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ABSTRACT:

U-boot beton is a formwork made of recycled polypropylene, designed to create


lightened intermediate slabs and raft foundations in reinforced concrete. The use of U-boot
formworks permits to build specific mushroom slabs: the mushroom is part of the slab
thickness. U-boot remains dip into the concrete casting. Thus, a grid of orthogonal beams,
superiorly and inferiorly closed by plane slabs of different heights, is obtained without
executing two distinct concrete castings, all that implies a remarkable saving of concrete and
reinforcement.
INTRODUCTION

U-boot is used for structural elements of different types such as slabs or foundation
grants solution preformation considerable designing technical and economic. Disposable
formwork for two-way voided slabs in reinforced concrete cast on site. U-Boot Beton is a
recycled polypropylene formwork that was designed to create two-way voided slabs and
rafts. U-Boot Beton is used to create slabs with large span or that are able to support large
loads without beams A lightweight, cellular concrete made by infusing an unhardened
concrete mixture with prepared foam or by generating gases within the mixture.

U-BOOT BETON

Advantages compared with tradition play on cement systems those and light weight
training or fully faceted to win slabs the traditional clay cement or polystyrene floor slabs.
The traditional clay cement or polystyrene floor slabs normally consists of mono directional
beings that discharge stresses on to the main beings from these two pillars and finally the
foundations the full plate floor slabs instead are made from monolithic reinforced concrete
casts in which the structure is able to bi directionally transmit loads directly to the by using
U-boot and lighter slab structure is obtained capable of splitting the stresses in any direction
transferring them directly to the penance to simplify the concept we could imagine a series of
double teams of alongside the other and arranged as a premise all stresses will be
concentrated close to pillars where the suitable full section gets left in this way floor slabs
with mushroom like files for the repose in modern people specificity being that the
mushroom is embedded in the floor.
MUSHROOM SLAB
so ,cutting or encumbering capitals and economic boxsters and avoided thanks to the
lightness of the structure doing away lightness of the work the passage of utilities and the
layout of internal wards U-boot will make it possible to optimise the plan layout of pillars
without having to keep the specific distributed limitations as well as reducing their number
benefiting for more extension spans and without encumbrances the overall thickness of the
floor slabs will also be considerably reduced and as a result they use full saving in height will
be obtained for each individual forum is the possibility for tower buildings of gaining an
extra floor with the same that involved compared floor with a full slab the wind saving will
favourably influence the dimensioning of pillars and foundations and the thickness to be
reduced in vocations the foundations will be less important and less stressed also behaviour
under in case of fire the building greater lightness high inertia and reduced surface area
reduced surface area exposed to the effects of heat confer autumn resistances to find from
acoustic specific tests guarantee that a floor slab use U-boot technology provides insulation
performances that are superior compared with traditional clay or cement systems lightweight
polystyrene zings a benefit of no mass importance is the better quality of the concrete
surface finish to be left visible or ready for the skimming without further processing to the
numerous advantages link to the work itself economic logistic and building site advantages
are added for construction firms is processing less consumption of concrete and steel less
handling n ground and overground this encumbrance with in the parameters of the site theres
transport and storage changes all things to a material is stackable tough and able to withstand
all weather conditions first an hour will be handling a product that is safe from the light
nonssoiling and easy to use u-boot is the ideal solution for all buildings in which judging
beams structures would need to be avoided typically slab solution is sort together with
savings in those concrete and weak the U-boot beton building system is particularly suitable
for the construction of high-rise village hospitals commercial centres school buildings
parking management residential and industrial buildings.
In case of raft foundations having a greater inertia U-boot makes it possible to implement
sweaters with a better performance given the same concrete used the grounds are found to
have a low carrying capacity furthermore be possible to eliminate or reduce complex
andcostly foundation pockets.
Laying of avoided two-way elements is swift and simple the reinforcement and U-boot
elements are laid out on top of the decade according to design specifications ready to receive
the concrete casting the layout does not require specialised personal the correct distance
between the elements is assured by aspacer jumped equipped with a graduated scale by
means of which the widths the o beams being formed with the casting can be rapidly
determined at the top this joint gets inserted in specific looking for difference provided on the
upper surface of the U-boot the entire operation is precise handy and rapid once the concrete
is poured avoided structure is permanently embedded providing the structure with the desired
shape on the technical timing for the setting having last the backing will be dismantled the
intros service will prove to be completely smooth formwork can also be used in combination
with predominate facing the voided load directly on te plains and completing the finishing
casting.

BETON NORMAL CENTIMETERS


U-boot beton formwork is shaped like a pyramid drunk and normally measures 52*52
centimetres and manual 10,13,16,20,24,28 centimetres in height,
the sandwich type superimposing two or more base elements allows the implementation of
load releasing elements of various heights according to the plan things out the floor slack also
the chronicle elevator feet placed at the four corners can be of different heights determining a
different distance from the casting deck plate and as a result the different thickness of the
internals slapping the remarkable versatility and flexibility of the U-boot beton construction
system can satisfy any design the map since 2001 millions of U-boot have been deployed in
the implementation of worksin various countries throughout the world works f various
dimensions types and complexity often born of the pencil stroke and genius of famous
designers.
U-boot permits to build big spans slabs or slabs supporting high loads without beams. Light
and easy to pose, the draftsman can change the geometrical parameters of the slab, in order to
suit any kind of situation .U-boot is used in all applications that require a plate structural
solution ,along with concrete-savings and therefore weight-savings.
U-BOOT BETON SANDWICH

U-boot is used in all applications that require a plate structural solution, along with
concrete-savings and therefore weight-savings. In tower buildings, weight-saving at every
floor reduces load on foundations. The fact of avoiding beams being out of the slab thickness,
enables the reduction of height for each floor.

Therefore, a higher number of floors can be built. By using U-boot beton, it is


possible to build thick raft foundations with a reduced quantity of concrete (and weight). U-
boot is the ideal solution to create slabs of big spans and/or with a high bearing capacity. In
case of difficult access to the building site or restructuring,

U-boot beton permits to build up the horizontal structures without using lifting and
movement devices, because of its stackability, modularity, lightness and manageability.
The study includes the results of an extensive experimental program conducted at the
Polytechnic of Milan, which highlight the excellent bidirectional response of voided slabs
and the efficient performance in the presence of seismic actions. The experimental results
here presented are supported by advanced numerical models

POSING:

The U-boot system particularly fits structures that need significant open spaces, like
bureaus,industrial and commercial buildings, and civil constructions as well. The system also
allows a more irregular distribution of pillars, since beams are not necessary

U-boot beton formwork is an easy to use product. First, a flat and complete surface
has to be prepared with a wooden deck or any other similar system.

Then, the inferior steel reinforcement hasto be posed in the two orthogonal directions,
as designed in the executive project; the lattices are finally posed in order to space out upper
reinforcements.
SPAN DISTANCES BETWEEN U-BOOT BETONS

Afterwards, U-boots are laid down and connected by lateral flaps, respecting the
required span between the lightening space. Thanks to the cone shaped feet, U-boots are
raised above the slab intrados, and the concrete can thus be cast, filling the whole surface
below the elements. If double elements are to be used (H32, H36, H40, H44, H48), it will be
necessary to pre-emptively assemble the two parts, that will be delivered in different pallets
at the building site.

CONNECTION BRIDGE:
SPACER JOINT
CLOSING PLATE:

The reinforcement pose is to be completed by disposing the upper bending steel bars in two
directions, the shear and punching reinforcement, where necessary. Due to the floating
pressure exerted on U-boots, the concrete should be cast in two different phases: the first
casting has to fill a thickness equal to the feet height.
The final phase has to be done when the first concrete layer starts to set and becomes semi-
solid. Casting proceeds each time from the previous starting point. While the casting
proceeds, the concrete sets. Finally the casting has to be levelled up in a traditional way
(picture 6). The U-boot system execution time will be accelerated by using new deck
technologies which permit to disassemble within 2-4 days, or using the carpet reinforcement
system, in order to reduce the steel bars posing time up to 4-6 times

U-boot slabs do not need beams between pillars, a perimeter edge beam is enough. The
orthogonal grid of beams transfers all stresses directly on pillars; around which it is enough to
leave a massive area, called mushroom pillar, which is thick as the slab and variable in
function of shear stresses

U-boot lightened slab scheme: the lack of connection beams between pillars
Among foundation different typologies, raft foundation is surely one of the most known and
used, considering its evident technical advantages: high stiffness due to its static bidirectional
behaviour, and thus load partition capacity on the ground; it also permits to absorb stresses
coming from the building, with differential subsidences close to zero; easy and quick to carry
out. If stresses increase or the ground bearing capacity decreases, the structure may require a
thick raft foundation.
This means having more concrete and more pressure on the ground; and therefore higher
building costs. U-boot beton is a formwork made of recycled polypropylene, purposely
designed to build lightened plate slabs and raft foundations. Once drowned into concrete, it
creates an alveolar structure with two slabs of different thickness, joined by an orthogonal
grid of beams of variable width, therefore building an ideal light structure for raft
foundations.
Statically, it can be seen as a grid of I beams which means having a rationalized masses
distribution for the purpose of inertia, in order to get high stiffness with a minimum quantity
of concrete. This perfect combination of lightness and stiffness permits, in particular cases, to
avoid using foundation piles.

Polystyrene is a widely used material in the world of building, especially if associated to


prefabricated slabs, because it is cheap and malleable. However, in the last few years, the
technicalscientific community has been focusing on its numerous disadvantages. First of all,
the fact that polystyrene releases toxic styrene monomers, at room temperature.
Moreover, some studies carried out by the Polytechnic University of Milan highlight the fact
that a slab lightened by means of polystyrene explodes after only 20 minutes, if exposed to
fire load. This is partially due to the presence of warm air into the cavities which increases
pressure, and partially due to styrene sublimation. That is the second problem. In order to
avoid slabs explosions, prefabricated slabs producers recently planned some vents into the
slab to maintain external pressure into cavities. But in this case, the styrene flows out from
the cavity, and it is toxic. On the contrary, U-boot is made of polypropylene which is not
toxic even if it burns. Moreover, the CSI laboratories carried out a fire test on a slab lightened
by means of U-boot and with a 3 cm concrete cover, and the structure was certified REI 180
minutes. The certification is available on request. Finally, polystyrene is a material which
needs huge volumes for transportation and stock on site; U-boot beton is designed to be
stackable.

Correct positioning of the U-Boot Beton is guaranteed by an effective rigid spacer joint with
graduated scale with which the desired width of the beams is quickly determined. The joint
fits into the top of the formwork inside notches housing the fixing elements.
The rigid interconnection ensures perfect geometric compliance with the design as well as
with the bearing capacity of the formworks when casting under the pressure of the concrete,
the weight of the operators and equipment.
APPLICATIONS

U-boot beton is a recycled polypropylene formwork that was designed to create two-
way voided slabs and rafts. The use of U-boot beton formwork makes it possible to create
mushroom pillars, with the possibility to have the mushroom in the thickness of the slab.
Thanks to the conic elevator foot, immerging the U-boot beton formworks in the concrete
casting will create a grid work of mutually perpendicular beams closed from the bottom and
the top by a flat plate that is created with a single casting; this results in considerable
reduction in the use of concrete and steel.

U-Boot Betonis used to create slabs with large span or that are able to support large
loads without beams. Light and quick and easy to position, thanks to their modularity the
designer can vary the geometric parameters as needed to adapt to all situations with great
architectural freedom.
INSTALLATION

1. The entire surface of the slab to be cast on site is shuttered with wood deckings (or similar
systems), then the lower reinforcement concrete bars are positioned in two mutually
perpendicular directions according to the design and the lattice for the upper reinforcement
concrete is arranged.
2. The U-Boot Beton formworks are positioned using the lateral spacers joints to place
them at the desired centre distance that will determine the beam width. Thanks to the conic
elevator foot, theU-Boot Beton formworks will be lifted from the surface, making it
possible for the lower slab to be formed. If double or triple elements are used, these elements
must first be assembled, which will be supplied on distinct pallets in the yard.
3. The positioning of the reinforconcretes is completed by placing above the U-Boot Beton
formwork the upper bars in the two directions as well as the reinforcement for shear and
punching where necessary, according to the design.
4. The concrete casting must be performed in two phases to prevent the floatation of the
formworks: an initial layer will be cast to fill a thickness equal to the height of the elevator
foot. Casting will continue for this first portion of the slab until the concrete starts to set and
become semi fluid.
5. Once suitably set, the casting can be restarted from the starting point, completely burying
the U-Boot Beton. The casting is then levelled and smoothed in a traditional manner.

AFTER COMPLETION
6. Once the structure has hardened, the formwork can be removed. The surface is smooth in
correspondence of the soffit
ADVANTAGES

LIGHT - THIN BIDIRECTIONAL: Designedf or bidirectional slabs , Decrease of concrete


and weight up to 40% ,Reduced deformation (maximum stiffness loss 15%) , Reduction of
load on foundations , Reduction of pillar section

FLEXIBLE:
Spans up to 20 m, Absence of beams between pillars, Reduction of pillars number, Possible
use with prefabricated slabs, No lifting and movement devices required, ideal for
restructuring, Possible creation of monodirectional slabs thanks to the bridge accessory

ANTISEISMIC :
Reduced seismic mass, Less dimensional limitations of elements , Double inferior and
superior slab

OPEN SPACES :
More spacious rooms , Bigger architectural freedom , Easier change of use

ECONOMIC:
Less concrete incidence, thickness being equal , Less steel incidence , Usable height saving
on each floor, since avoiding beams being out of the slab thickness enables a higher number
of floors, height being equal (tower buildings) , Rapidity and easiness of pose (unique
twophased casting) , Possibility of big spans, load being equal , Possibility of high bearing
capacity, spans being equal , Economical transport and easy stocking, since it is stackable,
Ready to smooth once the deck is taken off, the intrados is a plane surface which do not
require false ceilings at an aesthetical level , If a false ceiling is necessary, pose is made more
rapidly

SAFE:
Significant fire resistance (certification REI 180; concrete cover 3cm) ,
Safety on building site (complete flat deck avoids plunking down)

Sound insulation
CONCLUSION:

This is most ecofriendly and advanced technology.