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What is a Computer?

A computer is an electronic data processing device. It can read and write,

computer and compare, store and process large volume of data. It works at high
speed, gives out accurate and reliable results.

Components of a Computer?

The main components of a computer are:

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Input Devices/media.
Output Devices/media.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU is the brain of computer. Its basic function is to perform calculations and
various logical functions it consists of three parts:

1. Control Unit: Controlling of all operations like input, processing and

output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step by step
processing of all operations inside the computer.
2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit: All Calculations and comparisons, based on the
instructions provided, are carried out within the ALU. It performs
arithmetic functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
and also logical operations like greater than, less than and equal to
3. Memory/Storage Unit: The storage unit is used for storing data and
instructions before and after processing

Input Unit:

This unit is used for entering data and programs into the computer system by
the user for processing.

Output Unit:

This unit is used for storing the result as output produced by the computer
after processing.


RAM (Random Access Memory) is the place in a computer where the operating
system, application programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can
be quickly reached by the computers processor. RAM is much faster to read from
and write to than the other kinds of storage in a computer, the Hard disk,
floppy disk, and CD-ROM. However, the data in RAM stays there only as long as
your computer is running. When you turn the computer off, RAM lost its data.
When you turn your computer on again, your operating system and other files are
once again loaded into RAM, usually from your hard disk.
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Read-only Memory (ROM) is a type of storage medium that permanently stores data
on personal computers (PCs) and other electronic devices. It contains the
programming needed to start a PC, which is essential for boot-up; it performs
major input/output tasks and hold programs or software instructions. Because
ROM is read-only, it cannot be changed; it is permanent and non-volatile,
meaning it holds its memory even when power is removed.

Explain all types of Non-Impact Printers?

Non-impact printers are much quieter than impact printers as their printing
heads do not strike the paper.

The main types of non-impact printers are:

Thermal Printers: Characters are formed by heated elements being placed in

contact with special heat sensitive paper forming darkened dots when the
elements reach a critical temperature.

Laser Printers: A type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an

image on a drum. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the
drum wherever it hits. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner,
which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. Finally, the toner is
transferred to the paper through a combination of heat and pressure. This is
also the way copy machines work.

Ink Jet Printers: Characters are formed as a result of electrically charged or

heated ink being sprayed in fine jets onto the paper. Individual nozzle in the
printing head produces high resolution (up to 400 dots per inch or 400 dpi) dot
matrix character.

DOT Matrix Printers

A type of printer that produces characters and illustrations by striking pins

against an ink ribbon to print closely spaced dots in the appropriate shape.
Dot-Matrix printers are relatively expensive and do not produce high-quality
output. However, they can print to multi-page forms (that is, carbon copies),
something laser and ink-jet printers cannot do.

Differentiate between folder and file?

When you save a document to your hard drive, it becomes a file. A file has two
important features. First, it has a name so that you can tell it apart from
other files. Second, it has place to live, like a home address. However, in the
case of a file, the address is in the form of a chain of folders.
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A folder, unlike a file, is a storage unit or container. Like a file, it also

has a name. A folder is not a file, but hit can contain files. It is just like
a paper folder where you store your important paper documents such as your paid

What is Auxiliary or Secondary memory and why is it required?

Secondary memory is computer memory that is non-volatile and persistent in

nature and is not directly accessed by a computer/processor. It allows a user
to store data that may be instantly and easily retrieved, transported and used
by application and services. Secondary memory consists of al permanent or
persistent storage devices, such as read only memory (ROM), flash drives, hard
disk drives (HDD), magnetic tapes and other types of internal/external storage

This is needed for two reasons:

1. The computers working memory is finite and limited in size so it

cannot always hold the data we need.
2. IN secondary storage data and programs do not disappear when power is
turned off as they do when semiconductor memories are used.

What is an operating system?

An operating system is one of the most important programs that run on a

computer or server. It is referred to as the underlying software that help in
carrying out basic functions like running programs, managing resources,
manipulating files, controlling the keyboard and screen, etc.

Single User operating system?

A single user operating system provides the facilities to be used on one

computer by only one user. In other words, it supports one user at a time.
However, it may support more than one profile. Single keyboard and single
monitor are used for the purpose of interaction. The most common example of a
single user operating system is s system that is found in a typical home

Multi user Operating System?

A multi-user operating system has been designed for more than one user to
access the computer at one time. Generally, a network is laid down, so that a
computer can be remotely used. Mainframe and minicomputers work in multiuser
operating systems. These operating systems are complex in comparison to single
user operating systems. Each user is provided with a terminal and all these
terminals are connected to a main computer.
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File Management in Windows?

File management in windows can be down through windows explored or my computer.

Windows explorer displays the hierarchical list of files, folders, and storage
derives (both fixed and removable) on your computer. It also lists any network
drives that have been mapped to as a drive letters on your computer. Windows
explorer can be used to copy, move, rename, and search for files and folders.
For example, to copy a file, you can open a folder that contains the desired
file to be copied or moved and then just drag and drop the file to target older
or driver. When files or folders are deleted from hard disk windows places them
in the recycle bin, from where they can be retrieved until the recycle bin is
made empty.

Mail Merge and Steps to create mail merge?

Mail merge is a useful tool that allows you to produce multiple letters, labels
envelopes, name tags, and more using information stored in a list, database or

To use Mail Merge:

1. Open an existing Word Document, or create a new one.

2. From the Mailing Tab, Click the start Mail Merge Command and select step
by step mail merge wizard form the drop down menu.
3. Choose the type of document you want to create.
4. Select use the current document, and then click next, select recipients
to move to the next step.
5. From the Mail Merge task pane, select use an existing list, then click
browse.. to select the file
6. From the Mail merge task pane, click next: Write your letter to move to
next step.
7. Place the insertion point in the document where you want to information
to appear.
8. Choose one of the four placeholder options: Address block, Greeting Line,
Electronic Postage, or More items.
9. When youre done, click Next preview your letters
10. Click Next: Complete the merge.

Absolute, Mixed and Relative Addressing:

There are three types of cell references

Absolute: This means the cell references stays the same if you copy or move the
cell to another cell. This is done by anchoring the row and column, so it does
not change when copied or moved.

Relative: Relative referencing means that the cell address changes ads you copy
or move it; i.e. the cell reference is relative to its location.
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Mixed: This means you can choose to anchor either the row or the column when
you copy or move the cell, so that one changes and the other does not. For
Example, you should anchor the row reference stays the same.

Pivot Table:

A pivot table is a program tool that allows you to reorganize and summarize
selected columns and rows of data in a spreadsheet or database table to obtain
a desired report. A pivot table doesnt actually change the spreadsheet or
database itself. A Pivot table is useful when analyzing a large amount of data,
as it allows users to apply users to apply specific criteria to summarize,
organize and reorganize data tables and create reports.

Different types of views in PowerPoint?

Normal View: This is the view that you see when you first start PowerPoint and
it has thumbnails on the left the main slide in the middle and a notes area at
the bottom.

Outline View: Here you get to see an outline of the slide structure in the left
hand navigation pane, instead of the thumbnails.

Slide Sorter View: sets all the slide out on the screen so that you can see how
they look as a whole and apply transition effects and design changes to the
whole presentation at once.

Notes Page View: Here you can see just eh speakers notes with a thumbnail of
the slide they belong to.

Reading View: allows you to view the presentation as if were being presented.

Slide Master

A slide master is the top slide in a hierarchy of slides that stores

information about the theme and slide layouts of a presentation, including the
background, color fonts, effects, placeholder sizes, and positioning. Every
presentation contains at least one slide master. They key benefit to modifying
and using slide masters is that you can make universal style changes to every
slide3 in your presentation including ones added later to the presentation.

Database and its functions?

A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can

easily be accessed, managed and updated. A DBMS makes it possible for users to
create, edit and update data in database files. Once created, the DBMS makes it
possible to store and retrieve data from those database files. More
specifically, a DBMS provides the following functions:

Concurrency: Concurrent access (meaning at the same time) to the same

database by multiple users.
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Security: Security rules to determine access rights of users.

Backup and recovery: processes to back up the data regularly and recover data
if a problem occurs.

Integrity: database structure and rules improve the integrity of the data.

Data Descriptions: A data dictionary provides a description of the data.

What are Internet Protocols?

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from
one computer on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet
has at least one IP address that uniquely indentifies it from all other
computers on the internet.

How TCP/IP Work

TCP/IP is two separate protocols, TCP and IP, that are used together. The
Internet Protocol standard dictates how packets of information are sent out
over networks. IP has a packet- addressing method that lets any computer on the
internet forward a packet to another computer that is step (or more) close to
the packets recipient. The transmission Control Protocol (TCP) ensures the
reliability of data transmission across Internet connected networks. TCP check
packets for errors and submits requests for re-transmissions if errors are


A router is hardware device designed to receive, analyze and move incoming

packets to another network. It may also be used to convert packets to another
computer interface, drop them, and perform other actions relating to a network.

Router has generally three main functions

1. Packet Forwarding
2. Packet Switching and
3. Packet Filtering

Different Levels of Connectivity?

There are generally three levels of Internet connectivity.

1. Level One (Gateway Access)

Gateway Access is also known as level one connection. It is the access to
the internet from a network, which is not on the internet. The gateway
allows the two different types of network to talk to each other. But
the users of the Gateway Internet have limited access to the internet.
They might not be able to use all the tools available on Internet. The
Local Internet service Provider (ISP) normally defines this limitation.
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2. Level Two (Remote Modem Access or Dial Up Connection)

Dial-up connection is also known as level two connection. This provides
connection to Internet through a dial-up terminal connection. The
Computer, which provides internet access, is known as Host and the
computer that receives the access, is Client or Terminal. The Client
computer uses modem to access a Host and acts as if it is a terminal
directly connected to the host. SO this type of connection is known as
Remote-Modem Access Connection.
3. Level Three (Direct Internet Access or Leased Connection)
Leased connection is also known as direct internet access or level three
connection. It is the secure, dedicated and most expensive, and directly
connected to the Internet using high speed transmission lines. It is on-
line twenty four hours a day, seven days a week.

Types of Networks

LAN: A LAN (Local Area Network) is a group of computers and network devices
connected together, usually within the same building. By Definition, the
connections must be high speed relatively inexpensive (e.g. token ring or

MAN: A MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a larger network that usually spans
several buildings in the same city or town. The IUB network is an example of a

WAN: A WAN (Wide Area Network) in comparison to a MAN, is not restricted to a

geographical location although it might be confined within the bounds of a
state or country. A WAN connects several LANs, and may be limited to an
enterprise (a corporation or an organization) or accessible to the public. The
technology is high speed and relatively expensive. The Internet is an example
of a worldwide public WAN.

State different provision under IT Act of India?

Different provisions under IT Act of India are:

1. Electronic contracts will be legally valid.

2. Legal recognition of digital signatures.
3. Various types of computer crimes defined and stringent penalties provided
under the act
4. Network service Providers not to be liable in certain cases.
5. Power of police officers and other officers to enter into any public
place and search and arrest without warrant.

What is an Email? What are it Components?

Email is a system for sending and receiving messages electronically over a

computer network.
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An Email consists of three vital components: The envelope, the header(s), and
the body of the message. The envelope is something that an email user will
never see since it is part of the internal process by which an email is routed.
The body is the part that we always see as it is the actual content of the
message contained in the email. The header(s), the third component of an email,
is perhaps a little more difficult to explain, though it arguably the most
interesting part of an email.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that support specially
formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language HTML
(Hyper Text Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as
graphics, audio, and video files. This means you can jump from one document to
another simply by clicking on hot spots, not all Internet servers are part of
the World Wide Web. There are several applications called web browsers that
make it easy to access the World Wide Web, Two most popular being Google Chrome
and Firefox.

Search Engine

Search Engines are programs that search documents for specified keywords and
return a list of the documents where the keywords were found. A Search engine
is really a general class of programs; however the term is often used to
specifically describe systems like Google, Bing and Yahoo! Search that enable
User to search for documents on the World Wide Web.


The buying and selling of products and services by businesses and consumers
through an electronic medium, without using any paper documents. E-Commerce is
widely considered the buying and selling of products over the internet, but any
transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be
considered e-commerce. E-commerce is subdivided into three categories: business
to business or B2B (CISCO), business to consumer or B2C (AMAZON) and consumer
to consumer or C2C (eBay).


The translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective
way to achieve data security. The read an encrypted file, you must have access
to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is
called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text. There are two
main types of encryption: asymmetric encryption (also called public-key
encryption) and symmetric encryption.
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A Firewall is a system designed to prevent unauthorized aces sot or from a

private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both Hardware and software or
a combination of both.

How are Firewalls Used?

Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from

accessing private networks connected to the internet, especially intranets. All
messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which
examines each message and block, those that do not meet specified security

Communication Media

The communication media acts as a communication channel for linking various

computing devices so that they may interact with each other.

There are two types of networks that you can set-up

1. Wired Network: The wired network is mostly set-up an Ethernet Cable. This
can be done using 3 technologies.
a. Twisted Pair Wires: In this, there is a pair of 2 copper wire, each
1-2 mm thick, enrolled on each other in spiral pattern. These are
used to avoid interference from the nearby similar pairs. There are
number or pair bundled together in a cable by wrapping the pairs in
protective shield. A pair consists of a single communication link.
b. Coaxial Cables: Coaxial Cables same as twisted Wire cables consists
of two copper wire. But in this, the two wires are concentric to
each other. Coaxial cables has a wire conductor in the center, a
circumferential outer conductor known as foil shield, and an
insulated medium called the Di-electric separating these two
conductors. The outer conductor is protected in an outer jacket.
c. Fiber Optics: An optical fiber is a thin, flexible medium that
conducts pulses of light .When each pulse representing a bit your
data. Fiber optics can generate high data rates, so these are used
for long distance communications. That requires high speed and least
data loss. Optical fibers have no electromagnetic interference and
can process data and GB/Sec of speed.
2. Wireless Network: This type of network is usually set-up with radio
waves, communication satellites etc.

Accounting: it is an art of recording, classifying and summarizing in

significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are of
financial character and interpreting the results thereof.

Purchase: A purchase means goods purchased by a businessman from suppliers.

Sales: Sales is goods sold by a businessman to his costumers.

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Asset: Assets are the things and properties possessed by a businessman not for
the resale but for the use in the business.

Liabilities: All the amount payable by a business concern to outside is called


Capital: is a amount invested for starting a business by a person.

Debtors: is a person who owes amounts to businessmen.

Creditor: is a person to whom amounts are owed by the businessmen.

Debit: the receiving aspect of transaction is called debit or dr.

Credit: the giving aspect of transaction if called credit or cr.

Trail Balance: Its a statement of all ledger amount balances prepared at the
end of particular period to verify the accuracy of the entries made in books of

Balance Sheet: to ascertain the financial position of the business, it is a

statement of assets and liabilities.

Account: Account is a summarized record of all the transactions relating to

every person, everything or property and every type of service.

Types of Accounts:

Personal Account: Personal Accounts are the accounts of persons, firms,

concerns and institutions with which the business deal

Principles: Debit the receiver

Credit the giver

Real Account: These are accounts of things, materials, assets and properties.
It has physical existence which can be seen and touch. e.g. Cash, Sale,
Purchase, Furniture, Investment etc.

Principles: Debit what comes in

Credit what goes out

Nominal Account: Nominal Account is an Account of services received (expenses

and loses) and services given (incomes and gain) e.g. Salary, Rent, Wages,
Stationary etc.

Principles: Debit all expenses/Loses

Credit all incomes/Gains

Sundry Debtors: the person who is the receiver or costumer.

Sundry Creditors: the person who give or supplier

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Vouchers in Tally

Tally is pre-programmed with a variety of accounting vouchers, each designed to

perform a different job. The standard vouchers are:

1. Payment Voucher: Payment Voucher is prepared for all payments made by a

business firm directly or through its bankers.
2. Receipt Voucher: Receipt voucher is prepared for all the money received
by a business firm.
3. Contra Voucher: Contra Voucher is prepared in following types of
transactions, when cash is withdrawn from the bank, when cash is
deposited in to the bank and when the amount is transferred from one bank
to another bank of same company.
4. Sales Voucher: sales voucher is prepared for goods sold on credit, if the
goods are sold in then the cash receipt voucher is prepared.
5. Purchase Voucher: When the goods are purchased on credit then only
purchase voucher is prepared.