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1. History of Cities

2. Theories of Urbanization

3. Evolution of Modern Urban Planning Models

4. Modern Environmental Planning

Early Urbanization,6000-200BC1. Early Urbanization coincided with the Neolithic Agricultural

Revolution when people built permanent settlements and fixed

farms rather than living nomadically through hunting andgathering.

2. There was increase in tribe size to the point where huntingand gathering could no longer provide
adequate food, which

encouraged fixed settlements3. successful domestication of selected plants and animalsgenerated huge
food surplus that led to sedentary settlementsin alluvial plains (Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Indus, Huang Ho,

Tiber rivers)

4. The resource base was the source of water rivers, lakes and

oases for irrigation of permanent farms.

5. Cattle was used to pull the plow, increasing cultivated acreage

6. Rectilinear plotting with the use of plow made easy the divisionof land according to crop7. Use of
massive warehouses to store food in preparation for

drought or warfare


of Early


Hydraulic Civilization Theory




Large-scale irrigation systems and the use

of hydraulics were the prime mover behind

Babylon, in Sumeria, present day Iraq


The agricultural revolution resulted in

higher crop yields and created huge food


Labor specialization developed; a class of

non-farming workers --bureaucrats/

administrators, High Priests, Shamans

(healers), Craftsmen, Traders

Strong, centralized government emerged,

backed by an urban-based military.

Power elite was needed to coordinate and

to ensure continued operation of the

irrigation systems

Farmers who resisted kings authority were

denied water

The hydraulic civilization model was

applicable to Mesopotamia, India, Pakistan,

and China but not to all urban hearths in

Antiquity because urban civilization

blossomed even without irrigation in Meso-

America (Maya, Teotihuacan, Aztec and


Ur, in Sumeria

Theoryof EarlyUrbanization

Religious Model

(Paul Wheatley1973)

1.Religion was a major factor behind

urbanization. Cities were religious

ceremonial centers (temples and

ziggurats) and were seen as defenses

against supernatural forces

2.Religious leaders claimed special

knowledge of meteorological and

climatic conditions; they decided whenand how to plant crops. Successful

harvests led to more support for this

priestly class

3.Priestly class exercised political and

social control; political leader had toclaim to be a high priest with specialand unique knowledge.

4.Politically, there was shift from elder-

based kinship organization to complex

political system

5.shift from ancestor worship to cult

worship of totalitarian god-kings whocontrolled food storage and food


6.Development of writing enabled god-

kings to codify laws, and theirsupposed literacy led to claims ofunique divine wisdom inaccessible to

the masses.

Paul Wheatley Religion and the Rise of Urbanism, The Pivot of the

Four Quarters: A Preliminary Enquiry into the Origins and Character of

the Ancient Chinese City: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol.

93, No. 4 (Oct. -Dec., 1973), pp. 527-538

Worship of the

totalitarian god-


Totalitarian god-

kings sought to live

forever through huge

monuments and

burial complexes EgyptAssyrianGod-kingTeotihuaca,MexicoNecropolis

Theearliestcitieswerecalledcities of the dead


Greek City-States

and the


of Democracy


The Greek city-states withcombined population of250,000 provided the antithesis

to totalitarian empires.

There were 500 polis with apopulation of 3,000-5,000

people each the mostimportant were Athens, Sparta


Mycenae, Priene, Minoa, and

The Greeks also had the

Temple as centerpiece butvalued the creation of civic

space and the practice ofsecular fields (philosophy,

Olympic sports) and humanistic

fine arts.

Greeks provided the concepts

of self-government, and


Small size enabled the practice

of direct democracy (butwomen, slaves and foreigners

not included)



Hippodamusof Miletus Father of

Town Planning in Western Civilization

Lawyer-architect Hippodamus

of Miletus (c. 407 BC) is

known as the Father of Town

Planning in Europe.

He emphasized geometric

designs, provided the first

theoretical framework in


He designed Miletus, Priene,

Rhodes, and Thurii (Italy).

Pericles commissioned him to

design Piraeus as the port of

Athens. Alexander The Great

from Macedonia

commissioned him to design

Alexandria in Egypt which

Alexander captured.


Plato, 427-347 BC

Polluter Pays Principle

Athens gained pre-eminenceamong many Greek city-states

circa 700-404 BC, had 40,000citizens and 100,000 slaves at its

height 450 BC

Athenaeum or Q&A schools in

Athens emphasized rhetoric,

reasoned debate, logic,

philosophy, culture, and sports(e.g., Parmenides, Pericles,

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, etc.)

two distinctive functional zones

which were physically separated

Acropolis (sacred sites & religioustemples) and Agora (civic sphere

and secular politics)

Acropolismade of white marble

and granite meant to shine when

struck by the sun; built to

harmonize with natural landscapeas crown on the peak of MountLycabettus.

Arenas in the Agora were venuesfor public participation in social life.


And let this be the law: If any one

intentionally pollutes the water of another,

whether the water of a spring, or collected

in reservoirs, either by poisonous

substances, or by digging, or by theft, let

the injured party bring the cause before

the wardens of the city, and claim in

writing the value of the loss; if the accused

be found guilty of injuring the water bydeleterious substances, let him not onlypay damages, but purify
the stream or the

cistern which contains the water, in such

manner as the laws . . . order the

purification to be made by the offender in

each case.

Plato, Great Books of the Western World (1982), Robert Maynard

Hutchins, Editor in Chief; ISD p 216)





Inter-generational equity

Human well-being is realized

only partly by satisfying

whatever people's

preferences happen to be at
a particular time; it is also

necessary for successive

generations to leave behind

sufficient resources so that

future generations are not

constrained in their


Rogers, Peter, K. F. Jalal, J.A.Boyd, An

Introduction to Sustainable Development (2006)


GreekscombinedPolytheism withSecular HumanismVenus de

Milo, 100BC

Gallery of the Maidens

The godHermes

holding the childgod Dionysius

Zeus, god

of the

gods in



500 BC

Rome The Eternal City Rome straddles 7 hills originally inhabited by pastoral communities with

to Tiber River.

Rome was first a Republic run by democratic Senate until 27BC then it became

an Empire after the assassination of Julius Caesar who was succeeded bydynasties of

Imperial Rome did not excel in philosophy and science but excelled in

engineering civil works, road building, hydraulics, water provision and


Rome was the first ancient city to reach 1 million population in 03 AD about thetime Jesus Christ was
6 years old.

City was bisected by 2 main streets that met at the center called the Forum

where temples, government buildings, theatre, arena, market, warehouses,

libraries, schools, venues for common assembly were located

Basilica was originally the official function hall of the Emperor

Even with magnificent public buildings, Rome was overcrowded, susceptible toepidemics, plagues, and
large disastrous fires (e.g. Nero)

Rome The Imperial City

Ancient Rome

Olynthos, Roman city

Romans were preoccupied with defense and built their city like a military camp called castra whole

city was enclosed by a wall

Grid-iron design: Basic street pattern useful for military movement, or marching by rectangular

Romans chose locations with good access to major road, trade route, or sea egress

transportation network was their primary consideration

Londinium200ADquadrangles andpiazzas
Paris,ca.400AD The Roman militarycamp or castra was

the template design for

perimeter blocks,

square Palaces with

enclosed open space,

London and Paris started as army camps of the

Roman Empire

LondonRomanRoad-BuildingThe Via Appia is being used until today.

RomanCivilization Roman arch, vault, duomo, quadrangle,

amphitheater, aqueduct, public baths,

underground canals and sewers, etcetera

influenced most cities in continental Europe

Collectively, these elements are called

classical or neo-classical design



ECOPOLIS2009PAGE18 Not colonized by Rome were

Scotland, Ireland, East Germany,

Poland, Denmark, Scandinavian

countries, Baltic states, Ukraine,

Belarus, Russia, Iran, and Saudi




ECOPOLIS2009PAGE18 Not colonized by Rome were

Scotland, Ireland, East Germany,

Poland, Denmark, Scandinavian

countries, Baltic states, Ukraine,

Belarus, Russia, Iran, and Saudi


Five Major Architectural and

Engineering Feats of Roman Empire

The Colosseum (rt. colossus) or Vespasian

Amphitheater by Emperor Vespasian

The Forum by Emperor Trajan

The Pantheon of the Gods and its famed

Rotunda by Emperor Trajan

The Roman Baths Complex (2,000 people daily)

by Emperor Caracalla

Basilicas were originally court-halls of the

Emperors, later adopted by Catholic Church

Apollodorus of Damascus was credited for manyimportant designs of Classical Rome under Emperor

Trajan but he was later eliminated by Emperor

Hadrian who wanted to take over architectural


Reasons for the

Fall of Roman




Moral Decay Emperors were too obsessed with power. In power struggles,

Emperors were killed by their own sons or wives. Brothers killed their own

brothers who were rival heirs to the throne, showing the breakdown of families.

Among the elite, incest, in-breeding, deceit, and treachery were common, as well

as corruption from top to bottom.

Emperors had ostentatious and pleasure-focused lifestyles, leading to bankruptcy

of treasury and loss of respect from the citizens. Military generals were rewarded

with multiple women and sex-orgies as prize for battle, which resulted in loss of

discipline, neglect of foot-soldiers and neglect of conquered territories.

The States official persecution of early Christians and of diaspora Jews before

the reign of Constantine The Great led to sectoral strife; socio-religious divisions

among the citizenry prevented them from uniting during periods of crisis.

Poor Governance, neglect of citizenry, neglect of conquered territories led to local

rebellions; contributing to the rise of the Vikings (Visogoths, Ostrogoths from

Scandinavia) & Huns from Asia Minor who plundered wealth of Roman cities.

Vikings cut off Roman lifeline the Aqueduct. Without steady supply of water,

Romes population went down from 1-million in 03AD to 12,000 in 400 AD

Empire was just too large to maintain for an overstretched army fightingin

multiple fronts.

They bit more than they could chew.






Gideon Sjoberg (1933, 1965) The Origin and Evolution of Cities. In

Cities by Scientific American, New York.

An urban area is characterized by larger size, greater density,

greater heterogeneity.

Urbanization is basically a cultural process, primarily a result of trade

and commerce fostering socio-cultural diversity.

Cities formed along major transportation routes and became the

center of cultural exchange of information and ideas.

Dr. Gideon Sjoberg

Cities brought together specialists engaged in non-agricultural

activities, individuals specializing in crafts centering around the

production of tools for agriculture or items recognized as valuable in

trade. The competition between these specialists within a city, and

between neighboring cities, resulted in many innovations in

technology. Advanced tools for agriculture, resulted in improved

techniques of breeding and cultivation of plants and animals.

Cities brought together literate individuals and scientists to debate

and test ideas which eventually resulted in the scientific method.

Because of accumulated surplus, cities became targets of conquest

and invasion and would be absorbed by transcontinental empires that,

in later periods of Nationalism and Rationalism, eventually broke up

into individual nation-states.

After the Fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD, central concern of

communities during Dark Ages until 800-AD was survival and security.

Fortress Cities relied on protective town walls.

Because of walls, cities could not grow more than one square mile.

Above a population of 3,000, fortresses would have serious problems

about water, sanitation, waste, epidemics, privacy.

Conflict and warfare due to population pressure stimulates urbanization(Population Pressure

Hypothesis, R.L. Carneiro, 1970)

Bran Castle,


Angers Castle,Angers

City, France



Cathedral Cities during Middle Ages:

Middle Ages started with

the rise of Charlemagne as

Emperor of Holy RomanEmpire in Dec 25, 800 AD

Church and State became


2,500 medieval towns grewaround a cathedral, abbey,

monastery, or castle

Cathedral is a church

where the cathedra or

chair of a Bishop is

placed, signifying the Seesascendancy over other


Cities retained protective

town walls or fortification

Towns had a radiocentric

pattern, with irregular,

narrow, twisty streets less

than 15 feet wide

because of water

availability, towns usuallyhad less than 10,000

residents; with an average

radius of 12 miles (19.3


Heidelberg, Germany

Zurich,Switzerland CathedralCitywhich receivedthehighest world rating for Quality of Life 2004

Zurich, Switzerland

Zurich, Switzerland

Zurich, Switzerland

Zurich, Switzerland




Renaissance coincided with Age ofEuropean Exploration & Conquest

Decline of the Role of the Church and the

rise to power of the Merchant Class whoshaped trading and treasury policies of theMonarchies.

Distinction between New Capital

(Bourgeoisie and Entrepreneurs) and the

Old Landed Gentry (feudal lords) who

oversaw rural manors and farming estatesfor the Monarchies.

Cities were important commercial nodes for

trading companies.

Mercantilism believed that the value of the

economy was measured by quantities ofgold and silver.

This system drove nations to conquerforeign lands to acquire more gold/silver,

and advantage in maritime trade

Urbino: Neo-classical Town Hall with piazza

and streets radiating from the center

Ideal Renaissance City in

Italy Urbino



Leone Battista Alberti (1404-1472)

Wrote De re Aedificatoria (1452)

Designed parts of St. Peters Basilica of

Vatican City and many features ofFlorence,

He was Secretary of six Popes, he was a

theoretical architect who never supervisedbuilding construction

Utilized the radiocentric pattern ofcathedral cities.

Ideal Cities of the Renaissance star-

shaped plans with streets radiating from acentral point, a church, palace or castle

Commercial development followed

transport routes resulting in Star-shaped

pattern of land use

Major roads radiated from center of town.

Street was allowed to curve to conform to


Design was adopted in Renaissance

cities and later in Paris


Renaissance(1440-1769 )


Mercantile Cities of the

Venice, Genoa,

Amsterdam, Lisbon,
Hamburg, St. Petersburg



ECOPOLIS2009PAGE31 European cities with

over 100,000population in 1700sRomeVenice MilanParis LyonsLondonVienna

AmsterdamDublinBerlinMadridLisbonNaples Palermo (Sicily)



New Amsterdam

as MercantileCity Canarsees.Later,Dutchcolonialgovernor Peter

Minuitpurchasedthe wholeManhattanislandfromthe Canarseesfor$24(P1,000).

In1664,BritainandNetherlandshad awarinEurope, andtheBritish who had alreadycolonizedthestateof



untiltheadditionin1895oftheboroughsofBronx,Brooklyn,Queens, andStatenIslandintotheCity of New


In 1609, British navigator HenryHudson under the employ of the

Dutch East India Company found triver and harbor of New York

occupied by native Indians calledCanarsees.

He founded a Dutch settlement he

called New Amsterdam to trade

European goods with fur from the


New York City in 1800s before the Skyscrapers

New York City today is global center of

finance & services

William Penn in Pennsylvania

In 1682, Englishmen William Penn and

Thomas Holme designed

Philadelphia in the British Colony of

Pennsylvania with the following

features: rectangular grid system, a

central park and four smaller parks,

one neighborhood park in each



French architect, engineer, cityplanner who prepared Plan forWashington D.C. (1791)

France sided with US nationalists in

the War of Independence against


A plan to serve as the framework forthe capital city of the new nation

The plan was intended as a model

for American City Planning and a

symbol of governmental power

featured a network of wide streets

converging on major parks, and

other open spaces and on public

structures such as the Capitol and

the White House

Forerunner of City Beautiful

Movement later picked up byEbenezer Howard (UK) and DanielH. Burnham (US)

Washington DC

McMillan Plan 1901-1902


Published the book Architecture 1844;

French Architect-theorist, Prefect of Seine,

commissioned by Emperor Napoleon III to

redesign Paris, the first architect to

significantly change a city

dominant forms in Haussmann's plans are

long, wide, tree-lined boulevards

punctuated by an abundance of circular

plazas and pocket parks

twelve grand avenues radiating from the

Arc de Triomphe; ring streets patterned

after Viennas

land use pattern copied by most majorcities;

first plan to address traffic flow

Wide boulevards were meant to prevent

mob behavior;

urban design considered workers as wellas members of ruling class

Paris, Best

Planned City of

the World

Arc de Triomphe

CaEtChOePOdLIrSa20l09of PNAGoE t4r0 eDame

Paris, BestPlanned Cityof theWorldEiffel Tower

Palace of Versailles

Arc de Triomphe

Champs Elysees

River Seine

Grande Arche at La Defense,

National Defense Center


IndustrialRevolutionin1769usheredintheManufacturing City or Industrial City


of steam

engine in


ushered in




Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution

in the 1800s

Industrial City, 1820s beginning with

Coalbrookdale in British Midlands,

located near coal fields, called

Blacktowns or Coketowns by Charles



IndustrialCities orManufacturingCities(1769-1970s)

Built on economy of mass production

Characterized by massive migration

from rural areas

Indiscriminate exploitation of natural


Resulted in pervasive air and water

pollution, more man-made disasters,

Population Explosion after World War

II lowered value of labor power, and

stiffened competition for work

Cities became unregulated jumbles ofactivity; they needed TransportPlanning

Impoverishment of workers as a resultof de-skilling and Scientific


Londons Covent Garden Square designed by Iigo Jones in 1630s featured the Royal Opera

House but eventually became a market for vegetables, fruits and flowers

Londonwasoriginallya Romancamp(castra)

andthen replannedbyInigoJones1630

London Today Among the Five

Most Powerful World Cities

along with New York,

Washington DC, Tokyo, and Paris

Sir Christopher Wren (1600s) English

architect who prepared Plan for London (1666)

and plan for St. Pauls Cathedral

James Craig (1767) -Scottish architect,

planned linear new town for Edinburg

Robert Owen (1799) English social

reformer, conceptualized Village of Unity and

Mutual Cooperation) in New Lanark; showcase

of Utopian or Normative Socialism

John Gwynn (1766) prepared a remarkable

plan called London and Westminster


James Buckingham (1849) proposed an

utopian community called Victoria

Population of 10,000

Segregation of land uses

Greenbelt around settlements




Evolution of Modern Urban

Planning Models


Conditions that gave rise to Modern Planning Profession

Modern Planning Profession was a response to unmanaged urbanization,

population explosion, environmental degradation in Industrial Cities

Conservation and Parks Movement (The Rise of Landscape Architecture, USA)

Public Health Epidemiologists & Sanitation Professionals as Earliest Planners

Garden City Movement (Sir Ebenezer Howard and his disciples in UK)


City Beautiful Movement a response to urban decay and urban blightduring the Industrial Revolution

Daniel Hudson Burnham Masterplanning or Traditional Planning or Imperative

Planning or Command Planning

Le Corbusier Radiant City led to Skyscraper Cities and the common form ortemplate of CBDs

III. Regional Planning & New Towns Movement reacted to

overcongestion in Skyscraper Cities;

reconceptualized the city in relation to its peripheries; tried to address economicpolarization, inter-area
imbalance, regional divergence

New Towns movement in America led to urban decentralization or sprawl ,

spurred on by the popularity of the automobile; the car is king mentality.

III. City Functional Movement a reaction to over-emphasis of CBM on

form over function

Euclidean Zoning exclusionary zoning, separated incompatible land uses

Utilities-based Linear City (Don Arturo Soria y Mata)

Linear Industrial City (Tony Garnier)


In US, Conservation and

Parks Movement

Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. (1822-1903)

Father of American Landscape Architecture

Conservation and Parks movement included

George Perkins Marsh, John Muir, Gifford Pinchot,

US President Theodore Roosevelt who all pursued

asystem of Americanparks

in 1870, wrote a comprehensive park planning

book named Public Parks and the Enlargement of


A park was never an ornamental addition to a city

but an integral part of its fabric and a force for

future growth on several levels: economic, social

and cultural.

Olmsteds Vision

Mixed use

Dampen class conflict

Heighten Family & religious values

Use urban parks as aid to social reform

Was influenced by Beaux Arts design and city-

aesthetics: grandeur, monumentality (drama


tension), exuberance, cohesiveness, symmetry.

John Muir





V. City Efficient Movement

attempted to rationalize urban planning in relation to economic production that had been

decentralized by transportation and communication technologies

Transport Planning

Ekistics integrated economics, sociology and physical design in human settlements


Urban Renewal and Gentrification addressed the hollowing out of historic city cores by

means of revitalization but also resulted in massive urban slum demolitions, giving rise to

Advocacy or Activist or Equity Planning,

V. New Urbanism or Neo-Traditionalism

combated indiscriminate, inhuman urban renewal and sought to revive the lost art of

place-making and community-building

Neo-Traditional Neighborhoods

Smart Growth and Compact Development

Cultural Heritage Conservation

VI. Environmental Planning placed ecology and environmental constraints

at the center of planning

Ian McHargs Sieve Mapping and the Rise of GIS

Ecosystem-Based Planning

Ecological Footprinting

Eco-anarchism and Anti-Urbanism

Disaster Management Mitigation, Risk-Reduction, and Prevention

Sustainable Cities

Famous for the design of:

Central Park, in New York

(Greens-ward Plan) together

with Calvert Vaux

Riverside, Illinois

Buffalo, NY parks system

Druid Hills, Georgia






In UK, Problems of

Manufacturing Cities in 19th


1. At the start of industrial revolution, public health

professionals were most concerned about public

planning. The ills of Industrial city included:

Lack of potable water due to polluted water bodies

Disposal of garbage including human excrement, and

animal wastes

epidemics due to congestion

street cleaning

Air pollution: smoke and smog

public transport

public housing was essentially tenements and cellars

lack of cemeteries

2. Mid to late 1800s local and national leaders in UK

created the sanitarian profession

sanitarians were vocal against epidemic diseases, filthy

streets, unhealthy disposal of garbage and sewage, air

pollution, and slum housing

With Richardsons Hygeia, an M.D. acted as City Planner

3. Edwin Chadwick started EPIDEMIOLOGY in 1842 by

inquiring into the living conditions of factory workers

4. With the filth versus germ debate during the time of

Benjamin Clark Marsh & John Snow, the Split between

Public Health (germ) and Planning (filth), Housing,

and Social Services took place.





1. Main Goals

alleviate deterioration of living conditions

Solve acute public health crisis associated with overcrowding and lack of

municipal and sanitary services

Greater concern for social well being

Improve urban design and aesthetics

Equip planners professionally to find technical solutions to urban planning

2. Under Englands Public Health Act of 1875, counties were divided into

urban and rural sanitary districts supervised by the central government

3. UK Local Governments Act of 1888

stated that land use has to be regulated, thus giving birth to town planning

gave authority to boroughs, counties and towns -housing bylaws -power to

regulate housing -uniform streets with minimum widths -external lavatories

to back alleys for waste disposal (garbage and waste water)

population densities set -maximum 50 houses (250 people) per acre

4. UK passed the Town Planning Act of 1909.

5. 1st National Conference on Planning & Congestion (1909)

6. In US, Public Health Association called for city planning in 1872

7. The legitimate parents of modern planning are: Public Health

Administration, Sanitary Engineering, Public Housing, Social Work, and

Baroque Urban Design


Planning is as old as urban formation but the initial interest was social

welfare and human living conditions rather than built environment





Wrote Tomorrow (1898) followed by Garden Cities

of Tomorrow (1902)

Concerned about abject living conditions and needto change the physical form of cities:

disperse population/industries outside the city

create new sanitary living conditions

Design new cities under the capitalist framework to be

workable and livable

Drew inspiration from London World's Fair of 1851:

Advanced concept of SocialCity a polycentric

settlement or cluster, surrounded by greenbelt

wherein a central city of 58,000 people was to be

surrounded by garden cities of 30,000 people,

each city separated by permanent green space or

farmlands. Rails and roads would link the cities with

industries and nearby towns supplying fresh food

pointed to the importance of planning land use and

city features beforehand, rather than organic and

uncontrolled growth

Ebenezer Howards Garden City

Three magnets in his paradigm depicted thatboth the city and the countryside had

advantages and disadvantages. Creation ofjobs and urban services in the City resulted in

poor natural environment while the

Countryside offered an excellent naturalenvironment but few opportunities



1. Population ~ 30,000

2. Area ~ 1,000 acres (405 hectares)

3. agricultural greenbelt surrounds town ~ 5,000 acres (hence "garden") in

addition to garden for each house

4. high residential density (15 houses per acre/ 37 per ha)

5. Industrial and commercial zones with greenbelts between zones

6. rapid transport from Garden City to Central City by rail

7. concentric rings progressing outward. Towns would grow by cellular

addition into a complex multi-centered agglomeration of towns set

against a green background of open country

8. Objectives of Garden City

Secure better regular employment for professionals at higher purchasing power

reduce land use conflicts

Secure healthier surroundings for all true workers of whatever class

promote convenience and comfort


zerHowardandThenCityMovementAmong thedisciplesofEbenezerHowardwere

ArchitectsBarry Parker,Sir Frederic J.OsbornIn1902-

ouisdeSoissonsdesignedWelwynfrom 1920to1934LetchworthandWelwynGardenCitieswere


afterWorldWar IIbytheBritishgovernment,


(andlargest) beingMiltonKeynes,




EbenezerHowardandTheGardenCityMovementzerHowardandThenCityMovement Among the disciples

of Ebenezer Howard were

Architects Barry Parker, Sir Frederic J. Osborn

In 1902-03, a Sir Raymond Unwin designed

Letchworth garden city, 35 miles (56 km) north of

London from 1903 to 1920

Louis de Soissons designed Welwyn from 1920 to


Letchworth and Welwyn Garden Cities were

influential in the development of 30 "New Towns"

after World War II by the British government,

including Stevenage, Hertfordshire and the last

(and largest) being Milton Keynes,


German architects Hermann Muthesius and Bruno

Taut created Germany's first garden city of

Hellerau in 1909, the only German garden city

where Howard's ideas were thoroughly adopted.


UK:FirCottages at Birds Hill in Letchworth

Shops in the Wynd at Letchworth

Designed by Sir

Raymond Unwin


Garden City

by Louis de


Letchworth Garden


Welwyn Garden

City Londonandits Greenbelt

London and its


testament to

success of Sir



City Beautiful



Movement that emphasized aesthetics in urban

design and planning --grandeur, monumentality(drama & tension), exuberance, cohesiveness, and


City was designed as total system with main

circulation arteries, wide boulevards, a network of

parks and promenades starting from a prominentwaterfront, clusters or blocks of focal civic buildings

that would include city hall, courthouse, library,

opera house, museum, plaza, shrines, towers,

arches, obelisks; this movement copied manyfeatures from European capitals.

Ithis movement embraced all public works designedwith classical facades and built as grand portals to

cities --bridges, river embankments, railroads,

colleges and universities, Roman Catholic basilicas,

public baths, etc.

this movement was praised for its aesthetics and

circulation/transport planning but generally criticizedas utopian --Beauty stood supreme, had
littleconcern for health and sanitation (hospitals,

sewerage, solid waste), mass housing, economicgrowth (factories), natural hazards, geology, zoning

(incompatible land uses).

Worlds Columbian Exposition of

1893 in Jackson Park, Chicagostrengthened the CBM

Historian Mel Scott

described the

Chicago Expo as

wonderland of grand


shimmering lagoons

and monumental

palaces an

enthralling amalgam

of Classical Greece,

Bourbon Paris"

Court of Honor, WorldsColumbian Exposition 1892-93,

Palace of Fine Arts

The Fisheries Building

Grand Basin

Imperial Rome and

City Beautiful Movementstrengthened (1890s1950s)

Improving the city through




Civic Improvements

Building Design

Civic Spirit

Cities influenced by CBM: Chicago

(1909), San Francisco (1905), Detroit,

Denver, Columbus, Madison, Montreal,

Canberra (Griffin and Mahony, 1913),

New Delhi (1911) in India, Braslia

(1957) in Brazil, Abuja in Nigeria,

Islamabad,Pakistan (1959)

co-designed Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1892-

93 in Chicago with Olmsted which drew millions ofvisitors and stimulated concern for urban design

Father of American City Planning and Prophet of

City Beautiful Movement in America

Greatest achievement is the Plan for Chicago

(1909); and Plan for the Region of Chicago (1956);

Also designed Baltimore, Buffalo, Cleveland, SanFrancisco (1905), Manila (1903-06) and Baguio

Pursued Baroque aesthetics characterized bygrandeur, monumentality (drama & tension),

exuberance, cohesiveness, and symmetry.

Criticism of Chicago Plan

Planned as an aristocratic city for merchant princes;

Did not in provide for realities of downtown real estate

development, hence resulted in overbuilding and

congestion Created a business core with no conscious provision forbusiness expansion in the rest of
the city

commercial convenience should have been significant

Burnham also designed Masonic Temple Building in

Chicago, Flatiron Building in New York City, Union

Station in Washington D.C.

Plan for San

Francisco, 1905


The Horticultural Building

The Statue of theRepublic


Plan for Chicago 1906-09:

Chicago was envisioned byBurnham as Paris on a Prairie

Daniel Burnhams quote

Make no little plans. They have no magic and

probably themselves will not be realized. Make big

plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering

that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will

never die, but long after we are gone will be a livingthing, asserting itself with ever-growing insistency.

Remember that our sons and grandsons are going

to do things that would stagger us. Let your

watchword be order and your beacon beauty. Thinkbig.

Every citizen should be within walking distance of

a park.

SearsTowerMillenniumParkWrigleyBldgBurnhams Plan for Manila 1903-1906



Jeanneret (1887-1965) Le


Swiss-French architect-planner, last of the City Beautiful

Movement planners; wrote the book Urbanisme

We must decongest the centers of our cities by increasing their

density. That paradox could be resolved by building high on a small

part of land.

There ought to be no more congested streets and sidewalks, no

more bustling public squares, no more untidy neighborhoods. People

would live in hygienic, regimented high-rise towers, set far apart in apark-like landscape. This rational
city would be separated intodiscrete zones for working, living and leisure. Above all, everything

should be done on a big scale big buildings, big open spaces, big

urban highways

"By this immense step in evolution, so brutal and so overwhelming,

we burn our bridges and break with the past. (no heritage


We must improve circulation and increase the amount of open


Focused more on architectural style (cubist aesthetics) than

planning shift towards a preoccupation with visual form,

symbolism, imagery and aesthetics rather than the basic

problems of local population;

He was criticized for the planning paradox address congestion

by creating more congestion.

Le Corbusiers Radiant

City (Le Ville Radieuse)

objective was to decongest the entire city byincreasing density at the core; to concentratepopulation
without congestion.

City consists of uniform 60-storey large tower-

blocks and apartment-buildings that zigzag

across as a huge park. Modern building

technology could make the design possible. Itwould house 3 million people.

Each group of buildings would be isolated from

the others in a park-like setting. Flat roofs, planar

surfaces with little ornamentation, and box-like

building shapes

Housing and office towers were grouped inabstract formal relationships that maximized

exposure to the sun.

Stadiums, recreational facilities, and museums

were placed along waterfronts.

Le Corbusiers design influenced the design ofCBDs with High-rises/Skyscrapers in office parks

Modernism created a consistent urban image

based on the tall building, the automobile, andthe limited-access highway.

Radiant City (Le Ville


Une Ville Contemporaine (Contemporary City,

1923) a modernist city consisting of uniformtower blocks set within gardens meant for 3million people

Applied concepts to City of Chandigarh, newcapital of Punjab, India; and to Brasilia, Brazil;

Boston and Toronto Plan was devoid of economic,

social, transport, and other considerations

urban vision was authoritarian, inflexible and

simplistic. The bureaucratically-imposed plan was

found to be socially-destructive.

Standardization proved inhuman and disorienting;

the too-vast open spaces were inhospitable. Lackof human-scale.

In the United States, took the form of vastregimented public housing projects (Tenements)

that damaged the urban fabric beyond repair.

Today these megaprojects are being dismantled,

as Tenement-blocks give way to rows of houses

fronting streets and sidewalks. Downtowns have

discovered that combining, not separating,

different activities is the key to success. So is the

presence of lively residential neighborhoods, old

as well as new. Cities have learned that

preserving history makes a lot more sense than

starting from zero. Le Corbusiers vision

of Paris, 1955






Une Ville Contemporaine (Contemporary City, 1923

a modernist city consisting of uniform tower blocks s

within gardens meant for 3 million people

Applied concepts to City of Chandigarh, new capitalof Punjab, India; and to Brasilia, Brazil; Boston and


Plan was devoid of economic, social, transport, andother considerations

urban vision was authoritarian, inflexible and simplistic.

The bureaucratically-imposed plan was found to besocially-destructive.

Standardization proved inhuman and disorienting; the

too-vast open spaces were inhospitable. Lack ofhuman-scale.

In the United States, took the form of vast regimentedpublic housing projects (Tenements) that
damaged the

urban fabric beyond repair. Today these megaprojectsare being dismantled, as Tenement-blocks give
way torows of houses fronting streets and sidewalks.

Downtowns have discovered that combining, notseparating, different activities is the key to success. So

is the presence of lively residential neighborhoods, oldas well as new..


Corbusiers design was good for temporary living

( not for permanentresidence.

Tenement Housing and the Breakdown of American

communities (1912-1960s):

black Americans and Latinos occupy Harlem

NYC and later, the Ghettos in Bronx which were

former quarters of Jewish minority who have

become increasingly rich

ArchitecturalModernism Characteristics of Modernism

aesthetics and form

rejected historic precedent as a source

of architectural inspiration

considered function as the primegenerator of form

employed materials and technology in an

innovative way.

Morphological characteristics ofbuildings style-free plan

universal space

walls freed from the function of load

bearing cantilevers

glass at corners of buildings

use of concrete

In 1885, the 10-storey Home Insurance

Building, made possible by the use of a

steel frame and the invention of the

elevator, became the worlds firstskyscraper in the city of Chicago

Le Corbusiers influence on high-rise Socialist Housing in

formerly communist East Europe

Brasilia, Brazil (1957) as Radiant City

by LucioCosta&OscarNiemeyerPlaza of the Three Powers

Our Lady Aparecida

Metropolitan Cathedral

National Congress

Presidential Palace of the Dawn

Palacio da Alvorada

Radiant Cityattempted in

Brasilia at

huge financial

costs and







Reacted to overcongestion in Le Corbusiers Skyscraper Cities

particularly New York City and Toronto Canada

Pursued Garden City ideas of Ebenezer Howard which theybelieved could produce better communities

an island of greens; green spaces are interconnected

separation of pedestrian traffic from motor traffic

series of superblocks or neighborhood clusters around greens

based upon prior land assembly

Considered endless grid-iron tracks as wasteful and unnecessaryand pursued other ways to address
community problems and


Six Principles of New Towns Movement

Plan simply, but comprehensively

Provide ample sites in the right places for community use

Put factories and other industrial buildings where they can be usedwithout wasteful transportation of
people and goods

Cars must be parked and stored (not on the streets!)

Bring private and public land into relationship

Arrange for the occupancy of houses

Approach was to formulate home building corporations, financed

by companies seeking long term investments (adopted in the

Philippines as Peoples Homesite and Housing Corporation nowNHA)

Radburn, New Jersey

separation between

motor traffic and

pedestrian traffic

Greenbelt, Maryland 1937-39 New Towns

Movement in

the US

Major US architect involved in site planning and communityplanning, had 41 commissions, 532
designs, 1000+ drawings

Wright was major proponent of urban decentralization in

reaction to overcongestion in US cities --was believed to bean eco-anarchist

Broadacre City design, forerunner or apotheosis ofsuburbanization trend the anti-thesis to

compactdevelopment and transit-oriented development.

Much activity is done by automobile.

Under Broadacre City design, settlements would have size ofabout 10km2 (1000 has) with all services
and amenities of asmall city schools, museums, markets, offices, trains etc.

and farms and factories could co-exist side by side with

homes. Families would have one acre each (4,050m2)fromfederal land reserves, with sufficient space for
gardens and

small farms. Plus a helicopter.

Helicopter element made Broad-acre sound like science


He also designed neighborhoods and subdivisions employingthe Quadruple Block Plan wherein
houses are set on smallsquare blocks of four equal sized lots surrounded on all sides

by roads, set toward the center of the block so that each

house maximized the yard space and included private space

in the center. This also allowed for more interesting viewsfrom each house. This design would have
eliminated the

straight rows of houses on parallel streets with boring viewsof the front of each house.


Major US architect involved in site planning and communityplanning, had 41 commissions, 532
designs, 1000+ drawings

Wright was major proponent of urban decentralization in

reaction to overcongestion in US cities --was believed to bean eco-anarchist

Broadacre City design, forerunner or apotheosis ofsuburbanization trend the anti-thesis to

compactdevelopment and transit-oriented development.

Much activity is done by automobile.

Under Broadacre City design, settlements would have size ofabout 10km2 (1000 has) with all services
and amenities of asmall city schools, museums, markets, offices, trains etc.

and farms and factories could co-exist side by side with

homes. Families would have one acre each (4,050m2)fromfederal land reserves, with sufficient space for
gardens and

small farms. Plus a helicopter.

Helicopter element made Broad-acre sound like science


He also designed neighborhoods and subdivisions employingthe Quadruple Block Plan wherein
houses are set on smallsquare blocks of four equal sized lots surrounded on all sides

by roads, set toward the center of the block so that each

house maximized the yard space and included private space

in the center. This also allowed for more interesting viewsfrom each house. This design would have
eliminated the

straight rows of houses on parallel streets with boring viewsof the front of each house.




Wright produced The Report of the Commission in

Housing and Regional Planning for the State of NewYork

Stipulated the elements of a regional plan:

Introduced concept of superblock in New Town

development in the US

implemented in Radburn, FairLawn, New Jersey

Superblock is an island of greens, bordered byhomes and carefully skirted by peripheral

automobile roads, each around open green spaces

which are themselves interconnected. There are

numerous greenways which serve as pedestrian


The rough Philippine equivalent of a superblock is amodest-size rectangular subdivision dominated

bygardens and greenery.

Wrote Rehousing Urban America (1935);

explained how New York developed from a city ofsmall trade centers to an industrial belt, to a

financial and managerial center

co-designed Western Kentucky University

Frank Lloyd Wrights Broadacre City



freeways +

feeder roads






Co-founded Regional Planning Association of

America (1923) with Henry Wright and Lewis


Principal planner who pursued Ebenezer HowardsGarden City ideas in conceptualizing 22

government-sponsored New Towns or greenbe

resettlement towns in America, under the short-

lived US Resettlement Administration

Sunnyside Gardens, Queens, New York;

Hillside Homes, Bronx, New York;

Chatham Village, Pittsburgh;

Baldwin Hills Village, Los Angeles;

Reston, Virginia;

Columbia, Maryland

Greenbelt, Maryland;

Greendale, Wisconsin;

Greenhills, Ohio;

Greenbrook NJ

Efforts were cut short by Great Depression

Wrote book New Towns for America (1951) whi

was inputted into the US Housing Act of 1954.



Conceptualized Neighborhood Unit equivalentto UKs Neighborhood Precincts

Neighborhood unit (1929) is a self-contained,

low-rise, pedestrian-oriented residential quarter,

incorporating garden city ideas, that would be

bounded by major streets, with shops at the

intersections and a school in the middle. Around

0.272 km2 to 6.2 km2 (620 has), 6000 residents,

and a school for 920 children.

Perry intended his neighborhood unit to satisfymost needs of residents and bring advantages
oftraditional small town living into the city.

Six principles of Neighborhood unit: (1) Size to

support an elementary school, generally a halfmile in diameter at most, (2) boundaries on allsides by
arterial streets, (3) open spaces for small

parks and recreation of about 10% of the totalneighborhood area, (4) institutions such as

schools, community centers, and churches

grouped around a central point, (5) local shops

around the circumference at traffic junctions, and(6) internal street system with lots of cul-de-sacsand
street widths sized to facilitate internal traffic

and discourage through traffic.

Regional Planning


Sir Patrick Geddes (18541932)

Scottish biologist, sociologist, and city planner responsible forintroducing the concept of "region" to
planning and city architecture;

Known as the Father of Regional Planning

Famous Books

1904: City Development: A Study of Parks, Gardens & Culture Institutes

1905: Civics as Applied Sociology

1915: Cities in Evolution

Popularized the framework Folk Work Place and the planning method

Survey Analysis Plan precursor of rational-comprehensive or

synoptic planning

He made extensive use of survey method; Planning must start with asurvey of the resources of a region,
of human responses to it, and ofthe resulting complexities of the cultural landscape;

He coined the terms city-region

and conurbation

as the

conglomeration of urban aggregates.

He characterized the life-cycle of cities as Inflow (waves of migration to

large cities), Build-up (overcrowding), Backflow (slum formation, centralcity blight), and sprawling mass,
resulting in amorphic spread, waste

and unnecessary obsolescence. He thus prophesized the ill-effects of

hyper-urbanization and the rise and decline of cities.

SirPatrickGeddes Geddes stressed the social basis of the city the relationshipbetween people and
cities and how they affect one another.

Geddes focused on individual action and voluntary cooperation

tempered by attention to relations with the physical environment






English town planner-architect who became member of Siegfried

Barlow Commission after World War II, later on Professor of Civic

Design and Town Planning at University College London

best known for the re-planning of London thru the County of London

Plan (1943) and the extended Greater London Regional Plan (1944)

which are called the Abercrombie Plan, where 1.25 million people

were dispersed to new towns and rural areas

Abercrombie Plan started the New Towns movement in the UK

which included the building of Harlow and Crawley and the largest

'out-county' estate, Harold Hill in north-east London.

He made award-winning designs for Dublin City and re-planned

Plymouth, Hull, Bath, Edinburgh and Bournemouth, among others.

He founded the Council for the Preservation of Rural England

(CPRE) in 1926 as first chairman and later Honorary Secretary.

Abercrombie was knighted in 1945. In 1945 he published A Plan for

the City & County of Kingston upon Hull, with the assistance of Sir

Edwin Lutyens.

Abercrombie was commissioned by UK government to redesign

Hong Kong after WWII. In 1956 he was commissioned by Ethiopia

Emperor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari) to draw up plans for the capital

of Addis Ababa.




American thinker called the Last of the Great Humanists, Father of Historical-

Sociological Approach to Planning. Wrote Technics and Civilization (1934),The

Culture of Cities (1938) City in History (1961)

The City in History was sweeping, masterful historical analysis of city development

all over the world, describes why cities came about and what their continuing

function is.

conceived of planning as multi-disciplinary. Was extensively involved in Regional

Planning in the US East Coast.

Mumford believed that society is dehumanized by technological culture and that it

must return to a perspective that places emotions, sensitivity, and ethics at the

heart of civilization. Urban and regional planning should emphasize an organic

relationship between people and their living spaces.

saw the city not only as a place with poor living conditions, but also as a threat to

democracy and the breeding place of fascism, as the masses of people in the big

city could be kept ignorant and were to easy to mislead.

recognized the physical limitations of human settlement and urged that

fundamental basic needs of society be the bases for the judicious use of


advocated harmonious life among civilized groups in ecological balance with the

place they occupied.

the modern city (New York 1960) is following the patterns of Imperial Roman city

(the sprawling megalopolis) which ended in collapse; if the modern city carries on

in the same vein, then it will meet the same fate as the Imperial Roman city.




American forester, conservationist and regional planner, who

was called "father of the Appalachian Trail." He proposed the

Appalachian Trail in Oct 1921 more than 2,000-mile footpath

from Maine to Georgia blazed through the efforts ofvolunteers. He advocated preserving cultural and

areas in an increasingly urbanized environment. He believed

that we should tame new technology for ecological purpose

As a government planner, he spearheaded the idea of the

"townless highway."

He was one of the founders of the Regional Planning

Association of America (1923)

published The New Exploration: A Philosophy of Regional

Planning, 1928

Prominent in regional conservationism

applied the transect to vast river valleys

Regional ecology tied to natural systems

Cyclical time and organic interaction with landscape versus

industrial time and engineering

Ridgeland areas offer indigenous balance

Valleys filled with industrial excess

Conservative effort based on radical analysis

City Functional





1. Movement meant to respond to every aspect of city problems

Reacted to preoccupation with urban design of the City Beautiful Movement in US and

Garden City Movement in UK

Greater concern for the functioning of cities rather than design aesthetics --function over form

Govt. efficiency, progressive education and recreation, good, affordable housing

Enlist businesses & civic organization

Emphasized opportunity rather than focus on economic and social evils of city

aligned planning to broader fields of public service


Focused on utility infrastructure and on land use zoning rather than master


Zoning was designed to separate incompatible land uses

However, today many land uses are no longer exactly incompatible

Ironically, Excessive zoning creates homogeneity which leads to sterility and inconvenience.

Zoning originated in New York City in 1916 by Edward Bassett as the first

attempt to control land use by a municipal government The particular

purpose at that time was to contain the invasion of factories into the FifthAvenue business district and
the shadowing of adjacent propertiesbyemerging skyscrapers.


Constitutionality of zoning as part of police power of the State was upheld byUS Supreme Court in 1926,
as a result of Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty

Company(1926), hence the term Euclidean zoning.

5. Edward Filene and Justice Louis Brandeis, Boston Plan of 1915-16


Picked up in Germany --Grundriss-plan of 1910 was Master plan for GreaterBerlin ; Rudolf Hillebrecht In
Hamburg, Germany


in Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Helsinki & Tapiola, Finland; and Melun Senart,


Don Arturo Soria y Mata (1844-1920) Spanish engineer,

suggested the idea Ciudad Lineal (linear city) an elongated

urban formation running from Cadiz, Spain to Paris and the

rest of Europe, up to St. Petersburg, Russia.

logic of linear utility lines should be the basis of city lay-out;

houses and buildings could be set alongside linear utilitysystems supplying water, communications and
electricity. Heconsidered impact of technology on urban form.

The linear city would have five functionally specialized

parallel sectors.

a purely segregated zone for railway lines,

a zone of production and communal enterprises, with related

scientific, technical and educational institutions,

a green belt or buffer zone with major highway,

a residential zone, including a band of social institutions, a band ofresidential buildings and a
"children's band",

a park zone, and

an agricultural zone with gardens and state-run farms (sovkhozy in

the Soviet Union).

As the city expanded, additional sectors would be added tothe end of each band, so that it would
become ever longer,

without growing wider

The city may run parallel to a river and be built so that the

dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the

industrial strip.

Ernst May, a famous German functionalist architect,

formulated his initial plan for Magnitogorsk, a new city in the

Soviet Union, primarily following the model established in

Frankfurt settlements: identical, equidistant five-storycommunal apartment buildings and an extensive

network ofdining halls and other public services.



Soria y Mata








Noted French architect and city planner, forerunner ofavant garde 20th century French architects

In 1901, after extensive study of sociological and

architectural problems, he formulated an elaborate

solution to use architecture to create industrial

utopias that would help control unchecked urban

growth and keep the working classes in line.

Proposed a modern linear industrial city called Une

Cite Industrielle (1917-18) designed for about 35,000inhabitants living in lushly landscaped residential


He removed churches or law enforcement buildings,

in hope that man could rule himself. He was

influenced by the writings of Emile Zola.

Concept partially adopted in his hometown of Lyons,


Four main principles: functionalism, space, greenery,

and high sunshine exposure.

His basic idea included the separation of spaces byfunction through zoning into four categories including

leisure/recreation, industry, work, and transport.

His plan allowed vocational-type schools to be near

the industries to which they were related so that

people could be more easily educated.








in Canada

1. was active in UK, USA and Canada from 1911-38

2. Formed Town Planning Institute of Canada in 1919


members in most provinces and midwifed the

passage of Canadian city planning law in 1921

3. Adams adopted utilitarian approach to planning


intervention (versus English common law



4. Adam saw fundamental conflict between right to lifeversus right to property. However, Adams
belonged tothe British liberal tradition, not socialism/communism.
Town plan should provide for the proper and efficientcarrying-on of business.

5. Adams encouraged development of small well-planned

towns and the decentralization of industrial plants.

6. Adams drafted model planning legislation for provinces

to adopt

Made Planning mandatory

Approval of local plan by province/state after notification and

hearing process

Approval of land subdivision required

Arbitration, compensation, and betterment

Zoning for use, height, and bulk permitted

Building densities to be limited

Policy authority in hands of planning boards.

Executive responsibility to a professional planner.

City Efficient


C. Britton

Harris, ( 1895-

2005) University

of Pennsylvania







First to write a comprehensive textbook on Urban andRegional Planning

Emphasized quantitative, statistical tools to study social

phenomena; Proposed to treat a town or region as anevolving system and simulate its growth as a
system in arecursive manner while studying directly the influence ofdifferent public policies on the
pattern of town evolution

Planning process should follow the cycle of human

behavioral process

conducted pioneering research on how residents use theircity in the course of daily life, social and
physical conceptsof neighborhood, and urban growth dynamics.

Five goals of Spatial Planning






Co-founded American Sociological Association and USSocial Science Research Council.

Suburbanization & Motorcities

Suburbanization Intensified with the Baby Boom Generation or

Population Explosion after World War II.

Primarily driven by the popularity of automobile as mode oftransport (General Motors, Ford, and
Chrysler in USA; before theylost to Toyota and Nissan in the late 1990s) the car is king

mentality as popularized by broadcast media

Public resources were increasing diverted from historic inner-cities

to gated residential subdivisions meant for the wealthier classes

City cores lost out to suburbia and exurbia in terms of capitalimprovement and employment

Inner cities looked abandoned hollow cores or the donut shape

according to Peirce Lewis.

Intensification of air pollution and climate change since 1950s as

studied at Harvard University by Albert Arnold La Fon Gore.

Amorphic Sprawl refers to the low-density fragmented use ofland for consumptive urban purposes at
a scale expanded faster

than what population growth requires and occurring along the

margins of existing metropolitan areas in a generally amorphic

(formless) manner.

Over time, this pattern means more and more houses are built

farther away from the urban core that require more energy use per

person and that need to be supported by piecemeal extensions ofurban infrastructure such as roads,
sewer, power and water.

Distances become too great for walking and this forces dependenceon the automobile; hard for old
people when they can no longerdrive; hard for young people who arent yet old enough to drive


of Transport


spurred by US Federal Highway Act of 1916 and

Interstate Highway Act of 1956

Rapkin (1954) -developed transport and landuse study. Traffic is a function of land use e.g.

Chicago and Detroit Transportation Plans.

Wesley Mitchell (1954) -advocated that plansshould be in dynamic not static terms. He was aleading
figure in setting up the Penn-Jersey

Transportation Study, an urban growth

simulation model.

Lowdon Wingo and Harvey S. Perloff (1961)


transportation can be viewed as a basic

spatial organizer of the metropolitan region; theyshowed interdependence of economics,

transport, land use and accessibility

Britton Harris (1960) -a systems framework

Robert A. Garin and Ira Lowry (1964) -A Model

of Metropolis published by Rand Corporation.

Garin-Lowry Spatial Allocation Model. GravityModel.

Dr. Harvey S. Perloff

(1915-1983) UCLA

Dean of Urban Planning

Planning relies








Attempted to address the elements of uncertainty and

extraneous factors in planning for human settlements

T.J. Kent Blueprint Planning and Urban General Plan (1964)

Edwin C. Banfield --Politics, Planning and the Public Interest,in

Meyerson, M. and Banfield, E.C. (eds.). New York: Free Press

Martin Meyerson --Building the Middle-Range Bridge for

Comprehensive Planning

Albert Z. Guttenberg -"A Multiple Land Use Classification System."


Regional Science and Regional Economics both treat

planning as social physics aimed at the discovery of

presumed natural laws or regular occurrences in social

interaction, economic activity and spatial phenomena.

Spatial Interaction push and pull factors, centrifugal and

centripetal forces

Spatial Modelling

Gravity Model by Robert Garin and Ira Lowry


Suburbanization and Amorphic Sprawl

--what an awful waste of space!


Urban Renewal Movement in North

America, 1950-70s:



New Yo


Ed Logue





Aldo Rossi, 1931-97

Abraham Levitt and William Levitt

founded Levittowns in Long Island,

NY and in Pennsylvania

Richard King



Rexford GuyTugwell(1891-1979)





Robert Moses, park commissioner and

head of the city planning commission,

New York City, oversaw major publicworks projects and emerged as one of

the most powerful unelected public

officials in the United States. Between

1924 and 1968, Moses conceived and

executed public works costing $27

billion. He was responsible for buildingvirtually every parkway, expressway,

and public housing project in the NYregion, as well as Lincoln Center,

Shea Stadium, and two world fairs. He

built hundreds of new city playgrounds

and ordered the planting of 2 million


Robert Moses, Chief

Planner of New

York City






Urban Renewal is a US Federal program under the

Comprehensive Housing Act of 1949 which was designed

to help communities improve and redevelop areas that are

outworn, physically deteriorated, unsafe, or poorly planned.

Urban Renewal helps communities realize specific capital

projects or public assets parks, streets and streetscapeimprovements, parks and plazas, greenways,
communitycenters, and facilities that would not happen on their own.

It finances incentives for private investments to create jobs,

revitalize neighborhoods and provide a full range of housing


The basic idea behind urban renewal is that future tax

revenues will pay for revitalization. The City Governmentdraws a line around an area (the urban renewal

and identifies desirable improvements within that area (the

urban renewal plan). The city issues urban renewal bonds

to pay for the identified improvements. As property values

increase in the area due to new investment, the rise in

property tax revenues (called tax increment) is used topay off the urban renewal bonds. This financing
method is

called tax-increment financing, and it is the most common

method of paying for improvements in an urban renewal


is a mode of urban renewal which

entails up-scaling previously-

blighted areas to attract new

business and new occupants; the

Elite and their money would be

motivated to return to the inner


revitalization of blighted

waterfronts and inner cores of

industrial cities which had been

previously abandoned by the Elite

and consequently invaded by the

urban poor

Tends to result in Yuppification

(e.g. condominium clusters) and

in social exclusion of lower










or Activist




Gentrification and large-scale demolition of slums andblack neighborhoods in the 1960s gave rise to

Advocacy or Activitst or Equity School of Planning, andthe applied disciplines of community

development andconflict management

Advocacy Planning school asserts that the planningprocess should take the side of the poor, the last,
theleast, and the lost.

Planners should work for the redistribution of power andresources to the powerless and the
disadvantaged; to

defend the interests of weak and the poor against the

established powers of business and government.

Action . Activist . Mobilization

Goals are Social justice and Equity in Housing, provisionof services, environmental protection.

Advocacy planning has both reflected and contributed toa general trend in planning away from neutral
objectivityin definition of social problems, in favor of applying moreexplicit principles of social justice.

shifted formulation of social policy from backroomnegotiations (haggling among varied interest
groups) outinto the open as Government and Private Institutions

are forced to face the clamor of organized community


Gentrification meant social exclusion : large-scale

demolition of slums and black neighborhoods in the 1960s

Urban Renewal through Gentrification was initiallycalled racist and segregationist and contributedto
Civil Rights protest led by Dr. Martin Luther
King. James Baldwin called urban renewal as

Negro removal.

Manuel Castells (1983,p.160): Gentrification was

driven by the combined influence of gays,

Bohemians, hipsters, artists and yuppies who

wanted upscale neighborhoods with high real-

estate values suited to their lifestyles:

Single, dont have to raise a family, no need tomaintain community traditions, social life in night

bars and cabarets, non-conventional service


Gentrification is often centerless and soul-less

as against New Urbanism which is centered on

reviving some traditions. Gentrification is focused

on comfort/convenience while New Urbanism is

focused on community

Advocacy Planning

Paul Davidoff (1965): father of advocacy planning, idol ofBarack Hussein Obama during Obamas
communitydevelopment work in Chicago. Called for development ofplural plans rather than a unitary
plan, claimed that public

interest is not scientific but is political.

Saul David Alinsky (Rules for Radicals, 1971) ConflictPaul Davidoff

Pragmatics or Conflict Confrontation as Philosophy in

Community Organizing highlight victimization of the last,

the least, and the lost.

anarcho-syndicalist community-organizing and mosquito-like mass

mobilization that confronts the State and dares the State to live up to its
own principles but without Marxist/Maoist ideology of taking over the


Sherry Arnstein Eight Rungs in the Ladder of CitizenParticipation (1969)

Saul David Alinsky

Alan Altshuler

Allan D. Heskin concept of empowerment (1977)

Norman Krumholtz originator of transactive planning and

became President of the American Institute of Certified



Thomas Reiner A Choice Theory of Planning


David F. Mazziotti -The Underlying Assumptions of

Advocacy Planning

Norman Krumholtz


New Urbanism or





Co-founded the movement of New Urbanism also called Neo-


strong critic of the urban renewal policies of the 1950s which,

she claimed, destroyed communities and created isolated,

unnatural urban spaces

Wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961)

one of the most influential books in planning

In The Economy of Cities (1969), Jane Jacobs asserts that

diversity in geographic concentration, not geographic

specialization, spurs urban growth. It is the diversity ofgeographically proximate industries that
promotes innovation

and growth. As measured by employment, industries growslower in cities where they are heavily over-
represented. But

City diversity promotes growth as knowledge spills over


common theme of Jacobs work has been to question whetherwe are building cities for people or cities
for cars

Jacobs advocated dense, mixed-use neighborhoods and

frequently cited New York City's Greenwich Village as an

example of a vibrant urban community

She prescribed that neighborhood should have mixed functions

and therefore mixed land uses to ensure that people were there

for different purposes, on different time schedules, but using

many facilities in common

Other exponents of New Urbanism: Andres Duany, Elizabeth

Plater-Zyberk, Leon Krier, Rob Krier, Daniel Solomon, Stefanos

Polyzoides, Elizabeth Moule,

Jane Jacobs (1916-2006)

New Urbanism or Neo-


ECOPOLIS2009PAGE119 Movement in Architecture and Settlements

Planning which sought to revive the lost artof place-making

abhors the patterns of Suburbanization and

Amorphic Sprawl because suburbs areanomic (anomie), apolitical, and antisocial.

Opposes the proliferation of suburbs andexurbs

seeks to rebuild inner city neighborhoodsaround important traditions and core values;

reorders the built environment into the form

of complete cities, towns, villages, and


employs multi-use development scheme onfocal points such as waterfronts, spectacularor distinctive

Festival atmosphere, ethnic settings,

bazaars and tiangges, street concerts

Pedestrianization fosters informal human

interaction that revitalizes the community

Rachel Louise Carson


first modern eco-feminist who sparked the environmental movement in the

United States

American biologist who wrote Silent Spring (1962); books title suggested a

time when bird populations are greatly reduced as a result of pesticides bioaccumulation

and could no longer be heard singing in the Spring.

Principle of bio-magnification -the process by which a pollutant becomes

increasingly concentrated as it moves up the food chain and builds up in the

human body over an individuals lifetime.

Carsons advocacies led to the formation of US Environmental Protection

Agency (USEPA) in 1970, the Environmental Impact Assessment System,

the Council of Environmental Quality; the Environmental Defense Fund was

created in 1967 with money from her estate (first ENGO)

testified before the US Congress and campaigned against pesticide DDT -

DichloroDiphenylTrichloroethane that weakens the eggshells of raptors;

results in bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals in the food chain

Ironically Carson died of cancer in 1964 before she saw the fruit of her


In 1992, a panel of distinguished Americans declared Rachel Carson's

Silent Spring as one of the most influential books of the last century.

She was a superwoman who almost single-handedly alerted Americans to

the dark side of industrial technology.

Environmental Planning


ECOPOLIS2009PGE122 The first modern Environmental Planner who

Introduced ecological planning primarily through

map overlays that graphically integrate

environmental information.

constraints mapping, sieve analysis, multi-

disciplinary suitability analyses to identify land

development constraints

Pioneered the use of environmental impact

statements (EIS)

Wrote Design With Nature (1969); Won US Medal

of Arts 1990.

form must follow more than just function; it must

also respect the natural environment in which it is


According to Ian McHarg, "the task [of design]

was given to those the engineers who, by instinct

and training, were especially suited to gouge and

scar the landscape and city without remorse."

ographyOrthoimageryGeodeticControlIan L. McHarg built the foundations for

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Manual Sieve Mapping was popular before the full

development of GIS and GPS in 1980s at MIT


Evils of


1. Overcrowding and Traffic-Congestion

2. Pollution & Urban Heat Island Effect

3. Waste and Environmental Decay

4. Amorphic Sprawl or Scattered Development

5. Leapfrog Development or Checkerboard Development

6. Economic Polarization resulting in Mass Poverty and Urban Blightin Primate Cities

Settlement patterns are dysfunctional, ugly, monotonous

Residents live in perceptually undifferentiated areas, many arecenterless and borderless, without a

People are abandoning or moving away from historic inner cities

but going to places which are not better. This is called the

Geography of Nowhere.

With the breakdown of human communities, people experienceurban anomie the person is so
overcome by feelings ofanonymity like a nameless, faceless statistic (Dr. Herbert Gans)

Meaninglessness of life leads to a life of violence, crime, domestic

abuse and social discord.

Gans criticized architectural determinism the fallacy thatarchitecture alone could solve the
problems of poverty and civicdis-engagement

Dr. Herbert J.

Gans, pioneer of

Policy Planning

and Blueprint


James Howard

Kunstler The
Geography of

Nowhere, The

Rise and

Decline of

Americas Man-





IndustrialCitiesarenotself-sustainingInputs Outputs










Solid wastes

Waste heat

Air pollutants

Water pollutants

Greenhouse gases

Manufactured goods




IndustrialCitiesas UrbanEcosystems

Urban ecosystem is a biologicalcommunity where humansrepresent the dominant orkeystone species

and the builtenvironment is the dominant

element controlling the physicalstructure of the ecosystem.

In contrast to natural

ecosystems, the urban

ecosystem is not self-sustainingand relies to extracting

resources from its hinterland.

It is dominated by humans inhigh-density formation and in amanner shaped by non-

biological factors:

Cut-throat Economic Competition

Social complexity --dynamic andheterogeneous

Authority structures to imposeLaw and Order in a


Flowsof people, capital,

information. across urban


Resourceflowsinto urban

areas across urban boundaries water,

food and other naturalresources, building materials.

(influence on region and beyond)

Wasteflows(solid, liquid, airborne,

including hazardouswastes) -influence on widerregion and beyond, and on

global cycles and systems



Late afternoon temperature (F)



Late afternoon temperature (C)

Rural Suburban Commercial


Downtown Urban


Park Suburban



Ambient temperature is highest at the

Central Business District

Megalopolis term byJean Gottmann Sprawling Metropolis with more than 10million population

Hyper-Urbanization or Over-urbanization

means that the rate of population growth in

megacities exceeds the increase in the

capacities of nature (carrying capacity --

food,water,air,land) and the caring capacityof governments/LGUs to mobilize resources

and personnel to address peoples problems.

It is also related to the phenomenon of Urban

Primacy occurs mostly in Third World

countries where a large metropolis enjoys

extraordinary share of a countrys population,

resources, and investments by reason of

historical or political precedence.

Urban Primacy exemplifies the economic

polarization of a country.

False Urbanization

refers to the unexpected large-scale migration ofrural people into urban areas even though

factories and urban firms have yet no available

employment for unskilled labor force with low

education. This can happen in big or smallcities.

Hyper-Urbanization:Megacitiesof theWorld


PrematureUrbanization Forced or Premature

Urbanization occurs as the main

result of land conversion wherein

rural land is prematurely developedfor urban uses an irreversible

change in land use --even though

the populations meant to use or

benefit from such urban land are

not yet present.

If you build it, they will come,

catchline from the 1989 Kevin

Kostner movie Field of Dreams

Uncontrolled Urban Sprawl

Eco-Anarchism anti-big city philosophy; return

to micro identities as spatial strategy;

Exurbia return to the village as a lifestyle because the big city is

too expensive, and is losing its ability to connect and keep

communities together. Technological developments make it possible to

be separated by great distances without missing out because people

are updated and in touch with each other through ICTs. No need to

form cities or towns. Just scattered residences.

Agurbia instead of suburbia, there would be manageable villages

or agurbs, which feed on the city and have multiple relations with it in

terms of education, cooperation and work places, but holds its village

identity and values. Not motorcities or commuter towns but self-reliant

villages in the urban peripheries.

Micropolis small city of less than 50,000 residents, built upon its

agrarian roots, values and sense of community, but embraces newtechnology, knowledge, and creativity
in modern life and in work. Theywould form creative or high-technological clusters of small
cities.Agropolis (John Friedmann) create connections and

interdependence among small cities, market towns, and farming

villages within a territory or eco-region so that they can build

themselves using local demand.


MITS 10 Guiding Principles For Ecology-Oriented


COMPLETE THE WASTE and WATER CYCLES: Treat 100% of water and waste (sewer, gray

water, storm water) on-site and at all scales. Viewing the cycle from pool to planet, these

principles infiltrate buildings, ecomachines, and natural systems.

INTEGRATE INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS: From embedded and ubiquitous digital

technologies to EcoEngineering, infrastructure systems and buildings should enhance system

flows and combine delivery methods.

DESIGN for EFFICIENT ENERGY: Utilize on-site renewable energy technologies in conjunction

with site orientation and planning to maximize benefits of passive and climatic power


MAXIMIZE ON-SITE FOOD PRODUCTION: Increase self-reliance and local food production

especially of fruits and vegetables.

ENHANCE MOBILITY & CIRCULATION: Use new modes of transportation that reduce energy

consumption from local to regional, from personal to shared. Reshape and organize the

circulation patterns to correspond to new travel modes and behavior.

RESTORE STREAMS & RIVERS: Enhance and rehabilitate existing waterways. Restore and

protect the watershed integrity and enhance it by using technology.


support animal species, vegetation and topographical features. Conserve and protect existing

features during construction. Connect local level networks to regional systems.

INCORPORATE INNOVATIVE MATERIALS: use building materials and site products (pavers,

walls, etc) that reduce energy consumption (local materials) and have the potential to adapt to


PRESERVE CULTURE & HERITAGE: Integrate local values through preservation, protection and

integration into new building and landscape design.

VALUE EQUITY, HEALTH & HAPPINESS: Improve living and working environments for all

demographic and age groups. chair phd program


of World


Tier 1 World Cities -New York, London, Tokyo, Paris,

Full service world cities -Chicago, Los Angeles, Frankfurt, Milan,

Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Singapore,

Major world cities --San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, Mexico City,

Beijing, Moscow

Minor world cities --Rome, Boston, Johannesburg, Osaka,

Emergent globalizing cities --Dublin, Luxembourg, Manchester,


Key factors in the globalness of a city:

Inward migration

Corporate headquarters

Legal services

Producer services

Centrality in a network of cities


Sassen, S (1991): The global city London, New York, Tokyo,

Princeton, Princeton University Press

Taylor, P (2003): World city network: a global urban analysis, London,

Routledge (Chapter 1)



a city


Spatial proximity















built environment