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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SANTOL (Sandoricum koetjape) SEEDS OIL EXTRACT

AS A BIOFUEL

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of

Bautista National High School

Bautista, Pangasinan

S.Y. 2015-2016

By:

ROSHELL B. RAMOS

AGATHA FRITZIE L. MATEO

ROSS FAITH L. BANLAOI

Grade10-SSC

DR. RITCHIE G. MACALANDA


Adviser

APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirements in RESEARCH II of the Special Science


Curriculum, this thesis entitled, The Effectiveness of Santol (Sandoricum koetjape)
Seeds Oil Extract as an Alternative Biofuel was prepared and submitted by Roshell
Ramos, Ross Faith Banlaoi and Agatha Fritzie Mateo and hereby recommended for
approval and acceptance for oral examination.

DR. RITCHIE G. MACALANDA


Adviser

______________________________________________________________________

Oral Examination Committee

Approved by this committee on the Oral Examination:

OLIVIA P. QUINTO
Chairman

FEBREN V. VELASQUEZ FE ANNE THEA V. DE GUZMAN


Member Member

______________________________________________________________________

Accepted and approved in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Research II.

EDUARDO B. CASTILLO
Principal IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers wish to extend their profound gratitude to those who in diverse
ways shared in making this thesis work possible.

First and foremost, to the Almighty Father in heaven who is the ultimate source
and fountain of their energy and inspiration giving them an oasis of comfort at all times
amidst desolation.

To their families, for their financial and moral support, prayers and inspirations.

Supportive Titos and Titas for the financial, moral support and love.

Their siblings who understood and guided them throughout the research.

Loving cousins, for the unending love, support and suggestions in making this
thesis possible.

The hardworking adviser, Dr. Ritchie Macalanda and other Science Department
teachers who helped them in their financial needs, who shared their priceless time,
knowledge, suggestions and served as boundless inspiration to them.

Their unforgettable and second family classmates, the PBD 737 Family/ 10-SSC,
thank you for the stomach aching laughter, tears, kindness, lessons and great memories
we have shared despite of the difficulties we are undertaking due to unending
requirements that has been given to us. We love you to infinity plus one.

And last but not the least, to their special someone, their best friends, for the
endless understanding despite of their differences and busy schedule. Thank you and
we love you.

- Roshell, Agatha, Ross


Faith
DEDICATION

This Research work is committedly and devotedly dedicated to our efficient


Research II adviser, Dr. Ritchie G. Macalanda, to the faculty and staff of Bautista
National High School, to the love of our lives, our families, The Ramos Family, Banlaoi
Family and Mateo Family and to God Almighty.

- Roshell, Agatha & Faith


Research Abstract

Title: The Effectiveness of Santol (Sandoricum Koetjape) Seeds Oil Extract as an


Alternative Biofuel

Researchers: Roshell B. Ramos

Agatha Fritzie L. Mateo

Ross Faith L. Banlaoi

Adviser: Dr. Ritchie G. Macalanda

School: Bautista National High School

Bautista, Pangasinan

______________________________________________________________________

People depend on our natural resources. The more our population increases the
more resources are needed, and with some of our natural resources being limited we
are to face challenges.

One of the major problems the world is experiencing today is the lack of fuel. It is
because fuels are known to be non-renewable resources, in which it takes time for it to
be replaced and replenished.

And the fact that we are taught with knowledge and skills on how to survive, it is
natural for us to find solutions to our problems, especially if it is a way for us to sustain
our life. That is why researchers have been taking interest on finding an alternative
solution on the lacking of fuel.
This research study was conducted for the reason of aiming to help conserve the
limited supply needed by unending demand of the rising population and to determine
the effectiveness of santol seed oil extract in using it as alternative biofuel.

The researchers conducted this investigation to help the people around to


understand further use of plants as an ingredient of certain products that can be useful
to mankind. This is also considered as eco-friendly because it can be used without
causing any waste products. With this it may later help the development of the
economy.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:

1.) What are the active contituents of the Santol Seeds Oil Extract that can be used
as biofuel; 2.) Is there a significant difference between the Santol seed oil as a biofuel
and the commercial one in terms of: a.Combustibility; 3.) How effective is the Santol
Seeds Oil Extract as an alternative Biofuel?

The researcher tested the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. There was
no significant difference in using the Santol seeds oil extract as an alternative biofuel
and the commercial one.

The laboratory analysis was conducted to identify the property of the Santol
seeds that is responsible for the oil biofuel. It was conducted at Virgen Milagrosa
University.

The researchers used the experimental design in which the procedure and
statistical treatments was derived from scientific experiments

The following are the materials used by the researchers to extract the inner part
of the Santol seed; Santol seeds, knife, scissors and trays. In making the Santol seeds
extract as biofuel the materials used were the Santol Seeds, Beaker, Stirring Rod,
Erlenmeyer Flask, Graduated Cylinder, Spatula, Mortar and Pestle, Water Bath, Test
tube, Sodium hydroxide, Glycerin, Methanol.
The researcher then recommends that further experiment should be conducted

to test if other plants also have potential as biofuel.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title page i

Approval Sheet ii

Acknowledgement iii

Dedication iv

Abstract vii

CHAPTER

1. THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study 1

Conceptual Framework 3

Research Paradigm 3

Statement of the Problem 4

Research Hypothesis 5

Significance of the Study 5

Scope and Delimitations 6

Definition of Terms 6
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related Literature 8

Related Studies 11

3. METHODOLOGY

Research Design 13

Materials and Procedure 13

Flow Chart 15

Data Gathering Instrument 16

Statistical Treatment of Data 16

4. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 18

5. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Findings 25

Conclusion 26

Recommendation 27

BIBLIOGRAPHY 29

APPENDICES 30

CURRICULUM VITAE 47
Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study

The santol is believed native to former Indochina and Peninsular Malaysia, and

to have been introduced into Sri Lanka, India, Borneo, Indonesia, the Moluccas,

Mauritius, The Seychelles and the Philippines where it has become naturalized. It is

also called Yamapi'. It is commonly cultivated throughout these regions and the fruits

are seasonally abundant in the local and international markets.

Santol Tree is severely a tropical tree and do not grow over 1000 m. It is usually

cultivated in Asian countries and its fruits are abundant in local markets during the

season.

Santol itself is a very elegant by appearance and fast growing tree which can

attain height up to 50 m. It also makes a good shade tree with large lime to deep green

leaves and offering occasional contrasting red leaves.

Leaves are typically trifoliate, but sometimes the number of leaflets may be more

leaflets broadly the ovate to ovate rectangle, faintly fragrant.


A very creative tree, it produces between 18,000 and 24,000 fruits per year. It is

harvested by clamping the ripen fruits.

There are two varieties of santol fruit, previously considered two different

species, the yellow variety and the red. The difference is in the color that the older

leaves turn before falling. The red appears to be more common and the reddish leaves

mixed with the green ones add to the distinction and attractiveness of the tree.

The fruits are often the size, shape and slightly fuzzy texture of peaches, with a

reddish tinge. Both types have a skin that may be a thin peel to a thicker rind, according

to the variety. It is often edible and in some cultivars may contain a milky juice. The

central pulp near the seeds may be sweet or sour and contains inedible brown seeds. In

some varieties the outer rind is thicker and is the main edible portion, with a mild peachy

taste combined with some taste and the pulpy texture of apples.

In others the outer rind is thinner and harder and the inner whitish pulp around

the seeds is eaten. This may be rather sour in many cultivars, which has reduced the

general acceptance of the tree.

Most improved varieties have increased thickness of the edible outer rind, which

can be eaten with a spoon leaving just the outer skin, and should increase the

acceptance of the santol worldwide.

The fruit grows on a fast-growing tree that may reach 150 feet in height. It bears

ribbed leaves and pink or yellow-green flowers about 1 centimeter long.


On the other hand, fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms

that can be practicably released and used for work or as heat energy. The concept

originally applied solely to those materials storing energy in the form of chemical energy

that could be released through combustion, but the concept has since been also applied

to other sources of heat energy such as Nuclear energy (via nuclear fission or nuclear

fusion).

The heat energy released by many fuels is harnessed into mechanical energy via

an engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial

processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion.

Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular

respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release un-usable energy.

Hydrocarbons are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other

substances, including radioactive metals, are also utilized.

Fuels are contrasted with other methods of storing potential energy, such as

those that directly release electrical energy (such as batteries and capacitors) or

mechanical energy (such as flywheels, springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir).

The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo

erectus near 2,000,000 (two million) years ago.[page needed] Throughout most of

human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans .

Charcoal, a wood derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting

metals.
It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to

become depleted around the 18th century. Charcoal briquettes are now commonly used

as a fuel for barbecue cooking.

Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China. With the development

of the steam engine in the United Kingdom in 1769, coal came into more common use

as a power source.

Coal was later used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas

extracted from coal was being used for street lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st

centuries, the primary use of coal is to generate electricity, providing 40% of the world's

electrical power supply in 2005.

Fossil fuels were rapidly adopted during the industrial revolution, because they

were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources, such as water

power. They have become a pivotal part of our contemporary society, with most

countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power.

Currently the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like

alcohols.

Biofuels have become part of daily living. When using the word fuel, the tendency

is to think of a substance that is mainly used in transportation, house chores and many

more.

The truth is biofuels are a major help to us by means of replacing some of the

human energy needed in our home heating to vehicle fuel to electricity generation.
Biofuels can also help our society to lessen the pollution in the air. Since the

country is experiencing a rapid population growth the tendency is that we create more

air pollution. One cause of this pollution is the burning of fuels.

And with the rapid increase of population which triggers a demand for bigger

supply in our fuels, the world now is facing a problem, due to the fact that fuels are non-

renewable resources. And also, because fuels when transformed to gas is said to harm

the environment. That is why the world needs a fuel which is considered or labeled as

eco-friendly.

Due to the abundance of Santol here in the Philippines and in other tropical

countries, the researcher thought of investigating and experimenting the effectiveness

of Santol Seed Oil as biofuel. It has been noted by the researcher that the Santol Seed

Oil have other constituents that can be used on, especially alkaloids. This encouraged

the researcher to find its possibility of the Santol Seed Oil on becoming a biofuel.

Conceptual Framework

The researcher made a diagram on how to determine the effectiveness of Santol

seeds oil extract as biofuel.

Research Paradigm

Figure 1. Shows the relationship between the input, process and output of the research

study.
Figure 1. Research Paradigm

The concept of this research was presented by research paradigm. This shows the

relationship between the input, process, and output of the research study. The focus of

the study is to determine the potential of santol seed oil extract as a biofuel.

Statements of the Problem/ Objectives

This study aims to test the effectiveness of Santol Seeds Oil as an alternative

Biofuel. This study will answer this questions.

1. What are the active contituents of the Santol Seeds Oil Extract that can be used as

biofuel?

2. Is there a significant difference between the bamboo shoot as essential nutritive

pancit enhancer and the commercial one in terms of:

Combustibility

3. How effective is the Santol Seeds Oil Extract as an alternative Biofuel?


Hypothesis

There was no significant difference between the effectiveness of the Santol

seeds oil extract as a biofuel and the commercially available biofuel.

Significance of the Study

In this section, the researchers expressed the value or importance of the

research study. It is where the significant contributions of the results of the study is

enumerated.

The researchers conducted this study to know if the Santol seeds oil extract is

effective as an alternative biofuel. The outcome of this study may give significance to all

kind of people, but most likely to these following groups:

Students and Teachers. This will give them information about the Effectiveness of

Santol Seeds Oil Extract as an alternative Biofuel.

Future Researchers. It will serve as their future related studies.

Normal People. It is to notify them about the beneficial uses of Santol Seeds oil

Extract.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study


This research study was focused on the effectiveness of Santol seeds oil extract

as a biofuel. Specifically, the researcher used a specific variety of Santol at Bautista,

Pangasinan. The Santol seed oil extraction was conducted at the

The following result will be the basis of the effectiveness of the Santol Seeds Oil

Extract.

Definition of Terms

To make the research more clear and understandable, here are some of the

definitions of words that are used:

Biofuel- are energy sources made from living things, or the waste that living things

produce. Supporters of biofuels argue that their use could significantly reduce

greenhouse gas emissions; while burning the fuels produces carbon dioxide, growing

the plants or biomass removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Phytochemical Screening- refers to the extraction, screening and identification of the

medicinally active substances found in plants.

Extraction- it is a way to separate a desired substance when it is mixed with others.

The mixture is brought into contact with a solvent in which the substance of interest is

soluble, but the other substances present are insoluble.


Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the related literature and studies that are relevant with the

present study.

Taxonomic Description

Kingdom: Plantae-Plants

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta-Vascular plants

Super-division: Spermatophyta-Seed plants

Division; Magnoliophyta-Flowering plants

Class: Dicotyledonae
Subclass: Rosidae

Order: Sapindales

Family: Meliacea

Genus: Sandoricum

Species: koetjape

Related Studies

The santol is believed native to former Indochina and Peninsular Malaysia, and

to have been introduced into Sri Lanka, India, Borneo, Indonesia, the Moluccas,

Mauritius, The Seychelles and the Philippines where it has become naturalized. It is

also called Yamapi'. It is commonly cultivated throughout these regions and the fruits

are seasonally abundant in the local and international markets.

The santol is a fast-growing, straight-trunked, pale-barked tree 50 to 150 ft (15-

45 m) tall, branched close to the ground and buttressed when old. Young branch lets

are densely brown-hairy.

The evergreen, or very briefly deciduous, spirally-arranged leaves are

compound, with 3 leaflets, elliptic to oblong-ovate, 4 to 10 in (20-25 cm) long, blunt at

the base and pointed at the apex. The greenish, yellowish, or pinkish-yellow, 5-petalled
flowers, about 3/8 in (1 cm) long are borne on the young branch lets in loose, stalked

panicles 6 to 12 in (15-30 cm) in length. The fruit (technically a capsule) is globule or

oblate, with wrinkles extending a short distance from the base; 1 1/28 to 3 in (4-7.5 cm)

wide; yellowish to golden, sometimes blushed with pink.

The downy rind may be thin or thick and contains a thin, milky juice. It is edible,

as is the white, translucent, juicy pulp (aril), sweet, sub-acid or sour, surrounding the 3

to 5 brown, inedible seeds which are up to 3/4 in (2 cm) long, tightly clinging or

sometimes free from the pulp.

Due to its abundance and adaptable characteristics researchers decided to

conduct researches on the Santol Tree. The following are some researches of santol.

Related Studies

Santol Plant

According to the site of the Philippine Medical Plant Stuart Xchange the

Contituents of Santol are as follow- its bark contains traces of a bitter principle, a toxic

alkaloid. The bark also contains a bitter substance, sandoricum acid, similar to acids

found in Chisocheton, dysoxylum, heynea and carapa. Thai study yielded two new

limonoids from the leaves: sandoripin A and sandoripin B. While, study on leaves have

yielded trijugin-type limonoids, sandrapins A, B, C, D and E and sandoripin A and B.

Studies have also yielded more than 10 terpenoids.

It is said that the Seeds have yielded andirobin-type limonoids - sandoricin and 6-

hydroxysandoricin. The seed contains an amorphous bitter principle.


The fruit hulls have yielded bryononic acid and bryonolic acid terpenoids, meso-inositol

and dimethyl mucate polyalcohol.

Stem bark studies have yielded triterpenoids such as, katonic acid, indicic acid,

koetjapic acid, 3-oxo-12-oleanen-29-oic acid, alloaromadendrene, caryophyllene oxide,

spathulenol], bryononic acid, secobryononic acid, secoisobryononic acid, 20-

epikoetjapic acid, 3-epikatonic acid and sandorinic acid A, B and C.

Ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded two new limonoids: [2-(2-

methylbutanoyl)oxy]sandoricin (1) and [2-(2-methylpropanoyl)oxy]sandoricin (2). (18)

Hexane extract of stem bark yielded an oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid. (see

study below

The Santol is also said to be aromatic, carminative, antispasmodic, astringent,

stomachic, tonic and its fruit considered astringent.

Its nutritional background consist of high in carbohydrates, fair in iron, but low in

calcium. Also, fair source of vitamin B.

Other studies shows that Santol is Ichthyotoxic and Anticarcinogenic, Anti-

cancer,Anti-inflammatory, has DNA Polymerase B Inhibition, Termite Repellent,

Antiangiogenic / Koetjapic Acid, Topical Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Angiogenic,

has Biosorption / Lead and Cadmium, has Briononic Acid and has Bioinsecticide

Effects.

Biofuel
Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family,

Euphorbiaceae, that is native to the American tropics, most likely Mexico and Central

America. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, becoming

naturalized in some areas.

J. curcas is a poisonous, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching a height

of 6 m (20 ft). It is resistant to a high degree of aridity, allowing it to be grown in deserts.

Its seeds contain 27-40% oil (average: 34.4%) that can be processed to produce a high-

quality biodiesel fuel, usable in a standard diesel engine. The seeds are also a source

of the highly poisonous toxalbumin curcin or jatrophin.

In 2008 researchers at Daimler Chrysler Research explored the use of jatropha

oil for automotive use, concluding that although jatropha oil as fuel "has not yet reached

optimal quality, it already fulfills the EU norm for biodiesel quality".

When jatropha seeds are crushed, the resulting jatropha oil can be processed to

produce a high-quality biofuel or biodiesel that can be used in a standard diesel car or

further processed into jet fuel, while the residue (press cake) can also be used as

biomass feedstock to power electricity plants, used as fertilizer (it contains nitrogen,

phosphorus and potassium), or as animal fodder. The cake can also be used as feed in

digesters and gasifiers to p Seed has a toxic principle, toxalbumin curcin, belonging to

the same group as croton and ricin. Comparatively, curcin causes less gastrointestinal

irritation. 8 drops of this oil has been reported to cause severe vomiting, followed by

diarrhea.
Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

Research Design Method

In this study, single-group design method of research was used. This design
involved a single treatment with two or more levels. It as highly controlled procedures in
which manipulated treatments or actions from a factor or a condition called the
dependent variable, to determine the effect of the former upon the latter. All the factors
or variable was attributed only to the experimental or independent variable.

Research Subject

The researchers used Santol Seeds as the subject of the experiment. The
researchers also search for the active components of the Santol Seeds Oil Extract at
the College of Pharmacy in Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation.

Research Locale
The Santol Seed Oil Extract that was used by the researcher was collected at
different Brgys. In Bautista, Pangasinan. The researcher will determine the active
components present on the Bougainvillea Leaf Extract by undergoing the phytochemical
analysis that was held at Virgen Milagrosa University Pharmacy Department.

Research Materials
The following materials were used to accomplish successfully this research
study:

Santol Seeds

Beaker Stirring Rod

Erlenmeyer Flask

Graduated Cylinder

Spatula

Mortar and Pestle

Water Bath

Test tube

Sodium hydroxide, Glycerine, Methanol

Procedures:
1. Sun dry the collected Santol seeds.

2. Then, peel off the outer cover of the seeds. Use the mortar and pestle to powderize it.

3. After powderizing it will go through the Phytochemical Screening.

4. After the Phytochemical Screening comes the extraction process. The Extraction is
needed to separate the oil from other components so that the oil needed to make a
biofuel will be identified.

5. When the oil is extracted, it will be mixed with Glycerin and Sodium Hydroxide. Stir
until the Sodium Hydroxide is melted.
6. Then the mixture is poured into a separatory funnel in a ring stand.

7. Let the mixture stable for several minutes. The separation will be noticeable.

8. Carefully open the stopcock and allow the lower layer to drain into the flask. Drain
just to the point that the upper liquid barely reaches the stopcock.

9. Then, put the oil into a small disk.

10. Lastly, lit the oil with fire. If it produces fire then it is positive for biofuel.

Flow Chart

Data Gathering Instrument

The researcher used a rating chart questionnaire which includes the instrument

that would help the respondents in rating the quality of Santol seed biofuel in terms of

the following characteristics.

Table 1

Rating Scale

Rating Characteristic
Scale
Combustability

5.00-4.01 Like very much

4.00-3.01 Like moderately

3.00-2.01 Like slightly

2.00-1.01 Neither like nor


dislike
1.00-0.00 Dislike slightly

The following interpretation of ratings and verbal elements are as follows:

4.01-5.00 Excellent

3.01-4.00 Very Good

2.01-3.00 Good

1.01-2.00 Fine

0.00-1.00 Poor

Statistical Treatment of Data

Mean, as a measure of central tendency was utilized to determine the

effectiveness of the product against a prepared questionnaire. On the other hand, t-test

was used to determine the significance of means for bivariate experimental research,

the characteristics of the biofuel from the Santol seed and the commercial one.
CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data that were analyzed and interpreted by the
researcher in accordance with the objectives of the study. The data presented were
based on the experiment presented.

Table 2

Phytochemical Screening Results of Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) Seeds Oil


Extract
Qualitative Test Positive Result Actual Result Remark

A. Screening for
Alkaloids

Mayers Production of ppt. Production of Positive


Regeant precipitate

Wagners Production of ppt. Production of few Positive


Reagent precipitate

Boucharda Production of ppt. The solution Positive


ts Reagent becomes turbid

Valsers Production of ppt. No production of Negative


Reagent ppt.

Screening
of
Unsaturated,
Sterols and
Triterpenes
Lieberman Color change/ blue or green sol. Clear transparent Negative
s Burchard Test solution

Salkowski Color change/ cherry red solution Clear transparent Negative


test solution

Screening
for Flavonoids
Bate-Smith Red violet color Light yellow solution Negative
Metcalf Test
Cyanidin Color change/ green red etc. Colorless Negative
Test
Screening
for Steroid
(Cardio active
glycosides)
Kedde Purple color No development of Negative
Reaction purple color

Keller- Purple ring No development of Negative


Killiani Test purple ring color

Screening for Saponins

Froth test Formation of froth No information of Negative


and foam froth and foam

Screening for Tannin and


Phenolic Compound

Gelatin Test Production of ppt. Production of ppt. Positive

Gelatin Black Test Production of ppt. Production of ppt. Positive

Ferric Chloride Test Greenish Blue/ Greenish black Positive


Greenish Black color

Screening for Anthraquinone


Heterosides
Borntrager Test Color change/ cherry Clear transparent Negative
red or pink sol. solution

Modified Borntrager Test Color change/n Clear transparent Negative


cherry red or pink sol. solution
Screening for Cyanogenic
Glycosides

Gulgnard Test Appearance of No appearance of Negative


various shades of various shades of
Red with 15 minutes Red within 15
minutes

Table 2 shows that the active constituents present in Santol Seeds Oil are Alkaloids and
Tannins. Alkaloids have pharmacological effects, used as medications, and used as
recreational drugs. Hence, it is little surprising that the alkaloids have been researched
and examined the most by the modern day scientists. The strength or effectiveness of
the alkaloids commonly includes everything or all substances that are poisonous in the
plants.

Combustibility of the Biofuel

Table 3 shows the respondents rating on the combustability of the biofuel from

Santol seeds. It is noted that the respondents rating on the smell of the Santol seed oil

as biofuel had mean of 4.65 and was rated excellent in terms of the combustibility of the

biofuel.

Table 3

Combustibility of the Biofuel

RESPONDENTS COMMERCIAL PRODUCT SANTOL SEED OIL AS


BIOFUEL
1 5 5
2 4 5
3 4 5
4 4 5
5 4 5
6 4 4
7 5 4
8 4 4
9 4 4
10 5 5
11 4 4
12 4 4
13 4 5
14 5 5
15 4 4
16 5 4
17 4 4
18 5 5
19 4 5
20 4 4
Total 86 90

Table 4 indicates that the difference between Santol seed biofuel and the

commercial product in terms of combustibility of the biofuel. The computed t-value of

-4.0 is lesser than the tabular t-value 2.093 for the degrees of freedom 19. It shows

therefore that the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference

between the characteristics of Santol seed biofuel and commercial product in terms of

combustibility is rejected.

Table 4

Summary of the Analysis of Variance of the combustibility of the Santol seed oil

Biofuel and the commercial one

Variable Df Mean Variance t-value


Experimental 19 4.5 0.3 -4.0
Group
Control Group 19 4.3 0.4 -4.0

df= 19 tabular t-value= -4.0 *significant


CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings gathered after the


experimentations as well as the conclusions derived and the recommendations made
from the study.

This study sought to answer the following questions:

What are the active contituents of Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) seeds?

Is there a significant difference between the Santol seeds oil extract as


biofuel and the commercial one in terms of:

a. Combustibility

How effective is the Santol seeds oil extract as an alternative biofuel?

Findings

Based on the data gathered, the following findings are hereby presented.
As to the result of the phytochemical analysis, it was found out that the
Santol Seeds Oil Extract contains alkaloids (which have pharmacological effects,
used as biofuel), and tannins (that carries properties of making a biofuel).

The characteristic of Santol(Sandoricum koetjape) seeds oil extract as a


biofuel in terms of combustability was rated excellent with a mean of 4.3.

Based on the experiment conducted the Santol Seeds Oil Extract was
found out to be effective, it is much precise to be called a Methanol based
biofuel.

Conclusions

Based on the summary of findings, the following conclusions are presented.

That the most active constituents that present on the Santol Seeds Oil
Extract are the alkaloids and tannins. Mainly, the alkaloids are the one
responsible for its biofuel property.

The characteristic of Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) seeds oil extract as a


biofuel in terms of combustibility excellent.

The null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference


between the characteristics of Santol seed biofuel and commercial product in
combustibility is rejected.

Basing on the laboratory analysis result, it can be concluded that the


Santol seed oil extract is effective, though specifically it is a Methanol based
biofuel.

Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusion, the researchers then recommend that;
further experiment shall be conducted to test the potential of Santol Seeds to create
other studies regarding the other possible uses of

Similar studies should be conducted to determine other plants which may


also contain Alkaloids and Tannins. Researchers may also enhance the study by
merging new studies to improve the results of the biofuel.

The Santol seed biofuel must be enhanced to surpass or maintain the


excellent rating in terms of combustibility. Other physical attributes must also be
considered for more validity and effectiveness.

People should be encouraged to use Santol seed biofuel because of it is


eco-friendly and is help towards conserving the remaining fuel resources.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Websites

Santol Seeds Oil (Accessed, August 14, 2015)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandoricum_koetjape

http://www.fruitsinfo.com/Santol-Exotic-fruits.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandoricum_koetjape

http://santolvinegar.blogspot.com/

https://prezi.com/8itwrfwyqjd3/the-feasibility-of-santol-seed-sandoricum-koetjape-as-a-
in/

http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=pjbs.2009.852.858

http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=10179
APPENDIX A

Computation of T-test as Statistical Tool for Bivariate Experimental Research on


the Combustibility of Santol Seed Biofuel

Santol seed oil Biofuel Commercial biofuel

Operation X1 X2
1 5 0.7 0.49 5 0.5 0.25
2 4 -0.3 0.09 5 0.5 0.25
3 4 -0.3 0.09 5 0.5 0.25
4 4 -0.3 0.09 5 0.5 0.25
5 4 -0.3 0.09 5 0.5 0.25
6 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
7 5 0.7 0.49 4 -0.5 0.25
8 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
9 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
10 5 0.7 0.49 5 0.5 0.25
11 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
12 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
13 4 -0.3 0.09 5 0.5 0.25
14 5 0.7 0.49 5 0.5 0.25
15 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
16 5 0.7 0.49 4 -0.5 0.25
17 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
18 5 0.7 0.49 5 0.5 0.25
19 4 -0.3 0.09 5 0.5 0.25
20 4 -0.3 0.09 4 -0.5 0.25
Total 86 8 90 5

Mean Computation

Given:= 86

= 90

N1= 20

N2= 20

First Variable

Second Variable

Variance (SD2) Computation (Working Formula)

=
=

Computation of t-test

Given: df = N-1

=20-1

df =19

df.05(20)= 2.093

N1= 19

N2= 19

=-4.0

Interpretation:

The computed t-value is -4.0 with 19 degrees of freedom (df). This value is significant at

0.05 level of confidence due to lesser than -2.093, tabular value, of 0.05 levels at df

19(t0.05(19)=2.093). This means that the mean weight of biofuel from Santol seeds differ from

the commercial product. Therefore, the null hypothesis had been rejected.
APPENDIX B

MATERIALS USED IN OIL EXTRACTING


APPENDIX D

PICTURES DURING THE EXPERIMENTATION


APPENDIX C

THE PRODUCT
CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Roshell B. Ramos

Address: Cabuaan, Bautista, Pangasinan

Birthdate: September 17, 1999


Age: 15

Parents
Father: Mr. Rolando P. Ramos

Mother: Mrs. Sheila B. Ramos

Nationality: Filipino

Civil Status: Single

Educational Background:

Elementary:

Bautista Central School (5th Honorable Mention)

Nandacan, Bautista, Pangasinan

Secondary:

Bautista National High School

Poblacion East, Bautista, Pangasinan

Organizations:

SSG Secretary

Seminar Attended:

Municipal Science Investigatory Project Seminar


CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Agatha Fritzie L. Mateo

Address: Ketegan, Bautista, Pangasinan

Birthdate: June 3, 2000

Age: 15

Parents

Father: Mr. Allan N. Mateo

Mother: Mrs. Richelle L. Mateo

Nationality: Filipino

Civil Status: Single

Educational Background

Elementary:

Bautista Central School (2nd Honorable Mention)

Nandacan, Bautista, Pangasinan

Secondary:

Bautista National High School


Poblacion East, Bautista, Pangasinan

Organizations:

School Paper (English) EIC and English Club - President

Seminar Attended:

Municipal Science Investigatory Project Seminar

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Ross Faith L. Banlaoi

Address: Cacandongan, Bautista, Pangasinan

Birthdate: October 19, 1999

Age: 15

Parents

Father: Mr. Ruther C. Banlaoi

Mother: Mrs. Evangeline L. Banlaoi

Nationality: Filipino

Civil Status: Single

Educational Background
Elementary:

Ketegan Elementary School (Salutatorian)

Ketegan, Bautista, Pangasinan

Secondary:

Bautista National High School

Poblacion East, Bautista, Pangasinan

Seminar Attended:

Municipal Science Investigatory Project Seminar