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Proposal for Reading Reinforcement: High School Students

Prepared for The Course EN9: Effective Technical Writing College of Education University of Regina Carmeli

By Ezra Fatma L. Bautista Aliana Concepcion C. Cruz Jasmine Geneblazo Mariel Princess Sabio Rica N. Santos

March 2010

2 University of Regina Carmeli City of Malolos, Bulacan

February 18, 2010 Ms. Marites F. Castro College of Liberal Arts University of Regina Carmeli Dear Ms. Castro: Submitted for our project is our proposal regarding the Reading Reinforcements for High School Students. This document is in response to or requirement for the course in EN9: Effective technical Writing and our subsequent discussion. Within our report, you will find the following supporting materials geared towards our research: • • • Questionnaires Related studies from the internet and other authors Books and related published materials

Thank you for your interest in our research. We look forward to your response and reaction.

Respectfully yours; Ezra Fatma L. Bautista Aliana Concepcion C. Cruz Jasmine Geneblazo Mariel Princess Sabio

3 Rica N. Santos

Executive Summary The purpose of this research is to know the roots why high school students lost their interest to read and to propose a program that could be a solution to this stated problem. The researchers formulated a program which is called “Reading

Reinforcement” wherein the goal is to revive the declining interest of the students to read. This program is linked to and based on the students’ personal interest. The program includes the following activities: - Book review and sharing sessions - Movie books comparison -Building Reading center - Bibliotherapy Through these activities, the proponents of this research are looking forward for the students not just to revive their interest in reading but as well to enhance their reading skills and competency.

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Acknowledgement This research is intended for high school students in English Reading. It is concerned in reinforcing the students to read. With this study, the researchers would like to come up with ways to help the students appreciate reading. The proponents of this research would like to recognize the people, who help us to make this research possible: First and foremost is our LOVING FATHER who in His guidance helped us to push through in completing this research. We would also like to thank our hard working professors who are patiently there to teach us in every step that we take especially Ms. Tes F. Castro, Mr. Enrico Rosales and Mrs. Lita Dayao. Lastly, we would like to say our sincerest thanks to our families, friends and classmates who never left us during the time that we almost lose hope. THANK YOU VERY MUCH AND MAY THE GOOD LORD BLESS US ALL!

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Cost Chart Page 15

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Grade School Graph High School Graph Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading Floor Plan of the Proposed Reading Center 8 Reading Center 13 Page 5 6 7 8 9 10 12

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page Cover Letter Executive Summary Acknowledgement List of Tables List of Figures Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Recommendation Glossary of Terms References Introduction: Reading is one of the macro skills that the students need to possess. There is no greater avenue to learning than through reading. All people, great and small, have learned more things by reading than practically any other way. It is a skill that taught in the first few years of school and until now is a part of their life as a student. However, even it is part of their daily school lives, the students especially in the high school doesn’t seem to love and appreciate the value of reading. (http://ezinearticles.com/?TheBenefits-of-Reading&id=1077342) i ii iii iv v vi vii 1 4 17 17 22 23

7 With this problem, the researchers made a study about the reasons why the students doesn’t appreciate reading anymore and came up with a proposal of reading reinforcements in the high school level. According to the internet website: http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/learning/improving_reading.shtml, why students don’t want to read are the following: 1. Ineffective reading instruction 2. Auditory perception difficulties 3. Visual perception difficulties 4. Language processing difficulties the reasons

The website also gave 8 best benefits of reading. The benefits are here as follows: 1. Gives a great boost to the general vocabulary and awareness about the happenings in the world. 2. Diversity in reading habits can further increase the knowledge based on cultures round the globe. It keeps the brain in constant vibration gaining things and learning art of discipline.

8 3. Drastically improves concentration and focus, lets one to go to deep into each word he reads and gets fed in the brain. 4. Vigorous reading has a kind of chain reaction. If one reads consistently, he becomes habituated in gaining knowledge, gets more information, gets more confident and in turn would have an urge to know more and find more solutions to different queries. 5. Able to build self esteem and one can notice the improvement in terms of memory. 6. Brings in a lot of discipline and makes us consistent with the habit. It develops a habit of learning that brings in scheduling and good management of time. 7. There is a lot a lot in increase in our capability of being creative. With enormous store of knowledge, it becomes easy for us to bring in a flow of natural way of writing and spontaneous expression. 8. Reduce the feeling of boredom. It is inevitable that one with reading habit will seldom feel bored. With this study, the proponents of this research would like to come up with ways to help the students appreciate reading. Also with this study, different ideas will be presented on how to reinforce students when it comes to reading. The researchers valued the skills and competence of the learner in the past when it comes to reading and with that, it can be proven that if the past generation excelled and valued reading before, then the present generation can also excel and give importance to reading. The researchers would also like to prove that reading is not boring and complicated hobby.

9 In relation, the proponents say that there is already a need for reading reinforcement in order to bring back the love and appreciation of students to reading. As a whole, this research proposal would like to be of great help in uplifting the long lost value and role of reading in the lives of students.

Discussion:
Reading is fundamental because it serves as armor in daily living. It has become a necessity and only a very small percentage of the world’s population, majority of which are from the most remote places; do not know how to read. It is a means of communicating not only to the people close to someone but to the whole world. Reading feeds the mind. It serves as a tour guide of a person from place to place. A good writer is able to bring readers to different places by using word which could create beautiful pictures in the minds of readers. It is also wonderful time machine that can bring someone from one period of time to another through reading about different customs, political or social systems, traditions and ways of life of the past eras and points in history. It helps acquire varieties of information and enriches one’s vocabulary. It enlightens the people about the realities of the world. However, studies show that the interest in reading of students declines from elementary to high school. Their enthusiasm towards reading deteriorates as they grow older. This is because as they develop into adolescence, their focus is divided into different activities. Nowadays, we live in a world full of technology. Thus, they are exposed to different forms of technological gadgets. Instead of reading on their free time or after school, they will send a text message to their friends that will be a start of a very long conversation. Instead of browsing the pages of books, what they will browse is the internet not to read but to log on to facebook* to monitor their Farmville*, Pet society*,

10 etc. or update their profile. Instead of opening their book to continue reading the story they are at, they will switch on the television to watch the next episode of their favorite koreanovela* or naruto*. Here is the graph of 2007 Reading Report.
*This and subsequent terms followed by an asterisk are defined in the glossary beginning in page 21.

And because it is a part of their life where energy is at its peak, if not all, most of them are active and lively especially physically (dance groups, CAT*, taekwondo theater, athletic clubs, etc.) leading reading to the bottom of their priority list. How often do students read?

Figure 1.Grade school In grade school level, the reading habits (as shown in the figure 1) have a good status. Reading routine of the students is almost every day.

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Figure 2. High School On the other hand, the reading habits (as shown in the figure 1) are in bad status. Reading routine of the students is not merely being done. This falsity* must be corrected in the earliest possible time. Reading leads to quality education and quality education is what will shape their bright future. Reading must be uplifted and be brought back to its proper place. It is acquired through a process and regular training so it cannot be just set aside. If developed, it can be a good hobby. Everybody, especially students, must know its importance. Reading is a lifelong process so inculcating in their minds the significance of reading must start this early. The students were not interested to reading usually because they don’t know the benefits that they could have from it. Here’s an illustration of the cost-benefit ratio in reading.

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Figure 3. Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading

If there’s a high level of interest in reading, the less frustrating it would be on the part of the students, because if the students would loved and get hooked with reading then reading will just be a source of pleasure for them and the lower frustration the students would have because if the students love what they are doing then the effort of reinforcement could already be lessen.

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14 Figure 4. Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading If there’s a low level of reinforcement in reading, then the students will not know the importance and benefits of reading. In the same manner, it is less frustrating on their part because there’s no effort being done because they don’t mind reading or don’t value reading at all.

15 Figure 5. Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading If there’s a high level of interest then there is a need for higher level of effort on the part of the students. As it was shown it’s not just important for the students to value or speak of reading as something important for their development but also do much effort as it is needed.

16 Figure 6. Cost-Benefit Ratio in Reading In this figure, it is shown that when there is a low level of interest in reading that is why it would be hard for them to give effort in it and they would have more frustrations in reading.

There are two ways to learn about the student’s attitude towards reading, it’s to ask them and watch them. Here are the techniques to evaluate their attitudes: 1. Journals 2. Conferences 3. Open-Ended Questions 4. Interest Inventories 5. Attitude Surveys A person cannot be forced to do something he doesn’t want to. So the methods of integrating reading reinforcements to high school must be based on their interest so as not to make the process hard for them. There are several possible approaches to this concern. One is “Book review and sharing sessions”. A student or a number of students will individually share their knowledge of a particular book that they have read. It will not be boring or too difficult on the part of the students because he will not be forced to read

17 a book that does not call his attention to all. Instead, he will share to his classmates his beautiful experiences in reading a book that can be his favorite, so he will be able to do it with much eagerness. They can also do “Movie books comparison”, wherein the

students will choose books-turned-movies stories and will compare the scene present in the book but not in the movie or vice-versa. That way, they will browse back to the pages of their books and look for clips absent in the movie. Through this, they are being motivated to read while developing in themselves critical thinking. The school may also establish a “Reading center”, a place especially built for reading where variety of books will be available for the students to read. To add the attraction, the office may post “Featured Book of the Month” or “New books”. To make it more exciting, hail students as “Readers of the month” where a student will be chosen base on the number of books were read or on the number of visits in the reading center the students had for a month. To be able to assure full participation, an incentive on the part of the students may be given like additional points in any of their reading or language subjects. Another way to reinforce reading to students is to ask them make a “Bibliotherapy”* wherein the students will write or record the books they have read and share to the class. These are only few of the possible ways on how to reinforce reading to high school students. With these, students will be linked back to reading while enjoying its benefits. ILLUSTRATION 10 5

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Figure 7 Floor Plan of the Proposed Reading Center 1 Front Desk 2 Office 3 Classroom 4 Store room 5 and 6 Door 7 Book Shelves 8 Tables 9 Journal Corner 10 Bulletin

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Figure 8 Reading Center TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION In order to have a successful reading reinforcement program, there must be things to be considered and prepared to make the reading center and classrooms provide a good reading and learning environment. Facilities -The reading center -Air conditioning units

20 -Lightings Tools -Books -Journals -DVD/VCD -Computer/LCD Target Client -High school students Implementation Schedule -Book Review and Sharing sessions / Movie-Book Comparison / Bibliotherapy During their language or reading classes. -Reading Center During free time of the students or as their teacher instructed. Maintenance -Regular monitoring of the classes and reading center. Completion Dates -It must be implemented for the whole school year. Projected Milestone

21 -Improve the reading habits. -Develop successful and life-long learners. -Enrich the students’ interest in reading. Table 1.COST CHART Particulars Building-up of reading center Manpower - engineer -construction workers - architect Raw materials - paints - plywood - tiles - cement - nails - roofs P. 5, 000 P. 5, 000 P. 7, 500 P. 10,000 P. 1,000 P. 5, 000 (upon contract but has a budget allotted of P. 25, 000) Cost

Facilities -Electricity (as of monthly basis) -Equipment -LCD* -Air Conditioning Units -Lights -Television set P. 65, 000 P. 25, 000 P. 5, 000 P. 5, 000 P 10, 000

22 - whiteboard P. 5, 000

Tools -Books -VCDs* -DVDs* P. 200, 000 P. 5, 000 P. 7, 000

Maintenance -Budget for replacement of malfunctioning tools -Payment for officers and maintenance (monthly basis) P. 12, 000 P. 150, 000

Total

P. 556, 500

Conclusion The value of everything had been changed just like reading. At their young age, most likely children loved to read books that match to their attention and interest, but as they grow up, the fond of reading decreases where their retention span are subdivided

23 into various types of activities and technology plays a role also in pulling down their love for reading. Since we are in the modern generation there are so many ways of entertainment like amusement parks, zoos, museums, computers, cell phones and many more. Instead of studying the next lesson, the students prefer to watch television programs, play computer games and going to malls. Another situation is when they have book reports; they will just copy and paste the information they have gathered from the internet. There were also some books which are adapted to the wide screen so there is a tendency that people would no longer spend hours in reading. At this point, the researches could say that reading reinforcement is really a need to enhance reading skills and interest of the students nowadays and not treat reading as a boring hobby but as a important tool, skill and edge as an individual. Recommendation These reading problems can still be resolved, as they have said, “Every problem has a solution”. The researchers came up with a good solution to enhance and inculcate in the minds of the students the value of reading. And here are the possible solutions that teachers can do: 1. We can use our knowledge of a student’s interests to motivate the student to read. 2. Provide positive experiences that could trickle-up effect on general attitude of students toward reading and finding ways to alter a child’s belief structure is a key challenge in fostering more positive attitudes.

24 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Avoiding denigrating group placement Using high-quality literature Reading aloud to children Activating prior knowledge Stressing links between literature and students’ lives Teaching comprehension strategies Cross-age interactions Facilitating literature discussion groups 10. Providing older models with positive attitudes 11. Collaborative activities 12. Challenging materials 13. Projects that entail several class periods 14. Techniques that facilitate comprehension 15. Bibliotherapy

There are also ways that parents could help to motivate their children when it comes to reading. The suggestions are as follows: 1. Pick material your child shows an interest in. Use your child's obsessions to lure him or her into reading. That may mean that instead of reading the latest

25 Newbery Medal winner, you'll be reading a TV-show novelization, a teen magazine, a car manual, a comic book. But you'll be reading. Together. 2. Schedule a set time each day. Maybe lumping reading in with homework works to make it a routine; maybe using it as a reward for doing homework works better; maybe right after dinner or right before bed. If you set a regular time as reading time, you may have to fight less to make it happen. 3. Pick a comfortable place. Comfortable for your child, that is. On your lap, on the floor, on the sofa, on her bed, in the kitchen, on his bean-bag chair, on a porch swing, under a play tent -- wherever your special reading spot is, use it as a way to transition your child into reading time. 4. Don't demand full attention. Ideally, your child will be sitting beside you, hanging on every word. And obviously, you don’t want him or her watching TV or playing on a computer while you sit and read to yourself. But if your child is able to listen -- and more comfortable doing so -- while playing with a toy, or hiding under a blanket, let it be, at least at the start of your reading time. With luck you can lure him or her to full attention with a good story and a spirited reading. 5. Read with enthusiasm. Get into the story. Use different voices for different characters. Use your voice and facial expressions to convey the characters’ emotions. Perform for your child, and you’ll have a much better chance of captivating him or her with the power of the written word. 6. Take turns reading. If your child is old enough to read, that doesn’t mean you have to give up reading to him or her. Pick reading material that’s well within his or her reading ability, then take turns reading out loud, every other page or even every other paragraph. If your child’s too young to read, choose books with repetitive passages or parts that clearly echo the pictures and invite your child to chime in by memory. Make reading together reading together.

26 7. Ask questions. If you hit a word you think your child doesn’t know, ask him what he thinks it means. Have your child predict what will happen next. Ask how she thinks a character is feeling. If something in the story reflects something that has happened in your child’s life, discuss that. Make each book a unique experience based on the exchanges the two of you have. 8. Take it a chapter at a time. You don’t need to read for long periods to make your reading time valuable. With reluctant readers in particular, just a chapter a day or four or five pages for books with longer chapters can be enough to create a positive reading experience without wearing them out. 9. Keep track of all those books. Counting the number of picture books you read to a young child may be excessive -- particularly because they so love to read the same ones again and again -- but once you get into chapter books, set up a chart or other visual aid to keep track of how many titles you’ve read together. Even at a chapter a night, the list will quickly grow, and adding a title will give your child -and you -- a feeling of accomplishment. 10.Don't let this be the only time your child sees you reading. Read with your child, but also read for yourself, and let your child see that it is a pleasurable experience that adults take part in even when there’s no parent or teacher to make them. If you’re not a reader yourself, do just what you did for your child -use your interests to find some sort of written matter to look at. Make sure your child sees you looking, too. Tips: 1. Reward your child for reading with Motivating Bookmarks that can be traded in for rewards after 10 books, chapters, or even pages if necessary.

27 2. The teacher-supply site Really Good Stuff has lots of tools and toys for encouraging reading, including the EZC Reader device, which allows you to highlight a line at a time as you read to help your child follow along. 3. If you want to find out more about read-aloud techniques that help get reluctant readers more interested in books, a great place to start is Mosaic of Thought by Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmermann. 4. How do you inspire your reluctant reader? Share your strategies. 5. More ways to make this the best school year ever.

28 Glossary of Terms Bibliotherapy. Refers to a record of books read and its synopsis. CAT. Refers to an acronym which stands for Citizens Army Training. DVD. Refers to an acronym which stands for Digital Video Disk. Facebook. Refers to a social networking website. Users can add friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join networks organized by workplace, school, or college. Falsity. Refers to perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and culminating in the damage of another party. Farmville. Refers to a real-time farm simulation game developed by Zynga, available as an application on the social networking website Facebook. The game allows members of Facebook to manage a virtual farm by planting, growing and harvesting virtual crops and trees, and raising livestock. Koreanovela. Refers to televised dramas, in a miniseries format, produced in the Korean language. Many of these dramas have become popular throughout Asia and have contributed to the general phenomenon of the Korean wave, known as "Hallyu", and also "Drama Fever" in some countries. Most popular Korean dramas have also become popular in other parts of the world such as Latin America, the Middle East, and elsewhere. LCD. Refers to an acronym which stands for liquid crystal display which is a thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures. Its uses include monitors for computers, televisions, instrument panels, and other devices ranging from aircraft cockpit displays, to every-day consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. Naruto. Refers to an ongoing Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Masashi Kishimoto. The plot tells the story of Naruto Uzumaki, an adolescent ninja who constantly searches for recognition and aspires to become a Hokage, the ninja in his village that is acknowledged as the leader and the strongest of all. The series is based on a one-shot comic. Pet Society. Refers to an internet social game developed by Playfish. The game, which is launched within Facebook, has been ranked as the most popular Facebook application. New players custom design their pets, choosing genders, names, colours, and features (such as; ears, nose, mouth etc.) VCD. Refers to an acronym which stands for Video Compact Disk which is a standard digital format for storing video.

29 References Guthrie, J.T. et al. (2000). Engagement and Motivation in Reading. Leguin, U. (2008). Harpers Magazine. Staying Awake: notes on a ledge decline of reading. Mc Kenna, M. (2008). George Graham Lecture. University of Virginia. (2007). The New Yorker. Twilight of the Books (2007). To Read or Not to Read: A national endowment for the arts. http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/learning/improving_reading.shtml http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Benefits-of-Reading&id=1077342

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