a predetermined sequence. ANTI-RATTLER MANHOLE COVER. One filled with asphalt for use in an asphalt paved street. It is deep and usually quiet under traffic. APPURTENANCES. " Sewer Appurtenances." ARCH. The curved or arched top of a masonry sewer.

BACK-WATER TRAP. A check valve. BAFFLES. Partitions usually vertical extending part to direct
way or all the way across a tank or basin or diffuse the flow. In a rapid stream they are employed to assist in agitating or mixing. BAND SCREEN. One consisting of an endless band or belt of wire mesh or other screening material which passes around upper and lower rollers.

B

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and the formation and simpler organic compounds. A continuous hopper bottom. of micro-organisms spores likely to cause infection DISPERSION." indicating its CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION." office." BIO-AERATION. A relative taining a large proportion of water. ing not more than 10 per cent COMMON SEWER. COMBINED SEWER. waste removal or sludge. and which trunk C CAGE SCREEN. DILUTION. DILUTE SEWAGE. liquefaction or other of (1) The product appears stream to the it. A or " Screen Chamber. (3) Matter so finely divided and dispersed in a liquid that it is apparently in solution." CROWN. " relative term. all abutters BRANCHES. watershed CURB. COLLOIDAL MATTER. Outlet Pipe. A sewer neath a valley or a water course objectionable often which sewage. A general term for walls. by contact General COARSE GRAINED tact treatment in which sewage previously lime is passed through closed tanks electrodes through which electric current while the liquid is agitated by rotating pAddles. and of scattering water. with inlet arranged the sludge at each entry of sewage the hopper shaped bottom. Sludge Conditioning. Chemical ing from the growth of living matter. into has CATCHMENT AREA. (2) One which carries both sanitary sewage and are soluble. A method of disposal solids in sewage or effluent by widely in a str-eam or other body destruction. See " anhole M Head. One in which equal rights. One which receives tributaries sewer. A sewage which has been treated with a ratio. designed admission of grit and detritus into unfit for use." often used in England. THE AMERICAN JOURNAL One " OF PUBLIC HEALTH composed of parallel sewage BASIN. in order to remove some of the suspended matter and oxidize organic matter by bio-chemical CONTAMINATED WATER.") COEFFICIENT OF IMPERVIOUSNESS. emptying. Often prefixed by a descriptive soil D DE-GREASING. or "Discharge Chamber ing Chamber." DISINFECTED SEWAGE.) DIGESTION. but is the clear theory being that nascent oxygen trolysis of the liquid will immediately organic matter and attack the bacteria. An artificial bed such as broken stone or clinkers in a water tight basin provided with controlled inlet and outlet. BELL MOUTH. colloids or colloidal case " rotating about an axis perpendicular DISCHARGE SEWER. Sewage which " CONDITIONING. Water unfit for domestic use due to the presence of CONTAMINATION. A pit into which treatment. FILTER. A (1) Sewage containing a relatively small proportion of water and much organic waste. resulting containing. the agitation the is followed by is detained COMBINED SYSTEM. so arranged lowered into the flowing sewage or a a sides." household out other liquid waste is discharged and liquid leaches inito the surrounding wise removed. All sewers to the outfall. that and CAPILLARY WATER. the soil sand filter Water in the which is not lost or well to the interstices CATCH BASIN. a settling tank in which are carried in the same sewers. COLLECTING SYSTEM.328 BAR SCREEN. of fats " Grit Chamber" DEGREE OF PURIFICATION. water. standing full in contact. The introduction potable water of bacteria or sewage which makes it of coarse agencies. Flow periphery of a circular tank. (2) Matter in a finely divided state. BRANCH SEWER. emptying and resting empty. alum. Sewage for the CIRCUMFERENTIAL FLOW. Special forms of vitrified iron pipe for making connections to They are the street called Tee. stream or sewer. bed sprinkling space COARSE RACKS. A system of or one in which sanitary sewage and storm water combined sewers. (1) One designed both storm water and domestic or industrial sewage. DEPRESSED SEWER. CHLORINATED SEWAGE. The biochemical decomposition plex organic matter resulting in liberation of gases. Sludge until removed. The partial of suspended and colloidal matter or complete from CLARIFIED SEWAGE. of effectively face to the total catchment area. CRUDE SEWAGE. One in the form of produced between bars COARSE SCREEN." CONTACT BED. quantity of sewage or effluent which the effluent from which suspended removed. (Bleaching for BLEACH. in characteristics action. or for emptying COMMERCIALLY DRY SLUDGE. its contents. BLOW OFF. One consisting of with bottom and three vertical formed of bars or rods. expressed decimally. chemicals which react with the soluble acids removal and oxidation of the putrescible contents of sewage." CESSPOOL. (2) The ratio of the quantity term. when more. CLARIFICATION. The partial by the use of some chemical. (2) A sewage containing a relatively large amount of organic relative matter. (1) Substances which judged by ordinary physical tests. but will not pass through a parchment membrane. CATCH PIT." A chamber beneath ceiving basin or inlet. The flocculation suspended matter brouight about chemical or by the or to the liquid. completely COAGULATION. under greater than atmospheric pressure profile is depressed below the hydraulic DETRITUS CHAMBER. A relative A term. than used when openinigs are greater least dimension. or Tee-Y. A waste gate or device accumulated solids sewer. Calcium hypochloride. of . Double-Y their shapes. charged into DIRECT matter OXIDATION PROCESS. The a space from sewage. (1) A method of disposal effluent by discharge into a stream water. chlorine or bleaching powder disinfection. disposal plant from (2) Sewage partially or some liquid. Grit Chamber. DISC SCREEN. disinfecting commonly chlorine or "bleach" partial destruction of bacteria sufficient reduce the danger of infection. apparently will not pass through a parchment membrane and which may be coagulated or flocculated to form insoluble particles. It is operated in cycles of filling with sewage. Area of to a lake. (1) accelerated by the use of a coagulating (2) Clarification and sedimentation addition of lime and iron. Grit Catcher. See Manhole Head. except in the Coarse Racks. This first flow COLLOIDS. lateral sewers into a main or CONCENTRATED SEWAGE. BIOLYTIC TANK. so at as storm water. "Colloids largely. The inside top of a sewer. A modification sludge process in which the sewage of and means agitated and aerated by mechanical paddle wheels or turbines. DISINFECTION. Flaring Mouthpiece. filter. BIO-CHEMICAL ACTION. CHAMBER. A shallow tank through which or is detained for treatment. sewage. COVER.

" Flushing Manhole. sewage in grit chambers. GRADE. surface or storm water. business buildings. final or secondary settling tanks. Same as final settling basin but deeper and of less area. colloided (2) The process of removing suspended matter f rom a liquid by causing it to flow through (The liquid a relatively fine porous medium. A shaft in which the sewage falls from a sewer to a lower level. end of an inverted siphon or at other points of protection on combined or storm-water sewers. An enlarged channel or long basin near the beginning of a treatment plant in which the cross section is designed to reduce the velocity of the flowing sewage and only enough to cause the deposition of heavy solids such as grit. It may also contain a small proportion of industrial waste. surface or storm water. FLARING MOUTHPIECE. Y. A deep. DRUM SCREEN. The material through which the sewage applied to a filter bed must pass and in which is contained the means of effecting treatment. in which the direction of flow is generally horizontal and lengthwise the tank. DOSING TANK. The fixed may be perforated pipes or notched troughs. It is used filtering element and for diffusing air in the sand produce clarification. DROP MANHOLE." HOUSE CONNECTION. G is introbeen duced and held until the desired quantity has accumulated and then discharged at such rate DRAIN. An automatic siphon charging a dosing tank. of the liquid surface invert. hydraulic and pneumatic devices are provided for the purpose. ground water. or where no pumping is required. Sewage from dwellings. (1) Sewage from dwellings." DORTMUND TANK. FRESH SEWAGE. Hydraulic Grade. rises and overflows at the surface and the sludge may be removed from the bottom without dewatering and before it becomes for dis- A manhole provided with a gate so that sewage or water may be accumulated and then discharged rapidly for flushing the sewer. The movable may be rotary or reciprocating perforated pipes or ti-oughs applying spray or a thin sheet of sewage. Vaporization of moisture wet surface. sewage consin) owner. with or without baffles. built by the owner. Sewer between house and curb. HOUSE LATERAL. See " Flush Tank " and bined. ing the sewer. A tank into which sewage necessary for the tion tank with cone or hopper bottom. GROUND-WATER DRAIN. usually underground. A chamber GRIT CATCHER. "Gas Vent. Sewage." HYDRAULIC GRADE. The upper story of an Imhoff tank. inclination of profile taken in a sewer. A chamber which contains a regulating device. FINAL SETTLING TANK. (1) Final A tank for collecting the humus sludge. vertical-flow sedimenta- septic. generally less than four hours old. (1) Digested sludge deposited in HUMUS SLUDGE. Slope." (1) One which carries house HOUSE SEWER. DRAINAGE WATER. EFFLUENT flowing out of any sewage treatment device.) Sewer between (3) pressing. Sewage recently produced. The elevation of the invert of a sewer above datum. (Rochester. FILTROS. (1) Sewage which through fine porous material. partially or completely treated. FINE SCREEN. A shallow continuous flow tank into which the effluent of a sprinkling filter passes for the purpose of removing the settleable solids before its final discharge. (2) (Wisto the street or common sewer. as is distribution essential to the subse- A conduit or pipe. Pipe. House Sewer." EJECTOR. DOSING CHAMBER. GRADIENT. A general term for gravity GAS SLOT. Water surface of the ground. A device connected with a house GREASE TRAP." GRATING. of such shape and dimensions as to reduce the velocity of flow and thus permit the settling out of rela- upper tively heavy suspended matter. introduced near the bottom. FILTRATION. They are of two general types fixed and miovable. factories or institutions." . GROUND WATER. A relative term. parallel (2) to the Settling The Basin. HUMUS TANK. (2) Sewage has passed bed. Generally HYDRAULIC HYDRAULIC INCLINATION. Hydraulic Grade. built by the (Rochester. " Dosing Tank. fully graded silicious firing. apply FINE RACKS. One in the form of a cylinder or cone liquids in conduits partially filled. liquids other than sewage or subflow of Commonly quent treatment. and including ground soil water." GAS VENT. annealing and grinding.) (3) By passage through a coarse grained filter with or without completely filling the voids. depending on whether the system is " separate" or " com- 329 DISTRIBUTOR. FINAL SETTLING BASIN. E EFFLUENT. " Diversion Chamber. The sewage. but generally used when the clear space between bars is one inch or less. sewer. A relative term.) The portion from the street sewer to the of the house connection street line laid by the municipality. Water flowing in a drain derived from ground. surface water and storm water. HOUSE SEWAGE. A funnel shaped entrance to facilitate flow into a pipe or conduit. following sp-inkSludge resembling humus in (2) ling filters." DOSING SIPHON. One in which all sewage runs " DRAINAGE SYSTEM. FLUSHING CHAMBER. on descending gradients from source to outlet. contact andoroxidation. See " Pneumotic Ejector. derived from beneath the One which carries ENTRANCE WELL. as a house and street line. DIVERSION MANHOLE. usually placed at the rotating on its axis. for carrying off. at a solids and which has passed HORIZONTAL FLOW TANK. A screen consisting of two sets of parallel bars transverse to each other in the same plane. usually fills the pores of the medium. to reach the atmosphere without passing up through the sewage in the settling chamber. A sedimentation tank or basin. sloping boards or sprinkler nozzles.REPORT ON SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL A distributor is a device used to sewage to the surface of a filter. end of a END MANHOLE. (1) The removal of solids and liquid organic matter by straining. vated sludge process. During dry weather the source of its liquid is the water supply. acti- appearance." FLUSHING MANHOLE. applied to surface and ground water. GRAVITY SYSTEM. A chamber in which water or sewage is accumulated and discharged at intervals for flushVarious automatic mechanical. An artificial porous stone made of careby moulding. sewer by means of which the grease content of the is cooled and congealed so that it may be sewage later skimmed from the surface." SLOPE. Y. as a sand rate slow enough to remove suspended through a coarse grained filter. FILTERING MEDIUM. N. DRAINAGE. by gravity. (2) Loosely used for Domestic Sewage. liberated in an Imhoff sludge digestion chamber. The heavy mineral matter deposited from GRIT. from a away F FILTERED SEWAGE. An opening which allows gas." DOMESTIC SEWAGE. A connected system of drains for serving a given territory." EVAPORATION. FLUSH TANK. FLOWING-TROUGH CHAMBER. N." One at the upstream GRIT CHAMBER. "Outlet DISCHARGE CONDUIT. DIVERSION CHAMBER. " Inlet Well. and industrial wastes. but generally used for a mechanically operated screen with openings one-quarter inch or less in least dimension. in wet weather it may or may not receive ground. sand and gravel.

LET. L LAMP HOLE. The result X is a clarified and oxidized effluent due to the strain. for admitting a lantern or reflected light for purposes of inspection. I IMHOFF TANK. Karl Imhoff.330 THE AMERICAN JOUR1s AL OF PUBLIC HEALTH HYDROLYSIS. A small vertical pipe or shaft leading from the surface of the ground to the sewer. Y. HYDROLYTIC TANK." . or other oxygen has acted upon the putrescible organic matter and rendered it stable. One in the line of the sewer at a point where no other sewers connect. sto-m water. INTERMITTENT SAND FILTER. (See " Domestic application of sulfur dioxide gas produced in rotary Sewage " and " Industrial Wastes. (1) A conduit for draining land. The process of sewage treatment in OXIDIZED SEWAGE. A to dewatering by the ing liquid sludge preparatory dustrial wastes predominate. It includes coarse screen and fine screen. A change in the molecular composition of matter by the addition of water. LINE MANHOLE. The introduction of sewer from manhole to manhole. generally 75 to 99 per cent water. A means of raising sewage or other liquid by alternately admitting it through a check valve into the bottom of a pot and then ejecting it through another check valve into the dischar-ge pipe by admitting compressed air to the pot above the liquid. A deep two-storied tank invented by Dr.and Michigan) Refers only to a combined than by any other means of precipitation. It is preferably so germs. One at the junction of two or more sewers. pyrite. of One composed of twilled or woven fabric usually wire. K KITCHEN WASTE. from One which receives one or more (1) the operatives. point of final discharge or to a disposal plant." PERCOLATION. " Depressed Sewer. INVERT. (1) One which receives sewage. "One with ope. Sewage oxidation is the process INVERT BLOCK. Culinary wastes from a kitchen. Subsequent precipitation of sewers or outlets with or without a determined solids results in clarification and a measure of disamount 'of ''storm water from a combined system. The system. Domestic sewage acidified by sulfuric acid. The bulk of the sludge produced is less (2) (Ohio. or better. "fixed" or " adjustable " in height. Y.MANHOLE HEAD. the organic matter is converted INVERTED SIPHON SEWER. the presence of air. A method of treatment conducted to the sewer. Its contents are received from individual buildings or surface sewer connections." " ventilated and " Anti-Rattler. One which discharges into a branch or other sewer and has no other common sewer tributarr to it. h A connection between the surface of the "tight. the absorption of colloids and the from the collecting system and conducts it to a ing oxidation of organic matter by biochemical agencies.nings betWeen admission of surface or storm-water. By derivation: the floor. common or public sewer as distinguished carries industrial waste and no sanitary sewage or from surface sewer. (2) " Ground-Water Drain. invented by Geo. slope or grade. in which sewage is INSTITUTIONAL SEWAGE.MAC LACHLAN PROCESS. method is best adapted to sewage of low alkalinity. LIQUID SLUDGE. The fumes are absorbed by a portion of the INTERCEPTING SEWER. consisting of an upper or continuous sedimentation chamber and a lower or sludge digestion chamber. house connection or lateral. A natural or MOUTH PIECE. " Trickling Filter. the " Curb " or ground and enters a sewer through joints. Water which is lost from a sewer through joints. A well or opening at the surface of MESH SCREEN. "Frame" which rests on the masonry of the shaft INFLUENT. Covers are . Sewage WhichL has received incomplete treatment at a sewage disposal plant.ground and a combined or storm-water sewer for the MEDIUM SCREEN. LEAKAGE." artificial bed of sand or other fine-grained material to which sewage is applied in intermittent doses and through which it flows. During alternate intervals 0 'the interstices are partly filled with air. Water which contains disease tion or cleaning of the sewer. Water which leaches through the ment. .MANHOLE. The lower chamber receives no fresh sewage but is provided with gas vents and with means for drawing digested sludge from near the bottom. Originally: the inverted arch of a masonry 'OUTLET PIPE. PLATE SCREEN. infection. . INCREASER.) A house or surface sewer connection.") (2) A comsulfur burners crude sulfur. the ground large enough to admit a man for inspec. N. LEACHING CESSPOOL. through the agency of living organisms in hollow tile built into the invert of a masonry sewer. atmospheric which the sewage is applied to land growing crops. Sewage in which matter. Liquid wastes from indus. The flow or trickling of a liquid downward through a relatively coarse porous medium. branch sewers as tributaries. (California) One which Street. (3) " Trunk INDUSTRIAL WASTbES." into a more stable form or into mineral IRRIGATION.OUTFALL SEWER.) INDUSTRIAL SEWER. JUNCTION MANHOLE. A cast iron fixture surmounting ties to produce disease. ASewer. Miles. the ground to receive surface water which is thence MILES ACID PROCESS. bottom or from a treatment plant to its final place of disposal. Sludge which flows by gravity. lowest point in the cross section of a sewer. method of conditionINDUSTRIAL. Sewage' raw or paeftially treated. LAND DRAIN. placed as to give a clear line of sight through the INFECTION OF WATER. (Rochester. acid fumes obtained by burning sulfur or roasting penal and charitable establishments. the manhole shaft with its top flush with the paveINFILTRATION. transverse mainder of the sewage.l flowand the removable " Cover. The floor of the upper chamber slopes steeply to trapped slots-through which solids may settle into the lower chamber. bination 'of the liquid wastes of the industry and MAIN SEWER. sanitariums. SEWAGE. One which receives the sewage out of solids. It may be at a point where the sewer changes direction. It is made up of two parts. either in line. pathogenic bacteria into water in sufficient quanti. PNEUMATIC EJECTOR. LATERAL SEWER. OXIDATION. General term for any sedimentation tank in whith. (1) Sewage in which in." Curbs are either ing intp any sewage treatment device. One out of which the liquid leaches into the surrounding soil. N. (2) (Rochester. the inlet well and surface sewetr onnection. p PARTIALLY TREATED SEWAGE.INFECTED WATER. by sulfurous from institutions such as hospitals. INLET WELL." chamber from the surface of shaft or trial processes. by biochemical processes a portion of the suspended organic matter is liqueficd and gassified. A tapered section of pipe or conduit M used when passing from a smaller to a larger section. The liquid usually does not fill the pores of the medium. A 'sub-drain of voussoir-shaped whereby. One composed of perforated plate. " Flaring Mouthpiece. Pipe which conveys the effluent lined sewer. This portion is then mixed with the rethe dry-weather flow from a number of. W. PERCOLATING FILTER." LATERAL.

"Settleable Solids. SETTLING CHAMBER. SEWAGE DISPOSAL. etc. Run off in inches per unit of time (per year or per month). The subsidence and deposition of suspended matter in a liquid by gravity. The ratio. hours. RADIAL FLOW. SCREENINGS. "Rainfall Rate. SEPT-AER-SED METHOD. (3) Liquid wastes from dwellings and institutions. 331 POLLUTION. " Settled Sewage. ROOF WATER. (2) The relative tendency of organic matter to undergo decomposition in the absence of oxygen. with (c) such ground. which RUN OFF.Sedimentation Tank. SCREENED SEWAGE. business building. " Intermittent Sand Filter. effluent or diluted sewage to that required to prevent putrefaction. PRECIPITATIOiN. SCUM. SCREEN. " Crude Sewage. The fouling of an inoffensive water by sewage or other liquid. Precipitation in inches per hour. (1) One which excludes storm water. urine. A screen composed of parallel bars. circular. (2) Sewage which has passed through fine screens. One constructed to supplement SEPTIC SEWAGE. SCUM COMPARTMENT. (2) A sanitary sewer. A vertical baffle dipping below the surface of sewage in a tank to prevent the passage of floating matter. originating in the sanitary conveniences of a dwelling. cent. " Sewage Treatment. expressed in per action. The act of General term. buoyed up by entrained gas. " Final Settling SEDIMENTATION. Direction of flow across a circular tank. from which the screenings are raked. thus rendering it offensive to sight and smell and unfit for culinary or industrial uses. The period of detention of sewage is usually from eight to twelve -culinary and in some cases industrial wastes. " siderable anaerobic decomposition. PUBLIC SEWER. (1) Wash water and water-carried animal. divided at the entrance and meeting again at the common outlet. surface and ground water. ordinarily flowing sewer. effluent or sludge to putrefaction under the conditions to which it is subjected. (1) Sewage which has passed through racks or screens. SEPARATE SLUDGE DIGESTION. One which carries sanitary sewage and excludes storm. RELIEF SEWER. A tank or basin primarily for storage of a liquid. Y. SETTLEABLE SOLIDS. (1) Domestic sewage with (2) Sewage storm water excluded by design. another in the same territory. thus distinguished from combined sewer. The portion of the precipitation inches reaches a lake. A system of separate sewers. RELATIVE STABILITY. " in or from a house drainage system or Excreta " includes feces. Suspended solids which will subside in quiescent sewage in a reasonable hours is a common arbitrary standard. factory or institution. POTABLE WATER. stream or sewer expressed in depth. wires or perforated plates. Tank. and the openings may be of any shape. (Rochester. SEPARATE SEWER. (Two SETTLED SEWAGE. from center to periphery or vice versa." (2) Rain and snowfall expressed in inches depth. One privately owned and used by one or more properties. Inlet at center and outflow at. In an Imhoff tank. One in which sewage or effluent is retained long enough or in which the velocity is low enough to allow partial deposition of suspended matter but without intended anaerobic RACK. or one in which sanitary sewage and storm water are carried in separate conduits. sewage. Water used for beverage and culinary purposes. Sewage from which some of the solids have been removed by sedimentation. Storm water from roofs. (4) A combination of (a) the liquid wastes conducted away from residences. SCUM BOARD. Decomposition of organic matter under conditions of oxygen deficiency. which may or may not include street wash. The condition of a liquid when it has taken into solution the maximum possible amount of a given substance at the given temperature and pressure. A tapered section of pipe or conduit used when passing from a larger to a smaller section. Flows parallel to the semi-circumferences of a circular tank. SEWAGE LIFT.) " Inlet Well. as water saturated with oxygen." SEMI-CIRCUMFERENTIAL FLOW. horizontal flow tank in which sewage and the deare retained from the street sewers. secretions from the skin. RUN OFF COEFFICIENT. N. RATE OF PRECIPITATION. then pumped back into the septic tank and the effluent is discharged relatively stable. of run off to precipitation. The ratio. Inlet at periphery and outflow at the center of a circular tank. The screening element may consist of parallel bars. but receives sewage no its An open or covered continuous SEPTIC TANK. disposing of sewage by any method." RAW SEWAGE. (1) " Cbemical Precipitation. SETTLING SOLIDS. A method by which digestion occurs subsequent to removal of the sludge from the tank in which it accumulated upon sedimentation. (1) Sewage over eight or twelve hours old which is in a septic condition indicated by odor and the emission of bubbles. expressed decimally. long enough to allow con- RESERVOIR." SETTLING TANK. (2) Sewage undergoing putrefaction posited sludge in the absence of oxygen. Pumping equipment appurtenant to a collecting system where necessary to raise sewage to a higher level sewer. of available oxygen in waste waters. A device with openings generally of uniform size used to retain coarse sewage solids. A mass of sewage solids. PRIVATE SEWER. SEDIMENTED SEWAGE. The material removed from sewage by screens and racks. grating wire mesh or perforated plate.) period. The removal of relatively coarse floating and suspended solids by straining through racks or screens made of bars. Sewage treatment in which septic tank effluent is aerated and passed into This secondary sludge is a sedimentation tank. expectoration. (5) The ordinary liquid contents of a sewer containing organic wastes. S SAND CATCHER. the periphery of a circular tank." SAND FILTER. rods or wires. RUN OFF RATE. wastes from industries. (2i Liquid waste containing human excreta. RADIAL OUTWARD FLOW. for used Loosely SEWAGE PURIFICATION. (1) ". R SCREENING. rectangular or long slits." Sedimentation Tank." ." SANITARY SEWAGE. stables and It may also contain liquid business buildings. A device for controlling the quantity admitted to an intercepting sewer or unit of a disposal plant." sludge compartment. (3) The water supply of a community after it has been used and discharged into a sewer." (2) The second or final element of the so-called biolytic tank. SEDIMENTATION TANK. business buildings and institutions and (b) from industrial establishments. PUTREFACTION. gratings. It generally has house or surface sewer connections. RADIAL INWARD FLOW." REDUCER. surface and storm water as may be admitted to or find its way into the sewers. " Grit Catcher. PUTRESCIBILITY. REGULATOR. Water which has been fouled by sewage or other liquid and thus rendered offensive to sight or smell and unfit for culinary or industrial uses. (1) The susceptibility of waste waters. SANITARY SEWER. Sewage from which some of the solids have settled out in a tank during quiescence or slow flow. SEWAGE. A commnon sewer controlled by public authority. sewage." RECEIVING BASIN. SATURATION. RAINFALL RATE. the connecting space below the gas vent and above the SECONDARY SETTLING TANK. grease or other substances which float at the surface of sewage.REPORT ON SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL POLLUTED WATER. SEPARATE SYSTEM. either vertical or inclined.

SLUDGE DIGESTION. such as manholes. N. " Storm-Water Sewers. SEWAGE TREATMENT. There is a wide range of moisture (35 to 75 per cent). One which carries surface water." STORM WATER. The trapped opening for the passage of settled solids from the flowing through chamber to the sludge digestion chamber of an Imhoff tank." A ground-water drain deep enough to take water from the sub-soil." SIDEWALLS. SLUDGE BED. " Sprinkler Nozzle." SPRINKLER. pumping. (Rochester. (Wisconsin) The portion of the house connection from the street sewer to the curb. The complete destruction of STERILIZATION. SLOPE. centrifuging. (1) Sewage which has not yet become septic as exhibited by the emission of bubbles. A hand propelled device used for dislodging and removing deposited sewage solids from the walls and bottoms of settling tanks. the solids being retained by and the water SURFACE IRRIGATION.332 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH moisture). STORM-WATER DRAIN. The biochemical process by which organic matter in sludge is gasified. exhausting. The process of sewage treatment in which the sewage or effluent is applied to land by distributing it beneath the surface through open jointed pipes." SLUDGE COMPARTMENT. SUB-SOIL DRAIN. Treatment of undigested liquid sludge preliminary and in order to make it amenable to de-watering. SEWAGE WORKS. STALE SEWAGE. SEWER APPURTENANCES. while the sludge still remains liquid.) " Surface-Sewer Connection. Comprehensive term including all constructions for collection. SEWERAGE WORKS. The ordinary liquid contents of a storm-water sewer. The inclination of the profile of the invert of a sewer expressed in per cent of length." SLUDGE CONDITIONING. treatment plant and means of disposal. SURFACE-WATER DRAIN. with or without heat. SLUDGE. It involves reducing from a liquid to a spadable condition rather than merely changing the density of the liquid (concentration) on the one hand or drying (as in a kiln) by -high heat on the other. " Sprinkler Nozzle. " Branch Sewer. STENCH TRAP. Constructions. Liquid waste from a sink. ." SPRINKLER NOZZLE. it still remains liquid. A narrow opening. " Sludge Bed. curtain walls or deep . STABLE EFFLUENT." STORM-WATER OVERFLOW." STORM-WATER OVERFLOW SEWER. "Concentrated Sewage. SLUDGE DRYING." SPRAYING NOZZLE. sewage. Excess water during rainfall or continuously following and resulting therefrom. (2) Sewage containing little or no oxygen but as yet free from putrefaction. SEWER-SERVICE LATERAL. transportation. SPRINKLING FILTER. concrete or other masonry sewer for the purpose of making connection thereto. A treated sewage which contains enough oxygen to satisfy its complete oxygen demand. SKIMMING . One which carries excess flow from a storm-water overflow to an independent outlet. A nozzle used for applying sewage to a sprinkling filter. "Sedimentation Tank. A flap valve in a frame which opens to admit cellar drainage to a sewer and then closes to prevent sewer air from entering the house. A sewage effluent in which all micro-organisms and their spores have been destroyed. Y. SLUDGE PRESSING. " Inlet Well. STRONG SEWAGE. STORM-WATER SEWAGE. The collecting system of sewers and appurtenances including sewage lifts where required. laid by the municipality. STABLE SEWAGE. STORM-WATER SEWER. mineralized or converted into more stable organic matter. SPADABLE SLUDGE. The process of sewage treatment in which the sewage is applied to land growing crops by distributing it aver the surface. " Sewage Works." STORM OVERFLOW." SLUDGE PASTE." SUB-DRAIN. A conduit constructed beneath a sewer to carry ground water. The thin oily film usually present which gives characteristic appearance to the water surface at and near a sewer outlet.TANK. SEWER TERRITORY. One which carries storm and surface water. Water derived from the surface of the ground. The lower SLUDGE DIGESTION CHAMBER. street wash and some other wash waters or drainage but excludes domestic and sanitary sewage and industrial wastes. excess of combined sewage or storm water over that which the sewer or interceptor is designed to carry. SURFACE SEWER. A conduit for carrying sewage. " Storm Overflow. and (2) drying in kilns by artificial heat. A branch inserted in the side of a brick. The vertical. The area deemed benefited and assessed for the cost of a sewer. devices and appliances other than the pipe or conduit which are appurtenant to a sewer. orifice or other device for discharging from a main. "Sludge Digestion Chamber. Wash water from stables containing considerable quantities of animal wastes." SURFACE WATER. The pipe which connects a surface sewer or " Inlet Well " with the street sewer. SLUDGE CONCENTRATION. A chamber so arranged that floating matter rises and remains on the surface of the sewage until removed while the liquid flows out continuously under partitions. effluent or sludge to resist putrefaction under the conditions to which it is subjected. SLANT. " Storm-Water Overflow Sewer. SLUDGE CHAMBER." STORM DRAIN. surface inlets. or as one foot fall in a given length in feet. (1) The process of reducing the volume of water content of sludge by sedimentation and decantation. SQUEEGEE. pressing. wringing between rollers or acid flotation. flush tanks. curved or inclined walls which support the arch or top of a masonry sewer. Semi-liquid and largely organic suspended sewage solids as deposited in tanks or as subsequently treated. SEWER.scum boards. cepting sewer. An enclosed natural or artificial area of porous material (sand) upon which sludge is partially dried by draining and evaporation." SUBSIDING BASIN. Sludge dry enough to be shoveled or forked from the drying bed (30 to 60 per cent SPRAY NOZZLE. or by mechanically thickening by scraping to a sump. The cake does not contain eqough water to fill its voids. STORM-OVERFLOW SEWER. The capability of waste water. treatment and final disposition of sewage. etc. STREET SEWER. " Sludge Digestion Chamber. SURFACE INLET. "Common Sewer" or "Public Sewer " in a street. " Sprinkler Nozzle-. liquefied. N. Sludge with voids filled with water but which will not flow. (2) Any method of sludge treatment whereby the moisture content is reduced. A trickling filter in which the sewage is applied by spray (the usual type and hence the name most used)." SURFACE-SEWER CONNECTION. SLUDGE-DRYING BED. (Barn Sewage. The process of (1) drying sludge by draining and evaporation on sludge beds. Any artificial process to which sewage is subjected in order to partially remove or so alter its impurities as to render it less offensive or dangerous and more fit to discharge. including street wash and roof water. trunk or inter- SUB-MAIN SEWER. STERILIZED SEWAGE. A weir. The process of de-watering by pressure. SURFACE-SEWER LATERAL.) STABILITY. SLUDGE DE-WATERING. (Rochester. SLEEK. SEWER SYSTEM. SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION. SEWERAGE SYSTEM. " Storm-Water Sewer. SINK WASTE. SLUDGE CAKE. micro-organisms and their spores ordinarily through the agency of heat or of some chemical. story of an Imhoff tank or Travis tank.) " SurfaceSewer Connection. Y. Main pumping station. A mass resulting from sludge pressing. A general term for the removal of a portion of the water in sludge by any process such as draining. passing out through a fabric. SLOT.

* WEAK SEWAGE. When made of cast iron or vitrified tile. Chlorinated q. S-trap. Treatment of sewage. DRANAGE WATER d. TRICKLING FILTER. Clear f. Septic Domestic b. Vaporization of water taken up by vegetation. Ground 2. Dilute Sewage. TANKAGE." SYSTEM OF SEWERS. Twin or multiple tanks of equal capacity. determinable in amount by standard laboratory methods of filtration. Land 5. Potable j. A two story hydrolytic tank invented by Dr. (1) A land drain laid below ground. Lateral 6. Surface d. so interconnected that they fill and discharge alternately or in rotation. SEWAGE 1. Partially treated h. systems. SYSTEM OF SEWERAGE. as b. Clarified p. TRADE WASTES. Separate i. One without openings. Sewage which has received treatment more or less complete at a sewage disposal plant. Travis consisting of an upper sedimentation chamber with steeply sloping bottom terminating in slots through which the deposited solids pass into the lower or sludge digesting chamber through which latter a predetermined portion of the sewage is allowed to pass for the purpose of seeding and maintaining bacterial life in the sludge and carrying away decomposition products. h. (1) " Main Sewer. Outf all 11. Under drain 6. each equipped with a dosing device. Defined as to source e. e. Street 5. Turbid g. r. " Sewerage System. Infected Fresh to condition a. Colorless h. Solids physically suspended in sewage or effluent." (2) One which receives many tributary branches and serves (3) " Interceptas an outlet for a large territory. A sedimentation tank in which the sewage enters near the bottom. VERTICAL-FLOW TANK. TIGHT CESSPOOL. LIQUID AND WATER-CARRIED WASTES FLOWING IN SEWERS AND DRAINS c. Industrial Sterilized Disinfected A." WING SCREEN." V TRASH." T Any chamber. VENTILATED MANHOLE COVER. Defined c. Detention in a tank during treatment. One with tight walls to prevent leaching and from which the contents are removed at intervals. Stable 1. Public II. Oxodized m. TREATED SEWAGE. One in which the screening elements are radial planes or curved vanes rotating on a horizontal axis. Contaminated k. Branch or sub-main 7. Storm e. Roof f. precipitation or digestion. Stained i. slate. " Water-Tight Cesspool. Relief . (2) " Sub-Drain. agitation aeration. Defined a. Trunk 9. A device to prevent foul air in a sewer from backing up and following a connection. " Industrial Wastes. Drainage 2. Storm water 4." TRANSPORTATION. c. it may be of various forms defined as running trap. vat or basin through which sewage passes or in which it is detained during its collection or treatment. clinkers. Screened j. Salt Saturated with oxygen d. An artificial bed of coarse material such as broken stone. Crude-raw g. ". U UNDER DRAIN. They are generally used in connection with combined TANK. Ground-Sub-surface c. rises vertically and flows out at the top. Filtered o. The treatment may consist of coagulation. w WATER-TIGHT CESSPOOL. Sanitary g. sedimentation. Private 4. Stale to condition B. Combined as f. DRAINS 1. SEWERS 1. Sub-drains B. Sedimented-settled k. effluent or sludge in a tank either in a state of quiescence or slow flow. Surface 3. Common 2. ing Sewer. TRAVIS TANK. This is for the purpose of inducing digestion of the sludge attended by its reduction in volume. TRAP. slats or brush over which sewage is distributed and applied in drops. Interceptor 10. The material removed from combined and storm water sewers by coarse racks. P-trap. as to source d. TANK TREATMENT. Rain water b. Storm water 2. Activated n. THE COLLECTING SYSTEM 3. One with openings. Deficient in oxygen e. Precipitated 1. Outlet pipe 12. films or spray from troughs or drippers. SCHEMATIC OUTLINE I. " Sewer System. Polluted 1. Dilute-weak Concentrated-strong f." TWIN OR MULTIPLE DOSING TANKS. Defined a. Fresh b. etc. House A.REPORT ON SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL 333 SUSPENDED SOLIDS. Treated i. Main 8. Institutional a. moving distributors or fixed nozzles and through which it trickles to the underdrains giving opportunity for organic matter to be oxidized by bio-chemical agencies. TRUNK SEWER." TIGHT MANHOLE COVER.

Disinfection (1) Liquid chlorine (2) Bleach c. Settleable solids.mhoff tank. treated as in (3) above or dewatered as in (6) below (6) De-watered to spadable condition (a) Sand beds. Separation of solids and liquids a. then (a) If undigested. Combined 17. Lateral 2.: I. Grit catcher 10. Invert 16. 2. CONNECTIONS 1. Flush tank 4. by (1) Sedimentation (2) Chemical precipitation (3) Flotation (4 Centrifuging . concentrated as a liquid. digeste asAliquid (a) Covered in furrows (b) Sprayed as fertilizer (c) Lagooned (d) Dumped at sea (4) Concentrated (either digested or undigested) (a) Sedimentation and decantation (b) Mechanical thickeners (5) Removed. Travis tank (c) Without sewage. scum boards or skimming chambers c. Pneumatic ejector III. Disposal of effluent a. WITH TREATMENT 1. between rollers (7) Removed as cake or in spadable condition (a) Dumped at sea (b) Used as filling (c) Used as fertilizer (d) Mixed with fuel and burned (8) Dred in a kiln by heat (a) Used as fertilizer (b) Used as fertilizer base . Air lift 20. Sanitary 16. Colloids by precipitation or filtration 3. Oliver filter (e) Wringing. Drop manhole 18. Industrial C. (b) In small amount-. Arch 15. Sterilization (1) Heat (2) Chemicals 4. Oxidation (1) Dilution (2) Irrigation (3) Sand filtration (4) Contact bed (5) Sprinkling filter (6) Activation (7) Direct oxidation with lime (8) Miles acid process b. Crown 17. Dilution a. Overflow 14. Storm overflow weir 11. Manhole 2. Dilution B. of sewage. Treatment of solidsScreenings and scum (1) Burying (2) Burning (3) Composting b. WITHOUT TREATMENT 1. Irrigation b. Floating and coarse suspended solids by screens. septic tank. draining and evaporation (b) Pressing (c) Centrifuging (d) Exhausting. A. House 3.334 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 13. Catch basin 6. Coarse solids by racks b. Lamphole 3. separate digstion (3) Removed. Regulator 9. Treatment of liquid a. Diversion chamber 8. biolytic tank. Grit. Separate 18. Suspended solids. Branches D. Flushing chamber S. by tanks e. Sidewall 14. Storm water 15. Depressed Sewer-inverted siphon 12. Surface sewer 4. Blow off 13. Sewage lift 19. APPURTENANCES 1.(5 Sand filtration f. treated as (1) or digested separately as in (2)(c) above (b) If digested. by grit chamber d. Surface inlet well 7. Irrigation 2. Traps 5. DISPOSAL c. Grit-used as filling Sludge (1) Removed undigested as liquid (a) Covered in furrows (b) Lagooned (c) Dumped at sea (2) Digested (a) In full stream of sewage.

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