You are on page 1of 24

A method for ergonomics analysis: EAWS

Karlheinz SCHAUB & Ralph BRUDER

Institute of Ergonomics
Darmstadt University of Technology
Petersenstrasse 30; D-64287 Darmstadt; Germany

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 1


Contents

EU legal requirements

How to generate screening tools from existing methods for risk

assessment

Requirements for screening tools

EAWS overview

EAWS application in industry

Perspectives of an EAWSjunior

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 2


EU - Directives of General Directives

Treaty on European Union


GDIII: Common Market and the Treaty on the Art. GDV:
with a free circulation of Functioning of the European 153 Social Affairs
Union (post Lisbon treaty)

Persons Capital
Goods Services

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 3


EU - Directives of General Directives

Treaty on European Union


GDIII: Common Market and the Treaty on the Art. GDV:
with a free circulation of Functioning of the European 153 Social Affairs
Union (post Lisbon treaty)

Machinery Directive Framework Directive


2006/42/EC (98/79/EC; 89/392/EEC) 89/391/EEC

Addresses to designers / Adressess to employers


manufacturers of machinery and employees
solely
Defines ergonomic minimum
Defines maximum ergonomic
requirements requirements
Leads to equal regulations May lead to different regulations
in all Member States in the Member States
COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 4
EU - Directives of General Directives

Treaty on European Union


GDIII: Common Market and the Treaty on the Art. GDV:
with a free circulation of Functioning of the European 153 Social Affairs
Union (post Lisbon treaty)

Machinery Directive Framework Directive


2006/42/EC (98/79/EC; 89/392/EEC) 89/391/EEC

EN 1005-1 Definitions
EN 1005-2 Lifting ISO 11228-1 Lift & carry
EN 1005-3 Forces ISO 11228-2 Push & Pull
EN 1005-4 Postures ISO 11226 Postures
EN 1005-5 Upper limbs ISO 11228-3 Upper limbs

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 5


NIOSH 1991 - single lifting tasks

NIOSH Lifting Equation (1991)

RWL= LC*HM*VM*DM*AM*
FM*CM

LC = Load Constant
HM = Horizontal Multiplier
VM = Vertical Multiplier
DM = Distance Multiplier
AM = Asymmetry Multiplier
PM = Frequency Multiplier
CM = Coupling Multiplier

where e.g.

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 6


Alternate presentation of NIOSH vertical,
horizontal, distance and asymmetry multipliers
Typical posture, Posture, position of load Posture rating
2)
position of load point

Upper body upright, not twisted 1


When lifting, holding, carrying und lowering the load is
close to body

Slightly bending forward or twisting the trunk 2


When lifting, holding, carrying und lowering load is
near to medium to body

Low bending or far bending forward 4


Slightly bending forward with simultaneous twisting of
trunk
Load far from the body or above shoulder height

Bending far forward with simultaneous twisting of 8


trunk
Load far from body
Restricted stability of posture when standing
Crouching or kneeling
2) For determination of posture weightening the typical body posture when manual handling must be use. E.g. when there are different postures
whith load a mean values must be used not occasionally extreme values.

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 7


FIOSH KEY Indicator Method (KIM) risk assessment
procedure for lifting, holding, carrying (Federal
German Institute of Occupational Safety and Health)
1) Load rating point 1) Load rating point
Effective load for men Effective load for women
< 10 kg 1 < 5 kg 1
10 bis < 20 kg 2 5 bis <10 kg 2
20 bis < 30 kg 4 10 bis <15 kg 4
30 bis < 40 kg 7 15 bis < 25 kg 7
40 kg 25 25 kg 25

Lifting or displacement Holding Carrying


Load rating points operations (< 5 s) (> 5 s) (> 5 m)
Number at working Time rating Total duration at working day Time rating Overall lenthg at Time rating

+
day points points working day points

< 10 1 < 5 min 1 < 300 m 1


10 bis < 40 2 5 bis 15 min 2 300 m to < 1km 2
Posture rating points 40 bis < 200 4 15 min to < 1 hr 4 1 km to < 4 km 4
200 bis < 500 6 1 hrs to < 2 hrs 6 4 to < 8 km 6

+ Working conditions rating 500 bis < 1000 8 2 hrs to < 4 hrs 8 8 to < 16 km 8

points 1000 10 4 hrs 10 16 km 10

= x Time rating =
points
Total Risk score

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 8


FIOSH KEY Indicator Method (KIM) risk assessment
result (Federal German Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health)

Risk range Risk score Description


1 < 10 Low load situation, physical overload unlikely to appear.
2 10 bis < 25 Increased load situation, physical overload is possible for less resilent
4)
persons . For that group redesign of workplace is helpful.
3 25 bis < 50 Highly increased load situation, physical overload also possible for
normal persons. Redesign of the workplace is recommended.
High load situation, physical overload is likely to appear. Workplace
4 50 5)
redesign is necessary .
3)
Basically it must be assumed that as the number of point rating rises, so the risk of overloading the muscluar-skeletal
system increases. The boundaries between the risk ranges are fluid because of the individual working techniques and
performance conditions. The classification may therefore only be regarded as an orientation aid. More exact analyses
require specialist ergonomic knowledge.
4)
Less resilent persons in this context are persons older than 40 or younger than 21 years, newcomers in the job or
people suffering from illness.
5)
Design requirements can be determinated with reference to the number of point in the table. By reducing the weight,
improving the execution conditions or shortening the strain time, elevated stress can be advoided.

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 9


Challenges for strain analysis in manufacturing

Suitable for load situation at shop floor

Easy & quick to apply

Support legal requirements

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 10


EAWS - structure and basic principles

Ergonomic load points are granted for ergonomic


unfavorable conditions.

This is in detail:
For WHOLE BODY loads
working postures with low physical effort (< 30 N; < 3 Kg)
action forces in real type postures (> 30 N)
manual materials handling in real type postures (> 3 kg)
For loads of the UPPER LIMBS
frequency of dynamic or duration of static actions
aggravating factors (i.e. forces, limb positions, )

Dependant from and in combination with the score, a traffic light


evaluation (green / yellow / red) is offered according to the
Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC; i.e. EN 614 Appendix A).
COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 11
Scientific rationale for IAD methods

Physiological & biomechanical evaluation criteria

Emulate existing internationally accepted methods

Maintain legal compliance


(usage of harmonized CEN and ISO standards)

Psychophysical evaluation criteria (expert rating), including

Workers, group leaders & masters

Industrial & process engineers (plant)

Representatives of occupational medicine & physiotherapy

[Industrial & process engineers (Tech center)]

(factory planning)
COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 12
EAWS pages 1 and 2

header

2D / 3D working
postures
overall
evaluation

additional loads

comments &
improvements

time aspects
for repetitive loads

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 13


EAWS pages 3 and 4

forces

repetitive loads

extract from
force atlas

manual materials
handling

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 14


EAWS evaluation

1a. Sum up working postures,


action forces and manual materials Green
handling for total score
WHOLE BODY
1b. Calculate score for UPPER LIMBS
Yellow
2. Assign traffic light color dependent
from scores (worst case of whole body or
upper limbs)
Red

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 15


EAWS Working posture section

Complies with:

EN 1005-4
ISO 11226
Toyota
OWAS
SAK (Smann)

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 16


EAWS action force section

Complies with:

EN 1005-3
REFA
Assembly specific
force atlas

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 17


EAWS manual materials handling section

Complies with:

EN 1005-2
ISO 11228-1
ISO 11228-2
KIM
NIOSH
Siemens (Refa)

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 18


EAWS upper limb section

Complies with:

EN 1005-5
ISO 11228-3
KIM
OCRA
RULA

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 19


X EAWS example:battery
7 7
assembly(1)

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 20


X 58 7 51

2 4 2 1
6,5 39 4 12

39 12 51

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 21


Company Tool name Origin Status
Opel / GME NPW div. Implemented 1997
Porsche DesignCheck div. Implemented 1997
Daimler EAB, EAB neu, SAK, EAWS & Developed by Daimler / IAD, implemen-
ESC, ECL & IAD-BkB tation in 2000ff, 2005 & in progress
BELAS
Bosch IAD-BkB, IAD-BkB, Implementation in progress
Bosch & div. , EAWS & div. Implemented 2005
EAWS
Audi APSA neu Based on Developed by Audi, Implemented 2006
AAWS, IAD-BkB

Karman AAWS AAWS Implemented 2007


Smart S-Erg EAWS Implemented 2007
DAF AAWS AAWS Development & implementation in
progress
Fiat group EAWS EAWS Implementation in progress
Volkswagen EAWS / AAWS EAWS, AAWS Implementation in progress
group
Var. Big & IAD-BkB AAWS / EAWS Implementation since 2005
SMEs in BW

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 22


EAWSjunior an SME risk assessment approach

This is a feasibility study only!


Traffic light scheme is not checked for validity
Level of accuracy is not defined

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 23


Thank you for listening!

COREP - Convegno Ergonomia e innovazione | Torino, 22.2.2010 | Karlheinz Schaub 24