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REVIEW MATERIALS FOR PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING

CONCEPTS OF LEARNING

Learning is acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviours. It is common to think of
learning as something that takes place in school, but much of human learning occurs outside the classroom, and people
continue to learn throughout their lives.
Learning is a change in an individual caused by experienced (Mazur, 1990)

Learning is a process of acquiring, remembering, and applying knowledge, skills,


attitudes and other modes of response.

Learning refers to outcomes, or results of an experience: knowledge and understanding, abilities and skills, and
habits and attitudes.

Learning is a complex process that takes place INSIDE the brain but relying heavily on OUTSIDE stimuli.

***** Changes brought about by Development is not learning.

LEARNING PRINCIPLES [from Strategies for Effective Teaching Alan C. Orstein]

1 .Learning by doing is good advice.


2 .One learns to do, what one does.
3. The amount of reinforcement necessary for learning is relative to the students
need and abilities.
4. The principle of readiness is related to the learners stage of development and
their previous learning.
5. The students self-concept and beliefs about their abilities are extremely
important.
6. Teacher should provide opportunities for meaningful learning and appropriate
practice (rehearsal)
7. Transfer of learning to new situations can be horizontal (across subject matter)
or vertical (increased complexity of the same subject)
8 . Learning should be goal-directed and focused.
9 .Positive feedback, realistic praise, and encouragement are motivating in the
teaching- learning process.
10. Metacognition is an advance cognitive process whereby students acquire
specific learning strategies and also since when they are not learning of
having trouble learning.

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING [from Principles and Methods of Teaching by


Lardizabal ]

1. The learner must dearly perceive the goal.


2. The learner must be psychologically and physiologically ready.
3. The learner must be motivated to learn.
4. The learner must be active not passive for maximum learning.
5. The learner must repeat or practice what he has learned in order to remember.
6. The learner must put together the parts of a task and perceive it as a meaningful whole.
7. The learner must see the significance, meanings, implications, and applications that will make a given
experience understandable.
8. The learner must be prepared to respond.
9. The processes of problem solving and learning are highly unique and specific.

LAWS OF LEARNING

Law of Readiness is associated with mindset. States that when an organism is prepared to respond to a stimulus,
allowing him to do so would be satisfying while preventing him would be annoying.
Law of Exercise involves the constant repetition of a response that will strengthens connection with the
stimulus, while disuse of a response weakens it.

Law of use pre-supposes that the more frequent a modifiable connection between situation and the response is
utilized the stronger is the connection.

Law of disuse which states that when a modifiable connection between a stimulus and a response is not used
over a period of time that connection is weakened.

Law of effects states that when a modifiable connection between a stimulus and response has been made, it is
strengthening if it results to satisfaction and weakens if it leads to annoyance.

Law of Belongingness means that the strength of connection is increased if the paired stimuli possess
similarities.

Law of Association is employed when new connections formed through the association of the past and the new
situation. It is the process of relating two or more experiences to each other.

Law of Multiple Response occurs when different reactions/response are elicited by the same stimulus.

Law of frequency the more often the response is repeated the greater is the tendency for its use when the right
situation occurs.

Law of Recency states that the response which has been exercised and rewarded most recently is the one which
is most likely to occur when the organism is in a given situation.

THE LEARNER

Needs of a learner: Abraham Maslows Heirarchy of basic human needs

1. Psychological needs- hunger, thirst, breathing


2. Safety and security needs- protection from injury, pain, extremes of heat end cold
3. Belonging and affection needs- giving and receiving love, warmth and affection
4. Esteem a self- respect needs- feeling adequate, competent, worthy, being appreciated and respected
by others.

LEARNERS CHARACTERICTICS THAT INFLUENCE LEARNING

1.Attention is a fundamental learner characteristics linked to all learning


Attention span is the length of time the learner spends on a task.
Focus is the ability of the student not to be distracted
Selective attention is the ability to discriminate/select important stimuli

2 Memory is the ability to store and retrieve information on demand

3. Motivation is the process of initiating, sustaining and directing an activity and can intrinsic of extrinsic in nature.

4. Thinking skills
= Essential Cognitive processes are fundamental tools of thinking such as observing finding patterns,
generalizing, forming conclusions, evaluating, analysing critically.
= Domain specific knowledge define as knowledge in a specific content such as math or science.
= Meta cognition

Memory = process by which people and other organisms encode, store, and retrieve
information.

1 Encoding refers to the process of perceiving information and bringing


it into the memory system.

2. Storage- is the retention of encoded information over time.

3. Retrieval refers to the processes involved in using stored information.


Whenever people successfully recall a prior experience, they have
encoded, stored and retrieved information about the experienced. Conversely,
memory failure for example, forgetting an important fact reflects a breakdown in one of
these stages of memory.
= is the ability to store and retrieve information on demand.
= is one of the vehicles that facilitate learning.

Memory components/ systems crucial to learning

Short- term memory is the memory system that is able to hold and retrieve information
for short period of time [seconds or minutes]
Long term memory is the memory system that allows the learner retention and
retrieval of information over longer period of time [ hours and days].
Rote memory allows the learner to remember something they do not understand such as
statistical formula.
Sequential memory is the ability to retrieve information in a specific order such as
counting, reciting letters of the alphabet.

Multiple Intelligences

What is intelligence ?

Gardners definition of Intelligences


= Abilities to solve problems, find and create new problems, and when appropriate, create products of value
within a cultural context.

= the capacity to do something useful in the society in which we live the ability to respond successfully to new
situations and the capacity to learn from ones past experiences.

Alfred Binet French Psychologist who introduced the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ). IQ primary
measure of a persons learning capability Came up with the categories of intelligence (genius to imbecile)

Propagated the MYTH that intelligence is limited to 2 dimensions:


Linguistic/verbal
Logical/ Mathematical

What is Multiple Intelligences?

Multiple intelligences is a psychological and educational theory put forth by psychologist Howard Gardner.
According to Gardner, an array of different kinds of "intelligence" exists in human beings. He states that each individual
manifests varying levels of these different intelligences, and thus each person has a unique "cognitive profile.

VIEWS ON MULTIPLE INTELLEGENCES

Old Views New Views

Intelligence was fixed Intelligence can be developed


Intelligence was measured by a number Intelligence is not numerically quantifiable and is
Intelligence was unitary exhibited during a performance or problem- solving
Intelligence was measured in isolation process.
Intelligence was used to sort students and Intelligence can be exhibited in many ways- multiple
predict their success intelligences
Intelligence is measured in context/real-life
situations
Intelligence is used to understand human capacities
and many and varied ways students can achieve.

( Source: Harvey F. Silver, et al. So Each May Learn. Virginia, USA: Silver Strong
Associates, Inc. 2000)

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS DISPOSITIONS

DISPOSITION/ SENSITIVITY TO: INCLINATION TO: ABILITY TO;


INTELLIGENCE
Verbal-Linguistic The sounds, meanings, Speaking, writing, listening, Speak effectively (
Intelligence structures, and styles of reading teacher, religious leader,
language politician) or write effectively (
( Word Smart ) poet, journalist, novelist,
copywriter, editor)
Logical- Patterns, numbers and Finding patterns, making Work effectively with numbers(
Mathematical numerical data, causes calculations, forming and accountant, statistician,
Intelligence and effects, objective testing hypotheses, using the economist) and reason effectively
and quantitative scientific method, deductive ( engineer, scientist, computer
( Number Smart ) reasoning and inductive reasoning programmer)
Spatial Intelligence Colors, shapes, visual Representing ideas visually, Create visually( artist,
puzzles, symmetry, creating mental images, photographer, engineer,
( Picture Smart ) lines, images noticing visual details, decorator) and visualize
drawing and sketching accurately ( tour guide, scout
ranger)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Touch, movement, Activities requiring Use hands to fix or create (
Intelligence physical self, strength, speed, flexibility, mechanic, surgeon, carpenter,
athleticism hand-eye coordination, and sculptor, mason) and use the body
( Body Smart ) balance expressively ( dancer, athlete,
actor)
Musical Intelligence Tone, beat, tempo, Listening, singing, playing Create music (
melody, pitch, sound an instrument songwriter, composer, musician,
(Music Smart ) conductor) and analyze music (
music, critic)
Interpersonal Body language, moods, Noticing and responding to Work with people (
Intelligence voice, feelings other peoples feeling and administrators, managers,
personalities. consultants, teachers) and help
( People Smart ) people identify and overcome
problems ( therapists,
psychologists)
Intrapersonal Ones own strengths, Setting goals, assessing Meditate, reflect, exhibit self-
Intelligence weaknesses, goals and personal abilities and discipline, maintain composure,
desires liabilities, monitoring ones and get the most out of oneself
( Self Smart ) own thinking
Naturalist Natural objects, plants, Identifying living things and Analyze ecological and natural
Intelligence animals, naturally natural objects. situations and data ( ecologists
occurring patterns and rangers) learn from living
ecological issues things ( zoologist, botanist,
veterinarian) and work in natural
settings ( hunter, scout)

(Source: Harvey F. Silver, etal. So Each May Learn, Virginia, USA:


Silver Strong Associates, Inc. 2000.)

LEARNING MODALITIES
Researchers have identified three learning modalities most often used by students in taking in information.
Learners take in information faster and more efficiently if taught in their preferred modalities.

VISUAL LEARNERS

Made up of 87% of the students in any gjven classroom


Are students who need to see the learning.

Have difficulty remembering names but may remember details about person.
Learn best when there are visual tools to help explain the learning
Would rather read a story than have someone tell it to them
Organize thoughts by writing them down
Have difficulty remembering directions told them

AUDITORY LEARNERS
Made up the smallest number of learners in the classroom
Remember names better than faces
Forgot what ie read unless discussed
feel comfortable in group discussion
sre easily distracted by sounds
are good story tellers

KINESTHETIC LEARNERS

are students who need movement and tactile approaches to learning


learn best when they can touch information
remember best what was done, rather than what is seen and talked about
they would rather participate in the event than watch it
their body language is a good indicator of their emotions
they like to build models
they learn best with simulations, drama and outdoor activities
they need movement in the learning process

LEARNING STYLES

LEARNING STYLES

Learning styles indicate the manner in which an individual perceives, interacts with and responds to the
learning environment.
The cognitive, effective and physiological traits a learner uses to approach learning events
Concerned with how learner perceive information and process it.

1. IMAGINATIVE LEARNERS

Perceive concretely and process reflectivity


Prefers to learn by watching, sensing and feeling
Need to see the event or information from many perspectives
Tend to ask why
Seek connection between their values and how learning connects to those values

2. ANALYTIC

Prefer to learn by watching, asking why and thinking


Learning behaviour include devising theory, thinking sequentially and being through and industrious
Enjoy the traditional classroom model
They need to know what the experts [teachers] think.

3. COMMON SENSE LEARNER

Perceive information abstractly and process actively.


Able to integrate theory and practice and resent being given the answers.
Always asks the question how.
They are doers who search for practical application of knowledge.

4. DYNAMIC LEARNERS

Perceive concretely and process actively


Prefer to learn by sensing, feeling and doing
Learn by trial and error
Flexibility and risks are critical features of learning style
Manipulative and pushy and seek to influence.

THE TEACHER AND HIS PROFESSION

Teaching is the noblest and the most important profession in the world. It is in this context that teacher is
considered as the key figure in the educational system. In the hands of the teacher lies the development and intellectual
growth of an individual. With this teacher should possess the qualifications and qualities needed to make her teaching
effective, efficient, productive, and meaningful in the life of the learner. What is a good teacher?
Aside from educational preparation a teacher should possess the professional qualities, instructional
competencies, personal qualities and characteristics to be able to be considered a good teacher.

Professional Qualities of a Teacher ( Lardizabal, A., et al., 200:-2-3.)

1. Mastery of the subject / field one teaches


2. Understanding of the learner
3. Understanding of teaching principles and skills in the use of techniques for their implementation
4. General understanding of other branches of knowledge
5. Understanding and appreciation of the teaching profession
Instructional Competencies of a Good Teacher ( Calderon, I., 1998: 14-17 )

1. Mastery of the subject matter


2. Mastery of the methods, strategies, approaches, techniques and tools in teaching
3. Mastery of the medium of instruction
4. Mastery of lesson planning and organizing instructional materials and other resources
5. Mastery of the psychology of learning or educational psychology
6. Mastery of the formulation of goals and objectives
7. Mastery of classroom management including discipline
8. Mastery of measurement and evaluation
9. Mastery of the techniques of motivation
Personal Qualities of a Teacher ( Lardizabal, A. et al., 200:6 )

1. pleasing personal appearance, manner, courtesy, pleasant voice


2. intelligence, emotional stability and self- control
3. sympathy, kindness, helpfulness, patience
4. integrity, trustworthiness, honesty, loyalty
5. flexibility, creativity, resourcefulness
6. sociability, friendliness, cooperativeness
7. fairness, impartiality, tolerance
8. sense of humor, cheerfulness, enthusiasm

Personal Characteristics of a Good Teacher ( Calderon, J. 1998:17 20 )

1. Intelligence
2. Punctuality and enthusiasm
3. Good physical and mental health
4. Loyalty and commitment
5. Respect for the dignity of the individual
6. Fair level of tolerance, firmness and impartiality
7. Adaptability
8. Alertness, resourcefulness, creativity
9. Appropriate grooming
10. Christian outlook, missionary spirit
11. Clean sense of humor
12. Good professional and human relations
13. Good and moral and ethical character
14. Desire to grow professionally
15. Leadership and fellowship
16. Love for children
17. Observes the Code of Professional Ethics

The Teachers Job

1. Guiding the learning process


2. Counseling and guiding
3. Sponsoring extra class activities
4. Working with parents and the community
5. Professional responsibilities.

DESCRIPTIONS OF BEST TEACHER ( G.W. Probst)

There are many characteristics, techniques, etc. that make for a successful teacher. These may be as varied as the
teachers themselves. However, there are certain time-tested attributes, characteristics, and practices which contribute
immensely to teacher success. The following list contains items that students have used to describe their best teachers.

1. Enthusiasm
o Students can feel the excitement
o Students easily detect the teacher's love for job and subject
2. Preparation
o Teacher knows the subject
o Teacher plans and prepares lessons daily
3. Punctuality
o Always arrives on time
o Begins and ends class on time
o Expects and encourages students to arrive on time
4. Support and concern for students
o Lets students know that he/she cares about their success
o Takes time with students
o Allows for creativity
o Is friendly and courteous
o Is supportive and encouraging
o Is smiling, caring and loving
5. Consistency
o Does not miss class
o Is consistent in attitude and dealings with students
o Is always well prepared to teach class
6. Politeness
o Treats students with respect
o Does not condescend
o Avoids embarrassing students in class
7. Firmness and control
o Is firm in a kind manner
o Avoids tangents in teaching
8. Does not play favorites
9. Provides personal help
o Takes time to explain concept
o Gives individual attention
10. Accepts individual differences
11. Employs an effective delivery
o Clarifies for understanding
o Creates a sense of fun with the learning task
o Eliminates bad, irritating and/or distracting habits
12. Does not make students lose face
o Avoids criticizing students
13. Has high expectations of class members
14. Is humble
15. Is fair
16. Uses variety
o Uses a variety of learning activities
o Experiments
o Allows for spontaneity
17. Has a sense of humor; is relaxed
18. Use of engaged time
o Sets a good pace and provides for a change of pace
o Avoids engaging students in "busy work"
19. Use of text
o Is not a slave to the text
o Uses text as a road map
20. Keeps within 1-2 days of the scheduled course outline
21. Field trips and other activities
o Applies student experiences to class work
22. Does not always teach from a sitting or leaning position
23. Interpersonal relationships with students
o Does not allow students to call him/her by first name
o Does not try to win a popularity contest
o Maintains a healthy teacher-student relationship
o Respects students (remember that sometimes what you think is healthy, fun joking with students may be
interpreted by them as disapproval and dislike.)
24. Does not allow one or two students to monopolize or dominate the class
25. Keeps accurate records of
o Work completed
o Attendance
o Test results
o Grades
o

Additional Suggestions

1. Provide for activity changes -- perhaps something not on the lesson plan; for example, scrabble, hangman,
pictionary.
2. Be somewhat unpredictable -- Students will not know what comes next. Keep students in some suspense.
3. Variety -- In teaching, variety provides for renewed interest in the subject matter. Use variety in how you have
students work together. Do not always pair the same ones together. Provide for a variety of learning activities.
Some suggestions are:

o Assignments
o Brainstorming o Charts and maps
o Buzz sessions o Displays and mobiles
o General discussion o Filmstrips
o Panel discussion o Flannelboard
o Problem-solving discussion o Flashcards
o Music o Motion pictures
o Instructional games o Opaque projections
o Questioning and quizzes o Overhead transparency projections
o Reports and talks o Pictures, posters
o Role playing o Tape recordings
o Worksheets o Video tape recordings
o Demonstrations o Videodisk recordings
o Dramas o Videotaping class presentations or
o activities
o Storytelling
o Guest appearances
o General chalkboard use
o Combined activities with
o Chalkboard illustrations
another class.

4. Instant Involvement -- Create a variety of instant involvement techniques that can be used to capture students
attention for what will be presented.
5. Give eye-to-eye contact.
6. Change teaching style for variety.
7. Pace -- A change of pace is refreshing and helps students re-enter the learning process.
8. Change of setting -- At appropriate times it is stimulating and interesting to meet in a different location or setting
for a specific learning task.

Teaching Styles

1. Formal Authority

Teachers who have a formal authority teaching style tend to focus on content. This style is generally teacher-
centered, where the teacher feels responsible for providing and controlling the flow of the content and the student is
expected to receive the content.

One type of statement made by an instructor with this teaching style is "I am the flashlight for my students, I
illuminate the content and materials so that my students can see the importance of the material and appreciate the
discipline."

Teachers with this teaching style are not as concerned with building relationships with their students nor is it as
important that their students form relationships with other students. This type of teacher doesn't usually require much
student participation in class. "Sage on the stage" model.

2. Demonstrator or Personal Model

Teachers who have a demonstrator or personal model teaching style tend to run teacher-centered classes with an
emphasis on demonstration and modeling. This type of teacher acts as a role model by demonstrating skills and processes
and then as a coach/guide in helping students develop and apply these skills and knowledge.

A teacher with this type of teaching style might comment: "I show my students how to properly do a task or work
through a problem and then I'll help them master the task or problem solution. It's important that my students can
independently solve similar problems by using and adapting demonstrated methods."

Instructors with this teaching style are interested in encouraging student participation and adapting their
presentation to include various learning styles. Students are expected to take some responsibility for learning what they
need to know and for asking for help when they don't understand something.

3. Facilitator

Teachers who have a facilitator model teaching style tend to focus on activities. This teaching style emphasizes
student-centered learning and there is much more responsibility placed on the students to take the initiative for meeting
the demands of various learning tasks.
This type of teaching style works best for students who are comfortable with independent learning and who can
actively participate and collaborate with other students.

Teachers typically design group activities which necessitate active learning, student-to-student collaboration and
problem solving. This type of teacher will often try to design learning situations and activities that require student
processing and application of course content in creative and original ways.

4. Delegator

Teachers who have a delegator teaching style tend to place much control and responsibility for learning on
individuals or groups of students.

This type of teacher will often give students a choice designing and implementing their own complex learning
projects and will act in a consultative role.

Students are often asked to work independently or in groups and must be able to maintain motivation and focus
for complex projects. Students working in this type of setting learn more than just course specific topics as they also must
be able to effectively work in group situations and manage various interpersonal roles.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TODAYS TEACHING ( Mehl, Mills and Douglas )

1. Children learn by doing.


2. Motivation should be intrinsic and natural, not artificial
3. Learning should be gradual and continuous, not discrete.
4. Instruction should be adapted to individual needs.
5. natural social setting should constitute learning situations
6. Learning depends upon the childs ability.
7. Learning comes through sense impressions.
8. The child can best be educated as a whole, as a unit organism.
9. Teacher-pupil and inter-pupil relationship should be cooperative.
10. Education means improving the quality of living.

MOTIVATION

Basic Concepts of Motivation


A number of ideas that direct an individual to act or do something.
The desire to approach something or avoid others.
Statements of desires, goals, likes, dislikes, wants, and fears.
Something that energizes directs and sustains behavior.
The Theories of Motivation
Instinct theory / Genetic Pattern motivation is built into everyone
through heredity. It is the result of inherited and innate instincts.
Association theory (Thorndike) Deprivation of need will cause the
individual to act to satisfy the need.
Psycho- Analytic or Drive Theory (Freud) Individuals behave as
they do because their earlier experiences drive then instinctively to do so.
Humanistic or need gratification theory (Maslow) An individual
does something to satisfy deficiency needs.
Cognitive Theory (Hunt) Man is rational and consciously decides
what he will and will not do. Motives, curiosity, intention, motive to achieve success and goals
activate and direct the individual to action.
Attribution theory (Heidereck) People seek to understand why
they succeed or fail.
Self- efficacy Theory (Bandura) The key to individual achievement
lies with the learners own beliefs in his ability to organize and execute actions required for a
successful performance ( T. Borich).
Self-determination Theory ( Deci) An attitude of determination is
the foundation for motivated behavior.

Kinds of Motivation

Intrinsic an individuals internal desire to perform a particular task.

Extrinsic promoted by factors external to the individual and un related to the task being performed
such as recognition or a high grade.
Application of Principles of Motivation to Classroom Teaching

Principles Application to Classroom Teaching


1. Student attention to a learning task is Guide student to:
essential for initiating learning - focus attention on desire object
- verbalize information
2. Intending to achieve and to experience The teacher must capitalize on the learners
success are essential to realistic goal setting need to achieve
- level of aspiration

- motives

3. Attainment of goal requires setting of Assist students in goal setting by:


learning task at an appropriate difficulty level. - providing a variety of realistic and
attainable goals
- minimizing social pressure
- encouraging them to compute against
themselves
- making them sure that the pupils know
what to do and how to do it.
4. Information concerning appropriate Provides learners with feedback regarding
behaviors and correcting errors are associated their behavior and performance
with better performance.
5. Observing and imitating a model facilities Be an exemplary model
the initial acquisition of pro-social behavior. Provide a variety of real life,
representational, and symbolic models
Utilize deserving peers as models
6. Verbalizing pro-social values and behaviors Assist learners in developing skills in
and reasoning about them provide a - verbalizing pro-social values
conceptual basis for development of - discussing pro-social values
behaviors.
7. Reward direct and sustains attention and Reinforce desired behaviors
effort toward achieving the desired behavior. Give deserved reward
8. High stress and anxiety is associated with Provide - supportive climate
low performance, erratic conduct and - success strategies
personality disorder. - techniques to divert attention from failure
- happy environment
Avoid - stressful climate
- reprimands
- reinforce wrong response
- unrealistic requirements
- undeserved punishment

CONCEPT AND IMPORTANCE OF CLASSROOM AND SHOP MANAGEMENT

= Classroom/shop management refers to the control and operation taking place in the classrooms or shops.
= The main purpose of classroom/shop management is optimum efficiency in the use of time, effort, supplies and
materials, equipment and the like, during the class period.
= The success of teaching can be determined by a well organized and managed classroom or shops.
= Cooperation in the shops or classroom can be attained if the facilities are arranged in order, the students are properly
given appropriate tasks.
= Good management can be learned by an individual under the leadership of the good teachers.
= A teacher who runs a well-organized classroom, will surely tend to develop orderly habits among his students.
= A well organized and managed classroom/shop will:
a. give the learners richer opportunities for mental growth and development.

b. results to favorable working conditions and conducive learning environment.

c. make the learners enjoy and get interested to learn.

= As a custodian of the learning opportunities, a teacher before attempting to teach, he must first know how to organize
and manage his own shop or classroom in order to have effective and efficient teaching-learning process.

PRINCIPLES OF GOOD CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT


Management is an administrative function of any teacher. This refers to the control of the shop personnel
(pupils/students) and the operations and proper up kept of the shop to include tools, equipment, machine, materials and
other educational facilities to attain maximum effectiveness and efficiency.
In order to be successful classroom/shop teacher, the following principles should be taken in consideration:
1. Plans in handling classroom or shop activities should be in accordance with the shop condition. The number of pupils or
students, the facilities available and other resources should be considered by the teacher.

2. Rules and regulations on absences, tardiness and failures should be in consonance with administrative
requirements.
3. Routine activities should be handled with extra care to same time and avoid confusion. Proper management of
routine will help attain effective classrooms or shop management.
4. The needs, nature and conditions of the learners should be considered. Effective teaching takes place when the
learners are properly conditioned Proper lighting and ventilation of the room or shop should be emphasized.
Chairs, tables should be of the right size and height to give comfort to the occupants.
5. Positive approach to classroom/shop management and control is more effective than the negative approach. This
approach is anchored in the premise that self motivation is more effective and lasting or even permanent that those
that are imposed. Extrinsic motivation should, if ever possible be avoided or minimized.
6. The students should be involved in the physical arrangement of the classroom or shops. They are the users thus,
the need to have their active participation.

STRUCTURING THE ROOM OR SHOP LABORATORY

= Room or shop layout is a floor plan showing the arrangement of the chairs, tables different machines,
equipment, and other instructional facilities.
= A good layout is one that will tell any individual in the actual space area allotted to the classroom facilities.

LIGHTING AND VENTILATION

= The design of the building should maximize the use of natural lighting and ventilation.
= A well designed room or buildings have windows openings wide enough to allow the passage of natural light
and fresh air.
= The lightning of the room should be considered in laying out the building or room
= Ventilation refers to the circulation or movement of fresh air. Windows and doors provide the best openings for
natural ventilation. Installation of electric fans or air conditioning units may be used.

SAFETY MEASURES AND DEVICES


= Safety should always be consider in any classroom activities. Always be reminded of ABC Always be careful
= It is the role of the teacher to provide the necessary structure for maintaining safety measures and precautions.
With this students will develop the proper attitude and the correct habits of works.

CLASSROOM OR SHOP ROUTINE

= Classroom activities are generally routine in nature. Teacher should provide a good working place.
= A place for everything and everything in its proper place. Every individual in the classroom or shop should
know there to place things and how to place them.
= Proper management of routine will provide the learners the opportunity to learn, save time and effort.
= Students should perform routine activities. (Lighting and ventilation, storing of equipment, seating plan of
students, and cleanliness and orderliness of the room, movements of pupils, getting books, tools, collecting papers,
disposing waste materials).

Some routine activities in the classroom or shop include the following:


1. Entrance and exit of students. To attain smooth and orderly movement of students, certain rules or policies has to be
adapted to avoid confusion and so much lose of time.

2. Checking of Attendance. A good teacher has to account for his students as they enter the classroom or shop.
3. Seating Arrangement. For larger classes such as in the academic classes, assigning seats would be a welcome
move. Pupils that are small and short should be seated in front together with those students who are suffering
from defects of the eye and ears. Assigning of seats has a lot advantages that may contribute to affective
teaching/learning process.
4. Record Keeping. This is very important for the teacher. As a teacher, you to have to accomplish at least two
types of records. These are the administrative records which are badly needed by the teacher. Some of this records
are the school register, report of monthly enrollment, memorandum receipts of tools and equipments, daily time
record, personal records, and others. The second type of forms and records are the instructional records, which
includes instructional sheets, grade sheets, job sheets, project, information, operation sheets and other kinds of
instructional sheets, daily lesson plans, and the like.

OTHER ROUTINE ACTIVITIES IN THE CLASSROOM/SHOP

* Assigning leaders * Arranging equipment

* Reserving references * managing bulletin board

* Correcting & recording test * Cleaning the shop

* Compiling used materials * Watering plants

* Cleaning the surroundings * Receiving visitors

* Cleaning tools and machine * Recording and issuing supplies

PREVENTIVE DISCIPLINE

= Preventive discipline means putting a stop to most forms of normal


misbehaviors.
= Children by nature are energetic thus, the teachers has to provide worthwhile activities and make
everybody busy
= It is said that: An idle mind is the Devils workshop. When individuals are busy doing purposeful activity in
every minute of his stay in the shop, there will be less cases of misbehaviors than when he does nothing.
= Preventive measures should be initiated by teachers. Certain activities are routine in nature such as

a. the distribution and collection of materials and textbooks,

b. movements in hallways,

c. sharpening of pencils,

d. disposing of scraps materials,

e. use of library,

f. opening and closing of windows and doors

REMEDIAL DISCIPLINE FOR NORMAL MISBEHAVIOR


= Punishment is needed to supplement constructive guidance and must be adjusted to the level of the
individual and to the particular situation.
= Punishment may be mild, severe depending upon the gravity of the offense committed.
= Common behaviors ( Shipley )
Shakes head at a child.
Points a finger to a child.

While demonstrating on the board, enlist the assistance of inattentive or misbehaving student.
Give a child an assignment which changes his attention.
Re-seat an offender.
Remove temporarily a privilege which was abused.
Require a child to remain after school to finish a task.
Ignore show off, but later assign him productive task.
Cast eyes over the entire class every minute to prevent anti-social capers before they start.
Firmly say NO or STOP to an action that may become more serious.
Without losing learners emotional composure, show his annoyance or disgust.
Require child to stay behind for a short conference about the misbehavior committed.
Stop all activities when a new offense is committed and have the class discuss this type of action
and provide new rules.

GENERAL PROCEDURE IN DEALING WITH DISCIPLINE


1. Dont say shhhh or please be quiet. No child takes to himself because he usually thinks it refers to another
fellow.
2. Pick out offenders and call them by name. John, you have work to do? this is one way to bring an offender
from mischief back to his job.
3. Dont turn your back to the class to work, but look over everyone every few seconds. And look at them
straight to the eye.
4. Speak distinctly and forcefully to the class so that pupils at the back can hear.
5. Never punish the whole class. Offenses are the work of individuals.
6. Avoid setting up a spy system. Dont appoint a child to report incidents to you when you must leave the
class for a few minutes.
7. Select punishment for its effect upon the individual and not on a basis of expediency; make the punishment fit
the circumstances.
8. Avoid lose of personal control, and always calm yourself before administering punishment.
9. Never give school works as a punishment.
10. Give an offender every opportunity to see the reasonableness of the punishment.
11. Never threaten punishment and then fail to carry it out.
12. Dont humiliate a child either in public or in private.
13. Dont force apologies. Accept a self-initiated apology without taking the opportunity to reprimand the child.
14. Use the strap in extreme cases only.