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A computer network is an interconnection of various computers to share

software, hardware, resources and data through a communication medium between


them.

A Computer Networking is a set of autonomous computers that permits distributed


processing of the information and data and increased Communication of resources.

Any Computer Networking communication need a sender, a receiver and a


communication medium to transfer signal or Data from sender to the receiver. We need
sender, receiver, communication channel, protocols and operating system to establish a
computer networking.

A networks model describes the organization of various computers in a network for


using resources.

Computer Network Model

A computer networks communication can be based on centralized, distributed or


collaborative computing. Centralized computing involves many workstations or
terminals, connected to one central mainframe or other powerful computer. Distributed
computing interconnects one or more personal computers and allows various services
like Data sharing, hardware sharing resources sharing or network sharing. The
collaborative computing is the combination of centralized and distributed computing.

1. Centralized computing.

It is also known as client-server computing.

In this type of system, multiple computers are joined to one powerful mainframe
computer.

The server or mainframe computer has huge storage and processing capabilities.

The computers that are connected to the mainframe or server are called Clients or
Nodes.

These nodes are not connected to each other; they are only connected to server.

2. Distributed computing

If one computer can forcibly start, stop or control another the computers are not
autonomous. A system with one control unit and many slaves, or a large computer with
remote printers and terminals is not called a computer network, it is called a
Distributed System.
Distributed computing means that the task is divided among multiple computers.

Distributed computing interconnects one ore more personal computers or


Workstations.

In distributed computing, the nodes are capable of processing their own data and rely
on network for services other than data processing.

It allows various services like network sharing, hardware sharing and file sharing.

3. Collaborative computing / Hybrid computing

It is the combination of centralized and distributed computing

In collaborative computing, the nodes are able to serve the basic needs of their users
but they are dependent on some other computers for processing some specific request.

Computer Network Classification

The local area network communication can be constructed by using server based model
or peer to peer model. In peer to peer networks, the individual clients share data and
resources but no one computer is treated as server.

Networks can be classified into local area Networks, metropolitan area Networks and
wide area networks. Local area network is the small network that cover a small area of
Network. Metropolitan area networks are created by combining various local area
networks. Wide area networks are the biggest networks that provide connectivity across
the globe.
Networks provide the benefits of exchanging information or Data, sharing resources,
reducing system costs, increased reliability and flexible working environment.

here are 2 types of network applications:-

Pure network applications

Standalone network application

(A) Pure Network Applications


These are applications created to be used in networks; using pure network applications on a
single computer doesn't make sense. They help us to transfer data and communicate within a
network. Such applications have a separate and distinct user interface that users must learn for
instance:-

Outlook Express
Outlook Express, an email program | Source

1. Email programs
They allow users to type messages at their local nodes and then send to someone on the network.
It is a fast and easy way of transferring mail from one computer to another. Examples of
electronic mail programs (Clients) are:-

Pegasus mail

Outlook express

Eudora Windows mail

Fox mail

Opera

Poco mail

Mozilla Thunderbird

Windows mail
2. File transfer protocol (FTP)
This application facilities transfer of files from one computer to another e.g. from a client to a
server. There are 2 common processes involved in FTP

Downloading: - This is the process of obtaining files from a server to a workstation or a client
(for example when you download programs and music from a server).

Uploading:- This is obtaining of files from a workstation to a server (for instance when you
attach documents and upload them to a server, a good example being when you upload photos to
Facebook).

Examples of FTP programs are:-

FTP in Unix

FTP in Linux or

FTP in Windows

File Transfer Protocol Process


File transfer protocol process

3. Terminal Emulation (TELNET)


It allows a workstation to access the server for an application program. This enables you to
control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. The workstation appears
as a down terminal that is directly attached to the server. The user feels like he/she is using the
server directly. TELNET enables PCs and workstations to function as dumb terminals in
sessions with hosts on inter-networks.

4. Groupware
These applications are used to automate the administration functions of a modern office for
instance video conferencing and chatting. They facilitate the work of groups and improve on
their productivity; they can be used to communicate, co-operate, coordinate, solve problems,
compete, negotiate among others.

(i) Video Conferencing


This is the process of conducting a conference between two or more participants at different
sites by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data. For example, a point-to-point
(two-person) video conferencing system works much like a video telephone.
Each participant has a video camera, microphone, and speakers mounted on his or her computer.
As the two participants speak to one another, their voices are carried over the network and
delivered to the others speakers, and whatever images appear in front of the video camera appear
in a window on the other participants monitor.

(ii) Chatting
It is a real-time communication between two users via computer. Once a chat has been initiated,
either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other
users monitor. The two must be online for a chat to be initiated. Most networks, cybers and
online services offer a chat feature which enables computer users to chat as they go on with their
work.

(B) Stand Alone Applications


These are applications that run on stand alone computers (computers not connected to any
other). In order to extend their activity, they are rebuild to run on network environments e.g.
word processors, spreadsheets, database management systems, presentations graphics, project
management etc. They function even when the computer is offline.

OSI MODEL
The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers. This article describes and explains them,
beginning with the 'lowest' in the hierarchy (the physical) and proceeding to the 'highest' (the
application). The layers are stacked this way:

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

PHYSICAL LAYER
The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception
of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical,
mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the signals for all of the higher
layers. It provides:

Data encoding: modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to better
accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium, and to aid in bit and frame synchronization. It
determines:

What signal state represents a binary 1

How the receiving station knows when a "bit-time" starts

How the receiving station delimits a frame

Physical medium attachment, accommodating various possibilities in the medium:

Will an external transceiver (MAU) be used to connect to the medium?

How many pins do the connectors have and what is each pin used for?

Transmission technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by baseband (digital)
or broadband (analog) signaling.

Physical medium transmission: transmits bits as electrical or optical signals appropriate for the physical
medium, and determines:

What physical medium options can be used

How many volts/db should be used to represent a given signal state, using a given physical medium

DATA LINK LAYER

The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the
physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. To do
this, the data link layer provides:

Link establishment and termination: establishes and terminates the logical link between two nodes.

Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off" when no frame buffers are available.

Frame sequencing: transmits/receives frames sequentially.


Frame acknowledgment: provides/expects frame acknowledgments. Detects and recovers from errors
that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting non-acknowledged frames and handling duplicate
frame receipt.

Frame delimiting: creates and recognizes frame boundaries.

Frame error checking: checks received frames for integrity.

Media access management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical medium.

NETWORK LAYER

The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical path the data should
take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors. It provides:

Routing: routes frames among networks.

Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can instruct a sending station to
"throttle back" its frame transmission when the router's buffer fills up.

Frame fragmentation: if it determines that a downstream router's maximum transmission unit (MTU)
size is less than the frame size, a router can fragment a frame for transmission and re-assembly at the
destination station.

Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses, or names, into physical addresses.

Subnet usage accounting: has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by subnet
intermediate systems, to produce billing information.

Communications Subnet
The network layer software must build headers so that the network layer software residing in the
subnet intermediate systems can recognize them and use them to route data to the destination address.

This layer relieves the upper layers of the need to know anything about the data transmission and
intermediate switching technologies used to connect systems. It establishes, maintains and terminates
connections across the intervening communications facility (one or several intermediate systems in the
communication subnet).

In the network layer and the layers below, peer protocols exist between a node and its immediate
neighbor, but the neighbor may be a node through which data is routed, not the destination station. The
source and destination stations may be separated by many intermediate systems.
TRANSPORT LAYER

The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or
duplications. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between
them and their peers.

The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the
network layer. For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability, a minimal transport layer is
required. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports datagrams, the transport protocol
should include extensive error detection and recovery.

The transport layer provides:

Message segmentation: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it, splits the message into
smaller units (if not already small enough), and passes the smaller units down to the network layer. The
transport layer at the destination station reassembles the message.

Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with acknowledgments.

Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message buffers are
available.

Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams, or sessions onto one logical link and keeps
track of which messages belong to which sessions (see session layer).

Typically, the transport layer can accept relatively large messages, but there are strict message size
limits imposed by the network (or lower) layer. Consequently, the transport layer must break up the
messages into smaller units, or frames, prepending a header to each frame.

The transport layer header information must then include control information, such as message start
and message end flags, to enable the transport layer on the other end to recognize message boundaries.
In addition, if the lower layers do not maintain sequence, the transport header must contain sequence
information to enable the transport layer on the receiving end to get the pieces back together in the
right order before handing the received message up to the layer above.

End-to-end layers
Unlike the lower "subnet" layers whose protocol is between immediately adjacent nodes, the transport
layer and the layers above are true "source to destination" or end-to-end layers, and are not concerned
with the details of the underlying communications facility. Transport layer software (and software above
it) on the source station carries on a conversation with similar software on the destination station by
using message headers and control messages.

SESSION LAYER

The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. It
provides:

Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on different
machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session.

Session support: performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over the network,
performing security, name recognition, logging, and so on.

PRESENTATION LAYER

The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. It can be viewed as the
translator for the network. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into
a common format at the sending station, then translate the common format to a format known to the
application layer at the receiving station.

The presentation layer provides:

Character code translation: for example, ASCII to EBCDIC.

Data conversion: bit order, CR-CR/LF, integer-floating point, and so on.

Data compression: reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network.

Data encryption: encrypt data for security purposes. For example, password encryption.

APPLICATION LAYER

The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network
services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions:

Resource sharing and device redirection


Remote file access

Remote printer access

Inter-process communication

Network management

Directory services

Electronic messaging (such as mail)

Network virtual terminals

IP
The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers. This article describes and explains them,
beginning with the 'lowest' in the hierarchy (the physical) and proceeding to the 'highest' (the
application). The layers are stacked this way:

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

PHYSICAL LAYER

The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception
of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical,
mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the signals for all of the higher
layers. It provides:

Data encoding: modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to better
accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium, and to aid in bit and frame synchronization. It
determines:
What signal state represents a binary 1

How the receiving station knows when a "bit-time" starts

How the receiving station delimits a frame

Physical medium attachment, accommodating various possibilities in the medium:

Will an external transceiver (MAU) be used to connect to the medium?

How many pins do the connectors have and what is each pin used for?

Transmission technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by baseband (digital)
or broadband (analog) signaling.

Physical medium transmission: transmits bits as electrical or optical signals appropriate for the physical
medium, and determines:

What physical medium options can be used

How many volts/db should be used to represent a given signal state, using a given physical medium

DATA LINK LAYER

The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the
physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. To do
this, the data link layer provides:

Link establishment and termination: establishes and terminates the logical link between two nodes.

Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off" when no frame buffers are available.

Frame sequencing: transmits/receives frames sequentially.

Frame acknowledgment: provides/expects frame acknowledgments. Detects and recovers from errors
that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting non-acknowledged frames and handling duplicate
frame receipt.

Frame delimiting: creates and recognizes frame boundaries.

Frame error checking: checks received frames for integrity.

Media access management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical medium.
NETWORK LAYER

The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical path the data should
take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors. It provides:

Routing: routes frames among networks.

Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can instruct a sending station to
"throttle back" its frame transmission when the router's buffer fills up.

Frame fragmentation: if it determines that a downstream router's maximum transmission unit (MTU)
size is less than the frame size, a router can fragment a frame for transmission and re-assembly at the
destination station.

Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses, or names, into physical addresses.

Subnet usage accounting: has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by subnet
intermediate systems, to produce billing information.

Communications Subnet
The network layer software must build headers so that the network layer software residing in the
subnet intermediate systems can recognize them and use them to route data to the destination address.

This layer relieves the upper layers of the need to know anything about the data transmission and
intermediate switching technologies used to connect systems. It establishes, maintains and terminates
connections across the intervening communications facility (one or several intermediate systems in the
communication subnet).

In the network layer and the layers below, peer protocols exist between a node and its immediate
neighbor, but the neighbor may be a node through which data is routed, not the destination station. The
source and destination stations may be separated by many intermediate systems.

TRANSPORT LAYER

The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or
duplications. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between
them and their peers.

The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the
network layer. For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability, a minimal transport layer is
required. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports datagrams, the transport protocol
should include extensive error detection and recovery.

The transport layer provides:

Message segmentation: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it, splits the message into
smaller units (if not already small enough), and passes the smaller units down to the network layer. The
transport layer at the destination station reassembles the message.

Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with acknowledgments.

Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message buffers are
available.

Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams, or sessions onto one logical link and keeps
track of which messages belong to which sessions (see session layer).

Typically, the transport layer can accept relatively large messages, but there are strict message size
limits imposed by the network (or lower) layer. Consequently, the transport layer must break up the
messages into smaller units, or frames, prepending a header to each frame.

The transport layer header information must then include control information, such as message start
and message end flags, to enable the transport layer on the other end to recognize message boundaries.
In addition, if the lower layers do not maintain sequence, the transport header must contain sequence
information to enable the transport layer on the receiving end to get the pieces back together in the
right order before handing the received message up to the layer above.

End-to-end layers
Unlike the lower "subnet" layers whose protocol is between immediately adjacent nodes, the transport
layer and the layers above are true "source to destination" or end-to-end layers, and are not concerned
with the details of the underlying communications facility. Transport layer software (and software above
it) on the source station carries on a conversation with similar software on the destination station by
using message headers and control messages.

SESSION LAYER
The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. It
provides:

Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on different
machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session.

Session support: performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over the network,
performing security, name recognition, logging, and so on.

PRESENTATION LAYER

The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. It can be viewed as the
translator for the network. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into
a common format at the sending station, then translate the common format to a format known to the
application layer at the receiving station.

The presentation layer provides:

Character code translation: for example, ASCII to EBCDIC.

Data conversion: bit order, CR-CR/LF, integer-floating point, and so on.

Data compression: reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network.

Data encryption: encrypt data for security purposes. For example, password encryption.

APPLICATION LAYER

The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network
services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions:

Resource sharing and device redirection

Remote file access

Remote printer access

Inter-process communication

Network management
Directory services

Electronic messaging (such as mail)

Network virtual terminals

IP
IP may refer to any of the following:

1. Short for Internet Protocol address, an IP or IP address is a number (example shown right)
used to indicate the location of a computer or other device on a network using TCP/IP. These
addresses are similar to those of your house, allowing data to reach the appropriate destination on
a network and the Internet.

IPv4 vs. IPv6


As the Internet and technology evolve, there has been an increasing demand for IP addresses. To
help meet the demand for IP addresses, there are two types of addresses used today: IPv4 and
IPv6. Although you may only deal with an IPv4 address in your local home, school, or small
office, you should also be aware of IPv6 addresses for when you encounter them.

Example of an IPv4 address:

45.79.151.23

Example of an IPv6 address:

2601:681:4200:c5c0:516:f0bb:ac3b:46bd

IP address classes
With an IPv4 IP address, there are five classes of available IP ranges: Class A, Class B, Class C,
Class D and Class E, while only A, B, and C are commonly used. Each class allows for a range
of valid IP addresses, shown in the following table.

Class Address Range Supports

Class A 1.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254 Supports 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks.

128.1.0.1 to
Class B Supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks.
191.255.255.254

Class C 192.0.1.1 to Supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks.


223.255.254.254

224.0.0.0 to
Class D Reserved for multicast groups.
239.255.255.255

240.0.0.0 to Reserved for future use, or Research and Development


Class E
254.255.255.254 Purposes.

Ranges 127.x.x.x are reserved for the loopback or localhost, for example, 127.0.0.1 is the
loopback address. Range 255.255.255.255 broadcasts to all hosts on the local network.

IP address breakdown
Every IP address is broken down into four sets of octets and translated into binary to represent
the actual IP address. The below table is an example of the IP 255.255.255.255. If you are new to
binary, we highly recommend reading our binary and hexadecimal conversions section to get a
better understanding of what we're doing in the below charts.

IP: 255 255 255 255

Binary value: 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111

Octet value: 8 8 8 8

For an example, let's break down the IP "166.70.10.23" in the following table. The first row
contains the separate sections of the IP address, the second has binary values, and the third row
shows how the binary value equals the section of the IP address.

IP: 166 70 10 23

Binary value: 10100110 01000110 00001010 00010111

Numerical value: 128+32+4+2=166 64+4+2=70 8+2=10 16+4+2+1=23

Automatically assigned addresses


There are IP addresses that are automatically assigned (dynamic allocation) when you set up a
home network. These default addresses are what allow your computer and other network devices
to communicate and broadcast information over your network. Below are the most commonly
assigned default addresses for home networks.

192.168.1.0 0 is the automatically assigned network address.


192.168.1.1 1 is the commonly used address used as the gateway.

192.168.1.2 2 is also a commonly used address used for a gateway.

192.168.1.3 - 254 Addresses beyond 3 are assigned to computers and devices on the network.

192.168.1.255 255 is automatically assigned on most networks as the broadcast address.

If you have ever connected to your home network, you should be familiar with the gateway
address or 192.168.1.1, which is the address you use to connect to your home network router to
change its settings. Another common IP range that may be used is 10.0.0.3-254.

Getting an IP address
By default, the router you use will assign each of your computers their own IP address, often
using NAT to forward the data coming from those computers to outside networks such as the
Internet. If you need to register an IP address that can be seen on the Internet, you must register
through InterNIC or use a web host that can assign you addresses.

Anyone who connects to the Internet is assigned an IP address by their Internet Service Provider
(ISP), which has registered a range of IP addresses. For example, let's assume your ISP is given
100 addresses, 109.145.93.150-249. In this range, the ISP owns addresses 109.145.93.150 to
109.145.93.249 and can assign any address in that range to its customers. So, all these addresses
belong to your ISP until they are assigned to a customers computer. In the case of a dial-up
connection, you are given a new IP address each time you dial into your ISP. With most
broadband Internet service providers, you are always connected to the Internet your address
rarely changes. It remains the same until the service provider requires otherwise.
The above picture is taken from our "How do computers connect to each other over the Internet"
page and gives a good overview of how a computer can talk to another computer over the
Internet using an IP address.

Other internet protocols


An IP is just one type of protocols the Internet and networks use to communicate. There are
dozens of other protocols that are also used for communication between other programs and
devices. For example, SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a protocol to send e-mail from
one computer to another computer

This lesson is only a part of a series of IPv4 subnetting lessons. Please visit the below links to
learn IPv4 subnetting completely.

Class C Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1


Class C Subnetting Tutorial - Part 2
Class B Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1
Class B Subnetting Tutorial - Part 2
Class A Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1
Class A Subnetting Tutorial - Part 2
Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)
Supernetting

In this Class C Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1, you will learn how to subnet a Class C network.
You need good knowledge about binary number system and the conversions between decimal
to binary and binary to decimal. Click the following link to learn more about binary and
hexadecimal number system.

Subnetting (RFC 950) is the process of dividing any classful IP network (Class A, Class B, or
Class C network) into smaller networks.

Before proceeding further deep into subnetting, we should know these terms.

What is Subnet Mask?


If we recollect from the previous lessons, an IPv4 address has two components, the network
part and the host part. Really, IPv4 address is a combination of IPv4 address and Subnet mask
and the purpose of subnet mask is to identify which part of an IPv4 address is the network part
and which part is the host part. Subnet mask is also a 32 bit number where all the bits of the
network part are represented as "1" and all the bits of the host part are represented as "0".

If we take an example for a Class C network, 192.168.10.0, the address part and the subnet
mask can be represented as below.

Component Binary Decimal

Address Part 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

SN Mask 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 255.255.255.0

For a Class C IPv4 address, the first three octets are used to represent the Network part and the
lact octet is used to represent the host part. From the above table, we can see all "1" in the
network part and all "0" in nthe host part. When this subnet mask is converted to a decimals, it
will become 255.2555.255.0. The default subnet mask for a Class C network is 255.255.255.0,
Class B network is 255.255.0.0 and Class A network is 255.0.0.0

What is a Network Address?


A network address is used to identify the subnet that a host may be placed on and is used to
represent that network. We can find the network address by assigning all bits in the host part as
0.

What is Directed Broadcast?


The host id value containing all 1's in the bit pattern indicates a directed broadcast address. A
directed broadcast address can occur in the destination IPv4 address of an IP datagram, but
never as a source IPv4 address. A directed broadcast address will be seen by all nodes on that
network. For example, the broadcast id for the network 192.168.10.0 will be 192.168.10.255.

A directed broadcast is sent to a specific network identified in the Network part of the IPv4
address. Routers on the network configured to forward-directed broadcasts will send the IP
datagram to the final router that connects the destination specidied in the network part, and the
router at the destination network should forward it to the destination host.

What is Limited Broadcast?


Limited broadcast is another type of broadcast, sent to destination IPv4 address of
255.255.255.255. The limited broadcast can be used in Local Area Networks (LAN), where a
broadcast never crosses a router to reach another network. If a broadcast is to be done over the
local network, you can use the limited broadcast. A limited broadcast address can never appear
as a source IPv4 address; it can appear only as a destination IPv4 address

What is CIDR?
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR, RFC 1517, RFC 1518, RFC 1519, RFC 1520) was
published in 1993 to keep the internet from running out of IPv4 addresses. The "classful"
system of allocating IPv4 addresses can waste many IPv4 addresses. Any organization who
need just a few IPv4 addresses more than 254 must get a Class B address block of 65533 IPv4
addresses. Even much more IPv4 addresses are wasted in the case of Class A, where total
usable IPv4 addresses per network is 16777214 ((2^24) - 2).

The original "IPv4 Class A networks" uses 8 bits to represent the network part, "Class B
networks" uses 16 bits to represent the network part and "Class C networks" uses 24 bits to
represent the network part. CIDR replaced these categories with a more generalized network
prefix. This network prefix could be of any length, not just 8, 16, or 24 bits.

For example; 172.16.120.213 255.255.128.0 can be represented in CIDR format as


172.16.120.213/17, because there are 17 bits used for network part.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) includes supernetting (supernetting is the method of


using contiguous blocks of address spaces to simulate a single, larger, address space), VLSM
(Variable Length Subnet Masking, a method of subnetting a subnet) and route aggregation
(method representing multiple networks using a single entry in a router's routing table. This
can greatly reduce the size of the routing tables in routers).

Class C Subnetting Tutorial


Subnetting is done by taking the bit/s from host part and adding it to the network part. Consider
the same Class C example given above. Remember, the first three octets of a Class C network
is used to represent the network and the last octet is used to represent the host. The default
format for a Class C IPv4 address is Network.Network.Network.Host.

To make things easy, you may remember this.

If all the bits in the host part are "0", that represents the network id.

If all the bits in the host part are "0" except the last bit, it is the first usable IPv4 address.

If all the bits in the host part are "1" except the last bit, it is the last usable IPv4 address.

If all the bits in the host part are "1", that represents the directed broadcast address.

All the IPv4 addresses between the first and last IPv4 addresses (including the first and last)
can be used to configure the devices.

Class C - One Bit Subnetting Tutorial


Consider the network shown above. If we include one bit from the host part to the network
part, the subnet mask is changed into 255.255.255.128. The single bit can have two values in
last octet, either 0 or 1.

11000000.10101000.00001010.0 | 0000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.1 | 0000000

That means, we can get two subnets if we do a single bit subnetting.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 192.168.10.1


1
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111110 192.168.10.126

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111111 192.168.10.127


Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000000 192.168.10.128

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000001 192.168.10.129


2
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111110 192.168.10.254

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111 192.168.10.255

The network 192.168.10.0 is divided into two networks, each network has 128 total IPv4
addresses and 126 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for one bit
subnetting is 255.255.255.128.

Class C - Two Bit Subnetting Tutorial


If we include two bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.255.255.192. The two bits added to network part can have four possible values in last octet
and that are 00, 01, 10 and 11. That means, we can get four networks if we do a two bit
subnetting.

11000000.10101000.00001010.00 | 000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.11 | 000000

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 192.168.10.1


1
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111110 192.168.10.62

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111111 192.168.10.63

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000000 192.168.10.64

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000001 192.168.10.65


2
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111110 192.168.10.126

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111111 192.168.10.127


Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000000 192.168.10.128

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000001 192.168.10.129


3
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111110 192.168.10.190

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111111 192.168.10.191

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000000 192.168.10.192

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000001 192.168.10.193


4
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111110 192.168.10.254

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111 192.168.10.255

The network 192.168.10.0 is divided into four networks, each network has 64 total IPv4
addresses and 62 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for two bit
subnetting is 255.255.255.192.

Class C - 3 Bit Subnetting Tutorial


If we include three bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.255.255.224. The three bits added to network part can have eight possible values in last
octet and that are 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111. That means, we can get eight
networks if we do a three bit subnetting.

11000000.10101000.00001010.000 | 00000
11111111.11111111.11111111.111 | 00000

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

1 First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 192.168.10.1

Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00011110 192.168.10.30


Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00011111 192.168.10.31

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00100000 192.168.10.32

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00100001 192.168.10.33


2
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111110 192.168.10.62

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111111 192.168.10.63

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000000 192.168.10.64

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000001 192.168.10.65


3
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01011110 192.168.10.94

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01011111 192.168.10.95

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01100000 192.168.10.96

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01100001 192.168.10.97


4
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111110 192.168.10.126

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111111 192.168.10.127

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000000 192.168.10.128

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000001 192.168.10.129


5
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10011110 192.168.10.158

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10011111 192.168.10.159

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10100000 192.168.10.160

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10100001 192.168.10.161


6
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111110 192.168.10.190

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111111 192.168.10.191

7 Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000000 192.168.10.192


First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000001 192.168.10.193

Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11011110 192.168.10.222

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11011111 192.168.10.223

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11100000 192.168.10.224

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11100001 192.168.10.225


8
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111110 192.168.10.254

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111 192.168.10.255

The network 192.168.10.0 is divided into eight networks, each network has 32 total IPv4
addresses and 30 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for three
bit subnetting is 255.255.255.224.

Class C - One Bit Subnetting Tutorial

Consider the network shown above. If we include one bit from the host part to the network
part, the subnet mask is changed into 255.255.255.128. The single bit can have two values in
last octet, either 0 or 1.

11000000.10101000.00001010.0 | 0000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.1 | 0000000

That means, we can get two subnets if we do a single bit subnetting.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 192.168.10.1


1
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111110 192.168.10.126

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111111 192.168.10.127

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000000 192.168.10.128


2
First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000001 192.168.10.129
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111110 192.168.10.254

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111 192.168.10.255

The network 192.168.10.0 is divided into two networks, each network has 128 total IPv4
addresses and 126 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for one bit
subnetting is 255.255.255.128.

Class C - Two Bit Subnetting Tutorial


If we include two bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.255.255.192. The two bits added to network part can have four possible values in last octet
and that are 00, 01, 10 and 11. That means, we can get four networks if we do a two bit
subnetting.

11000000.10101000.00001010.00 | 000000
11111111.11111111.11111111.11 | 000000

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 192.168.10.1


1
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111110 192.168.10.62

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111111 192.168.10.63

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000000 192.168.10.64

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000001 192.168.10.65


2
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111110 192.168.10.126

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111111 192.168.10.127

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000000 192.168.10.128


3
First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000001 192.168.10.129
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111110 192.168.10.190

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111111 192.168.10.191

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000000 192.168.10.192

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000001 192.168.10.193


4
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111110 192.168.10.254

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111 192.168.10.255

The network 192.168.10.0 is divided into four networks, each network has 64 total IPv4
addresses and 62 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for two bit
subnetting is 255.255.255.192.

Class C - 3 Bit Subnetting Tutorial


If we include three bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.255.255.224. The three bits added to network part can have eight possible values in last
octet and that are 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111. That means, we can get eight
networks if we do a three bit subnetting.

11000000.10101000.00001010.000 | 00000
11111111.11111111.11111111.111 | 00000

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 192.168.10.1


1
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00011110 192.168.10.30

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00011111 192.168.10.31

2 Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00100000 192.168.10.32


First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00100001 192.168.10.33

Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111110 192.168.10.62

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111111 192.168.10.63

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000000 192.168.10.64

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000001 192.168.10.65


3
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01011110 192.168.10.94

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01011111 192.168.10.95

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01100000 192.168.10.96

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01100001 192.168.10.97


4
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111110 192.168.10.126

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111111 192.168.10.127

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000000 192.168.10.128

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000001 192.168.10.129


5
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10011110 192.168.10.158

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10011111 192.168.10.159

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10100000 192.168.10.160

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10100001 192.168.10.161


6
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111110 192.168.10.190

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111111 192.168.10.191

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000000 192.168.10.192

7 First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000001 192.168.10.193

Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11011110 192.168.10.222


Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11011111 192.168.10.223

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11100000 192.168.10.224

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11100001 192.168.10.225


8
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111110 192.168.10.254

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111 192.168.10.255

The network 192.168.10.0 is divided into eight networks, each network has 32 total IPv4
addresses and 30 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for three
bit subnetting is 255.255.255.224.

Class C - 4 Bit Subnetting


If we include four bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed to
255.255.255.240.

11000000.10101000.00001010.0000 | 0000
11111111.11111111.11111111.1111 | 0000

The four bits added to network part can have sixteen possible values in last (fourth) octet and
that are 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111, 1000, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1100,
1101, 1110, 1111.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000 192.168.10.0

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001 192.168.10.1


1
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00001110 192.168.10.14

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00001111 192.168.10.15

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00010000 192.168.10.16


2
First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00010001 192.168.10.17
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00011110 192.168.10.30

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00011111 192.168.10.31

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00100000 192.168.10.32

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00100001 192.168.10.33


3
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00101110 192.168.10.46

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00101111 192.168.10.47

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00110000 192.168.10.48

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00110001 192.168.10.49


4
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111110 192.168.10.62

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.00111111 192.168.10.63

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000000 192.168.10.64

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01000001 192.168.10.65


5
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01001110 192.168.10.78

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01001111 192.168.10.79

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01010000 192.168.10.80

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01010001 192.168.10.81


6
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01011110 192.168.10.94

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01011111 192.168.10.95

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01100000 192.168.10.96

7 First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01100001 192.168.10.97

Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01101110 192.168.10.110


Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01101111 192.168.10.111

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01110000 192.168.10.112

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01110001 192.168.10.113


8
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111110 192.168.10.126

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.01111111 192.168.10.127

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000000 192.168.10.128

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10000001 192.168.10.129


9
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10001110 192.168.10.142

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10001111 192.168.10.143

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10010000 192.168.10.144

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10010001 192.168.10.145


10
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10011110 192.168.10.158

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10011111 192.168.10.159

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10100000 192.168.10.160

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10100001 192.168.10.161


11
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10101110 192.168.10.174

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10101111 192.168.10.175

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10110000 192.168.10.176

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10110001 192.168.10.177


12
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111110 192.168.10.190

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.10111111 192.168.10.191


Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000000 192.168.10.192

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11000001 192.168.10.193


13
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11001110 192.168.10.206

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11001111 192.168.10.207

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11010000 192.168.10.208

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11010001 192.168.10.209


14
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11011110 192.168.10.222

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11011111 192.168.10.223

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11100000 192.168.10.224

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11100001 192.168.10.225


15
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11101110 192.168.10.238

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11101111 192.168.10.239

Network Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11110000 192.168.10.240

First IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11110001 192.168.10.241


16
Last IPv4 address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111110 192.168.10.254

Broadcast Address 11000000.10101000.00001010.11111111 192.168.10.255

The network 192.168.10.0 is divided into sixteen networks, each network has 16 total IPv4
addresses and 14 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address).

From the above examples, you can can clearly understand how to subnet a Class C network .

Class C Subnetting can be summerized as below.

Subnet Bits Subnet Mask CIDR Total Subnets Usable IPs/Subnet

0 255.255.255.0 /24 1 254


1 255.255.255.128 /25 2 126

2 255.255.255.192 /26 4 62

3 255.255.255.224 /27 8 30

4 255.255.255.240 /28 16 14

5 255.255.255.248 /29 32 6

6 255.255.255.252 /30 64 2

In this Class C Subnetting Tutorial - Part 2, you have learned how to perform a Class C 4 bit
subnetting. To View Class B Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1, Click "Next".

IPv4 subnetting lClass A Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1,

This lesson is only a part of a series of. Please visit the below links to learn IPv4 subnetting
completely.

In this you will learn how to subnet a Class A network.

Class A Subnetting

Remember, the first octet of a Class A network is used to represent the network and the
remaining three octets are used to represent the host. The default format for a Class A IPv4
address is Network.Host.Host.Host.

Let us consider an example of Class A network 10.0.0.0 - 255.0.0.0. The binary representation
of the above network and subnet mask is

Component Binary Decimal

Address Part 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000 10.0.0.0

Subnet Mask 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 255.0.0.0

Once again,

If all the bits in the host part are "0", that represents the network address.

If all the bits in the host part are "0" except the last bit, it is the first usable IPv4 address.

If all the bits in the host part are "1" except the last bit, it is the last usable IPv4 address.

If all the bits in the host part are "1", that represents the direct broadcast address.

All the IPv4 addresses between the first and last IPv4 addresses (including the first and last)
can be used to configure the devices.

Class A - One Bit Subnetting

If we include one bit from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.255.128.0 The single bit can have two values in second octet, either 0 or 1.

00001010.0 | 0000000.00000000.00000000
11111111.1 | 0000000.00000000.00000000

That means, we can get two subnets if we do a single bit subnetting. The subnet mask for one
bit subnetting is 255.128.0.0.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000 10.0.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000001 10.0.0.1


1
Last IPv4 address 00001010.01111111.11111111.11111110 10.127.255.254

Broadcast Address 100001010.01111111.11111111.11111110 10.127.255.255


Network Address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000000 10.128.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000001 10.128.0.1


2
Last IPv4 address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111110 10.255.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111111 10.255.255.255

The network 10.0.0.0 is divided into two networks, each network has 8388608 total IPv4
Addresses and 8388606 usable IPv4 Addresses (two IPv4 Addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address).

Class A - Two Bit Subnetting

If we include two bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.192.0.0. The two bits added to network part can have four possible values in second octet,
00, 01, 10, and 11.

00001010.00 | 000000.00000000.00000000
11111111.11 | 000000.00000000.00000000

That means, we can get four networks if we do a two bit subnetting. The subnet mask for two
bit subnetting is 255.192.0.0.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000 10.0.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000001 10.0.0.1


1
Last IPv4 address 00001010.00111111.11111111.11111110 10.63.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.00111111.11111111.11111111 10.63.255.255

Network Address 00001010.01000000.00000000.00000000 10.64.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.01000000.00000000.00000001 10.64.0.1


2
Last IPv4 address 00001010.01111111.11111111.11111110 10.127.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.01111111.11111111.11111110 10.127.255.255

3 Network Address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000000 10.128.0.0


First IPv4 address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000001 10.128.0.1

Last IPv4 address 00001010.10111111.11111111.11111110 10.191.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.10111111.11111111.11111111 10.191.255.255

Network Address 00001010.11000000.00000000.00000000 10.192.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.11000000.00000000.00000001 10.192.0.1


4
Last IPv4 address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111110 10.255.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111111 10.255.255.255

The network 10.0.0.0 is divided into four networks, each network has 4194304 total IPv4
Addresses and 4194302 usable IPv4 Addresses (two IPv4 Addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address).

Class A - 3 Bit Subnetting

If we include three bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.224.0.0 The three bits added to network part can have eight possible values in the second
octet and that are 000, 001, 010, and 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111.

00001010.000 | 00000.00000000.00000000
11111111.111 | 00000.00000000.00000000

That means, we can get eight networks if we do a three bit subnetting and the subnet mask will
be 255.224.0.0.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000 10.0.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000001 10.0.0.1


1
Last IPv4 address 00001010.00011111.11111111.11111110 10.31.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.00011111.11111111.11111111 10.31.255.255

Network Address 00001010.00100000.00000000.00000000 10.32.0.0


2
First IPv4 address 00001010.00100000.00000000.00000001 10.32.0.1
Last IPv4 address 00001010.00111111.11111111.11111110 10.63.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.00111111.11111111.11111111 10.63.255.255

Network Address 00001010.01000000.00000000.00000000 10.64.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.01000000.00000000.00000001 10.64.0.1


3
Last IPv4 address 00001010.01011111.11111111.11111110 10.95.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.01011111.11111111.11111111 10.95.255.255

Network Address 00001010.01100000.00000000.00000000 10.96.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.01100000.00000000.00000001 10.96.0.1


4
Last IPv4 address 00001010.01111111.11111111.11111110 10.127.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.01111111.11111111.11111111 10.127.255.255

Network Address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000000 10.128.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000001 10.128.0.1


5
Last IPv4 address 00001010.10011111.11111111.11111110 10.159.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.10011111.11111111.11111111 10.159.255.255

Network Address 00001010.10100000.00000000.00000000 10.160.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.10100000.00000000.00000001 10.160.0.1


6
Last IPv4 address 00001010.10111111.11111111.11111110 10.191.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.10111111.11111111.11111111 10.191.255.255

Network Address 00001010.11000000.00000000.00000000 10.192.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.11000000.00000000.00000001 10.192.0.1


7
Last IPv4 address 00001010.11011111.11111111.11111110 10.223.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11011111.11111111.11111111 10.223.255.255


Network Address 00001010.11100000.00000000.00000000 10.224.0.0

First IPv4 address 00001010.11100000.00000000.00000001 10.224.0.1


8
Last IPv4 address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111110 10.255.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111111 10.255.255.255

The network 10.0.0.0 is divided into eight networks, each network has 2097152 total IPv4
Addresses and 2097150 usable IPv4 Addresses (two IPv4 Addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address).

In this Class A Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1, you have learned how to subnet a Class A network.
Click "Next" to view .

Class A - 4 Bit Subnetting


If we include four bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed to
255.240.0.0.

00001010.0000 | 0000.00000000.00000000
11111111.1111 | 0000.00000000.00000000

The four bits added to network part can have sixteen possible values in second octet and that are
0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111, 1000, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110,
1111.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000 10.0.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000001 10.0.0.1


1
Last IP Address 00001010.00001111.11111111.11111110 10.15.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.00001111.11111111.11111111 10.15.255.255

Network Address 00001010.00010000.00000000.00000000 10.16.0.0


2
First IP Address 00001010.00010000.00000000.00000001 10.16.0.1
Last IP Address 00001010.00011111.11111111.11111110 10.31.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.00011111.11111111.11111111 10.31.255.255

Network Address 00001010.00100000.00000000.00000000 10.32.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.00100000.00000000.00000001 10.32.0.1


3
Last IP Address 00001010.00101111.11111111.11111110 10.47.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.00101111.11111111.11111111 10.47.255.255

Network Address 00001010.00110000.00000000.00000000 10.48.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.00110000.00000000.00000001 10.48.0.1


4
Last IP Address 00001010.00111111.11111111.11111110 10.63.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.00111111.11111111.11111111 10.63.255.255

Network Address 00001010.01000000.00000000.00000000 10.64.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.01000000.00000000.00000001 10.64.0.1


5
Last IP Address 00001010.01001111.11111111.11111110 10.79.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.01001111.11111111.11111111 10.79.255.255

Network Address 00001010.01010000.00000000.00000000 10.80.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.01010000.00000000.00000001 10.80.0.1


6
Last IP Address 00001010.01011111.11111111.11111110 10.95.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.01011111.11111111.11111110 10.95.255.255

Network Address 00001010.01100000.00000000.00000000 10.96.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.01100000.00000000.00000001 10.96.0.1


7
Last IP Address 00001010.01101111.11111111.11111110 10.111.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.01101111.11111111.11111110 10.111.255.255


Network Address 00001010.01110000.00000000.00000000 10.112.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.01110000.00000000.00000001 10.112.0.1


8
Last IP Address 00001010.01111111.11111111.11111110 10.127.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.01111111.11111111.11111111 10.127.255.255

Network Address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000000 10.128.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.10000000.00000000.00000001 10.128.0.1


9
Last IP Address 00001010.10001111.11111111.11111110 10.143.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.10001111.11111111.11111111 10.143.255.255

Network Address 00001010.10010000.00000000.00000000 10.144.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.10010000.00000000.00000001 10.144.0.1


10
Last IP Address 00001010.10011111.11111111.11111110 10.159.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.10011111.11111111.11111111 10.159.255.255

Network Address 00001010.10100000.00000000.00000000 10.160.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.10100000.00000000.00000001 10.160.0.1


11
Last IP Address 00001010.10101111.11111111.11111110 10.175.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.10101111.11111111.11111111 10.175.255.255

Network Address 00001010.10110000.00000000.00000000 10.176.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.10110000.00000000.00000001 10.176.0.1


12
Last IP Address 00001010.10111111.11111111.11111110 10.191.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.10111111.11111111.11111111 10.191.255.255

Network Address 00001010.11000000.00000000.00000000 10.192.0.0


13
First IP Address 00001010.11000000.00000000.00000001 10.192.0.1
Last IP Address 00001010.11001111.11111111.11111110 10.207.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11001111.11111111.11111111 10.207.255.255

Network Address 00001010.11010000.00000000.00000000 10.208.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.11010000.00000000.00000001 10.208.0.1


14
Last IP Address 00001010.11011111.11111111.11111110 10.223.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11011111.11111111.11111111 10.223.255.255

Network Address 00001010.11100000.00000000.00000000 10.224.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.11100000.00000000.00000001 10.224.0.1


15
Last IP Address 00001010.11101111.11111111.11111110 10.239.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11101111.11111111.11111111 10.239.255.255

Network Address 00001010.11110000.00000000.00000000 10.240.0.0

First IP Address 00001010.11110000.00000000.00000001 10.240.0.1


16
Last IP Address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111110 10.255.255.254

Broadcast Address 00001010.11111111.11111111.11111111 10.255.255.255

The network 10.0.0.0 is divided into sixteen networks, each network has 1048576 total IPv4
addresses and 1048574 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address).

From the above examples, you can clearly understand how to subnet a Class A network..

Class A IPv4 Subnetting can be summerized as below.

Subnet Bits Subnet Mask CIDR Total Subnets Usable IP Address/Subnet

0 255.0.0.0 /8 1 16777214

1 255.128.0.0 /9 2 8388606

2 255.192.0.0 /10 4 4194302


3 255.224.0.0 /11 8 2097150

4 255.240.0.0 /12 16 1048574

5 255.248.0.0 /13 32 524286

255.252.0.0 /14 64 262142

7 255.254.0.0 /15 128 131070

8 255.255.0.0 /16 256 65534

9 255.255.128.0 /17 512 32766

10 255.255.192.0 /18 1024 16382

11 255.255.224.0 /19 2048 8190

12 255.255.240.0 /20 4096 4094

13 255.255.248.0 /21 8192 2046

14 255.255.252.0 /22 16384 1022

15 255.255.254.0 /23 32768 510

16 255.255.255.0 /24 65536 254

17 255.255.255.128 /25 131072 126

18 255.255.255.192 /26 262144 62

19 255.255.255.224 /27 524288 30

20 255.255.255.240 /28 1048576 14

21 255.255.255.248 /29 2097152 6

22 255.255.255.252 /30 4194304 2

Class B Subnetting

Remember, the first two octets of a Class B network is used to represent the network and the
last two octets are used to represent the host. The default format for a Class B IPv4 address is
Network.Network.Host.Host.

Let us consider an example of Class B network 172.16.0.0 - 255.255.0.0. The binary


representation of the above network and subnet mask is

Component Binary Decimal

Address Part 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 172.16.0.0

SN Mask 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 255.255.0.0

Once again,

If all the bits in the host part are "0", that represents the network id.

If all the bits in the host part are "0" except the last bit, it is the first usable IPv4 address.

If all the bits in the host part are "1" except the last bit, it is the last usable IPv4 address.

If all the bits in the host part are "1", that represents the directed broadcast address.

All the IPv4 addresses between the first and last IPv4 addresses (including the first and last)
can be used to configure the devices.

Class B - One Bit Subnetting

If we include one bit from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.255.128.0 The single bit can have two values in third octet, either 0 or 1.

10101100.00010000.0 | 0000000.00000000
11111111.11111111.1 | 0000000.00000000

That means, we can get two subnets if we do a single bit subnetting.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 172.16.0.0

1 First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000001 172.16.0.1

Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111110 172.16.127.254


Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111111 172.16.127.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000000 172.16.128.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000001 172.16.128.1


2
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111110 172.16.255.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111111 172.16.255.255

The network 172.16.0.0 is divided into two networks, each network has 32768 total IPv4
addresses and 32766 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for one
bit subnetting is 255.255.128.0.

Class B - Two Bit Subnetting

If we include two bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed into
255.255.192.0. The two bits added to network part can have four possible values in third
octet, 00, 01, 10, and 11.

10101100.00010000.00 | 000000.00000000
11111111.11111111.11 | 000000.00000000

That means, we can get four networks if we do a two bit subnetting.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 172.16.0.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000001 172.16.0.1


1
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.00111111.11111110 172.16.63.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.00111111.11111111 172.16.63.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.01000000.00000000 172.16.64.0

2 First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.01000000.00000001 172.16.64.1

Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111110 172.16.127.254


Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111111 172.16.127.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000000 172.16.128.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000001 172.16.128.1


3
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.10111111.11111110 172.16.191.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.10111111.11111111 172.16.191.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.11000000.00000000 172.16.192.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.11000000.00000001 172.16.192.1


4
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111110 172.16.255.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111111 172.16.255.255

The network 172.16.0.0 is divided into four networks, each network has 16384 total IPv4
addresses and 16382 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask for one
bit subnetting is 255.255.192.0.

Class B - 3 Bit Subnetting

If we include three bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed
into 255.255.224.0 The three bits added to network part can have eight possible values in the
third octet and that are 000, 001, 010, and 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111.

10101100.00010000.000 | 00000.00000000
11111111.11111111.111 | 00000.00000000

That means, we can get eight networks if we do a three bit subnetting.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 172.16.0.0

1 First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000001 172.16.0.1

Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.00011111.11111110 172.16.31.254


Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.00011111.11111111 172.16.31.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00100000.00000000 172.16.32.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.00100000.00000001 172.16.32.1


2
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.00111111.11111110 172.16.63.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.00111111.11111111 172.16.63.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.01000000.00000000 172.16.64.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.01000000.00000001 172.16.64.1


3
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.01011111.11111110 172.16.95.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01011111.11111111 172.16.95.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.01100000.00000000 172.16.96.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.01100000.00000001 172.16.96.1


4
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111110 172.16.127.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111111 172.16.127.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000000 172.16.128.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000001 172.16.128.1


5
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.10011111.11111110 172.16.159.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.10011111.11111111 172.16.159.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.10100000.00000000 172.16.160.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.10100000.00000001 172.16.160.1


6
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.10111111.11111110 172.16.191.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.10111111.11111111 172.16.191.255

7 Network Address 10101100.00010000.11000000.00000000 172.16.192.0


First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.11000000.00000001 172.16.192.1

Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.11011111.11111110 172.16.223.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11011111.11111111 172.16.223.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.11100000.00000000 172.16.224.0

First IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.11100000.00000001 172.16.224.1


8
Last IPv4 address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111110 172.16.255.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111111 172.16.255.255

The network 172.16.0.0 is divided into eight networks, each network has 8192 total IPv4
addresses and 8190 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address).

In this Class B Subnetting Tutorial - Part 1, you have learned how to subnet a Class B
network. Click "Next" to view Class B Subnetting Tutorial - Part 2.

Class B - 4 Bit Subnetting


If we include four bits from the host part to the network part, the subnet mask is changed to
255.255.240.0.

10101100.00010000.0000 | 0000.00000000
11111111.11111111.1111 | 0000.00000000

The four bits added to network part can have sixteen possible values in third octet and that
are 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111, 1000, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101,
1110, 1111.

SN No Description Binaries Decimal

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000000 172.16.0.0

1 First IP Address 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000001 172.16.0.1

Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.00001111.11111110 172.16.15.254


Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.00001111.11111111 172.16.15.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00010000.00000000 172.16.16.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.00010000.00000001 172.16.16.1


2
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.00011111.11111110 172.16.31.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.00011111.11111111 172.16.31.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00100000.00000000 172.16.32.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.00100000.00000001 172.16.32.01


3
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.00101111.11111110 172.16.47.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.00101111.11111111 172.16.47.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.00110000.00000000 172.16.48.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.00110000.00000001 172.16.48.1


4
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.00111111.11111110 172.16.63.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.00111111.11111111 172.16.63.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.01000000.00000000 172.16.64.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.01000000.00000001 172.16.64.1


5
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.01001111.11111110 172.16.79.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01001111.11111110 172.16.79.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.01010000.00000000 172.16.80.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.01010000.00000001 172.16.80.1


6
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.01011111.11111110 172.16.95.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01011111.11111111 172.16.95.255


Network Address 10101100.00010000.01100000.00000000 172.16.96.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.01100000.00000001 172.16.96.1


7
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.01101111.11111110 172.16.111.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01101111.11111110 172.16.111.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.01110000.00000000 172.16.112.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.01110000.00000001 172.16.112.1


8
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111110 172.16.127.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.01111111.11111111 172.16.127.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000000 172.16.128.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.10000000.00000001 172.16.128.1


9
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.10001111.11111110 172.16.143.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.10001111.11111111 172.16.143.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.10010000.00000000 172.16.144.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.10010000.00000001 172.16.144.1


10
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.10011111.11111110 172.16.159.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.10011111.11111111 172.16.159.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.10100000.00000000 172.16.160.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.10100000.00000001 172.16.160.1


11
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.10101111.11111110 172.16.175.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.10101111.11111111 172.16.175.255

12 Network Address 10101100.00010000.10110000.00000000 172.16.176.0


First IP Address 10101100.00010000.10110000.00000001 172.16.176.1

Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.10111111.11111110 172.16.191.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.10111111.11111111 172.16.191.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.11000000.00000000 172.16.192.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.11000000.00000001 172.16.192.1


13
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.11001111.11111110 172.16.207.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11001111.11111111 172.16.207.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.11010000.00000000 172.16.208.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.11010000.00000001 172.16.208.1


14
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.11011111.11111110 172.16.223.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11011111.11111111 172.16.223.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.11100000.00000000 172.16.224.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.11100000.00000001 172.16.224.1


15
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.11101111.11111110 172.16.239.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11101111.11111111 172.16.239.255

Network Address 10101100.00010000.11110000.00000000 172.16.240.0

First IP Address 10101100.00010000.11110000.00000001 172.16.240.1


16
Last IP Address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111110 172.16.255.254

Broadcast Address 10101100.00010000.11111111.11111111 172.16.255.255

The network 172.16.0.0 is divided into sixteen networks, each network has 4096 total IPv4
addresses and 4094 usable IPv4 addresses (two IPv4 addresses are used in each subnet to
represent the network address and the directed broadcast address). The subnet mask is
255.255.240.0.
Class B Subnetting can be summerized as below.

Subnet Bits Subnet Mask CIDR Total Subnets Usable IP Address/Subnet

0 255.255.0.0 /16 1 65534

1 255.255.128.0 /17 2 32766

2 255.255.192.0 /18 4 16382

3 255.255.224.0 /19 8 8190

4 255.255.240.0 /20 16 4094

5 255.255.248.0 /21 32 2046

6 255.255.252.0 /22 64 1022

7 255.255.254.0 /23 128 510

8 255.255.255.0 /24 256 254

9 255.255.255.128 /25 512 126

10 255.255.255.192 /26 1024 62

11 255.255.255.224 /27 2048 30

12 255.255.255.240 /28 4096 14

13 255.255.255.248 /29 8192 6

14 255.255.255.252 /30 16384 2

In this Class B Subnetting tutorial Part - 2, you have learned how perform a Class B 4 bit
Subnetting. To view Class A Subnetting Tutorials - Part 1, Click "Next".