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A Natural History of Brier Island

Nova Scotia , Canada

By
Art MacKay
A Natural History of Brier Island
Nova Scotia, Canada

by Art MacKay, © 2015

Originally publi shed in 1977 as::
A BIO LOGICA L A ND OCEA NOGRAPHIC STUDY OF T HE BRIER ISLAND REGION, N.S.

FINAL REPORT TO

TH E DEPARTMEN T OF
INDIAN AFFA IRS A ND
NO RT HERN DEV ELOPMEN T
PARKS CAN A DA
OTT AWA, ONTA RIO
Arthur A. Macxev, Director
MA RIN E RESEARCH ASSOCI ATES LT D
Lord's Cove, Deer Island, N.B.
'Can ada, EU<J"2JO -- - -

Cove r: Westp ort, Brier Island. at sunset (A. M ac K ay , 1917).
TABLE OF CONTENTS 8. FISHES 60

Chapter Page No. 9. THE BIRDS 62

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 10. MAMMALS 68

1. INTRODUCTION 11. MARINE PLANTS 75

2. MATERIALS & METHODS 12. RESOURCE USES 84

3. THE STUDY AREA 3 13. PRODUCTIVITY & POLLUTION 94

4. LANDFORMS 7 14. RECREATION 95

5. OCEANOGRAPHY 16 15. HISTORY 98

6. MARINE HABITATS 23 16. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 101

7. INVERTEBRATES 38 17. BIBLIOGRAPHY 102

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Page No.

3.1.1 SATELLITE PHOTO OF STUDY AREA 3

3.1.2 PRELIMINARY PARK BOUNDARIES 5

3.2.1 STUDY SITES 6

4.1.1 TOPOGRAPHY 9

4.2.1 GEOLOGIC RELATIONSHIP TO BAY OF FUNDY 10

4.4.1 DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR SOIL TYPES 11

4.6.1 OUTSTANDING COASTAL FEATURES 13

5.3.1 BATHYMETRY 17

5.5.1 TEMPERATURE & SALINITY PROFI LES 18

5.3.3 LOCATION OF EXTREME TIDES, RIPS AND SWELL 19

5.3.2 SURFACE CIRCULATION IN BAY OF FUNDY 20

5.6.1 A BOULDER BEACH AT POND COVE 21

5.6.1 B BOULDER AND SAND BEACH AT POND COVE 22

6.1. 1 LOCATION OF PRINCIPAL MARINE HABITATS 24

6.3.1 BOTTOM PROFI LE-SITE 36 27

6.4.1 BOTTOM PROFI LE-SITES 1 and 2 28

6.5.1 BOTTOM PROFILE-SITE 7 29

6.5.2 BOTTOM PROFI LE-SITE 8 30
6.6. 1 BOTTOM PROFI LE·SITE 11 31

6.6.2 BOTTOM PROFILE·SITE 16 32

6.9.1 GENERAL CHAR ACTERISTICS OF BIG POND 33

6.9.2 & 6.9.3 . PHOTOS OF BIG POND 34
6.9.4 TH E BARRIER BAR AT POND COVE 35

6.9.5 LITTLE POND 35

6.10.1 BOTTO M PROFI LE·POND COVE LEDG ES 36

6.11.1 BOTTO M PROFI LE·SITES 28 and 32 37

7.4.1 OCCURRENCE OF " INDICA TO R" SPECIES AT DEER ISLAND,
GRAN D MA NAN, LORNEVIL LE AND BRIER ISLAND 43

7.3.1 DISTRIBUTION OF SPONGES 44

7.3.2 DIST RIBUT ION OF HYDROIDS 46

7.3.3 DISTRIBUTION OF ANE MONES 46

7.3.4 DISTRI BUTION OF PLEUROBRACH IA 47

7.3.5 DI ST RIBUT ION OF LIN EUS 48

7.3.6 DISTRI BUTI ON OF MY XIC OLA & POTAMI LLA 49

7.3.7 DI STRIBUT ION OF V A RIOUS ANNE LI DS 50

7.3.8 DISTR IBUTION OF CRABS & LOBST ERS 51

7.3.9 DISTR IBUTION OF BARNAC LES 52

7.3.10 DISTRIBUTION OF SHRIMP, GAMMAR IDS AND
ISOPODS . 53

7.3.11 DISTRIBUTION OF LI MPETS & CHITONS 64

7.3.12 DIST RI BUTI ON OF V AR IOUS GASTROPO DS 55

7.3.13 DISTR IBUTION OF MUSSELS 56

7.3.14 DISTR IBUTION OF VARIOUS MOL LUSCS 57

7.3.15 DISTR IB UT ION OF ECHI NODER MS 58

7.3.16 DIST RIBUT ION OF BRYOZO A NS, BRACH IO PODS, A ND
PROTOCHORDATES 59

9.3. 1 KEY AREAS FOR BIRDS 67

10.2.1 RECORDS OF RIGHT WHALES 70

10.2.2 RECORDS OF HUMPBACK WHALES 71

10.2.3 RECORDS OF FINBACK WHA LES 72

10.2.4 RECORDS OF MINKE WHA LES 73

11.4. 1 PHOTO OF SUBT IDAL KE LP 80
11.4.2 DISTRIB UTI ON & ABUN DANC E OF LA MINARIANS 81

11.4.3 DI STRIBU TION & AB UN DANC E OF ALAR IA 82

11.4.4 DI STRIBUTION & A BUN DANCE OF AG A RUM 83

12.2. 1 GROUNDFI SH PLANT 84

12.1.1 PRI NCIPAL HER RIN G FISHING A REAS 88

12. 1.2 PRI NCIPAL GROUND FISH A REAS 89

12.1.3 PRINCIPAL LOBSTER FI SHI NG AR EAS 90

12. 1.4 LOCAT ION OF CLAM FL ATS 91

12.1.5 PRINCIPAL SCALLOP BEDS 92

12. 1.6 COMMERCI AL FI SH PROCESSING 93

14.8.1 CLA SSIFICATION OF DIVING SIT ES 97

15.3. 1 SHI PWRECKS 100

LI ST OF TABLES

Table No. Page No.

A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DEER ISLAND,
GRAND MANAN AND BRIER ISLAND ii

7.2.1 INVERTEBRATES 39

7.4.1 OCCURRE NCE OF "I NDICATO R" SPECI ES 42

8.2.1 FISHES 60

9.2.1 NBS CHRI STMAS BIRD COUNT 63

9.2.2 LIFE BIR DLIST-WICK ERSON LENT 64

9.2.3 NEST ING RECOR DS-ROSS AND ERSON 65

10.1.1 WHA LES 69

11.3. 1 TE RREST RIAL, FRESHWATER AN D MA RSH PLANTS 76

11.5. 1 A LGAE 79

12.2.1 FISH LANDI NGS, JA N. 1 TO APR I L 21,1 977 86

12.2.2 INSHORE LAN DINGS , 1947 TO 1973 87

GENE RAL PHOT OGRAPHS

Su bject Page No.

RESEAR CH VESSEL DELPHINUS 1

BASA LT CLIFFS 7
INTERIOR MEAOOW 12

GRANO PASSAGE 14

PONO COVE AREA 15

CURRENTS IN GRAND PASSAGE 16

KELP BED AT WESTPORT 23

BRITTLESTARS 38

HERRING 60

YOUNG POLLOCK 61

SANDERLINGS 62

GREAT BLUE HERON 66

FINBACK WHALE 68

HUMPBACK WHALE 74

THISTLE 75

TYPICAL SEA CONDITIONS 95

BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA 98
SU MMAR Y & RECOMMENDATIO NS

INTR ODUCTI ON: In th e or iginal preliminary su rvey of COMPARATIVE EVA LUATI ON. In o rder t o compa re
the Bay of Fundy, Par ks Can ada identif ied th ree natural mar- the Deer Island, Grand Manan and Brier Island regio ns, a
ine areas of Canadian signif icance : Deer Island , N.B., Grand comparative rat ing syst em was desig ned where the vario us
Manan, N.B., and Brier Island, N.S. Thi s repor t repr esents attri butes of each region were rated o n a scale running from
co mpl et ion of bio logical and oceanographic st udies fo r these -3 to 3. A negati ve rat ing ind icates an attri bute which is un-
regions. In ou r previous re port o n Dee r Island and Grand desirable; positi ve rat ings are desirable attr ibutes . A 0 rat ing
Manan (Mac K ay, 19 76 ) and in t hi s rep ort on Bri er Island , ind icates an attribute with no significa nce in relat io n to a
we have co vere d t he fo llowi ng t opics: marin e park. As previo usly disc ussed (MacKay. 19 76 ) we
con sider f ish ing activit ies to be ben eficial and co mpatible
11 Landforms - phy siography, geology, outstanding w ith a marine pa rk and such activit ies are , in t he following
features and Bathymetry. evaluat ion, generall y co nside red to have a positiv e value.

2) Ocean ography-tides, currents, light and water clarity,
Our evaluation of th e three areas under co nsideration
t emperatures, salinity, waves and ero -
is given in Ta ble 1.
sion, water quality and climate.
As can be seen, Brier Island receives a co nsider ab ly lower
3) Marine Habitat s-roc ky sho res, muddy sho res, san dy rat ing th an Deer Island and Grand Manan. Princip ally, thi s
sho res, mixed shores, ti de poo ls, brack- is due to th e smaller area involved and the lack of com plexity
ish po nds, estuaries, salt ma rshe s, man- of mari ne habitats compare d to t he o ther two areas. Brier Is-
made hab itats, and pela gic areas. lands principal assets, apa rt from the beauty of t he area, are
its proxim ity t o pelagic areas, some unique botan ical aspe cts,
4} Invertebrates- species diversity, d istribution and abu nd- and its un ique loca t ion in terms of migrati ng birds.
ance.
Furthermore, the establishment and maintenan ce of a
5) Marine Fishes- Species divers ity, distributi o n and abund- marine park in t he Brier Island area wou ld, we believe, of-
ance. fer fewer prob lems since it is a sma ll discret e area with a
low human population.
6 ) Marine Birds- species diversity, distribution and abund-
PA RK BOUNDA RIES : The NAGS bounda ries of the
ance.
study area outlined by Par ks Canada (see ch apter 3) encom-
pass all of the principal featu res of th e region and are suit -
7) Marine Mammals-spec ies diversity , dist ribut ion and
able as a NAGS boundary fo r the Brier Island Regio n.
abunda nce.

8) Marine Plants- spec ies d iversity, distributio n and abund-
ance.

9 ) Reso urce Uses-Fish ing, research and ed uca tion, tourism,
processing, manufacturi ng and mining.

10 ) Pro ductivity

11 ) Po llut ion

121 Recreation

13) History
TABLE 1. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE SUITABILITY OF DEER ISLAND, N.B.
GRAND MANAN, N.B. AND BRIER ISLAND, N.S. AS SITES FOR MARINE AREAS OF CAN-
ADIAN SIGNIFICANCE.

RATING
ASPECT D.1. G.M. B.1.

1. Proximity to tourist flow 2 2 -1
2. Accessibility -1 -2 -1
3. Scenery 3 3 3
4. I nteresting topographic features 2 3 1
5. I nteresting geology 1 3 2
6. Tidal fluctuation 2 2 2
7. Currents- accessible to viewing 3 1 3
8. Currents - danger from -1 -2 -2
9. Water clarity -1 -1 2
10. Temperature - suitable for swimming -2 -2 -2
11. Salinity 0 0 0
12. Waves, shelter from 1 -1 -2
13. Water quality 2 3 3
14. Climate, summer 2 2 2
15. CIimate, winter -2 -2 -2
16. Marine habitats, representative of:
a) Rocky shores 3 3 3
b) Muddy shores 2 2 0
c) Mixed shores 3 3 1
d) Sandy shores 1 3 2
e) Tide pools 1 1 1
f) Brackish ponds 1 1 2
g) Estuaries 0 0 0
h) Salt marshes 1 2 2
i) Man-made structures 3 3 1
j) Pelagic habitats 2 3 3
17. Invertebrates:
a) diversity 3 2 1
b) abundance 3 2 2
18. Fishes, diversity and abundance 3 3 3
19. Birds:
a) diversity 2 3 3
b) Abundance (all species) 3 2 2
c) breeding colonies 2 3 2
d) Significant areas identified 3 3 3
20. Mammals:
a) diversity and abundance 1 2
b) research importance 2 2
c) feeding areas 2 2
21. Plants:
a) diversity and abundance 2 3 3
22. Resource uses-Fishing
a) facilities 2 2 1
b] lobster 1 2 2
c) groundfish 2 2 2
dlclams 1 1 0
e) scallops 2 1 1
f) dulse 1 2 0
g) herring 3 3 3

Continued on next page

ii
23. Resou rce uses-research and educatio n 3 1
24. Productivity 3 2
25. Pollution:
a) current 2 3 3
b) potent ial -2 -1 3
26. Existing rec reation:
a) A rts and Crafts 1 1 1
b] Hiki ng and Campi ng 1 1 1
c) Seashore ex ploration 2 1 1
d ) Fish ing 2 1 1
e l Boat ing 2 1 1
f l Diving 2 2 1
27. H ist orical Resou rces
-
2

B4
2

BO
1

73

iii
1 INTRODUCTION.

MRA'S RESEARCH VESSEL DELPHINUS IN GRAND PASSAGE, BRIER ISLAND, NOVA SCOTIA (A. MacKay, Sept.1977)

During the summer of 1973, the Marine Studies Sect ion ural features and three areas, in particular, were noted as
of the Parks System Planning Division, National Parks Branch, being of pr imary interest. These areas are:
Ottawa, carried out a preliminary survey of the Bay of Fundy
region (Parks Canada, 1975) with the following objectives: 1. Brier Island and sur round ing marine environs,
,
Nova Scotia,
1. To undertake a regional analysis of the Bay
of Fundy marine region. 2. Grand Manan Island and Archipelago, New
Bru nswick , and
2. To study and assess the significance of the
marine environment adja cen t to Fundy 3. Deer Island and Arch ipelago, New Brunswick.
National Park.
Since addi tiona l detai led data were required, Marine
3. To identify the most representative or out- Research Associates Ltd., Deer Island , N.B. was contracted to
sta ndi ng marine and/or coastal areas in the conduct a comprehensive, comparative marine and coastal
Bay and to assess the ir potential as nat ional resource ana lysis of the Deer Island and Grand Manan Arch i-
marine park sites. pelagos. This work was completed in 1976 and a report,
A Comparative Resource Anstvsis of the Deer Island and
This study consisted of a literature review, interviews, Grand Manan Archipelagos, Bay of Fundy, was submitted
and field recormalsance. As a result of this work, a number of to Parks Canada. Addi tional similar infor mat ion was re-
sites were identified as wort hy of future considerat ion in the quired for Brier Island, Nova Scotia and Marine Research Assoc-
-narine parks context. The outer portion of the Bay of Fundy iates Ltd . was co ntracted to carry out a biological and ocean-
was recognized as an area wh ich encompasses an unusually ographic study and to present its findings in the form of this
Ihigh concentration of outstandi ng marine nat ural and cutr- report in accordance w ith the following guidelines:
,
PROJECT LOCATION 5. ide ntify , describe and map (whe re app ropriate) the coasta l
geo logy and geomo rpho logy of Brier Island.
The stu dy area is the coasta l zone and off-shor e mar ine
environs o f Brier Island, Nova Scot ia. A map ou t lin ing t he 6. identify, describe and map (where appr op riate) th e an imals
study area is attached. and plant s fou nd in t he brac kish wat er ponds and marshes of
th e island. Parti cular at tenti on should be d irect ed to unique,
PURPOSE: rare or endangered species of anima ls found in th e respect ive
habi tats.
The contract covers t he prov ision of professional
services fo r co ndu ct ing a biological and ocean ographic study 7. identi fy and desc ribe any exis t ing or po tent ial resource uses
of th e coas ta l zone and off-sho re marine enviro ns of Brier wh ich occ ur in th e study area such as: ship ping, resource ex-
Island, Nova Scotia. plorati on permits, commercial fishing (all types and appr ox-
imate inte nsity and eco nomic impo rt ance ), spo rt fishinn, lobst er
The study will include: pou nds, aquaculture and any other uses of the marin e environ-
1. A professional d iscussion of th e bio logical and oceanograph ic ment which occur in o r adjacent to the study area.
feat ures of th e Brier Islan d region ;
8. identifv and dascrlbe the coastal mar ine histo ry of the st udy
2. Identifi cat ion of existing or pote ntial exte rna l and interna l area. Parti cula r attention sho uld be di rected to a discussion of th e
resou rce uses wh ich have o r will have an effect, be it posit ive follow ing: sh ipwrecks, ship-b uild ing, coas ta l navigat ion, coast al
or negative, o n the integrity of th e marine environment in th e fort ificat ions, fishing villages, and any other topi cs relevant t o
region, and; the hist ory of th e study area.

3. the prep arati on of a bibliography. 9. th e contractor shall prep are a bibliograph y wh ich outlines
referen ces cited and othe rs wh ich may be of interest in th e
fur th er st udy of the region.
PHASE 1
PHASE 2
PROJ ECT REQUI RE MENTS
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
More specifically, but witho ut limiting t he generality of
th e for egoi ng, the project involves th e preparat ion of on e Upon co mp letion of Phase 1 of t he study, t he contracto r
.original document which will accomplish th e following ob ject- will con duct a comparative analysis of t he natural and cu ltural
ives: attributes of the Brier Island area with th e Deer Island and
Grand Manan Archipelagos. The contractor will be ex pecte d to
1. identify, describe and map the spat ial distribution of th e employ similar aspects and methodol ogy as was used in th e
various mar ine comm unities (rocky subst rate, sand subs trate comparative resource ana lysis of t he Deer Island and Gra nd
pelagic ha bita ts and so o n) to be fau nd In the study area with Manan Archipelagos.
respect t o the inf ralittor al, supralittoral and open water zones.
The ob jectives of this analysis are two-fold:
More specif ically th e contractor will be ex pected to provide an.
index list of th e mo re commo n and/ or uni que plants and an imals 1. to co mpare t he relative merits of t he marine nat ural and
found in th e study area. Generalized prof iles of the various cult ura l attributes of th e Brier Island and Deer Island and
ha bitats encount ed will be prepared showing zonat ion and Grand Manan Archipelagos.
principal organisms occurring in each za ne.
2. to assess the relat ive me rits of the Brier Island area as a
2. iden t ify, describe and map th e ocean ographic featu res of th e potent ial marine Natural Area of Canad ian Si9':l ificance.
Brier Island study area cons ide ring all aspects such as ocean currents
t idal amp lit ude, tem peratu re-salinity characte ristics, water clarity
charac te rist ics and any othe r oceanograph ic pheno menon deemed
notewort hy.

3. iden tify, describe and map (where appro priate) mann e
mamm al habitats. A description of th e marin e mammal pop-
ulat ions with referenc e t o size, po pulat ion chara cterist ics
and po pulat ion trends and possible hu man impacts which t hreat-
en o r cou ld t hreaten the respect ive ha bitats in th e study area
is essenti al.

4. ident ify, describe and map (where approp riate) marin e
bird, sho rebird and land bird habit ats. A description of t he
various avifau na popul at ions with reference to size, pop ulati on
characte rist ics and po pulation trends and possible human
impacts which t hreate n or cou ld threaten th e respective habitats
in the stu dy area is essen t ial.

2
2 MATERIALS & METHODS.

Data collected during the course of this study were ob ta ined desc ribed in ou r previous repor t dealing with Deer Island and
f rom t he lit erat ure, th roug h personal inte rviews and through f ield Grand M ar ia n,
work carried out by MRA's field sta ff. Field techniques used are

3 THE STUDY AREA.

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FIGUR E 3.1.1. SAT EL LITE PHOTOG RA PH SHOWING TH E LOCATI ON OF THE STUDY AREA

3
3.1. INTRODUCTION. Brier Island lies at the mouth of its flora and fauna. For the purpose of th is study, preliminary
the Bay of Fundy at the southwestern tip of Nova Scotia (Fig- boundaries were set by Parks Canada as shown in Figure 3.1.2.
ure 3.1.n.lt is the outermost island in a long finger-like pro-
jection of land comprised of Digby Neck, Long Island and Brier 3.2. SITES VISITED. Our field team had considerable
Island. In addition to forming the eastern mouth of t he Bay, difficulty completing offshore sites due to bad weather and
of Fundy, it also forms the western shore of St. Mary's Bay. persistent heavy swell duringotherwise fine days. In fact, several
Politically, Brier Island is in Digby County in the Province of proposed study sites were relocated due to excessively rough
Nova Scotia. water resulting from the combined effects of waves and currents.
Nevertheless, most of the proposed offshore sites were eventual-
As is discussed in the following chapters, Brier Island's ly reached and surveyed. In addition, other int ert idal and terrest-
principal distinction is its exposure to the open Atlantic and the rial sites were visited as shown in Figure 3.2.1.
influence this location has on its physical character as well as

4
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o 2
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FI GUR E 3.1.2. PRELI MI NAR Y NA CS BOUND ARY SELECTED BY PARKS CANADA
ftorth>VrS ( JUJ.:J< IJ 4· 31
----~
36

35 37

34

33 _ _ ~~~
.3 38
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.
30
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27

26

25
24
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15
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es
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IS / 7 . 16
16 ' ii ' . • Vi sited
Brier I. So u t h wes t l e dg e i ! s ' ?,. , fJ •
............ "-'7 co4to-N'
16
io' 10·;' 6, • ./
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,. o Not visite d du e
Z6 ,. : '9 " i aa weath er
18 / :6: i
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37

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F IIG~I I'?.s .:?-..2.;'I. STUD V SITI=~.aT RRII=R ISLA N D _NOVA SCOTIA
4 LANDFORMS.

COLUMNAR BASA L TCLIFFS OF BRIER ISLAND, NOVA SCOTIA (A. MacKay, September, 1977)

4. 1. PHYSIOG RAP HY. Together with Long Island, Brier The only extensive ledges are found at the southern tip
Island is effectively the seaward extension of Digby Neck which of the Island whe re this system projects like a finger about 1 Yo
forms the westerly bo udary of St. Mary's Bay and the easterly miles to the southwest, terminating at Gull Rock . These ledges
bou da ry of the outer Bay of Fundy. Unlike Grand Manan and extend offshore, subtidally, about another two miles to form
Deer Island, Brier Island has no significant numbe r of associated Southwest Ledge. Northwest Ledge is ano ther extensive sub-
islands; Peter Island, at the easte rn entrance to Grand Passage, tidal ledge system ly ing about 2 miles northwest of Brier Is-
being the on ly one possessing te rrestrial vegetation. land and covering an area approximately 3 miles by 1 Y2 miles.

7
Brier Island is relat ively small, being approximately 4.4 ported that whereever wells are dug on the slope behind the town,
miles in greatest length and 1.7 miles in greatest width. The the diggers encounter 'heaps of rocks just like those down on the
Island has approximately 5 square miles of land area and beach'. He said th at when digging a well once, he had found a barn-
approximately 15 miles of shorel ine (Lollis, 1959l. The clos- acle in the cleft of a stone; a hand-level traverse by the author
est adjacent land is Long Island which lies less than % mile (Lollis) dete rmined that the shell had been found 54 feet above
across Grand Passage. the level of spring high tides."

Topographically (Figure 4.1.11 the Island is rugged with 4.3 BEDROCK GEO LOGY. Geological Survey of
basalt cliffs reach ing appro ximately 100 feet in height. The Canada Map 1225A, Annapolis · St. Mary's Bay Area, 1969,
scenery is generally spectacular; particularly the cliffs and ex- identifies all of Brier Island as North Mountain basalt. As prev-
posed rocks which run along the northwest coast from Whipple iously mentioned, the most abru pt cliffs are found on the
Point to North Point and from South Point to Gull Rock on South Shore of Brier Island where col umnar joints of dolerite
the southeast. There are no truly protected coves, although form a spectacular coastl ine which has been compared with the
major indentations of the coast are found at Westport in Grand Giant's Causeway in Scotland and is almost identical to the
Passage and at Pond Cove. Small coves occur along the entire associated cliffs of souther n Head on Grand Manan Island.
coast and are identified as Seat Cove, Gooseberry Cove, Perc Tallus slopes are common at the base of the cliffs and sub-
Jack Cove, Cow Cove, lighthouse Cove, Hog Yard Cove, New tidal geology is basically similar to that found on the Island
Road Cove, Olives Cove, and Big Cove. None of these are of itself.
any extent; nor are they suitable for anchorage.
4.4 SURFICIAL GEO LOGY. The distribution of

Brier Island has no major rivers, lakes or streams. Freshwater
principal soil types is shown in Figure4.4.I. As canbe seen, soil
patterns more or less conform to the topography of the Island
runoff is restricted to seepage and small brooks which are found
with bogs occurring in the two valleys. While the three remain -
at several localities. The re are however, two major bogs or swamps
which run cerenet to each other over most of the Island's length, ing soil types diffe r in detail, they are all sandy loams.
These are discussed further in the following section covennq geology.
Hilchey, et.aL, 1962, identifies and characterizes the
Two brackish ponds . one large and one small, are located at Pond
four types of soil fou nd on Brier Island as follows;
Cove at the southern end of the Island.
1} SPHAGNUM PEAT:
4.2 GEOLOGIC HISTORY. Brier Island is identified Surface and subsoil: Brown sem i-decomposed
as part of the North Mountain Range; a Triassic basalt forme- moss 8 - 15" thick over semi-decomposed moss
tion which extends along the eastern shore of the Bay of Fundy and sedge mate rial of variable depth.
to Brier Island. The physical characteristics of the Island are Parent material: Deposits lie on gravel, sand,
shaped by this formation which, as shown in Figure 4.2. 1 , forms or bedrock (Lollis, 1959, identifies the parent
the eastern limb of the Bay of Fundy syncline and dips at 6 material as bedrock on Brier Island ).
to 10 degrees northwest into the Bay Hollis, 1959) and reappears Topography and drainage: Level to depressio n-
at Grand Manan. al; poor drainage.
Present land use: None (MRA).
The topography of the Island ref lects the existence of Land use capability: Unsuitable for agriculture.
layers of hard lava alternating with softer layers of amygdoloidal
lava which have eroded to form two valleys between the two 2) ROSSWAYSOILSERIES;
coastal ridges and a central ridge (Figures 4.1.1 and 4. 2.1) Surface and subsoil: Dark, greyish brown sandy
(Stevens, 1977 }. " The two principal coastal ridges are nearly loam over dark yellowish brown sandy loam;
equal in height, breadth and symmetry. Both are steeper on the stony.
southern side than on the north. Thus, the South Shore is more Parent material: Yellowish brown cobbly sandy
bold, commonly with high vertical rock cliffs, than the compare- loam till derived from basalt; shallow and stony.
tlvelv low North Sho re with its broad rocky shoreline." Grand Topograph y and drainage: Rolling to hilly ; well
Passage is a transverse valley crossing these ridges. The presence drained; internal drainage medium to rapid.
of a fault in the Passage is indicated by topographic and strati. Present land use: Chiefly forested; very small
grapn lc evidence ( Lollis, 1959). areas used for mixed farming or rough pasture.
Land use capability: Poor to unsuitable for
"Evidence of continental glaciation is found everywhere in crop land.
the area. Glacial striae, rouches moutonees and other features in-
Limiting factors: Ext reme sto niness; topog raphy.
dicate that the last advance of glacial ice came from the North
and, at the western edge of the area, swung to the right so as to 31 TIOOV ILLESO IL SER IES:
parallel the two (main) ridges of Long and Brier Islands. The Surface and subsoil: Organic dark greyish
amount of glacial excavation must have been cons iderable in brown, sandy loam over strong brown sandy
the central lowlands; some of the bogs there are within bedrock loam, mottled.
basins. Parent material: Olive sandy loam till; shallow;
stony.
"Widesprea d erosional and depositional evidence indicates Topography and drainage: Gently undulating
that sea level was once 65 to 70 feet above where it is now, rela- external and internal drainage slow.
tive to the land. Present land use: Chiefly forested; some small
areas for pastu re or poor quality hay.
"In Westport is a wide raised beach. A local resident reo Land use capability: Unsuitable for agriculture.

8
BAY OF FUNDY l ONG
ISLAND
North Point

GRAND
PASSAGE

BRIER ISLAND

0>

ST. MA RY'S BAY

POND
COV E

,
I

FIGURE 4. 1. 1. TOPOGRAPHY OF BRI ER ISLAND AND SOUT HERN T IP O F l ONG ISLAND (After l ollis. 1959)

4) ROXVI l l E SOl l SERI ES: As can be seen from the foregoi ng. Brier Island soils are
Surface and subsoil: Dark brown to dark generally unsuitable for agriculture. In fact , except for home
greyish brown sandy loam over yellowish brown gardening . the only land use observed was at Pond Cove where
sandy loam; mottled ; stony . a herd of sheep grazes. Apparently, other areas on the Island are
Parent material: Yellowish brown sandy loam used for this purpose as well (Lent, 1977).
till derived from basalt; stony; shallow.
Topography and drainage: Gently undul ating 4.5 ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. "The mineral resources of
to gently rolling; imper fectly drained; in- the Digby Neck, Long Island, Brier Island area are not great. With
ternal drainage moderately slow. the one exce ption of diatomite, exploitation of economic deposits
~sen t land use: Chiefly forested . has been limited and rest ricted to rcc et use." (Lollis, 195 9)
Land use capability: Fair to poor cro p land.
Limiting factors: Drainage; stontness. Diatom ite product ion at Digby Neck started in 1920 and

9
A Grand Manan Brier Island
red shales and
sandstone
(Triassic) St. Mary's Bay
sandstones

slate, schists, granite
and quart zit e _ _ -

B
hard hard ha rd
lava lava lava

FIGURE 4.2.1. GEOLOG IC RELATIONSH IP OF BRIER ISLA ND TO THE BAY OF FUNDY AND FORMATI ON
OF BRIER ISLAND TOPOGRAPHY. A. Brier Island is formed fro m an out crop of a basalt formation which dips
into the Bay of Fu ndy and reapp ears west of a major fault at Grand Manan Island. B. Differences in hardness of
lava fo rmations emerging o n Brier Island have resul in di fferent ial erosion and fo rmat io n of th ree ridges as shown
above . (Based o n inf ormation supplied by Steven s, 1977 )

10
BAYOF FUNDY LON G
IS LAND

'.'.

BR IER ST. MARY'S BA Y
ISLAN D

..fJ

tJ
·-:Ui;
:
-..£ ~
.: ---
SPHAGNUM PEA T - Brown semi-decomposed
moss 8· 15" th ick over semi·decomposed moss
and sedge mater ial of variable depth

ROSSWA Y SOl L SERI ES - Dark greyish br own
sandy loam over dark yellowish brown sandy
; loam; sto ny ,
l
T I DDVI L L E SOIL SER I ES· Organic dark greyish
brown sandy loam over strong brow n sandy
loam ; mottled.

ROXV I L L E SOI L SERI ES · Dark brown t o d ark
greyish brow n sandy loam over yello wish brown
sandy loam ; mot t led; stony.

FIGURE 4.4.1. DISTR IB UTION OF MA JO R SOI L T YPES ON BR IER ISLAND (Afte r Hil chey, et.al. , 1962).

11
CHARAC TER OF THE INTERIOR BOGS AND MEADOI¥S OF BRIER ISLA ND, NOVA SCOTiA (A. MacKaY,Sept, 1917)

continued unt il 1936. Production resumed during World War II and 1) GRAND PASSAGE: Currents are impressive in Grand
was continued until 1953. G. Wightman, present owner of the Digby Passage where they reach speeds of 5 to 6 knots. In addition, the
Neck deposits , assumes that the re is a potential of 500,000 tons of occasional occurrence of small herring result in spectacu lar feed ing
finished product on the Neck and a similar amou nt on the islands. binges by sea birds and larger fish. In this regard, the accessibility
Some of the same bogs co nta in peat moss of marketable quality of the Passage makes it unique.
but no attempt has been made to produc e any of th is mater ial
(Lollis, 1959 ). 2) BASAL T CLI FFS: The co lumnar basalt cliffs along th e
southeastern shore are particularly impressive.
Weathe red basalt is commonly used for road fill, but has
no economic value other than fo r local use. 3) POND COVE: The Pond Cove area possesses attributes
which make it both interesting and pleasing.. The two brack ish ponds.
4.6 OUTSTANDING COASTAL FEATURES. Scenery while they are not in themselves particu larly interesting (com pared
at Brier Island is generally pleasing and, in some areas, relatively with othe r similar ponds we have visited), have associated terrestria l
spectacu lar. However, much of this coast is similar to that found vegetation which is both interesting and unique. In add it ion, the
elsewhere in th e Bay of Fundy. In our opinion th ere are three scenery, the extensive fine sand beach, exposed ledges, and stun ted
areas which are part icularly ou tstanding: forest vegetation make th is a worth wh ile site to visit.

12
37

3.

u,

"•

GRAND PASSAGE

,•
,,
,
~t~~
\ "
_ _
.
~oI , ~j.'
'\ ;i
Gp f l l3112 uc95 fi l S,

BASALT CLIFFS
F"t1 S,q (11 6"0 •• ~
, .,

POND COVE
.
:n

as

\i

. ..
n 34

JJ
,
'"

"•

37

,
. 14', l'
.
'
,
"
o 2

FIGURE 4.6. 1. OUTSTANDING COASTAL FEA TURES ON BRI ER ISLAND.
13
GRAND PASSAGE AS SEEN FROM WESTPOR T, BRIER ISLA ND, NOVA SCOTIA . PETER ISLAND IS I N THE
BACKGROUND (A. MacKay, September, 1977).

GRAND PASSAGE AS SEEN FROM THE EA STERN RI DGE. FRE EPORT, LONG ISLA ND A ND THE SA Y OF
FUNDY CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND (A. MacKay, September, 1977)

'4
THE POND COVE AREA, BRIER ISLA ND, NOVA SCOTIA . UPPER PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS THE GRASS FIE LDS OF
THE SOUTH EASTERN TIP OF BRIER ISLAND LOOKI NG OUT OVER THE OFFSHORE LEDGES AND THE OPEN
A TLA NTIC (note the herd of sheep to the righrJ. THE LOWER PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS THE FINE SAND BEACH OF
pOND COVE.

15
5 OCEANOGRAPHY.

STRONG CURREN TS, REACHING 5 TO 6 KNOTS, PASS THROUGH GRAND PASSA GE NEAR PETER ISLAND.
(A MacKav, September, 1977 )

5.1 . INTRODUCTION. Because of Brier Island 's ex pos- The force of th e tides is as great at Brier Island as else-
ed condition, the influence of the sea is total; the winds, where in t he Bay and, as is discussed in more detail in the
surf and stor ms affect both marine and terrestrial organisms following sect ion, tidal cu rrents are great; reach ing veloci ties
lncludinq man. Its unique locat ion at t he Bay of Fundy's en- as high as six knots.
trance to the Atlantic Ocean int roduces oceanic characterist-
ics which are not found elsewhere in the Bay except at Grand
Manan Island. This chapter is a compilation of available ocean- 5.3 . CUR RENTS AND NON-T IDAL DRIF T. Water flood-
ographic data for the Island area . ing in an d out of the Bay of Fund y sweeps past Brier Island.
The bat hymetry (Figure 5.3 . 1) of the area is suc h that tidal
5.2. T IDES. Brier Island has the large tidal fluctuations currents are swept from great dep ths across the shoals to the
typical of the Bay of Fundy with a mean t idal amplitude of south and north of the Island and through the passages at
15.9 feet and a large tide ampl itude of 2 1.7 feet (Fisheries velocities which crea te the up wellings and rips which are
and Marine Service, 1977). In spite of the great rise and fall usua lly associated with areas of high localized productivity .
of the tide, the intertidal area is not particularly great com - Although th is phe nomenon is, in essence, the same as at
pared with other areas in the Bay. In fact the only extensive Deer Island and Gran d Menan, there are di ffe rences in mag·
areas of gradually slop ing beach are found at Po nd Cove and nitude. Both Deer Island and Gran d Menan have more com-
along the Westport shore. Elsewhere cliffs drop ab ru ptly to plex mosa ics of islands, passages, and shoa ls. Brier Island, how-
low water. ever, is smalle r in extent and less complex. The effect of this

16
3'

FI GURE 5.3.1 . BAT HYM ET RY IN THE BAI ER ISLA ND REGI ON (Depths in feet)

17
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ST.MAR Y ·S BA Y

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FIGU RE 5.5.1. TEMPERATURE AN D SA LI NITY PROF ILE S FOR JULY AN D AUG UST, 1977. (Please note:
Th ese d ata may no t be reproduced without th e per m ission of D. E. Gaskin .De pt.Zocloqv , Unive rs it y of Gue lph. )

18
a

•,
HEA V Y SWELL
IN WIND ~:lO u: '
.
g
,
~ ; ..
>6 a; ~i
/
....-t
"',

.•
Currents of approximately
4 knots pass across North -
west led ge as indica te d by t he
arrows, creating heavy ti de rips. u
,

•,
HEA V Y SWE L L
IN WIND

Heavy t ide rips ."
were encountered
WEL
at Whipple Po int.

Cu rrents of 5 to 6
" ",,_k nots are recorded
n for Grand Passage.
• Heavy rips were
observed to the
east and wes t of
Peter Island.
Str ong currents pass across
Southwest Ledge c rea t ing
heavy t ide rips

".
2

F IG U RE 5.3.3. LOCA TI ON O F EXT REM E TIDES, RIPS. A N D SWEL L.

19
MAINE

FIG URE 5.3.2. SURFAC E CIRCU LATION IN THE BAY OF FUNDY AS IN DICAT ED BY DR IFT BOTT LE
ST UD IES (After Hachey and Bai ley . 1952).

is reflected in marine habitats as well as the flora and fau na in shallow water and as high as 30 feet in depths in excess of
which, compared to areas such as Deer Island tend to be more 50 feet . Th is clarity, results in excellent light penetration
homogeneous. wh ich is reflected in the abundance of plant growth occurring
to 60 feet or more. In fact, this proli fic growth of algae is one
Information on non-tidal drift in the Bay of Fundy has of the predo minant features of the area . A number of dives
been previously presented (M acKay, 1976 ). Available inform- were made aft er a storm and visibility was on ly slightly re-
ation suggests a circu lar circu lation as shown in Figu re 5.3.2. duced ; presumably as a result of the lack of shallow-water
As can be seen from th is figure, Brier Island is within this Bay mud-flats which contribute greatly to suspended matter in
of Fundy drift system and, consequently, is wit hin the range other area s.
of any major surface borne pollutant or iginating anywhere in
the outer portion of the Bay. In ad dition, surface borne pol- 5.5. TEMP ERATUR E AND SA LIN ITY. Because of Brier
lutants, dumped f rom sh ips entering or depart ing from the Islands loca tion and the oceanographic characteristics of the
Bay of Fundy frequently reach the shores of Brier rsrano area sea sonal fluctuations in water tem perature and salinity
(Lent, 1977) mor e or less confirming th e on -sho re set of sur-
are not great. The fo llow ing tempe ratu re and salin ity data
face waters.
have been provided by Dr. D.E. Gaskin, Department of Zoo'
logy, University of Guelph, Guelph. Ontario. (Please note
Figure 5.3.3 shows the locations of extreme currents and
that these data were provided strictly for this report and ma y
tida l rips in the Brier Island area as ind icated on charts and as
no t be further reproduced without the permission of the
observed by our field party. Tida l velocities are also given. As Author):
can be seen much of the area is dominated by rips and areas
of heavy currents. Many of these areas can be wo rked by ex- All tem perature and salinity profiles are characte rized
perienced divers. However, togethe r with the com mon ly per- by the high degree of mixing and the limited difference in
siste nt swe ll, thes e factors make amateur divi ng in the area values obtained from surface to 60m. Both July and August
hazardous unless the party is led by a knowledgeable and flood t ide profiles indicate cold, high salinity water upwelling
conscientious dive master. However. from the point of view against the S.W. and N.W. Ledges (Figure 5.5. 1), with lesser
of surface viewing the currents and rips are an attraction and influence at Moore Led ge. Possibly the water carried in to-
readily accessible. wards Moore Ledge does not bring about a change until the
ebb has beg un to move at the surface. The influence of these
5.4 . LIG HT AND WATER CLAR ITY. Brier Island has upwe llings on th e food species of the upper trophic level an-
the clearest water of any site we have visited in the Bay of imals (whales. dolphins, porpoises and pelagic seabi rds) is most
Fund y. Ou r divers regu larly recorded visibilities to 40 feet pronounced wh en the tides are springing.

20
Average temperature increase in surface laye rs from J uly along the Brier Island margin of Grand Passage.
to late August was little mo re than 1 degree C, and corres-
ponding change in salinity fro m 0.2 5 to 0. 50 0/ 00.
5.7. WATER QUALITY. While we were unable to obtain
The University of Guelph Department of Zoo logy wishes water qual ity data for the Brier Island area, its locat ion, the
to acknowledge the invaluable assistance in this wor k of Mr. tack of heavy industry, and ou r general observations suggest
Raymond Thurber of Freeport, Nova Scotia; and the follow- that water ouattrv is high.
ing personnel of the Department of Zoology, - Ms B. Braune,
Ms W.G. Halina, Mr. D. Clow and Mr. B. Hill. 5.B. CLIMATE. Brier Island is influenced by a north-tem-
perate marine climate which is characterized by warmer win-
5.6. WAVES AND EROSION. The entire coastline at ter temperatures, coole r summer temperatures, extensive
Brier Island is exposed to severe wave action and persistent periods of summer fog and strong fall and winter winds.
swell. This includes, when the wind is from the right direction
at high tide, the shorefront at Westport in Grand Passage. Mills (1970) identifies the area as having the highest mean
Severe storms have tremendous effect as illustrated by the temperature in January (25 degrees F.) of any area in the
following newspaper excerpt on the "Ground Hog Day Gale" Maritime Provinces, the lowest mean annual range of tempe r-
of 1975 (Anon. 1975 ). ature (less than 40 degrees F.), a low mean dai ly temperature
range (15 degrees F.), the mildest extreme low temperature
West Port on Brie r Island, Freeport and other vii/ages on (-5 degrees F.) and the longest frost-free period (160 days ).
Long Island, Digby County and much of the Digby Neck This moderate climate results in the area having southern
were on Tuesday declared disaster areas in the wake of the floral and faunal affinities, much the same as at Grand Man-
wind storm of up to 118 miles per hour which hit the pro-
an Island.
vince on Monday.

One of the most serious happenings was the collapse of
the Raymond Robicheau general store at Westport. Tides
of four feet above normal, accompanied by the gusts deposit-
ed fishing boats and fish plants over the flooded roads and
up to the bushes.

Twenty·two fishing boats were said to be washed up and
some destroyed at Freeport on Monday. Power was still off
on the Islands and part of the Neck area on Tuesdsv stter-
noon.

Latest word coming from Freepor t just before going to
press reports that Connors Bros. at Freep or t was practically
wiped ou t ov Mondav's storm, Fish houses and debris landed
along the street blocking off the entrance to the ferry wharf.
All the fish houses from the intersection at the Bank to Con-
nor Bros. have gone, it is understood, and the road washed
away to be passable only on foot.

Fish refrigera ted at the Connors plant are totally destroy-
ed and a "pound" of 1000 pounds lobsters was washed a-
shore and completely lost. Other lobster "pounds" were al-
so scstiereo.

The erosive effect of waves and freezing are great. How-
ever, much of the coastal area is composed of hard basalt and
the rate of eros ion is, as a result, relat ively stow. Along the
eastern and western shores, the effects of erosion are classic,
with cliffs dropping to ta llus slopes of eroded basalt boulders.
In many localities, particularly where the cliffs are steep, these
tall us slopes drop below the low water line to considerable depth.
- -.- -'
.'
At Pond Cove erosion of softer lavas has created a gently
sloping shore dominated by a relatively extensive intertidal
area consisting of basalt ledge, cobble beaches, barrier bars
composed of basalt boulders and an extensive sand beach
(Figure 5.6 . 1).
FIGURE 5.6. 1.A A BOULDER BEACH ON THE EAST SIDE
At Westport weathering has been less extreme resulting in a OF POND COVE consisting of rounded basalt bou lders formed
series of mixed shores (sand, mud, cobble, boulder and ledge) by waves and weathering.

21
FIGURE 5.6. t.s A BOULDER AN D SAND BEAC H AT POND COVE . Typ ical weathered boulders embedded in a fine
sand beach.

22
6 MARINE HABITATS.

KELP BEDS AR E DOMINA N T AROUND BRIER ISL AND AND FORM ONE OF THE KEY MA RINE HABITATS.
THIS BfD IS LDCA TED OFF WESTPORT. (A. MacKay, September, 1977)

6. 1. INTRODUCTION. Shore and substrate classific- 5. The Southeastern Coast-exten ding from South
at ions and descr iptions of zonation have been previously Po int to Gull Rock, this shore is cha racte rized
presented (MacKay, 1976 }. Consequently. this chapter by high basalt cliffs d ro pping abrubtly to con -
will deal with the specific mar ine habitats found at Brier siderable depth.
Island. Brier Island is, compared with other localities in the
Bay of Fun dy, relat ively homogeneous in terms of marine 6. The Southwest Ledqe-a shallow subtidal ledge
habi ta ts . The Island is dominated by basalt cliffs, ledges and characterized by st rong cur rents, exposed con-
bo ulder beaches. As shown in Figur e 6.1.1. we have ident- dit ions, and tidal rips.
ified nine distinctive areas on the basis of locat ion and /or
substrate: 7. Pond Cove-Sand and Boulder Beach-a beautiful
1. Northwest Ledqe-a shallow subtidal basalt ledge beach characterized by fine sand and rou nded
characte rized by strong currents, exposed co n- basalt boulders.
ditions and tidal rips.
8_ Brackish Ponds -two brac kish ponds located at
2. Northern Entrance to Gr and Passage-located at Pond Cove.
th e northern entrance to Grand Passage, th is
coastline is characteri zed by basalt cliffs and 9. Pond Cove Ledges-an ex tensive inte rtidal ledge
strong cu rrents. system.

3. The Westport Shore-a mi xed shore possessing 10. The Northwest Coast-ex tend ing from Whipple
sand, mud, cobble, boulder an d ledge. Point to North Po int this shore is cha racterized
by cliffs and boulder and co bble beaches of bas-
4. South Po int-a sma ll area of subtidal sand charact- alt. It is more gently slopping than the southeast-
erized by eel grass and kelp. ern coast.

23
1. NO RTH WEST LEDGE

»
••
• •
" ~~
2 NORTH ERN ENT RA NCE
TO GRAND PASSAGE
•, u
U»'
Uj"
" JQ I":

•• ;'1.



• •,
"• 'ii,
-s
' p'
••

10. T HE NORT HWEST
COAST

••

9. POND COVE LE s


8. BRA CK ISH PONDS r:

4. SOUT H POIN T

"
f
3. WEST PO RT SHO RE
7. POND COVE BEA CH
n

6. SOU TH WEST LED GE
.
»

5. TH E SOUT HEAST ERN COAST

•"

2

FI GURE 6.1. 1. LOCAT ION OF PRINC IPA L MA RI NE HA BIT ATS DESCRIBE D I N THE TE XT.
24
Details covering each of these areas are given in the follow- ination of the bases of the kel p revealed a rela tively rich as-
ing pa ragraphs. sem blage of plan ts and animals which varied on ly slightly
f rom site to site. Rep resentative bottom profiles are shown
6.2. AFF INI TIES. Marine habitats at Brier Island have in Figu res 6.6. 1 and 6.6.2.
marked affinities with Grand Manan . As prev iously describ-
ed, Brier Island and port ions of Grand Manan are derived 6.7. SOU THWEST LEDG E (Figure 6. 1.1 (6). This area
from the same basalt formation. This is reflected in the sim- was not visited. However, we would expect assemblages sim-
ilarities in physical bottom characteristics, as well as floral ilar to those desc ribed for Northwest Ledge.
and faunal co mposition.
6.8. POND COVE BEAC H (Figure 6.1 .1 (7). This is a
6.3. NOR THWEST LEDGE. ( Figure 6.1. 1 (1 )). Nor th- fine sand beach which is relative ly barren of organisms, ax-
west ledge is an extensive ledge system ly ing to the north- cept on bo ulders at its margin and near low water where
west of Brier Island, much of the ledge lies less than 10 feet rockweeds and associated animal species occur in small
from Cha rt Datum and , consequently, is, in many respects, numbers . The beach is a popu lar feeding site fo r small shore-
similar to other shallow water areas, adjacent to land. Toe birds . See photographs in Chapter 4.
site visited at Northwest Rock was virtually identical to the
nor thwest and sou theastern coasts of Brier Island bein g dom- 6. 9. POND COVE-BRACKISH PO NDS (Figure 6.1. 1 (8)) .
inated by kelps (Laminaria, Alaria, etc) and other algae as Two brac kish po nds at Pond Cove receive freshwater drain-
well as associated invertebrate species. Consequently, more age from the uplands and periodic floodings of seawater.
detailed desc riptions provided for the no rthwest and south- Both ponds are protected from the sea by a boulder barrier
easte rn coasts will, we believe, be descriptive of this area . bar (Figure 6.9.4) which extends along the entire inner mar-
gin of Po nd Cove. Little Pond is relat ively small ( Figure
6.9.5 shows abo ut two-th irds of its extent) and is essent·
Tidal cu rre nts an d rips are comm o n and kelps we re gen- ially a small version of Big Po nd. with a sim ilar co mp osit ion
era lly mo re "tattered" than at other sites insho re. A general of plants and an imals as discussed in the followin g parag raphs.
bo ttom profile is given in Figure 6.3 . 1.
Big Pond (Figu res 6. 9.2 and 6.9.3) is an extensive, shal -
6.4. NO RTHER N ENT RANCE TO GRA ND PASSAGE low (average depth 3. 5 feet, max imum 5 feet ) brackish pond.
(Figu re 6. 1.1 (2)). The substrate in this area is essentially the In terms of species of animals an d p lants foun d elsewhere in
same along the northwest and southeastern coasts, being com- brackish ponds, it is not a particularly impressive pond. Th e
posed largely of basal t cliffs an d bou lde rs. However, the area water is war m and well fert ilized by sea birds . Conseq uent-
is subject to very strong pa rallel cur rents passing in and out Iy, species composition is restricted. Nevertheless, the pond
of Grand Passage result ing in bottom scouring and the occur- is important to seabirds (Mills, 197 0) and the floral compos-
ranee of san d pockets and cobble bottom. Gene ralized bot- ition along the margins of the pond is in many respects un-
tom profiles are given in Figure 6.4. 1. ique. As a result, with in the context of Brier Island, these
pon ds are unique an d important comp o nents.
Both sites are dominated by kelps wh ich are attached
to eit her bedrock or boulder. Associate d algae are ebund- Major components of Big Pond shown in Figure 6. 9. 1
ant, particularly the red encrusting alga Lithothamnion are described in the fo llowi ng para graphs.
which covers the roc k surfaces to depths of 40 feet or
mor e. Associat ed invert e brat es occur pri ncipa lly on the
roc k at the base of the algal stocks. As can be seen in Fig-
ure 6.4. 1, Site No.1 was the more varie d of the two re- AREA 1: By far the dominant species... is a sedge, cere»
presentative sites. This is the result of the more varied lasiocarpa. Visually, manna grass (Glyceria melicaria), blue·
habitat created by the presence of bou lders and pockets joint (Calamagrostis canadensis) and Juncus bre vicaudatus
of sand. are common, bu t Spha gnum sp. too, is a subdominant be-
neath Carex and the grasses. Other species... are Viola pal-
6.5. T HE WESTPOR T SHOR E ( Figure 6. 1. 1 (3 ) and lens (? I, Iris versicolor and Drosera ro tun di folia. High fre-
(4 ). The enti re Westport shore is a gently sloping mi xed quencies were ob tained for two ot her her bs...Hyp ericum
shore having a wide variety of mixed substrates including virginicum and Lysim achia terres tris ... Blue berry, Rumex
ledge, cobble, bou lder, mud, and sand. As a result, the so., Juncus af fusus, Elaeocharis smallii and alder occu r in
area ma intains a relati vely diverse assem blage of animals, small dense patches, but are of low frequency.
particularly, in the intertida l area. Representative inter-
tida l and subtidal sites are shown in Figures 6.5. 1 and "Thirty-th ree species were reco rded in the plots". (Gor-
6.5.2. The first is site No.7, a typica l intertidal mixed don, 1972 ).
shore characterized by rock, mud, san d, drainage st reams
and sma ll tide pools. Site No. 8 is an area of subtidal AREA 2: " Of the trees, Picea glauca (cat spruce) occu pies
sand characterized by eel grass (Zostera marina) an d kelp the greater canopy space, closely fo llowed by Alnus rugosa
(Laminaria). (speck led alder) . Ind ivid uals of Picea, howe ver, are much
fewer than those of alder who se stems form very dense
6.6. THE SO UTHEAST COAS T (Figure 6. 1. 1 (5) In thi ckets in places. Of the un derstorey and gro und veget-
te rms of u nderwater scenery, and species composition, this ation mosses were do minant. Sph agnum so. had a greater
coast is probably the most interesting. The do m inant char- coverage inde x than the com bined species of bryoid mosses,
acteristic at most sites was the profuse growth of very large which we re also quite numerous. Of vascular plants, the
kelp wh ich obscures much of the bottom. However, exam - commonest were raspberry (Rubus striqosus], Viola seo-

25
ten trkm stis, Poa palusUis and arceee alpina Ismail en- marine algae and raising salinity temporarily. Du ring our
chanter's nighshade). Other plants....are Rubus pubescens visit the barrier bar was open and patches of Ascophyllum
(dewberry), goo sebe rry Ribes hirtetlum], Gettum sp. and nodosum and Fucus so. were common nea r the bar rier bar.
Comus canadensis, Carex lep ralea,..• and Oxalis mon tens" In addition, Enreromorph a so. and VIva l acruca we re growi ng
(Gordon. 19721. in profusion.
AREA 3: " In dec reasing order of coverage do minance The pond ha s relat ively few an imal species. Mills (1970 )
the five commonest species in the areas sam pled are Betu la has ide ntified characteristics of the pon d whic h precl ude
michauxii, Elaeochar is pauciflora, Myrica ga/IJ, Calamagrosris great abundance and diversitv. This inclu des generally low
pickeringi var. debifis and Arenia metenoceroe (chokeberry). salinities and great salinity changes during flooding of sea-
water. The deeper sediments of the pond are fine organic
muds which are anoxic below one inch . The main benthic
There is a lower proportion of hemicryptophytea and ani mals are identified as chi ronomid di pt eran larvae and
more shrubs compared to the other areas. In areas whe re oligochaete wo rms. Principal fish species are : the Mummi ·
th e po nd encroaches into the bog the te rra in is more hum- chog (Fundulus h ererocli rus), the Bande d Killifish (Fundulus
moc ky with fewer plants, mainly Myr ica. Beru/a, Chamaedaphne diaphanus) the Ninespine Sticklebac k (Ap e/res quadracus)
and Aronia," (Gordon, 19 72 ) and the Four spine Stickleback (Ap elres quadracus) of which
the Mummichog is considered the most abundant as it was
AR EA 4: " This is a low-diversity island of vegetation during our visit. In addition Gammarids were abundant
surrounded by bog. It resembles area 2 - A/nus rugosa occu- near the barrier bar.
pies most of the canopy, but red spruce (Picea ru bens) and
fir (Abies balsamea) are relat ively commoner he r th an Picea A REA 7: During our visit, shallow ponds in a m udd y sand
g/auca. Th e cen tre of this 'island' is dryer than the plot flat on the sou t hweste rn margin o f the pon d we re supp ort-
areas of 2, and th e c ut-o ff from ty pical bog spec ies is abr up t. ing large populat ions of Wat er Boatme n of an unident ified
Only Com us canadensis can be said to grow equally we ll in species.
both areas, though in low num be rs. The centre of the 'island'
is scerserv vegetated under the canopy (possibly du e to the A REA B: The bar rier ba r supports little life. Spiders and
shade and litter of conifer needles) but the periphery is near- mites were observed. It is sparsely vegetated and Gordon
ly impenetrable in some places where Rubus recurvicaulis (7) (197 2) has identified the following species as occurring
occurs". {Gordon, 19 72). there: "some chenopods (A rriplex parulaand Salso/a kali),
members of the cervccnvnaceee, Solanum nigrum, Unicia
A REA 5: " Th is is an area of highe r diversity (e. 70 app.) dtotce ?, Scurellaria ga/ericu/ara. Iris versicolo r, Po/ygo num
reflecting the mosaic of subcom muni ties comprising it. Es- avicu /are an d Cirsium sp".
sentially a grassy me ado w area. th ere are variations in com-
position dete rmined primarily by small variations in elevation 6. 10. PON D COV E LEDGES 16. 1. 1 (9)) . As shown in
above pond level and relative d istances to pond and adjacent Figur e 6. 10.1, the western shore of Pond Cove consists of an
woods. For this reason there is more than one major species, extensive set of intertidal ledges dominated by the Ascop-
Grasses are dominant, and chief of these are Fesruea rubra hyllum- Fucus assemblage. Subtidally, these ledges dro p to a
(red fescue), Calamagrosris canadensis Ibluejolrn! and Agrosris sand and boulder bottom.
renuis Ibrown top]. In damper areas nea r the pond Carex
lasiocarpa is most abundan t. Also common throughout are 6. 11. THE NO RTH WEST COAST (6. 1.1( 10)). As shown
Iris versicol or (90 perce nt f requen cy ). and Viola seo tea- in F igur e 6. 11. 1. the northwest co ast slopes gradually and
trio nalis. The area is damp enough to suppo rt a num ber of at all sites visited, is co mpo sed of basalt bedrock and a few
bryoid moss spec ies. Sphagnum is insigni fica nt. High indices boulde rs cove red with a profu se growth of very large kelp s,
of dispersal are reflected in the patchiness of the area and Plant and animal assemblaoes are very similar to those on
similar indices obtain for Rubus hispidus, Carex lep ralea, the southwest coast and at Northwest Ledges..
A/chemilla xanthoch/ora and E/aeocharis smallii.
6.12. MAN-MADE HA BITATS. Man-made habitats are
As in area 1, most of the plants in this area are pe rennial restr icted to a few wharves and moo ring poles at Westport.
he rbs with overwinteri ng buds at or near the soil surface These structures have little influe nce on the marine life of
(he micryptophytea)" , (Go rdon, 1972). the area.

A RE A 6: " The pond has a few t ruly aquatic angiosperm 6. 13. PELAGIC HABITATS. Pelagic habitats occur
species·Poromogeron pecrinarus domina tes this vegetation. with in a few hundred yards of the western, southern, and
At the shallower northern end Poramogeron perfolia rus eastern coasts.. As is discussed in other chapters, this char-
OCCU~ and Uuicularia in rennedia is scattered around the acteristic brings pelag ic seabirds and mammals in close prox-
margins, often lying on wet mud. Hippuris vulgaris Imare's imity to the Island.
tai l) does better as an emergent than a submergent species.
and at the no rt hern end of the pond a few tips we re ba rely
showing above the water surface". (Go rdon, 1972).

Mills (1970 ) ind icates that po nd salini ties are low (max-
imum 2 0 / 0 0 ) dur ing summer. During the winter the sea
periodically breaks through the barrier beach. transporting

26
SUBTIDAL K E L P BE D O N B E O RO CK
DOM I N ATED BY !
L ~ m l n ~ rl ~
Al ~rl~
Ll th o t h ~ m n l o n

AS SO CI A TE D SPEC IES
H~ l i c h o n d , l~
Obelia
Mi xe d hy d , o ld s
S pl rorbls
P ~ gurus
Bucc lnum
I scll n o cll it o n
Modiol us
N eplune~
A sle rl.s vulg~,ls
O p h l o ph o l ls
Strongy locent rotu 5
M ytllus
a rveeca ns
POllOCK
Ag arum
cor~lIln.

20

10

O(LWl
t;
w
u,
-10 z
I

w
t
-20 a

-30

-40

B R IER I S L A N O, N.S.
SiTE N O. 36
-50

FIGURE 6.3.1. GENERA LIZ ED BOTTOM PROFI LE OF SITE 36, NORTHWEST LEDGE.

27
I N T E RT I DA L
ASCOPHYL LUM- t
20
SUBTIDAL K EL P B ED O N BED ROCK FUCUS ~
DOMINATED BY INF RALtTTORAL ASSEMBLAGE
La m l narla ASSEM BLAGE
Al arla ( kerp, dulse, chondrus,
Aga r um ulva, mixed Drowns and 10
Ll t h o t h am nl on reds).
Rh o d y m en la
ASSOC I A TED SPEC IES
HaUChOndrla
Mi xe d hy droids OI LW)
Myxlcola

""'"
Modiol us
Aster las vu lga ris~ .
Ophlopholls
Strongy locent rotus
-10 ••
B ryozoa ns
Mi xe d r ed alg ae Z"
Mixed brown alg ae oof-
..
I

.. .'
POllOCk ~O -20
Cunner ~o 0
Co, •0
' "
-30

-40

BRIER IS LA ND, N. S.
SI T E N O. 2
-50

SUBTIDAL K EL P ON ROC K
DOMI NATED B Y, INT ERTI DA L
Lamlna rla ASCOPHYLLUM·FUCUS
20
Alarla ASSEMB LAGE

~
Agarum
L lIh o t ha m n l o n
Rhodymen la I N F R A LI T T O R A L
ASSOC IA TE D SPECIES ASS EMB LAGE 10
lsodlctya ( kelp, dulse, chond rus,
M ixe d hydroidS ul va , mi x ed b rowns
O Della and reds) .
TuDula
Myxlcola rla----- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ==c OI LW)
Potamil ia
Cance r
Pagu rus
Acmaea
Bu CCln u m -10 ..•
Dendronotus
I sch n o ch lt o n •
u,
Modiolus z
Thais
A stertas v ul9arls
Cucuma rla
-20
..
I
0
Henrlcla
St rongylocel'ltrotus •0
Bryozoans
POllOCk -30
Co,
F lound er
Sea Raven

-40
BR IER ISLAND, N . S.
SITE NO.1.
-50

FI GURE 6.4.1. GENERA LI ZED BOTTOM PROFI LE OF SITES 1 A ND 2, GRA ND PASSAGE.

28
1. BOULDER BREAKWATE R 5. MUD ANO MU DDV S A ND
Splden Uneu t
Miles Cly menellll
CIIf~ l n ut
2.. COBBLE BEACM OV E R MUD G a m m ll..... t
(a ll s.pec le. sp,Irw) Ll n o rln ll IItto,u
Ba lan ut L. Otltu Wtll
G llmmll,u t L. w o<lItl1lt
U tto , lnll IItto,... L u n lltl ll
L. o Dtuwta
L. WXlltlll t
M,.
E n t .,..m o , p h ll
Atcophyllu m Po,pny u
F u~ u t
Ulv lI
3" DRAINAGE STREAM & SMA LL TI D E POOLS
Balanu t Io n , O(:kl 6" ROCKS AT L OW WATER
C a r ~ i n u s (Cll r~lnldu) u WlIl ln ' ralitto ral fl Ol'a lind 'llu n a
Gammllru s
tscecc (? spede s)
L ltt o rl nll In t orn 7. SUBTIDA L ROCKS
L. o Pt u w ta utulII subtida l flora a n d flu na
L. uxa tllls uso ~lllt ed wl tn a rOC ky t u b st ra te
Cno,darl a
Chondrus
En t e romorpna
Ulva
4. I NTE RT IDAL BO ULDERS
Lln .us
Balanus
Care lnus
Gammarus
Llttorln .. IItt o,e..
L. o Dtu s.aU
L. wo<atl ilt
AtcOphylium
En t e,m o,ph a
Fu~us
Ulu
A. MIOLl TTORA L·M IGM WAT E R
26
2.
22
20
18
16

"-
w
"
12
w
u,
B. L O WWAT E R. MJOL ITT O R AL z
10 z
8
•"w
Q

6


2
0
B R IER IS LA ND, N-S.
". f • • SIT E NO.7 -2
-4

FI GURE 6.5.1. GENERA LIZED BOTTOM PROFILE OF SIT E 7, WESTPORT SHORE·INT ERTIDA L MIX ED SHORE.

29
SUBT IDAL KELP AND ZDST ERA
ON SANDI

DOMINATED BYI
umlNtla
A,aru m
Ulva
Zostefl
ASSOCIATED SPEC I ES
Hya ro las
Ast.rla, vul,"'l s
Poll OCk
Mlx.d f.a II".. on kelp

I NTE R TI D AL.
ASCOPHY L.LU~FUCUS -20
ASSEMBL.AG E

-10
I N F R A LITT O R AL.
ASSEMBL.AGE

Ol l WI
•ww
u,
-10 z
J:
l;:
w
-20 0

-30

-40
BR IER ISLA N D
SITE NO.8

-50

FIGURE 6.5.2. GENERALI Z ED BOTTOM PROFILE OF SITE 8, WESTPORT SHORE.

30
I N T E R TI D A l- A N D I N F R A I-I TT O R A I-
ASSEM8 1-AGES -20
Ascophyllum
utve
Polysiphonla lanosa
Fucus ede nta t u s
zeteea reus -10
Rhody menla
T h ai s
Llttortne sp.
Mylllus
8alanus O( LW)
SUB T ID Al- KEI-P ON 8EDROCK
DOMINATED B Y I M Od iol u s t;
La m l n arl a M ytll u s w
A \larum
Co raliin a
tr esenerest ta
Tha is
Asterlas vul\larls
-'0 " Z

Uthoth am nlon ~s~~~I~la Z
Rhodymen la
Ch ond rus-Gig artina com plex ~l ~~~~y ·ocent:otus -20 ~
a
AS SOCIATED SPECIES POllock
lsodlctya Ectoca rp us
Myxlcola F Ucu s ecente
H yd ro lds Ulva
Bala n us
Pa\lu ru s
-30
Buccln um

-40
BRIER IS LAND
Si T E N O. 11
"'---- .J. -50

FIGUR E 6.6.1. GENERA LI ZED BOTTOM PROF I L E OF SITE 11, SOUTH EAST SHORE. Phot o shows broad Barnacle
zone which is disti nct ive of this coast.

31
-20

-10
INF RALl TTO RAL
ASS EMB L AGE

"-- + OILWI
SUB T IDAL KE L P BED O N BED ROC K
DO M INA T E D BYr
Lam ln arl a
-10
••"
u,
A la rla
z
Coralllna
L1tho t hamn lon
ASS OC IAT ED SPEC IES
,
Hal lc h o nll r la ~
Hyll rol ll$ ·2015'
Obe lia
TUbu lar la
Den llronotu$
Modiolus
Asterlas vulgaris -30
Bryozo ans
Bo ltenl a ov lfera
POllock
Phycod rys
Rhodymenla -40
B RI E R ISLA N D. N.S.
S ITE NO . 16 (G u ll ROck)

-'------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - J -50

FIGU RE 6.6.2. GEN ERA LI ZED BOTTOM PROF I LE OF SIT E 16, GU LL ROCK, SOUT HEAST SHORE.

32
\
\
\

,,
--

--

..
:.~.:,:.::
.'. :':'.,

-- -- -
..:::::::.:.::.:.;.:.:<..(2)::.::.:-.:'.:..:::: .
::.: .:,:... . . : .' .' : ,:" ..':;;";.: .,:,:'.~.:.' .:"" .
:.~. ~~ /:\'~':,\\~j:~,r,~'~:(:': : ' .
~: :;~;" \': : ;'~: .•<:: .: r;.

-,: , .~ . ...
'

' .. ' '.

FIGUR E 6.9. 1. GENERA L CHARACT ERISTICS OF BIG POND AT POND COV E. See text fa Iescrip tion of area
num bers (From Gordon, 1972 and MRA field recor ds).
33
FIGURE 6.9.2. BI G PON D LOOKI NG SOUT H TOWA RDS THE BAR RIER BA R.

FI GURE 6.9.3. BIG PON D V IEWED FROM T HE BA RRIE R BAR .

34
FIG URE 6.9.4. THE BARR IER BAR WHICH ENCLOSES BOTH PONDS AT POND COV E.

-~ - .....

FIGURE 6.9.5. LITTLE POND V IEWED FROM THE BARRIER BAR.

35
-20

INFRALI TTORAL FR I NGE
N o sample-prob ably
SU 6T I DA L SAND AND 60ULDER sim ilar to p rev ious srt e s. -' 0
SP EC IES R ECO R D E D
A garu m
Llthothamnlon
Gly,era
ea tenus O(LW)
Pagu rus
Acmaee
l s<: h n OCh l t on
Modiolus
-10 >-
ur
St rongy lo, entrotus \
w
Oph lopl1olls -~o::;:;:z •z
Asterlu vu lg aris ~~~~
cod --<::::::.--.-
-=-
••
Se a Raven ~
-20

.~>Jib~-.'£ ': -
' ad::.
w
0

-30
BOU LDERS O N SA ND

-40
6R IE R I SL A N D, N.S.
Si T E NO. 23 ( pond Cove)

-50

FIGUR E 6.10. 1. GENERA LI ZED PROFI LE OF POND COVE LEDG ES.

36
SUBTI D AL K ELP B ED O N BE DROC K
DOM I N A TED BV ,
L amln;>rl;> ·20
A9arum
A lar l a
Cora ll ina MOdiolus
Llthothamnion Ophlopholls
St rongy loc ent rotus · 10
ASSOC IATED SP EC IES Br yo;zoans
Ha llcnonllrl a Po lloc k
Obe lia Chon drus
Spl rorbls Desm ar estl a
Pagu rus - - Gigartln;> OILW)
A cm aea Phycod rys
Bucc inu m R h otl yme n la
tschnccnttce U lva

~1~1 · 10 >-
w
w
•z
·20

I

W
0
BOU LD E RS ON B ED ROC K
·30

·40
B R IER I SL A N D , N. S.
SI TE NO. 28

·50

SUBTIDAL K E L P BE D O N B EDRO C K

D O M IN A T E D BY I
·20
L am l na r ! a
A garum
A larla
Corai lin a
Ll t n o t h am n io n · 10
A SSO C I AT E D SP EC I ES
HallchOnd rla
O belia
Spl ro rbls O(LW)
Pagu rus B ryo;zo ans
Buccl num Pollock
I seh n o Ch l t on ChOndrus
Modiolus De sma rest ia
Ne p t u ne a GlgartJna · 10
Aste rlas vu l gar is Phy co d ry s
Ophlopholls Po r p hy ra
Strongylocent rotus Rnodym enla
U l va >-w
· 20 w
"
Z
I
·30 •>-w
0

BOULDERS O N BEDROC K ·4 0
B R I ER I SL AN D. N.S.
SI TE N O. 32
·50

FIGURE 6. 11. 1. GENERA LI Z ED PROFI LES FOR SIT ES NO. 28 AND 32·T HE NORT HWEST COAST.

37
7 INVERTEBRATES.

7.1. IN TR ODU CTI ON, Very li ttle info rmati on was found ') Ha/ichondria panicea. Crumb-of-bread Spo nge. This
on t he marine inverte brates of the Brier Island region. As a resu lt , species is wide ly d istr ibut ed and co m mon, having been reo
the reco rds inclu de d in th is chapte r, represent new data and con- co rde d at 14 sites. It is usua lly associated with the shaded
sequ ently , we are including information on all species record- areas on rock and the holdfasts of kelp.
ed including dist ribut ion maps. However, since it ta kes many 2) Haliclona oculata. Finger Sponge. Th is spec ies is
years of f ield work to obtai n a complete listing, particularly not com mon and was found at only on e site (Gu ll Rock ).
for the sma ll species and th ose having restrictive habitat re-
quirement s, this list must be cons ide red as prelimin ary. 3) tsoaictvs deichmannae. Th is large co lorfu l spon ge
was found common ly at 5 sites in Grand Passage and along
7.2. SPECIES CHECKLIST. All marine inverte brat es the sou theast shore where it occurs on rock an d ho rse mus-
recorded to date are given in Table 7.2. 1. sel shells (Modio lus m odiolus).

7.3. ACCOUNTS OF SP ECIES. The fo llowing accounts 4) Scypha ciliata. The Tufted Vase Sponge. Th is
de al largely w ith the distr ibut ion and abundance of marine tiny sponge was recor ded at only one site on the southeast
invert ebrates recorded du ring our field work. Additional coast. It is a d ifficult species to locate and we would antic-
info rmation on commerc ial species is pro vided in the ena ct- ipate its occurrence elsewhere in th e region.
er on resource uses.
B. CNIDARIA (Figures 7.3. 2 and 7.3.3). With the ex-
A. PO RIFE RA (Figure 7.3. 1). Only four species of ception of hydroids the Cn idaria were poorly represented.
spo nges were recorded. Many of the larger sponges are re-
st ricted in their occu rrence in other areas in the Bay of Fun-
dy and we would anticipat e the presence o f additional spec- 1) Obelia sp. This genus was recorded at 15 sites where
ies at Brier Island. it generally occurs in great abu ndance on kelp .

38
POR IF ERA ANN ELIDA uenaronoios frondosus BRYOZOA
Hiatella arctica
Ha/ichondria panicea Amphitrite sp. Ischnochiton ruber Several species
Ha/iclona oculata Clymenella sp. I. alba
tsoatctvs deichmannae G/ycera dibranchiata Lacuna sp. BRACHIOPODA
Scypha cttis ts Lep idonotus squsmstus Uttorina ttnoree
Myxico/a infundibulum L obtusata Terebratu/ina seotentrionetis
CNIDARIA Potamil/a neglects L saxati/is
Spirorbis borealis Lunatia hero s
HYDROZOA Modiolus modiolus CHO RDATA
Obelia sp. ART HROPODA Mya arenaria
Tubu/aria sp. Mytilus edulis ASCIDIACEA
Uniden tified sp. Balanus balanoides Neptunea decemcostata Boltenia ovifera
Balanus balanus Onchidoris sp.
ANTHOZOA Cancer borealis Placopec ten magellanicus
Cerianthus borealis Carcinus (Carcinides) maenas Thais lapillus
Metridium senile Gammarus oceanicus
Tea/ia felina Homarus americanus
Unidentified sp. Isopod (J sp. ] ECHINODERMATA
Pagurussp.
CTENOPHQRA Shrimp (?sp. ) Asterias vulgaris
Cucumaria frondo sus
Pleurobrachia pileus MOLLUSCA Henricia sanguinolenta
Ophiopholis aculeata
RHYNCHOCOE LA Acmaea testudinalis Psolus fabricii
Buccinum undatum Solaster endeca
Lineus sp. Coryphella sp. Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

TABLE 7.2.1 INVER T EBRATE SPEC IES RECORD ED IN T HE STUDY AREA.

2) Tubularia so. Th is genus was recorded at 5 sites C. CT ENOPHORA (Figure 7.3.4). Ctenophores occur
where small clumps were associate d with rock. shel ls and irregularly in large numbers in the Bay of Fundy.
kelp. While it is widely distributed its abunda nce does not
ap proach areas such as Deer Island and Lo meville, N,B. 1} Pleurobrachia pileus. The Sea Gooseberry. This
whe re this genus occurs in great profusion. species was seen in large numbers at 4 study sites and else-
whe re and probably cou ld be found throughout the stu dy
3) Unidentified Hydroid. Unidentified hvd roid s. re- area.
presenting several species, were recorded, on kelp, at 5 sites.
2) Unrecorded Species. Other species which probab-
4) Cerianthus borealis. This large bu rrow ing anemone ly occur irregularly at Brier Island include: Bolinopsis in-
was recorded at one site in Grand Passage. Elsewhere we fundibulum, Beroe cucumis, an d Mnemiopsis sp.
have found it to be of restricted distribution as well.
D. NEMEATEA (Figure 7.3.5). Very little habitat for
5) Metr'idium senile. The Common Anemone. Abund· ribbon worms was found at Brier Island.
ant elsewhe re in the Bay, this species was record ed, in small
numbers, at only one site.

6) Tea/ia fe/ina. The Dahlia Anemone. Th is species 1) Lineus sp. Th is t iny species was recorded at two
occurs abundantly at only a few localities in the Bay. At sites on the Westport shore. It is probably com mo n in mix-
Brier Island, it was only recorded at one site (Gull Rock ). ed habitat with mud and rock alon g the entire Brier Island
We would anticipate that scattered ind ividuals occu r through- shore of Grand Passage. We wou ld also expect it to occur
out the study area. in suitable habitat along the ent ire coast.

7) Unidentified Anemone. A small (unde r 'h inch) 2) Unrecorded Species. Cerebratulus sp. shou ld occur
unidentified species of anemone was recorded at Gull Rock. in mud along the Westport shore. Micrura sp. should occu r
intert idally in rocky areas with small tide pools.
8) Unrecorded Species. On the basis of our ex perience
we woul d anticipate that the following species of Cnidaria E. ANNE LIDA (Figure 7.3. 6 and 7.2.71. Segmented
occu r in the study area : Hydractinia echina ta on Pagurus worms were relat ively poorly represented, probably due to
shells, Aurelia aurita (Moon Jellyfish ) and Gyanea capil/ata. the lack of extensive mudflats where many species are found.

39
1) Amph itrite sp. Am ph itr ite was reco rded at o ne 6) Garcinus m aenas. Green Crab. T he Green Crab
site on the southeast coast. It probably occurs in sma ll was o bserved at only one site. Th is speci es has been in-
numbers th roughout t he study area. creasing in numbers on the New Brunswic k shore and its
presence here, in a non-estuarine situation suggests popu-
2) Clymene/la sp. The Bamboo Worm. This worm latio ns ma y be inc reasing on the Nova Scotia shore as well .
occurs in large numbe rs in muddy areas near low wate r
along the Westport shore. 7) Gam m arus ocean ieus. Be ach Flea. This c om mo n
intertidal amph ipod was recorded at only two sites bu t
3) Glycera dibranchiata. Blood wo rm. Normally fo und was o bse rved commonly along the West po rt shore. It sho uld
in mudflats, a single specimen was found subtidally on sand occur abundantly, in the proper habita t, anywhere along
bottom at Pond Cove. the shores.

4) Myxicola in fundibulum. Th is species is common 8) Isopod. A small unidentified isopod was recorded
in roc k frac tu res alon g the eastern coast from No rt h Po int as abundant in an intert ida l dr ainage str eam.
to G ull Roc k.
9) Shrim p. A single, uni den tif ied shrimp was record-
5) Potam illa oculifera. T his sma ll tu be wo r m is no r' ed at o ne site. Else whe re in t he Bay, shrim p are usually co m-
ma lly associat ed wit h Myxicola in fundibulum and small mo n. T he ir gen era l abse nce at Brie r Island was unexpec ted.
n umbe rs occ u rred in t h is assoc iati o n at 4 st ud y sites.

6) Spirorbis sp. T his t iny tube wo rm was reco rd- G. MO LLUSCA (Figures 7.3. 11·7 .3. 14) . Th e Molluscs
ed as a bundant on ke lp at 7 study sites. It pro ba bly occ urs are we ll re presented at Brie r Island .
a bundantly o n roc k and seaweed t hroughou t the en ti re
study area. 1) Aemaea testudinalis. Lim pet. Th is species was
recorded at 13 study sites and is c om mo n to abundant
7) Lepidonotus squama tus. Scale worm. T his species throughout t he area.
was located at Po nd Cove where it probably occu rs abund-
antl y, 2) Ist:hnochiton ruber and I. alba. Ch itons. Two
species of chitcns were observed. I. rub er is the most com-
8) Unreco rded Species. Other annelids undoubtedly mon species, occurring at 11 sites. I. alba is less common
occur in the st ud y a rea. Ho weve r, we are unable to pro jec t and was recorded at onl y one site .
probable occurrence of additio nal species.
3) Buccinum undatum. Northern Whelk. Th is large
sea snail occurs commonly in the Bay o f F undy. It was un -
usu a lly a bun da nt at Brie r Island, being re corded at 17 sites.
F. A RT HRO PODA ( Figures 7.3. 8, 7.3.9 and 7.3. 10 ).
Wit h the except ion of barnacles, lobster, and crabs. very
4) Thais lapillus. T he Do g Whel k. The Dog Whel k
few am ph ipods and sh rimp were encountered. We wou ld
was rec o rde d at 4 study sites. It is common to abundant in
hesita te to suggest th at th ese species do no t occu r c om ' suita ble habit at .
mon ly in the study are a. Most of th e sites we re c ove red
wit h t hic k ke lp beds which may have hampe red c bse r- 51 Neptunea decem eostata. Te n-ridged Whel k.
vation of t hes e species. This species was recorded at o n ly o ne site . Scattered ln-
d ivid ua ls probably occ ur t hr o ugho ut t he region .
1) Balanus balanoides. Acor n Ba rnacle. T his species
is common to a bun dant inte rt ida lly along t he e nt ire co ast-
6) Modiolus modiolus. Ho rse Musse l. Th is large
line. At some loc alities it fo r ms broad dense band s ( Figu re su btidal musse l is o ne of t he dom inant species at Brie r ls-
6.6 . 1) above the Asco phyllum Zo ne. land wh e re it was fou nd to be co mmo n to abun dant at 19
study sites.
2) Balanus balanus. Th is species was reco rd ed at
three si tes. It probably occu rs throughout the study a re a. 7} My tilus edulis. Blue Mussel. Common elsewhere
in the Bay, Blue Mussels are small and occur in scattered
3) Homarus am ericanus. American Lobster. Lo bster beds at Brie r Island, being recorded at only 4 study sites.
we re recorded at on ly two sites. Howe ver, as ind ica ted in The only extensive bed was encountered at Northwest Ledge.
th e Chapter on Resource Uses, they are abundant in the
a rea. 8) Nudibranchs. Three species, Dendronotus fron-
dosus . Coryphella SP. and Onchidorus aspersa we re record-
4 1 Cancer so. Rock Crab. The Rock Crab was reco rd- ed as present to c o mmo n at 7 sites. Ge nera lly, these species
ed at 5 sites. Th e t hick kelp co ver made it d ifficu lt to ob- were fo un d on kelp.
serve th is species an d we wou ld e x pect it to be common
throughout the area. 91 Littorina Iittorea, L obtusata and L saxatilis.
Periwinkle, All th ree species of per iwink les were present
5) Pagurus sp. Her mit Crab. He rm it Crab s we re co mmon to abundan t at all in te rt idal sites visite d.
at 18 sites along th e ent ire coast and were one of t he mo st
fre quentl y o bse rved subtidal Arth ro pods. 10 ) Lunatia heros. Nort he rn Moo n Snail. T his spec-

40
tes was reco rde d in sandy-mud at one site on the Westp ort pod. This species is unc omm on at Brier Island, being reo
shore. Lac k of suitable habitat wou ld restri ct dist rib ut ion corded at only one site (Hog Yard Covel.
and abundance of t his species.
3) Protocnoraets. The absence of protochordata
11) Mya sren srts So ft-she lled clam. Distribution of species sug gests gen erally low plankton levels since these
this speci es is restr icted by lack of suitable ha bitat. It is com- species are heavi ly depend on plan kt on for foo d. Onl y one
mon to abundant in suitable habitat along the Westport shore. species, Boltenia ovt tere. was recorded in small numbers at
Gull Rock.
12 ) Lacuna sp. This small subtidal gastro po d was
found in great abundance on kelp near South Point. We
would expect it to be of general dist ribution in th e kel p
beds of the area . 7.4. As previously ou t lined (MacKay, 1976 ) " Indicator
Species" have been used to compa re species diversity in dif-
13 ) Placopec ten magellanicus. Giant Sea Sca llop. ferent areas. Ta ble 7.4 . 1 an d Figure 7.4. 1 shows species
No scallop bed s were encountered. A single empty shell was diversity and abun dance at Brier Island com pared to th ree
recorded at South Point. This species is taken by fishermen othe r sites in the Bay of Fundy ; Deer Island , Grand Man an,
fro m deeper water and ad ditional information is su pplied in and Lor neville, N.B.
the section on Resource Uses.
As can be seen Brier Island rates lower than both Deer
14 ) Hiatella erctice. Arc tic Saxicave. This species Island and Gran d Marian. We wou ld att ribute thi s to two
was reco rded only at one site (Pond Covel. fac tors: 1) the occu rrence of few er ha bitat ty pes at- Brier
Island and 21 lower levels of plan kto n an d/or suspended
H. ECHINODERMATA (Figure 7.3. 151. Seve n species organic matter.
of Ech inod erms we re recorded. While they are generally
distributed, population levels we re generally low.

1) .astertes vulgaris. Common Starfish. Scattered
individuals were recorded at 19 sites. They are generally
distributed throughout the stu dy area, but population
levels are low.

2) Henricia sanguin o/enta. Blood Star. S mall num-
bers are generally distri buted th roughout the area. They
were recorded at 9 sites.

31 Cucumaria frondosa. Sea Cucumbe r. Small num-
bers occur at scattered localit ies. They were reco rded at 5
sites.

4) S trong ylocentrotus droebach iensis. The Green
Sea Urchin. This species is common thro ughout the entire
study area, being recorded at 2 1 study sites . Sizes observed
were small to medi um and populations were not exceeding-
ly large.

5) Psolus toortctt. Sca rlet Pectus. This brilliant cu-
cumber was generally com mon along the southeast coa st
nea r Grand Passage. It appears to be rest ricted in dist rib-
ut ion and was not recorded elsew here.

61 Solaster endeca. Sunstar. This species was recor d-
ed at one site near Perc Jac k Cove. Generally associated with
beds of Cucumaria frondo sa, on wh ich it fee ds, we would
not expect large num bers to occur in the area, since cucum-
ber populations are very low:

I. BRYO ZOAN S, BRAC HIOPODA, PROTOCHOR DATA.

1) Bryozoans. A wide varie ty of Bryozoan speci es
we re recorded as common to abun dan t on roc k and kelp at
15 sites .

2} Terebratulina septentrionelis: At lantic Brachio-
4'
SPECI ES D EE R ISLAND GRANDMANAN LORNEVILLE BRIER ISLAND

Haliclona C p C P
Halichondria C C P C-A
Lge. Complex Sponges e-A P-C C
Corym orpha A p
T ubularia A A A P
Obelia A A C A
An tennularia e-A
Lucernaria C A
Gersemia e-A
A lcyonium C-A
Tealia C C C P
Metr idium A C-A P P
Cerianthus C P P
Bryozoans A A A A
Terebratullna A C-A P P
Chiton s A A A C-A
Acmaea A A P C-A
Buccinum C-A C C A
Nept unea C C P P
Colus C P-C
Mvt ilus A A A p-C
Modi olus A C P A
Pleco pecten A C P A
PotamiUa A P P
Mvxicola A C P C
Balanus A A A A
Gamma rus A A A C-A
PandaIus A C-A P
HomallJs A A C A
Pagurus A A C-A A
Hvas A ? P ?
Cancer A C P C
Carcinus C-A A P
Psolus e- A P-C C
Cucumaria e-A p p
St rongylocent rotus A A P C-A
Echinarachnius C ? ?
Hippasteria P ? ?
Scla ster C ? P
Crossaster C ? P ?
Henricia e-A C C C
Asterias A C-A C P-C
Gorgonocephalus A
Ophiopholis A A P C
Boltenia ovifera A P P P
Halocynthia A C
Molguia A p P ?

T AB LE 7.4. 1. OCCURR EN CE O F " IN D ICA TO R" SPECI ES A T DEER ISLAN D, G RAN O MANAN, LOR NE VILLE ,
N.B. A N D S RI ER ISLA ND, N.S. (. equals not recorded, P equals present , C equals common, A equals abundant) .

42
50

Probably
occur 40

30

'"cw
ur
e,

'"
u,
o
20
'"wro
s::>
z

10

a
LornevilJe Brier Island Grand Mana n D eer Island

FIGUR E 7.4.1. OCCU RRENCE OF BENTHIC " IN DICATO R" SPECIES AT DEER ISLAND, GRAND MANAN,
LORNEV ILLE. N.B. AN D BRI ER ISLAN D, N.S.

43
,. •

g
s
u
•. •
.
" ~~

"•

• "
• ,. g

••

·•

Expected to occ .
deep water on pro
u r In
substrate . per

• e lsod ietya
• Hatichondr
(J H .
alict cna
na
.A. Scy pha

.. NAlfT ICAL MILES
D
f flI " '_ . b.
• • o 1 2

FIGURE 7.3.1 DIST RIBUT ION O F SPONGES AT BRIER ISLAND, N.S.

44
rr


", "
"
,•

~


"•

Most common ss
with kelps Iy associated •

• Obelia sp
. T ubularia sp
,,"Unident if ied' Hvdr old

NAUTICAL MILES
, o 2

FI GURE 7.3.2. D IST R I BUTIO N 0 F H YD ROIDS A T BR IER IS l AN LJ, N .:).
45
sr

,,
.•
, " "• •
,

__ R
.~ ,
~i'l.~ .
"
; lJ '
...£.L ,'-
.
GD n (3 ' 12 . .. 951l1~
' .. S>o a, oo,...
\ .~

(".\'

O Cerianthus borealis
_ Met r id ium senile
• r eana felina
....Uni dent if ied Ane mone

••"

• • o 2

FI GUR E 7.3.3. DISTR I BUTI ON OF AN EMON ES A T BRI ER ISLAND , N.S.

4"
••
• "
v v
., ~~ 8
" ",
OJ
I1 l;
?~
lO
'/ nj'
1,..' ·

••

.•

2

FIG U RE 7.3.4. D IST RIB UT ION OF TH E CTEN OPHO RE , PLEU ROBRACH IA PI LEUS AT BRI ER ISLA ND.
47

. . .... .,.,

•, " Ill/I- . ~
...
l~ j '

»

.. .•
. ..• .. - . •
·'·~ th Pt.,. .. s

.. •
:a->

" "s
•.
" " ', . ... '
t1''::ri
Q~

••
. .
. . a...." •
"- ~~'
18
"
,I( ..{

'.~
tt JJ

..Jlj :' ..

.._ q......
f , ::,,.. ,
. '' ' '' ' . '

••
• •-j• •

;\.,.
.. -~''''..r=
..-:;S .......
..
n..
• ,...
! .u
l-

.
. "\

..•
..
.

•"

• • • o 2
==
FI GUR E 7.3.5. DISTRI BUTI ON OF T HE RIBBON WORM, L1 NEUS sp., AT BAI ER ISLA ND, N.S.
48
~
",

•,
". ••

.,

•.. 'ii, •
"
,. '.'

,.,
.
.~
~<>nJ.

•.
·~ I
,."• : ,
. ...
,l-::ri
,
'\

,. "J
'. , • ••
•• •
.

\'
..

.• .•.- ,. ~

S ,I:"
I
"\
,.
111 AIo.w l"_



"


r.
Ii ,
,
II , " ~,

•,
'\
• "

•• " • Myxicola
.. • Potamilla

2
• ---'- LJ

F IGUR E 7.3.6. DISTRIB UTION OF T HE A NN ELIDS, MY X ICO LA AND POTA M IL LA AT BRIER ISLAN D.

49
n

-.','•

n ,
es '.
,

"" " ••
,. es "
n •
n

~
-

n

o
o f
• ·•
o
o •
0-

n

• S pirorbis
~ • Clymenella
o
... Amph itrit e
o Lep ido notus
" o Gly cera

T-
o

o


, • o ,

FIGURE 7.3.7. Di STRIBUTION OF T HE ANN ELI DS, SPIROASIS, CLY MENELLA , AM PHITR IT E,
LEPIDONOTUS AND GLYCERA, AT BRIER ISLA ND, N.S.
50
••

• Homarus
• Cancer
... Pagu rus
o Carci nus

~~~~§i~~~~:"-----------N:AlrrICAL M
ILES
o I 2

FIGURE 7.3.8. DISTR IBUT ION OF CRABS AN D LOBST ERS AT BRIER ISLAND , N.S.

51
• "

.,
"
'~
ro

\ " es

• "\ ",
"
"

,
,

7


n
• " ?
• Balanus ba lanoides
• B. balanus
.
se

2

FIGURE 7.3.9. DISTRIBUTION OF BARNACLES A T BR IER ISLA ND, N.S.

52
,. "
v

",

••

n

• Gammar us
At. Shrim p (~p.l
• Isopod (7sP.)

.
,r
••
• o 2

FIGURE 7.3.10 DISTRIBUTION OF SHRI MP, GAMMAR IDS AND ISOPQDS AT BAI ER ISLA ND, N.S.
53
"•
"
«»
>:9 ~~ .
•, u
-.
s...

.. "»'
:s'
.~

••

_ _ : ' ,s ' I
GOfl ,J ,Usoc!r.iltl
-.. s.." ,f"


n

... Acmaea
• Ischnodl iton
n

2

FI GURE 7.3. 11. D ISTR IBUTION O F LI MPETS AND CHITONS AT BRIER ISLAN D, N.S.
54
~ __ ,_ ,,,.

• • •

, -,
, ' ,,-- u
<

~ '. »
-,.5 '-'....... '
116 . "\


\ :' I ::
"I
~\ "
n
•••

••

·· "

~
••
"•

.

"

n
• "
• Buccinum
" ... Thais
" •• • Neptunea
"
"•

.•"•
,

FIGU RE 7.3. 12. Dis TR IBU T ION D F GASTROPODS AT BRIE R ISLA ND , N.S.

55
"
x ", "
" Sv
.
" ", "

~

\ ..
m
~ "',":: ",
"\
" ,. ",
"
"
n

,"

u
,

...
~ .....,
",
,,
,
"•

__':" ...E.\"""~,,,
& ." '~ ' 12 ..<9~
'","", 11.

"\ ",~ ,
\lln pp le

",

sr
,

2

FIGUR E 7.3. 13. DISTRIBUTION OF MUSSE LS AT BRIER ISLAND, N.S.

56
sr

",

»

•g ~. ,'
JG ~i < ~

", •.
18 1$ ~ ,
/Z<l
;

"• .\i""<h i'o1I :
' '>i ,. - •
-''''4 ,~~.1 '.
". ' Jill
~ 8 -.. e
".
,~ , ~
." .q ~j ~jj.
'" 1;" 8
12

4
"

~
• "
~

» n• • n
• ,

"

.. Nudibranchs
• Uttorina (all species)
"• • Lunatia
[J Mya
"
" .
"
() Lacuna
4. Placopecten
® Hiatella
"•

.•"•
, o 2
• •

FIGURE 7.3.14 D ISTRIBUTION O F NUDIBRANCHS, PER IWINK LES, MOON SNAILS, MYA,
LACUN A, SCA LLOPS AND HIATE LLA AT BR IER ISLAND, N'S.
57

•,

» ~ 8. "
• 16 ~S~,j

• •• ...:~
i -
,. ~,

• •
1

.•
~
• "

" • Aster ias vulgaris
() Henr icia
• Cucu mar ia
... Strongylocent rotus
[) Ophiopholi s
4. Psofus
e Solaster

.
sr
••
o ,

F IGU RE 7.3. 15 DISTRIBUTION OF ECHI NODERMS AT BRI ER ISLAND, N.S.

58
.............>< .... '" , ,, '
T-

"

• "• "•
"
OJ
" S<,' __

J7 IO '~ - <
"
G

~ J~ i
IF '
>0
.,
~ 8:' '
~ ; '; ~ "
n >I>

,U'"-t
,;;' -
", ,",

• ,•
¥ "
• E8 ~{
:>1 ~J, u "
1: ~~6 3.1,
J6f",
~ •
"•

•" • Bryozoans(all species)
• Terebratulina
... Boltenia ovifera

sr

•.
2

FIGURE 7.3.16 DISTR IBU TION O F BRYOZOANS, BRACHIOPODS A ND PROTOCHORDATES AT
BRI ER ISLA ND, N.S,
59
8 FISHES.

8. 1. INTR ODU CTIO N. Hist or icall y and curren tly t he 8.2. SPECIES CHECK LIST. As can be seen from Table
economy of Brier Island revo lves around the fishery. Th e 8.2. 1 the fishes are well represented in the Study Area.
product ivity of th e area supplies adequate feed for an a-
bundance of fish. Because of the im po rt ance of the com- 8.3. RANGES A ND DI STR I BUT IONS. Detail s concern-
mercial fishery , deta ils on commercia l species are given in ing life histo ries, ranges, distribut ion, et c. are summarized in
the chapter on Resource Uses. Leim and Scott (1966 ) and t he reader is referred to t h is
text f or addi t iona l info rmation.

T A BLE 8. 2. 1. FISHES RECOR DE D IN THE ST UDY A REA.

MA RSI POBRANCHII PISCES
Myx ine gl u tinosa (Hagfish) (7) Acipenser oxyrhynchus (A tlan tic Sturgeon) (?)
Alosa pseudoharengus (Alewi fe) (1)
SELACHII Clupea harengus (Herrin g)
Salmo salar (Salmon) (1)
Carcharodon cercns ries (l1'hite Shark) Anguilla rostrsts (American Eel} (?)
Lamma nasus (Porbeag/e) Fundul us heteroclitus (Mummichog)
Sphyrna zygaena (Smoo th Hammerhead) Fun dul us diaphanus (Banded Killifish)
Centroscyllium fabric;; (Black Dogfish ) (?) Apeltes quadracus (Fourspine Stic kleback )
Squalus acanthias (Spiny Dogfish) Gesterosteus scutestus (Threespine Stickleback )
Raja erinacea (Little Skate) G. wheatlandi (Blackspo tted Stickleback)
R. laevis (Bamdoor Skate) Pungitius pungitius (Ninespine Stickleback)
R. ocellata (Winter Skate) Brosme brosme (Cusk)
R. radiata (Th orn y Skate) Enchel yop us cim brius (Fou r beard Rock ling)
R. senta (Smoo th Skate) (1) Gadus m orhua (A tlantic Cod)

60
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Haddock) Prionotus cerotinus (Nor thern Searobin )
Merluccius bilinearis (Silver Hake) Hemitrlpterus americanus (Atlantic Sea Raven)
Pollachius virens (Pollock) Myoxocephalus aeneus (Gr ubbY)
Archosargus probatocephalus (Sheepshead) M. octodecemspinosus (Longhorn Sculpin)
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Cunner) M. scorpius (Shorthorn Sculpin )
Ammodytes americanus (American Sand Lance) cvctooteros lumpus (Lumpfish)
Scomber scombrus (Mackerel) Liparis atlanticus (Seasnail) (1)
Thunnus thynnus (Bl uef in Tuna) Scophthalmus aquosus (Windo wpane)
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish) Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch Flounder )
Pholis gunnellus (Rock Gunnel) Hippoglossoides ptetessoides (American Plaice)
Lumpenus lumpretaeformis (Snake Blenny) H. hippoglossus (Halibut)
VIvaria subbifurcata (Radiated Shanny ) Limanda ferruginea (Yellowtail Flounder)
Macrozoarces americanus (Ocean Pout) Liopsetta putnami (Smooth Flounder)
Poronotus triacanthus (Butterfish) Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Winter Flounder)
Menidia menidia (Atlantic Silverside) Lophius americanus (Monkfish)
Sebastes marinus (Red fish)

YOUNG POLLOCK IN GRAND PASSAGE. During September, 19 77, tho usands of young
pollock were present around Brier Island where they were feeding on an abundance of small
herring (Underwater photograph by A. MacKay, Sept., 1977 ).

61
9 THE BIRDS.

- -~-

--

A FLOCK OF SANDERL/ NGS TAKE FLI GHT A T POND COVE. (A. MacKay, seot.. 1917)

9. 1 INT RO DUCT ION. Like Deer Island and Grand Manan ary being the on ly mon ths when the Island is tota lly free of
on the New Brunswick side of the mouth of the Bay of Fundy , Brier migran ts (Mills, 1970 1.
Island is distinqu ished by great abundance and diversity of bo th
marine and land bi rds. I n many respects, Brier Island is similar to Brier Island is eq ua lly important for a wide variety of marine
Grand Manan in this regard. It for ms the most sea ward extension species. Like Grand Manan , it lies exposed to t he open sea and,
of peninsu lar Nova Scotia and , cons equently, migrat ing land consequently attracts both coastal marine species an d pelagic
birds fun ne l to the Island dur ing their fall m igrati on. Dur ing our spec ies. As with land species th e Bay of Fundy acts as a 'funnel'
visit to th e Island, large numbers of marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus ) for migrating sea birds and Brier Island fo rms the mou th of the
arrived on the Island Sept, 15th and, du ring a tour of the Island, funnel. As is discussed elsew he re, the water off Brier Island are
there was scarcely a moment when one or mo re birds could not producti ve and provide the con ditions and feed which are favo red
be seen wheeling in the sky. In ad dition, Broad-wings (Buteo platy. by pelagic species such as Shea rwaters, Pet rels, etc. and many of
pterus ), Sharp-sh inned Hawks (Accipiter striatus), and Sparrow these spec ies can be see n from the southern and western shores
Hawks (Falco sparverius) had arr ived earl ier and were seen com mo n- of the Island. Similarly, habitats along the coast of the Island
ly in the interior of the Island and along the southern coast nea r and alon g adjacent shores are suff iciently varied to attract ducks
Pond Cove and Western Light. Mills (1970 ) identifies Brie r Island geese, waders, etc.
as unique along the mai nland east coast of Canada for the volume
of migrants passing through each year, as well as for the numbe r 9.2 SPECIES CHECK LIST, As a resu lt of the abundance
of rare birds which have bee n recorded there. The importance of and dive rsity of land and marine species, Brier Island attracts
th e island in this regard is further ind icated by the duration of hund reds of amateu r and professio nal ornithologists. Partic u-
migrati on wh ich , whi le it pea ks in May and late August and larly active are membe rs of th e Nova Scotia Bird Society
September , lasts for 10 months of the year; Jan uary and Pebru- who make regula r t rips to the Island an d frequen tly re-

62
por t their findin gs in thei r Newslet ter. Table 9.2.1. supp lies 9.3. ACCOUNTS OF KEY SPECIES. The following mar-
some of their record s and provides a good indicatio n of the ine species occur at, or in close pro ximity to , Brier Island
compositio n of the Island bird populat ion du ring late Dec- and can be co nsidered as key species. Th e boun dary between
ember; 1976. pelagic and inshore species fa lls very close to the Island and
Tab le 9.2.2 is a chec klist of marine birds which, over 20 years, is indistinct. However for practical purposes we have indic-
have been recorded on Brier Island by Mr. wrc kerson Lent, ated a boundary in Figure 9.3. 1. In general, pelagic species
Lighthouse Keeper at Weste rn Light . Mr. Lent is one of th ose occur offshore. Gulls, Co rmorants and similar species are
unique individu als whose int erest in the natu ral history of com mo n throughout the area. Ducks, wade rs, etc. frequent
his home area has resulted in the accumu lat ion of valuable the sho res of the Island and terrestr ial birds occur on the
informa tion wh ich cou ld never be accum ulate d by the visiting Island proper.
professional. We are part icularly th ank ful that he saw fit to
share this info rmation with us. We believe that the list p rovided 9.4. PELAGIC SPECIES. Numerous pelagic species fre-
here is probably the most complete available. quent the area. Species observed include d Sneerweters. Pul-
mars, Petr els, Phalaropes and Murres. Populat ion levels were
A list of nest ing birds is given in Table 9.2,3. Th is repre sents not high during our visit, although large num bers of these
the ' Life List ' of Mr. Ross Anderson of Dartmouth, Nova Scotia . species were obse rved between Grand Manan and Brier Is-
Mr, Anderson is a serious amateur who has been engaged in band ing land. It is our underst and ing that large numbers of pelagic
passerines on Brier Island fo r several years. We great ly appreciate species are freq uently found with in one mile of the Island.
his assistance.

TABLE 9.2.1. NOVA SCOTIA BIRD SOCIETY DECEMBER BIRD COUNT ON BR IER ISLAND, 19 76.

MAR INE SPECIES OBSERVED

Com mo n Loon 79
Red-throat ed Loon 3
Red-necked Grebe 118
Ho rned Crebe 31
Nor t her n Fulmar 1
Great Cormo ran t 249
Doub le-crested Cormorant 1
Great Blue Hero n 1
Canada Goose 10
Black Duck 80
Commo n Go ldeneye 252
Bufflehead 10
Oldsquaw 388
Har lequ in Duck 1
Commo n Eider 554
White-winged Scoter 30
Black Scoter 6
Red-breasted Merganser 130
Common Snioe 1
Purp le Sandpiper 10
BRIER ISLAND, December 20, 1976 ; 6:30 am to 4:30 prn.
Glaucous Gull 1
Overcast pm, rain in mid aftern oo n. Temp. 29 to 35 F. Wind SE
Iceland Gull 1
5-15 mph. Snow cover 6 to B in. Fresh wate r frozen. Salt water
Great Black-bac ked Gull 435
open. Wild food cro p fa ir. Nine observers in six parties. Total
Her ring Gull 583 party hours 48 (39 on foot, 9 by car). Tot al party miles 79
Ring-billed Gull 4 (26 on foot, 53 by car).
Kittiwake 343
Razor bill 368 Total 71 species (includ ing land species not listed above); abou t
Common Murre 5 6623 individuals. ( In count area in count period , but not seen
Thick-billed Murre 568 on cou nt day : Black-hea ded Guill. Part icipants: Ross Anderson,
Dovekie 237 Fult on Lavender, Wickerson Lent , Ian MacGregor, Bruce Mac-
Black Guillemot 303 tavish. Anne Mills, Eric Mills (com piler), Rick Palindat, Ann
Puff in 2 Wetmore, J im Wolfo rd

63
Gavia imme r (Co mmo n Loo n) So materia mo llissima (Common Eide r)
G. stellate (Red-throa ted Loon ) S. spectabilis(King Eider )
Coly mbus grisegena (Ho lbo ell's Grebe) Melan itta fusca (White-winged Scoter)
C. auritus (Ho rned Greb e) M. pe rsp icillata (Surf Scoter)
C. nigricollis (Eared G reb e) Oide m ia nigra (Amer ican Sooter!
Pod ilymbus podiceps( Pied-billed Grebe ) Erismatura [amaicensts ( Ru ddy Du ck)
Puf f inus griseus (Sooty Shea rwater) Lop ho dytes cuc ultatus ( Hooded Mergans er)
P. Iherm inie ri (Audu bon's She arwater) Me rgus me rganse r {American Me rganse r)
P. gravis ( Greater Shearwat e r) M. se n-ator (Red- breaste d Merganser)
P. d io medea ( Co ry' s Shea rwat e r) Rallus elegans (King Rai l)
Fulmar us glacia lis (Fu lma r) R. longirostris (Clapper Ra il)
Oceanodroma leuco rhoa ( Leach's Petrel ) R. limicola (Virg in ia Rail)
Oceanites cceantcus (Wilson's Pet re l) Po rzana ca rolina (So ra )
Pelecanus erv t hrc rttvnchos (Wh ite Pelic an) Coturnicops no veboracensis (Yellow Ra il)
Moris bassa na (Gannet) Laterallu s jam aicensis (Blac k Rail)
Phat ac roco ra x car bo (Euro pean Cormo rant) Por phyrula mati nica (Purple Gallinule)
P. auritus (Dou ble-c rested Cormor ant ) Gatlinula Chloropus (Flo rida Ga llinu le)
Ard ea occidental is (Grea t White He ro n) Fulica americana (Coot)
A. herod ias (Great Blue Hero n) Hae mato pvs pa lliatus (Oyste r -c atc herl
Casmerodius a lbus ( American Egre t ) Charadrius me lodus (Pipin g Plo ve r)
Leuco ph oyx mula (Snowy Egret ) C. alexand rin us (Snowy Plove r)
Hyd ranassa tr icolo r ( Louisiana He ro n) C. htattcula (Sem ipa lmated Plove r)
Flor ida ccerutea ( Little Blue Hero n) C. wi lsonia (Wilson's Plover)
Butorides vtrescens ( G reen He ro n) C. vocrterus (Killdeer)
Nycticorax nvct tcora x ( Black-cro wned Night He ro n) Pluvia lis dominica (Golden Plo ve r)
N. violacea (Yellow-crowned Night Hero n) Squataro la sqce ta rote (Black-bellied Plove r)
Ixo brych us e xifis {Least Bittern ) Arenaria interpres (R uddy T runstone)
Myct e ria ame ricana (Woo d Ibis) Cape lla ga llinago (Wilson's Snipe)
Plegad is falcinellus (Eastern Glossy Ibis) Numenius Pheec c us (Hudson ian Cur lew)
P. mex icana (White-faced Glossy Ibis ) Bartramia lo ngicauda (Up la nd Plo ver)
Pa ndlo n haliaetus (Osprey ) Actttrs macu lar ia (S po tted Sandpiper
Tr inga solitaria (So lita ry Sa ndpiper)
Cygnus co lum bianus (Whist ling Swa n )
Catcptrophorus semlpalmatus (Willet)
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)
Tetanus ma lnaoleucus (G reater Ye llo w-legs )
B. bernicla ( Bran t)
Anse r albifrons (White-fro nted Goose) T. f lavipes ( Lesse r Yellow-legs )
Chen hy pe rbo rea (S now Goose) Ca lid ris ca nut us (Kno t )
C. c ae rufesce ns (Blue Goose) Erotia maritima (Purp le Sandp ipe r)
De nd rocygna bicolor (F ulvo us T ree Duck) E. me lanotos (Pectoral Sand pip e r)
Anas platyrhynchos {Mallard) E. fusoic ollls (White- rumped Sandpiper)
A. ru bripes (Black Duck) E. balrdll (Baird's San d pipe r)
A. fu lvigula (Mottled Duck ) E. minutilla ( Least Sandpiper
A. stre pera (Gadwa ll) E. fe rruginea (Cu rlew San d piper)
Marec a pene lo pe (European Widgeon) E. alpine (Red- bac ked Sa ndpipe r)
M. americana (Bald pate) Limnod ro m us griseus (Dowitcher)
Anas acuta (Pintail) Micropalama himantopus (Stilt Sandpiper)
A. crecca (Eu ropean Tea l) Ere unetes pus illus (Semipalmated Sandpiper)
A. carcllnensls (Gree n-win ged Tea l) E. mauri (Western Sandpiper)
A. discors (Blue-winged Tea l) T ry ngites subr uficoltis (Buff- breasted Sa ndpipe r)
Spatula c lype ata (Sho velle r) Limosa haemastica (Hudso nian Godwit )
Aix soonsa (Wood Duck) Philo mach us pu gnax (Ruff)
Ayth ya ame ricana ( Red he ad ) Crocethis alba (Sanderling)
A. collaris (Ring-necked Duc k) Hecu rvircstra ame ricana (Avocet)
A. valis ineria (Canvas- back ) Phalaropus ful icar ius (Red Phala ro pe)
A. marila (Greater Sca up Duc k) Steganopus tri colo r (Wilson's Pha laro pe )
A. aff inis (Lesse r Scaup Duc k) Lob ipes lobatus {Northern Phalarop e )
Glaucionetta c1a ngula (American Goldeneye ) Sterco rarius po marin us (Po me rine J aege r)
Cha ritonetta albe cla (Bufflehead) S. pa rasiticus (Parasit ic Jaeger)
G. islandica (Barrow's Go ldeneye) S. lon gicaudus ( Long-tai led Jaege r)
Clangula hyemalis (Old-squaw) Cat haracta skua (S kua)
Hist rfo nlcus histr ioni cus( Har lequin Duck) Lar us hyperboreus(Glaucous Gull )

64
L leucopterus (Iceland Gull ) S. fuscata (Sooty Tern )
L Marinus (Great Black-backed Gu ll) S. albifrons ( Least Tern )
L argen tatus (Herring Gu ll) Thalasseus ma ximus (Royal Tern )
:.... cal ifornicus (Californ ia Gull ) T. sandvicensis (Ca bot 's Tern )
L dela wa rensis ( Ring-bi lled Gu ll) Hydr oprpgne caspia (Caspia n Tern )
L ridi bu ndus (Black- headed Gu ll) Chl idoni as nigra (Black Tern)
L. atricilla ( Laughing Gu ll) Anous stolidus (Noddy)
L. pipxcan ( Franklins Gull ) Rynchops nigra (Black Skimmer)
L. phi ladelphia (Boanpart e's Gull) Alca to rda [Hazor-bllled Auk)
Pagophi la eburnea (Ivo ry Gull) Uria aalge (Common Murre)
Rissa tr idactyla (Kittiwake) U. lomvia (Brunnich's Murre)
Xema sabin! (Sabine's Gu ll) Plautus aile (Dovekie)
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern) Cepphus gryJle (Black Guillemot)
S. paradisaea (Arctic Te rn ) Fratercula arctlce (Atlant ic Puffin)
S. dougallii (Roseate Tern )

TA BLE 9. 2.2. MA RINE BIRDS OCC URRIN G IN THE STUDY AREA. (From the life llst ot Mr. Wickerso n Lent, Brie r Island,
Nova Scot ia, 1977 )

TABL E 9.2 .3. NEST ING RE COR DS FO R BIRDS ON BRIER ISLAND ( From th e life list of He ss Andersen, Dartmouth ,
Nova Scotia, 1977 )

MA RINE SPEC IES
Black-capped Chickadee
Phalacrocora x auritus (Double-crested Cormoran t) Bor eal Ch ickad ee
Anas rubripes (Black Duck) Red-breas ted Nuthatch
Somateria mollissima (Co mmo n Eider! Winter Wren
Anas carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) Catbi rd
A. discors (Blue-winged Teal) Robi n
Ste rna h irundo (Common Te rn ) Hermit Th rush
S. paradiscaea (Arct ic Tern ) Swainson's Thrush
Larus mari nus (Great Black-backed Gull) Golden-crowned Kinglet
Cepphus gry lle (Black Guillemot) Starling
Larus argen tatus (Herring Gull) Red-eyed Vireo
Black and White Warbler
LAND SPEC IES Parula Warbler
Yellow Warbler
Goshawk Magnol ia Warb ler
Sparrow Hawk Black-t hroated Green Warble r
Ring-necked Pheasant Blackpoll Warbler
Saw-whet Owl Yellow -throat Warbler
Belted Kingfishe r Redstart
Yellow-shaft ed Flicker House Sparrow
Hairy Woodpecke r Red-w inged Blackbird
Downy Woodpecke r Common Grackle
Eastern Kingbird Cowbird
l east Flyca tcher Go ldfinch
Tree Swallow Savan nah Spa rrow
Bank Swa llow Slate-col ored Junco
Barn Swa llow Ch ipp ing Sparrow
Cliff Swa llow White-throated Sparrow
Blue J ay Swamp Sparrow
Common Raven So ng Sparrow
Common Crow Ruby-crowned kinglet

65
9.5. WADERS, DUCKS AND GEESE . Mills (19 70) has the Cove in fall and winter and non-breeding flocks persist
identi fied th e Pond Cove area as being vital to the se species through the sum mer. Brant occur in large flocks in late fall,
and desc ribes the area as follows: winter and early spring, resting on the sand beach or rock
spits and feeding in shallow weedy areasjus t west of the
The m ost diverse group of migrants is attracted by th e sand beach.
Pond Cove area. Large num bers of waders, especially Semi-
palmated and Least Sandpipers, Semipalm ated Pl over, Great- At pr esent, there is no doubt th at the area south of the
er Yellowfegs, Black -bellied Plover, Whi te-rumped Sandpip ers. road to Western Light, including the Big Meadow, Gull Rock
Dunlin and Sanderlings accumulate on the gravel bar an d Point, Pond Cove and Whipple Poin t, attracts the greatest
sand beach of Pon d Cove from mid- August to mid-Oc tobe r. diversitY and numbers of land birds and waders in migration
Much rarer species, such as Hudson ian Godw it, Buff·breast- and overwintering waterfowl.
ea Sandpiper, Stilt Sandpiper and Baird's Sandpiper occur
more regularly at Pond Cove than almos t anywhere else in 9.6. KEY AR EAS. Morrison (1976a,b,c) has ident ified
the Province. The Big Pond at Pond Cove is a natural trap the Brier Island area as one of nat ional significance . A mar-
for rarities, such as Glossy Ibis, southern herons and scarce ine habitat of outstanding importance is found o ff Brier Is-
dUcks at almost any time of the year. Bo th the l ocation of land, N.S.. in the Bay o f Fundy . where tens of thousands of
the pond and its isolation from interference have allo wed Red Phalaropes gather during au tumn migrati on. Tidal cur-
i t to keep this unusual character f or many years. rents causehighly l ocalized upwellings which bring large a-
mounts of food to the surface. Brier Island also holds con -
siderable num bers of Purple Sandpipers during the winter
Pond Cove a/so supports large numbers of breedi ng and (Morrison, 7976a ).
migrant waterfowl, especially Black Duck and Green-winged
Teal. Hundreds of Comm on Eiders gather along the rocks of Specific key area s are iden t ified in Figure 9.3.1.

A GREA T BLUE HERON PROWLING THE WESTPOR T SHORE

66
» rr
/
/
/ "
v
v

I
/
v .
«»
e
" ~"
",
/
,
/
, "
, ,•
/
".

"

.•

Approxi mat e limit "
of pelagic
,

'..
species /14

,
\ .
/ 1:.'

F!.,,£~.
"
__':0 / '\ t "
GPFI '1 >1<'f'9Sft
'.' 1-'" 6

Gene ral area of
of sho re birds.

n
• 1. Upwell ings bring f ood to the surface
in th is gen ral area- important to
pelagic see ies.
2. Pond Cov Importmt tcrwad(rs. ducks
!nd geese ....
:r.- Grand Pa seqe . when feed present _" -,
importan to Gulls and terns.
4 . l and fu el d irects migrat ing la nd
bi rds to plands of Brier Island

2

FIGURE 9.3.1. KEY AR EAS FOR BIRDS ON BRIER ISLAND, N.S.
67
10 MAMMALS .

THE FINBACK WHALE; ONE OF THE MOR E COMMON SUMMER VISI TORS TO THE BRI ER ISLAND REGION.
(M. Flewelling, 1977)

Prepared by: Dr. D.E. Gaskin, Depart ment of Zoology. Un iversity of Guelph, Gue lph, Onto

10.1 INT RODUCTION: The Bay of Fundy approaches 10.2 ACCOUNTS OF KEY SPECIES
are ecologically unique. The t idal range averages more tha n 24 ft,
and this causes extensive vertical mixing, and hence cooler surface RIG HT WHA LE (Figure 10.2. 1)
wate r temperatures du ring the sum mer months than in adjacen t
regions. Production is relatively h igh, and strong t idal cu rren ts and Forme rly abundant in the North Atlantic, the northern
upwellings produce nutrient enrichment at certain locat ions which right whale was reduced to a remnant stock by the beginning of
are, with in broad limits, geographically constant in summer. l arge the twentieth cen tury. Despite having been completely pro tected
local eddies also bring about concentration of zooplankton between for several decade s, the population in the western North Atlantic
June an d Oct ober, in amounts which attract numerous large baleen has recovered only very slowly, an d even now onl y numbers in
whales, and are sufficient to keep them in the region for most of the high hundreds at the most. There is every indication that the
the summer and early fall. Considerable quantities of her ring and easte rn North Atlantic stock was completely exterminated.
mac kerel enter the Bay from late spring onwards, and these are
prey for at least two species of small toothed cetaceans, the most During the last fifteen years, it seems that the right whale
abundant being the harbour por poise, Phocoena phocoena. There has been stea dily ex tendi ng its range in the western Atlantic, and
is some evidenc e that the population of this species found in the hopefu lly, increasing in numbers as well. American researcher s
app roaches to the Bay of Fundy may now be one of the largest have kept records of their seasonal occurrence off Cape Cod, and
remainin g in the wo rld. In former t imes, the harbour seal Phoca in recent years animals have been reported reliably even from
vitulina was abundant in the region, but has been reduced to a low Flor ida and the Gulf of Mexico. Fo rmer whalers of the Blandford
level by bounty hunting. stat ion in Nova Scotia frequen tly encountered right whales over

68
A. BA LEEN WHA LES

Eubalaena glacialis right whale Sporadic visitor, Endangere d species

Megaptera nova eangliae hum pback wha le Regul ar visito r. Endangered species

Balaenop tera physalus finback whale Regu lar visitor.

s steenootere borealis set whale Regula r visito r to southern part of Brier Island

Balaenoptera acu torostrata minke whale Regula r visitor.

B. TOOTH ED WHA LES

Phocoena phocoena harbou r porpoise Regular reside nt fo r up to 12 months of the yea r, bu t
most of population m igrates offshore in fall.

Lagenorhynchus acutus wh ite-sided dolphin Sporadic visitor.

Lagenorh ynch us albirosrris white-bea ked dolph in Regular visito r; may be residential in outer region.

Globicephala melaena po thead whale Sporadic visitor, but forms large schoo ls.

Delphinap terus leucas White whale Occasional strays from the Gulf of St. Lawren ce.

Hyperoodon planifrons bottlenose wha le Uncommon in Bay of Fundy.

Ziph ius ceviros tris Goose-beaked whale ' Uncommon in Bay of Fundy

Kagia bre viceps pigmy spe rm whale Probab le sporadic visitor.

Tursiops trunca tus bottlenosed dolph in Possible rare visitor.

Delphinus delphis common dolph in Possible rare visit or.

Orcinus orca killer whale S poradic visito r.

c. PHOClD SEA LS

Phaca vitulina harbour seal Previously common, much red uced by bounty hunting,
Now recovering.

TABLE 10.1. 1. WHA LES RECORD ED IN T HE ST UDY AR EA.

the ban ks of the cont inental shelf some fifty miles southwest of
the La Have mouth, fee d ing during their annual nort h-south FINBACK WHA LE (Figure 10.2.3)
migration.
Th is is the most common species of large wha le in the Bay
HUMPBACK WHA LE (Flcure 10.2 .2) of Fundy at the present time. It appears during June or July when
euph ausid shr imp concentr at ions sta rt to for m in surface wate rs.
The Digby Neck region is well known as one of the summer The maxim um count off Brier Island - Long Island at anyone time
feeding grounds of this species in the North At lantic. Du ring August was fifteen, in August, 197 4. Once the animals moved into the in-
each yea r the animals can be found within five miles of shore bet wen shore belt of water. their appearance is retattvetv pred icta ble unt il
Petit Passage and Grand Passage and south westwards towa rds the summer squalls break up the euphausid shrim p shoals in surface
Lutcher Shoal- waters and dr ive the schools of young he rring deeper.

69
.4 The Wolves
• BAY OF FUNDY

Digby Gut

NDVA SCOTIA
Bri er Island

f i GURE 10.2. 1 RECORDS OF RIG HT WHALES IN T HE MOUT H OF THE BAY OF FUND Y, 1971 - 1977.
(F rom Gaskin and MRA records)

Finbac k whales are repo rted regularly by boat s out o n the most southerly fraction of this migration. Since individua l food
very edge of the Bay of Fundy. working along the she lf region req uiremen ts are very h igh fo r such large mammals, wide d ispers-
crossing the northern Gul f of Maine. From the scientific and /or ion of ind ivid uals o r small schools is a prerequisite for success.
recreat io nal point of view however, these animals are virtua lly clnbac k whales are depressed to rela tively low numbers by the
out of reach except to an ocean-going vessel. The fee ding area of activi ties of Ca nad ian sho re whali ng operations during t he 1950's
Brier Island animals seem to be qu ite limited and related to tidal and 1960's, and the closure of these stations in 19 72 by t he Ho n.
con d itions, acco rding to the preliminary observations by Arnold Jack Davis, MP, the n Minister of the Envi ronment, was protested
and Gaskin ( 1972 ) and Gask in (1976). T he ledge system run ning by few others t han t he whaling industry itse lf. T he decline of th e
parallel to t he no rth western coast of the Digby Neck, about five weste rn North At lan tic population was documented by Allen
to ten miles offshore, seem to be critical features in the feeding (1971). T he species is not presently hunted, despi te t he Canadian
system fo r fin whales . Gove rnme nt striking a quota fo r the population, and the size of
t he stock is t hought to be slowly increasing again.
Th e finbacks of the western North Atlantic a re st rongly
migratory in ha bit. Thei r winte ring grounds are not kno wn, but
are assumed to lie between the southeastern c oast o f t he Uni ted MINK E WHA LE (Figu re 10.2,4 )
States and Bermuda. In spring they begin to ap pear in Cana dian
waters, and d uring the summer, streams of wha les move up the Although not as commonly observed as t he finbac k
coast of Nova Scotia, spilling into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and largely because it is smaller and frequen tly unobtrusive in its be-
along the coasts of Newfoundland to Lab rador and t he Davis haviou r, the min ke whale, which fee ds o n alewives, cape! in and
St rait. The animals penetrating the Bay of F und y are among the her ring, is a regular summer migrant.

70
, 4
~ : The Wolves

f c,mpobe"~ BAY OF FUNDY


D'• ' Grand Manan

:,- ~

Lo ng Island



• I)- NOVA SCOTIA
Brier Island


FIGURE 10.2.2. RECORDS OF HUMPBA CK WHA LES IN T HE MOUTH OF T HE BAY OF FUNDY ( From Gaskin records and
Kat ona, 1975 )

HA RBOU R PO RPOISE comm on and bot t lenosed dolphins to th e east and sout h. A small
f raction of the populat io n, probab ly su bmat ure mal es. overwint e rs
The harbour po rpo ise is by far the most abund ant ce- in t he Bay o f Fu ndy.
tacean in the Bay of F und y an d is almost certainly o ne of th e
most important spec ies of the upper tr ophic levels in the coastal The harbour porpoise po pulat io n peaks at the same t ime
marine food web, feed ing on mackerel. herr ing. small gadoid fish in all areas of the Bay of Fu ndy; bet ween mid-J uly and mid-
and sq u id. September. The popu lation of the Brier Island region seems to be
th e smallest, with several dozen animals seen regularly at the Fu ndy
Some individu als have been seen in almost every month mouth of Grand Passage, but only small number in th e rest of the
of the year, but most of the popu lation arrives in the coastal areas area other than in the approaches to the Digby Gut, where quite
with t he 8 degree c surface isotherm and leaves at the time of the large numbers occu r,
fall cooli ng. The migrat ion pattern is essentia lly ons hore-o ffsho re,
rather than north-south . Our studies showed that the 'main herds ' WHIT E· BEAKED AND WHITE·SIDED DOLPHINS
arri ved at t he same t ime of yea r, from southern Maine to southern
New Brunswick. The wintering areas are not know n, but are prob- Sporadic si~ti n!JS of 'large black and white sea porpoises'
ably th e southern edges of the Brown's Bank and George's Bank, are reported to us by fishermen. In summer, white-be aked do lph ins
where wat er tempera tures are 7 to 9 degrees C in most winters. have been seen twice off the Digby Gut by University o f Gue lph worke rs
Th is species has a hi~ metabolic rate, and is the smallest of the The white-beaked dolph in is however. a regularly sighted and common
cold wate r cet aceans, It has coloniz ed a niche which o n the who le species in the southern part of the Brier Island region. The majo r item
permits it to avoid competi tion with the whit e-sided, white-beaked, of diet is believed to be the squid .

71
The Wolves

BAY OF FUNDY

Digby Gut



• ••••• •
• ••
•••

• Brier Island
NOVA SCOT IA

FIGURE 10.2.3 RECORD S OF FINBACK WHA LES IN THE MOUTH OF THE BAY O F FUNDY, 197 1 • 1977 (Records
from Gaskin, MRA. and Kat ona, 1975 )

PHOCIO SEA LS

HARBOUR SEAL

The coastal terrain in the Brier Island region is not well
suited to this spec ies. All the major offshore ledge systems are sub-
surface even at low t ide and insho re ledges are not numerous. Never-
theless, th e species occurs there in small numbe rs.

10.3 SUMMARY. The Brier Island region is cha racte r-
istic of an open ocean environment. As a result, more pelagic species
are encountered. Humpback whales and white-beaked dolphins only
occur reaularlv in th is reaion of the Bay of Fundy and the prese nce
of finback and Minke whales is also mo re regular and assured each
season than on the New Brunswick coast. Concentrations of summer
migrant pelagic seabirds are considerably greater at Brier Island as
well, but there is great variability from season to season (Barker,
1976 1. Scientific information regarding the marine mam mals of
the Brier Island region is scant and there is a definite need for
additional and deta iled work. 72
The Wolves

BA Y OF FUND Y


\ . Grand Manan
••• ••
Digby Gut


NQVASCOTIA
Brier Island

FI GURE 10.2.4 RECORDS OF MINKE WHA LES IN THE MOUT H OF T HE BAY OF FUNDY (Records f rom Gaskin,
MRA, and Katona, 1975)

73
HUMPBA CK WHA LE OFF BRIER ISLA ND, N.S. (Photo graph supplied by Heather Harbord, Halifax).

74
11 MARINE PLANTS .

A THISTL E SHARES THE SANDY BEACH A T BIG POND WITH BLUE F LAG {Iri s versicolor},

11. 1. INTRODUCTION. Brie r Island is characterized and clearing for pasture and cultiva tion has been wi de-
by a distinctive assemblages of both terrestrial and mar ine spread. Such areas are now mainly pa stures and abandoned
plants. Indeed, the flo ra is sufficiently noteworthy that fields occupied by second growth or stages in the succes-
we have included separate listin g fo r terrestrial (including sion (0 such forests. Only scattered remnants o f the ori~
fresh water and salt marsh species) and ma rine species . ina! coastal forest of spruce, fir and birch are to be found.
Beach areas have also been altered by pasturing. Of more
11.2. UN IQU E TER RESTRIA L V EGETA T ION, interes t botanicall y are the bogs and sea cliffs, both ex ten-
Smith (no date ) has descri bed the terrestrial veget ation sive and r elati vel y undis turbed
of Brier Island as follows :
In general , the flora of the Island is charac teristi c of that
The well drained, drier portions of Brier Island have found in the coastal portions of western Nova Scotia - a m ix -
been much disturbed by man. Cu t ting, some burning ture of species o f bo th northern and southern af finities to-

75
gether wi th 8 few which are characteristic o f the loca tion cens, Desmorrichium undularum and My rionema srrangulans.
and found rarely elsewhere in the province. The m ore inter-
esti ng bog plants include a long list o f species of orch ids, 11.3. CHECKLIST O F TERR EST RIA L FRESHWATE R
some of which exhibit a remarkab le and rather unusual AND SALT MARSH SPECIES. Gordon (1972) has provided
variatio n in flower color. The rare bog Selaginella, the Cur- an extensive listing of plants wh ich is reprod uced in Table
Iy-grass Fern, and the Gol den Crest are present in abundance. 11.3.1.
A northern dwarf birch Betula michauxii is one of the rarer
bog shrubs. In Nova Scotia th is birch is kn own onl y from
three stations in Guysborough County and f rom Brier Is-
11.4 . MARINE SP ECIES. Intertidally, Brier Island shores'
land. The Shrubby Cinquefoil (Potentilla tru ticosel is un-
are much like rock y sho res in oth er parts of the Bay of Fun-
usually widespread and abundant.
dy, being dom inated by Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus
vesiculosus. Subtidally, howeve r. mar ine algae dominate the
The most no tewor th y plant botan ically is probably a
land scape wher e. in man y areas, profuse growths of very
cream-flo wered evens, Guem peck ii, k nown only from the
large kelps virt ually obscure the bottom (Figure 11.4. 11,
slopes and mountain meeaora of the White Mountains in
Numerous other species of reds and bro wns share th e bot -
New Hampshire and fr om this Island. Here it is abundan t
in sphagnum bogs and has spread in to burned over woods tom or grow on the kelp fronds. Coralline algae Litho-
in the sou thern part of the Island. Geradia neoscoti s, the thamnion, related species an d Corallina o f ficinalis) dom ino
Nova Scotia Geradia, and one o f the few plan ts endemic ate the roc k surfaces t hemselves.
to rhe Province, is foun d at the bog edges and in damp
open areas. The abundance of algae is tru ly uniqu e and, in our ex-
perience, is on ly equalled at Grand Marian, Mace's Bay and
Sea cliffs provide a refuge for many of rile seaside plants a few other localities. By virtue of their size, the dominant
such as Lovage and Coelopleuru m. Wer runnels in rile cliffs species are Laminaria (all species ). Ala ria esculenta, and
are occasionally occupied by Clay roais fontana, a delicate Agarum cribrosum. Distr ibution an d abunda nce of these
member of the Purslane Family, known from only three species is shown in Figures 11.4.2 to 11.4.4. We would
otner stari ons in Nova Scotia. attribute the abunda nce of mar ine algae to su itable sub-
strate and high water clar ity.
Intr oduced plants of interest include the rarely establ ish-
ed Impatiens glandulosa, Yello w Iris and rile Common Pim- 11.5. CHECKLIST OF MAR INE SPECI ES. While th e
pernel. mar ine algae of Brier Island have not been com plet ely stud-
ied, particularl y the microphytes, our records. together with
The flor a of Big Po nd has been previously d iscussed in th e reco rds of Bird (pe r. com m., 1977 ) have allowed us to
th e Chap ter on Marine Habitats. Mills (1970) lists three com pile a re latively exte nsive list as shown in Table 11.5. 1.
spec ies wh ich occu r there and have not been recorded else·
where in the Marit ime Provinces. The se are : Eudesme vires-

11.3.1 . TER RESTR IAL. FR ESHWATE R AND MARSH PLANTS RECORDED ON BRIER ISLAND (After Gordon. 19721

EOUISET A LES TAXAL ES
OSMUNDA LES
EQUISETA CEA £ TAXA C£A£
Equiserum arvense OSMUNDAC£ A £ Taxus canadensis
£quiserum fluvia tile Osmunda cinnamomea
Equisetum sylvaticum Osmunda r egalis spectabilis CONIFERA LES

LYCOPODIAL ES FllI CA LES PINA C£A E
Abies balsaminea
L YCOPODIAC£A £ SCHIZA EACEA E Piua r ubens
Lycopodium clavawm Schizaea pusilla PiceaglBUCa
Lycopodiu m dendroideum Larix laricina
Lycopodium annotinum D£N NSTA£DTlA CEAE
Lycopodium inundetum Pteridium squilimrm latinsculum CUPRESSACEA E
LYCOpOdium 58la9O Onoclea sensibi/is Jun iperus com munis
Dryop teris phe90pteris Juniperus horizon talis
SELAG INELLALES Dryopteris thelyp teris
Dryop teris cristata NAJADA LES
SELAGIN ELLA C£ A E Drvoineris disjunc ta
Selaginefla sefaginoidea Dryop teris spinulosa JUNCAGINACEA E

76
Triglochin palustris GRAMINEAE UR TICAL ES
Triglochin elata Agropyron trachycaulon
Glyceria melicaria? URTICACEAE
POTAMOG ETONACEAE Glyceria grandis Urtica dioica
Potamogeton pectinatus Glyceria obtusa?
Potamogeton oakesianus Panicum boreete MY RICA L ES
Potamogeton confervoides Anthoxanthum odoratum
Potamogeton perfoliatus Festuca rubre MYRICACEAE
Poramogeton epihydrus Arrhensthenum elatius Myrica gale
Agrostis tenois Myrica pennsylvanica
RUPPIACEAE Agrostis scabra
Ruppia maritima obliqua Agrostis pafustris FAGA L ES
Calamagrosris canadensis
COM MELINALES Calamagrostis pickeringi debilis FAGACEA E
Phleum p ratensis Quercus robur
XYRIDACEAE Poa palustris
Xyris caroliniana Poa pratensis BETULACEAE
Betula michauxii
LI L1 A L ES Betula papyrifera commurata
EHIOCAULA LES
Betula papyrifera macrostachya
f RI OCA ULA CfA E LlLIACEAE
Alnus crispa
Eriocaulon septangulare Clintonia borealis
Alnus rugosa
Mainanthemum canadense
Allium schoenoprasum laurentianum
JUNCALES CA RYO PHYL LA LES

JUNCACEAE IRIDACEAE
CARYOPH YL LACEAE
Juncus bufonius Iris versicolor
Spergularia manna
Juncus effusus Iris pseudacorus
Spergularia canadensis
Juncus gerardi Spergula arvensis
HAEMODORA CfAE
Juncus brevicaudatus Cerasrium vulgatum
Juncus bal ticus ttuoretis Lophiola americana
Arenaria la teriflora
Juncus canadensis
ORCHIDA L ES Arenaria p eploides
Juncus debilis? Sagina procumbens
Luzula multiflora acadiensis ORCHIDA CEAE Sagina nodosa
Habenaria clavellata
T YPHA L ES Habenaria lacera PORTULACA CfAE
Habenaria dilatata Claytonia fon tana
SPARGANIACEAE Platanthera psycodes
Sparganium chlorocarpum acaule Pogoni a ophioglossoides CHENO PODIACEA E
Calapogon pulchellus Atriplex patula
CYPERALES Arethusa bulbosa Atriplex glabri uscula
Malaxis unifolia Atriplex frank tonii
CYPERACEAE Spiranrhes cernua Salsola kali
Scirpus rubrotinctus Salicornia europac a
Scirpus americannus NYMPHAEALES
Scirpus validus POLY GONAL ES
Elaeocharis smallii NYMPHA fACEAE
Elaeochar is pauciflora Nuphar variegatum POL YGONACEAE
Eriophorum angusrifolium Polygonum sagittatum
Eriophorum tenellum RAN UNCU LALES Polygonum aviculare
f riop horum virginicum Pol ygonum persicaria
Rhynchospora alba RANUNCULACEA E Polygonum nvarootoer
Rhynchospora Fusca Ranunculus acris Polygonum scabrum
cerex scoparia Rununculus cymbalaria Rumex acetosa
cere» stipata? Ranunculus repens Rumex acetosella
Carex muricata Thalictrum polygamum Rumex orbiculatus
cerex lepralea Aquilegia vulgaris
Carex viridula TH EALES
Carex nigra HAMAME LIDA L ES
csrex conotdee GUTTIFERA E
Carex rostrara urriculata HAMAMELIDACEAE Hypericum virginicum
cere x lasiocarpa Hamamelis virginiana Hypericum canadense

77
Hvpericum perforatum PRIMULALES Epilobium angustifolium
Hvpericum mu ticum Epi/o bium adenocaulon
Primula laur entiana
SARRACENIALES Glaux maritima CORNA LES
Trienta lis borealis
SARRACENIACEA E LVSimachia rerrestris CORNA CEA E
Saffacenia p urp urea Lvsimachia puncrara Comus canadensis
Anagallis arvensis
DROSE RACEA E SAN TA LA LES
Drosera r ow ndi fo lia ROSA LES
LORA NTHACEA E
Vl0 LA LES Arceu rhobium pusillum
ROSACEAE
Rosa nitide
VIO L A CEA E CELAST RA LES
Rosa rugosa
Viola pallens Rosa car olina
Viola seprenrrionalis A DUIFOLIACEA E
Rosa virg in iana Nemopanrhus mucronatus
Spiraea larifofia lIex verticitlets
Aronia melanocarpa
:;A Ll CA LES Sorbus americana EUPHORBIA LES
Fragaria virginiana
SA LICA CEA E Potentilla tri dentsts
Salix bebbiana? EUPHORBIACEAE
Porentilla norvegica Euphorbi a polvgonifolia
Salix discolor? Potentilla simplex
Populus alba Porenrilla tru ticose SAPINDA LES
Potentilla anserina
CAPPARA LES Porenti/la argentea A CERA CEA E
Geum peck ii Acer pennsvlvanicum
CRUCIFE RA E Geum rivale
CapseJla bursa-pasroris Acer spicatum
Rubus chamaemorus
Cakile edentula Rubus pubescens
Coronopus didymus GERANIA LES
Rubus recurvicaulis
Brassica nigra Rubus vermontanus
Rhaphanus raphanisrrum ? OXA LIDA CEA E
Rubus srrigosus OX81is srric ra
Cardamine pennsylvanica
Rubus hispidus Oxalis stricts
Cardamine parviflora arenicola
A lch emilla xanrhochlora
Crataegus monogyna BA LSA MI NA CEA E
ERICALE S Amelanch ier uevis
Impariens glandulifera
Prunus pennsvl vanica
ERI CA CEAE Impa riens capensis
Ledum groenlandi cum LEGUM INOSAE
Kalmia angusrifolia Vida cracca
Kalmia polifolia Trifolium repens L1 NA LES
Rhododendron canadense Trifoliu m repens
An dr omeda glaucophv lla Tr ifolium pretense LlNACEA E
Chamaedaphn e calvculara Larhvrus japo nicu s Millegrans radio la
Gav lussacia baccata
Gav1ussacia dumosa bigelo viana CRASSU LAC EA E UMBEL LA LES
Vaccinium angusri folium Sedum rosea
vscctniom viris-idaea A RALIA CEA£
Vaccinium oxvcoccus Aralia nudicaulis
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Gaulrheria hispidula HAL ORA GAL ES UMB EL LIFERA E
Ligusricum scorhicum
EMPE TRA CEAE HIPPURIDACEA E Daucus cerots
Emperru m nigrum Hippuris vulgaris
POLEMONIA LES
PYROLA CEA E MY RTA L ES
Pyrola secunda SOLA NA CEA E
Moneses uniflora ONAGRACEA E Solanum nigrum
Circaeaalp ina
MONO TROPA CEA E Oeno rhera perennis CON VOL VULACEAE
Mono rropa uniflor a Oenotners perenms Convolvulus sepium

78
MEN YANTHACEA E LEN TIBULA R IA CEAE COMPOSI TA E
Men yan thes trifofiata minor Utricularia tmermeate
Utricularia geminiscapa Achillea lanulosa
LA MIA LES Utricularia gibba Solidago uliginosa
Utricularia comets Solidago rugosa
BORAGINA CEA E Solidago graminifolia
Myosotis laxa? CA MPA NA LES Solidago bic otor
Merrensia maritima Aster nemoralis
CA MPA NULA CEAE Aster radula
LABIA TAE Campanula ro tundifolia As ter blakei
Scu tellaria galericulata Aster acumina tus
Prunella vulgaris RUBIA LES Aster novibelgii
Lycopus uniflorus Aster lateriflora
Gafeops is tetrahir RUBIA CEA E Cirsium muticum
Galium trifidum Cirsium arvense
PLAN TA GINA LES Galium erectum Cirsium vulgare
Galium tebredoricum? Centaurea nigra
PLA NTAGINACEAE t eontodon au rumnalis
Plantago tenceotete Chrysan them um leucanthemum
Plantago major Bidens tronaose
Plantago juncoides Tussi/ago farfara
DIPSACALES Hyp ochaeris radicata?
SCROPHU LAR IA LES Matricaria m atricarioides
CAPR/F OLIA CEAE Tanacew m vulgare
SCROPH ULA RIACEA E Linnaea borealis americana Hieracium aurantiacum
Rhinanrhus crista-gallii Lonicera villosa Senecio robbinsii
Me/ampyrum Iineare Viburn um cassinoides Senec io vulgaris
cnetone gfabra Viburnum alnifolium Prenanthes trifoliata
Euphrasia americana Anaphalis margaritacea intercedens
Gerardia n eosco tica AST ERALES Gnaphalium uliginosum

TA BL E 11.5.1. A LGA E RECORDED IN T HE STUD Y A REA

RHODOPHYTA £Iachis ta fucico/a OT HERS
Scy tosipho n dotyi
Cy toclon ium purpureum Desmarestia viridis Zostera m arina
Rhodoph yllis dich o toma D. acu/eata
Ahnfeltia plicata Chorda tomen tosa
Chondrus crtsous Laminaria longicruris
Gigartina stellata L. digitata
Corallina officina/is Saccorhiza derma todea
Lith othamn ion so. Agarum cribrosum
Rhodymenia palmata A /aria escatents
Halosaccion ramentace um Ascoph yllum no dosum
Ceramium rubrum Fucus vesicu/osus
Plum aria e/egans F. eden tatus
Prilota e/egans F. evanescens
P. serrata
Phycodrys rubens CHLOROPHY TA
Polysiph onia lanosa
P. urceotsts Monostroma $p.
Rhodome/a con fervoides Enteromorpha linza
Porph yra miniata £. intestina/is
P. teacosticts VIva rigida
U. lacruca
PHAEOPHYTA Spongomorpha spinescens
S. son deri
Ectocarpus con fervoides Chaetomoroha m elagonium
Pi/ayella littorafis Cladophora rupestris

79
FIG URE 11.4. 1. SUBTIDAL LY KELPS DOMINATE TH E LA NDSCA PE. AT T HIS SITE ALA RIA ESCUL ENTA OBSCURES
THE BOTTOM. Seaweed in the foregrou nd is Fucussp. (Underwater photograph by R. K. Bosien, Sept., 1977 ).

FIGUR E 11.4.1 A IN TERT IDA L ALGAE GROW I N EQUAL PROFUSION. TH IS PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS A THI CK GROWTH
OF FUCUS sp. NEAR TH E LOW WAT ER MARK (Underwater photograph by R.K. Boslen, Sept" 1977).

80
"

",
"

, "
<>
"
<

,
"
"
<

~ " ~'6'

.
r 18
J'b",J<o<..l-~i; .u
" .

M> f u

o Not recorde d
• Present
• Commo n
. Abundant

".
2
,u

FIGURE 11.4.2. DISTR IBUTION AND ABUNDA NCE OF LA MI NA RIA NS AT BRIER ISLAND. N.S.

81
n




~4 •

•, u
Q IO Ji - .
So.-

Uj'
U.:


,. "


• ••
.
• "

••
\
·• .
~t" ,
•.
__ -:' ....:L~,.
~~F" J ' I1_ts" l~
"'~ 'l,._
: ..
"

"
• o Not reco rded
"• • Present
• Common
• Abundant

2

FIGURE 11.4.3 DISTR IBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF ALARIA ESCULENTA AT BRIER ISLAN D, N.S.
82
............,, ~ , ... T-
o

"
~
V V
." ,
"t OJ

" W ;6 "
-.
s.

n:>o '~ f
u-:
:116 .s
», g 8:'
-l6 ~i:;;:t
.
v

.•
,
~ "

u
v
\, •
\ "
~t..., t ~
•,
-n. -;' ~~-'
f I 13 , I h.., 95 !l Ii
'.. s..a,~,,,
~ .~

,,
I.-I '

,

"• o Not recor ded
.. • Present
• Com mon
V
.
M
. Abund ant
"
"
~

2


F IGU RE 11.4.4 DISTRIBUT ION AN D ABUN DANCE O F AGARUM CRIBROSUM A T BRI ER ISLA N D, N.S.

83
12 RESOURCE USES .

FIGUR E 12.2. 1. LOA DING PLA TFORM AT THE GROUND FISH PLA NT , WESTPOR T,

12.1. INTAOD UCTlQN. The economy of the Brier Is- 6) Groundfish gillnetting (minor)
land region is based almost entirely on the fishery. The Is- 7) Lobst er (major)
land is the site of some research and educational act ivities 8) Scallops (m ino r)
and has some limit ed potential in terms of tou rism. There 9) Soft-she lled Clams (minor)
are no processing (other than f ish ), manufactu ring or min- 10 ) Periwinkles (minor)
ing activlties.nor does there appear to be any significant 11) Mar ine plants (m inor)
potential for such development. Ex ist ing indust ries in- 12) Lo bst er impoundment (minor)
clu de: 13) Pack ing plants

A. THE FISHERY: B. RESEARCH AND EDUCATION:
1) Herring seiners (major) 1) Un iversity field trips
2l Herring weirs and shutoff (minor) 2l Research
3l Groun dfish dragging (major)
4) Groundfish longlining (major) 12. 2. TH E FIS H ERY. The local fishery is the most sign-
5) Groundfish handlining (major) if icant ind ust ry of the area. However, at the present time

84
on ly one sma ll plant is processing split groundf ish (Figure 51SOFT·SHELLED CLAMS, PER IWIN KLES AND MAR·
12.2 . 11. Independent fisherme n also have small salt ing oper- INE PLANTS (Figure 12. 1.4) . All of these are mino r pro-
ations and lobster impound ment (tanksl facilities. Herring ducts. No majo r clam flats are in the area and a single re-
caught in the area are delivered to process ing plants located stricted sou rce is loca te d at Westpo rt_
elsewhe re in the Bay and the seining flee t regularly use West-
po rt for layover s. Periw inkles are abundant. However, t hey would provide
only a sma ll supplementary incom e to local fisherm en .
While no specific statistics are available fo r the Brier Is-
land region. the Island is included in Statistica l District No. Marine plants. in spite of their abundance, are, to our
3 7 which includes Brier Island, Long Island and Digby Neck . kno wledge, not util ized. In terms of sup ply, the Island area
While we were unable to obtain landin g statistics fo r the cur- has good potential for de velopment.
rent year, tabulations for January. to April 21. 1977 show
tha t the area supports a rich fishery worth several million 6) SCA LLOPS (Figure 12. 1.5), Once an im po rtan t part
dollars per year (Table 12.2.1 ). The most valuable fish spec- of th e local fishery, loca l scallop beds have been de pleted
ies are Cod, Haddock, Po lloc k. Hake, and Herring. As can be and major beds are located elsewhere on the Nova Scot ia
seen in Table 12.2.2, the mo st valuable inshore spec ies are sho re.
Lobster and Scallops. although th e Scallop fishery has de-
clined in rece nt years 7 ) COMMERCIAL FISHI NG OPERAT IONS (Figure
12. 1.6). With the loss of the Connor's Broth ers pack ing
plant at Freeport. the only rema ining commercial ope ration
is a small split f ish plant at Westport. Ind ividuall y owned and
operated plants include : approximately 12 sheds for salt ing
11 HERRING SEINING (F igure 12.1. 1). The Bay of Fu n-
and spliting fish, 1 lobster tank house, 1 freezer and ice-
dy coast of Nova Scotia, St . Mary's Bay and Brier Island
maker and 1 small smoke shed.
areas are favored seini ng area s. Generally, this is an offsho re
operation that involves active hunting of herring schools.
12.3. RESEARCH AND EDUCAT ION. Brier Island is
During our visits, several boats from the seining fleet frequently visited by members of the Nova Scotia Bird So-
used the public wharf at Westport during September, most ciety and student field trips fro m Acadia University. R~
of the fleet was operati ng in th is general area. search is limited to the acti vities o f a few interested ind ivid-
uals and there are no forma l facilities on Brier Island. Dr.
In 1977 , breakdown of the Bay of Fu ndy fleet was as David Gaskin 's Cetacean Research group, University of
follows (Fisheries Marine Serv ice, 1977): Guelph, has worked in the area for the past five o r six years .

Origin No. of Boats

N.B. (Fundy) 25
N.S, 21
N.B. (Nor th) 1
N'f'l'd 3

TOTAL 50

Depend ing on herring movements, an y or all of t hese ves-
sels, plus ca rriers co uld be wor king the Brier Island area.

2) HERR ING WEIRS SHUTOF F, AND GILLNET (Fig-
ure 12. 1. 11. While St . Mary's Bay is an im portant area fo r
weirs and shutoff, there are no weirs at Brier Island and
shu toffs are infreque ntly used.

Gillnet s are set along the sou theast co ast ; principally for
lobster bait.

3 1 GRO UNDF ISH ING (Figure 12. 1.2). Groundfish are an
important source of income at Brier Island. Principal methods
used are longline !trawl!, handline, and dragger .

Only one plant is purchasing and processing salt fish at
Westport. Many fishermen split, salt and mar ket thei r own
fish.

4) LOBSTER (Figure 12. 1.31. One of the most valuable
fish products, local fishermen fish all of the shallow areas
in the Brier Island region .
85
TAB LE 12.2.1. FISH LA NDI NGS, JA NUAR Y 1 TO A PRI L 2 1. 1977 (Fisheries and Marine Service stat istics).

GROUNDFISH KI LOGRAM S S · VALUE
(ROUND)

Cod 1,4 10,543 380.690
Haddock 1,646,7 86 733,634
Redf ish 1,177 107
Hal ibut 5,93 1 8,541
Plaice 152 67
Witch 30,826 8,402
Winter Flounder 822 215
Mixed Flounders 11,150 2.705
Pol lock 3,350 ,562 466,150
Hake. Unsp. 833.597 127,658
Cusk 5,621 812
Cat f ish (Wolffish) 77,711 10,764
Other Groundf ish 227 116

TOTAL GROUND·
FISH 7,375, 105 1.739.861

PEL AGIC AND
ESTUA RIAL FISH
Herring 3,003,2 15 253,401
Mackerel 15.359 1,66 1
Tuna, Unsp. 254 336

TOTAL PELAG IC A ND
EST UA RIAL FISH 3.0 18,828 255.398

MOL LUSCS A ND
CRUSTACEA NS
Scallop s 180,785 60,330
Squid 889 91
Winkles 680 375
Lobsters 210,722 1,002,636

TOTAL MOLLUSCS
AND CRUSTACEAN S 393,076 1.063,432

MISCELLA NEOUS
Dulse 227 625

FISH VI SCERA,
SCA LES, ETC.
Herring Scales 125,965 19,974

TOTA L VA LU E 3,079,290

86
TAB LE 12.2.2. INSHORE LA NDINGS, 1947 TO 1973 (From Caddy and Chandler, 1976).

YEAR WINKLE LOBSTE R SCAL LOP SHR I MP W. FLOUNDE R SA LMON SHAD

1947 a 552000 106000 a a a a
1948 a 648000 56000 a a a a
1949 a 618000 11000 a a a a
1950 a 508000 30000 a a a a
1951 a 695000 18000 a a a a
1952 a 569000 6900 a a a a
1953 a 649000 77300 a a a a
1964 a 561000 85400 a a a a
1955 a 509000 50100 a a a a
1956 a 628000 74300 a a a a
1957 a 582008 250396 a a a a
1958 a 5 12815 16730 a a a a
1959 a 601364 2620 a a 2000 a
1960 a 558559 22531 7 a a a a
1961 a 6 12700 177771 a a a a
1962 a 64196 1 a a a a a
1963 2800 75 1300 38621 a a a a
1964 a 706792 199526 a a a 1000
1965 9300 72682 1 a a a a a
1966 a 675781 a a a a a
1967 a 694707 13696 a 1375 a a
1968 a 773655 12382 a 1768 a a
1969 80500 1141093 133579 a 485 a a
1970 41500 817735 169074 381987 10972 a a
1971 a 842171 164186 a 85 a a
1972 a 550089 92913 a 580 750 a
1973 a 676 117 23511 a 4800 127 a

Winkles: Landings refl ect effort.
Scallops: Most of these landings are made by Digby and Annapo lis Scallopers which fis h th e Brier I sland area during
the summer months. Most of their landings are trucked to Digby . Generally, lendtnqs reflect abundance
and at present scallops are very scarce on local grounds.

87
.._ _ ........ ,N·

SEIN ING (GOOD)
". '»'
' ., .. •
,•
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,
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FIGURE 12. 1. 1. PRI NCIPAL HERRING SEI N ING AND GI L LN ET ARE AS AT BRIER ISL AND, N.S.
88
Tr awl set up to
15 miles off-
shore

••

TRAW

o 2

FI GURE 12. 1.2. PRI NCIPAL GROUNDF ISH AR EAS AT BR IER ISLA ND, N.S.

89
"•

GRAND P
EAST SHQR
AREAS

FI SHING EX T NOS APPR OXI MATELY
12 M ILES T O HE SO UT H.

NAlITlCAL MILES
o I 2

FI GU RE 12.1. 3. PRI NCIPAL LOBST ER F ISHING ARE AS A T BRIER ISL AN D, N.S.

90
_
.. ..... ..
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sr

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29 ~4 8
.. 9',' .
>.5 '~
~ 17",.~. '
:7<lO J ~ j'
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, I(
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i
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,~ ,
es

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.
• 18 ~·6·

-:-J~i.;;6 ~
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JDfu

NO MAJO R CLAM
.•
FLATS · SMA L L
QUAN T ITIES AT
THI S SITE.

2

FIGUR E 12,1.4. CLAM F LATS AT SR I ER ISLAN D, N,S,

91
sr

"
• er

",
"

"•


BEDS 12 MI LES TO THE SOUT H

•."

2

FIGUR E 12.1.5. PRIN CIPA L SCA LLOP BEDS A T BRIER ISLAND , N.S.

92
"

"
<



<
"

1. O NE SMAL L CO MMERC IAL
SPLIT FISH OPERA TI ON.
2. APPROX I MAT ELY 12 Jt; f u
"
18
hn>J",*~6 ~
. ~i

,
I NDEPEN DENTLY ~

OPERA T ED SHEDS FO R , ••
SPLIT ING AND SA LT I NG\ .II

FISH. ......... ' ~
3. ONE LOBST ER TANK sl lo.qt Uo 8 '
HOU S E. -_:t ..EL_
4 INDEPE NDENT LV I03 , IZH< 95 h l \
. ~ ~ ~ ~-
OWNED FREEZER ,. \'~.
AND ICE-MA KE R " ("\
5. ONE SMALL S~ K E , '~ •
SHED AT W H I Ppl ~\\'h~pl.. ~ ~ ~
POINT. \ Zl , ~ '.-,-'
• " .u J.
11 \ l'
es

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FI GU RE 12. 1.6. LOCA TI ON O F COMME RCIA L FI SHING OPERAT IONS A T BRIE R ISLA ND. N.S.

93
13 PRODUCTIVITY & POLLUTION .

13.1. INTRODUCTION. Fact ors influencing productivity
in the Bay of Fundy have been previously d iscussed (Mac Kay, somewhat lower than at Deer Island or Grand Manan, N.B,
1976 l. Areas of h igh productivity usually occur where bathy- Firstly, water clarity indicates that levels of plankton and
metry and tidal currents prod uce good vert ical mixing. suspended organic matter is lower , In addition, divers ity of
benthic invertebrates is low and filter feeders are virtu ally
Apart from a rich fishery indicators of high productivity absent from the area.
are: 1) large seabird and mammal populations, 2) Euphausid
swarms, 3) grea t divers ity of benthic animals, 4) the prese nce 13,3, POLLUTION. With the exception of small fish
of numerous filte r feeding invertebrates and 5) high levels process ing operations at Westport there are no local sou rces
of plankton and suspended organic matter. of pollu tion. As previously mentioned, Bay of Fundy cur-
rent patterns are such that surface borne pollutants orig-
13.2. PRODUCTIV ITY AT BAIER ISLA N D. Brier [5' inat ing anywhe re in the Bay might reach Brier Island. Light
land fulfi lls many of the cr iteria listed above . Available tem- oils and garbage , discharged from ships leaving and entering
perature and salinity data suggest good vertical m ixing and the Bay of Fundy commonly are deposited on Brier Island
the area supports large seabird and mammal populations sho res (Lent, per. co mm., ).
with Euphausid shrimp acting as one of the principal foods.
In addition, the area supports a rich fishery . Nevertheless, No poten tial sou rces of pollution came to light duri ng
our observations suggest that the level of productivity is th is study.

94
14 RECREATION.

TYPICA LSEA CONDITIONS ON A FINE DAY AT BRIER ISLA ND WHERE WIN D AN D SWE LL MA KE DIVING
D i fFICU LT.

14.1. INT RODUCTION. Recreational opportunities on 14 .5. FISH ING. The Brier Island area offe rs excell ent
Brier Island are, in our opinion , relatively limited. This is due ha ndlining for groundfish. However, such activities can be
in large part to the relat ive inacce ssibility of the Island an d obtained in mo re accessible areas and it seems un likely that
its small size. Among the recreational activities wh ich might many t our ist s cou ld be enticed to travel to Brier Island for
be considered for the Island are: 1) Arts and Crafts, 2) Hik - deep-sea fishing.
ing and Camp ing, 3) Seashore ex ploration, 4 ) Boating, 5)
Fishi ng, 6 ) Photography and 5) Diving. 14.6. BOATI NG. We would not recommend the deve lop-
ment of recreational boating since strong currents, swell,
14.2. A RTS AN D CRA FT S. To our knowle dge, th ere and winds are such tha t considerable exp erience is requi red
are no formal Arts and Crafts de velopments on Brier Island. to operate in the area.
The Island would provide an exce llent atmosphe re for season-
al de velopment of suc h act ivities. 14.7. PHOTOGRAPHY. As is t rue in many areas in the
Bay of Fund y, the scenery at Brier Island provides goo d op-
14.3. HIKIN G AND CAMPING. While oppo rt unity ex- port un ity fo r photography.
ists for hiking and camping, it is unlikely t hat these activit-
ies would develop to any extent due to the sma ll size of the Water clar ity is suc h, that the area provides exce llent
Island. opportunity fo r underwater pho tog raphy.

95
14.4. SEASHOR E EXPLORATION. Brier Island offe rs has st rong cur rents, pers isten t swell and frequent winds and
only limited opportuni ties for seashore exploration, the fog. During calm weather inte rmediate amateu rs could safe-
only suitable sites for such activities being the Grand Passage ly work parts of Grand Passage and along the southeast
and Pond Cove areas. shore. However, predict ing weather would be impossible
and plan ning specif ic dates wou ld be dif ficult.
14.8. DIVING. Brier Island has many attractions for the
diver, including: 1) good underwater visibility, 2) spectacular Figure 14.8.1. shows the classificat ion of d iving areas,
underwater scenery, 3) a reasonable diversity of marine plants as we see it.
and animals, and 4) an abundance of wrecks. However, ou r
experiences lead us to believe that diving activities should be
restr ict ed to advanced amateurs and professionals. The area

96
sr
o

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•• "
•• ;I~ • • ••
" " ,. "
0
• 0

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.,. \
\
" () PROF ESSIONA L

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2

FIG UR E 14.8. 1. CLASSI F ICAT ION OF DIV ING SIT ES A T BRI ER ISLA N D, N.S.
97
15 HISTORY.

15. 1. EA R LY SETT LEMENT. Originally frequen te d by set ou t on a voyage to th is Island in spring of 1769, as a
Micmacs, th e ea rliest references to Digby Neck. Lo ng Island, fishing Post. He was accompanied by Mrs. Welch and child·
and Brier Island appear in the reco rds of the voyages of Sieur reno They were afterwards jo ined by Robert Morrefl, also
de Monts and Champla in in 1604. Prior to this, however, the born in Maine, bu t a resident of Sissibon just pre viously.
area had been freque nted by French fishermen and even Finding fish plen tiful, affording ample means of subsistence,
mi ners searching for silver, copper, and iron (Lo llis, 1959 ), they remained, becoming poineers; and lived almost unknown
to other sections of the co untY until arrival of Lo yalists
in 1783. They owned vessels. in which they captured pro-
duce of the deep. These were carried to the older colonies
It is reported that Brie r Island is so-called because a sea- and sold. Provisions were bought there, and freighted the
captain by that name was ship wrecked there during the ear- craf ts on their homeward j ourney, They lived in log houses,
ly days. Capta in Brier gave th e Christ ian name Peter J ackson built near th e shore, and thoroughly corked with m oss.
to an Indian he baptised on the island, and today the place Limited parcels of land were also tilled by aid of the f ish
where Brier came ashore is kno wn as Pete Jac k Cove (Lo llis, and refuse, which raised splendid crops of potatoes and
1959 ). other vegetables. They, however, faifed to procure Grants
at th is time, and were unkn own and unprotected by Gov-
David Welch. Senior, a native of Maine, United States, ernment. After the Tories came, all improved lands were

98
secured to their occupan ts by the King's Letters Patent. 1900. She was later floa ted bu t rhe crew deserted ship and
(Wilson 19OO). refused to rej oin the vessel when she was refloated.

In 1818, Loc kwood recorded that the population of Brier The barque Aurora was wrecked on Bri er Island Nov-
Island was 52 'men and women' and 95 'boys and girls'. ember 27, 1908. She was loaded with lumber and much of
(Lollis, 1959 ). her cargo was washed up on the shore. The 100F Hall was
construc ted fr om some of th is lumber.
As with oth er islands in th e Bay of Fundy, the po pulation
The schooner Mina German went ash or e at Southern
grew slowly and has remained relat ively stable at several
Point Febraury 8, 19 12.
hund red individu als. It wou ld appea r that these islands have
a " carryin g capacity" in terms of human pop ulation which
The steamer Cobequid was wrecked at Trini ty Rock
is determined by the ability of the area to support a certain
January 13, 19 14. The S.$. Wcstpon III, commanded by
number of people.
Captain Edgar MacKinnon wen t to rhe assistance of rhe
stranded ship. The crew of the Cobequid, th rough the
Physical development of the area began ear ly. The first efforts of the complement of the Westpon, were hero-
road was opened in 1803 when 50 pounds was allocated for Ically saved, Bu t Captain MacKinnon, while effecting th e
construction of a road from Petite Passage to Grand Passage. rescue, received injuries which compelled him to give
The following year a ferry was licensed for Pet ite Passage, up his active seafarin g car eer. Each received an engraved
but it was not until 18 22 th e J ames Peters of Brier Island watch for his part in saving th e lives of the men on the
was licensed as ferryma n for Grand Passaqe. He was succeed- Cobequid.
ed by Ja mes Titus in 1825 and George Morrell in 1829 who,
it is repo rted, operated a private fe rry as early as 1817 (Green- The Corin th ian, a large ocea~going ship, was wreck-
wood , 1935) . Ferry service has continued to the present and ed on North-Wes t Ledge, December, 1918. She had
is now operated on a 24 hour basis by the Nova Scotia cleared from Sf. John with a full cargo of hams. bacons
government (F igure 15.1. 1). and other fo od products for the British Isles. The ship
was a tota l loss and her cargo found its way to every
15.2. PRESENT STATUS. At present there are between port in Western Nova Scotia.
300 and 400 individuals on Brier Island. The pop ulat ion in
1961 was 4 13. In 1966. th ere were 122 househ olds with a In February 1944 bodies o f the crew f rom the
popu lation of 367. In 1971 , the popul at ion had increased Greek freigh ter Arkterini were washed ashore on Br ier
slight ly to 38 9 individuals in 120 hous eholds (County Pre - Island and Long Island. The ship was carrying a cargo
flle-Dlqbv, N.S. Dept. of Development l. of coal for St. John. No defini te details are available
but i t is assumed that she struck in the vicinity of Brier
Brier Island is well serviced and, present ly, the residents Island.
enjoy all modern conveniences.
In February, 18 77, the full-rigged ship, General
Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population levels will Wolsley, was los t on rhe coast of Brie r Island. She was
change significantly unless some major development is loaded wirh supplies for Bath, Maine. Her cargo con-
located in the area. sisted o f h ousehold f urn i ture, sleighs, equipment of
various kinds and provisions, and it was strewn along
15.3. SHIPW RECKS. As indicated in Figure 15.3.1, the coast, som e of which was salvaged by the peop le
the Brier Island area has claimed many sh ips. The heavy of Westport and Freeport.
and frequent swell, th e shoa ls and the rugged coastline virt-
ually insured difficulty for vessels which wande r off course. The story is tol d tha t in th e winter of 1846 twenty-
Powell (1963) has summarized some of the local wrecks as five vessels o f various sizes sailed down rhe Bay o f
follows: Fun dy bound for New England and Southern ports with
cargoes of lumber. Of the twenty- five which staned
lMJen increased sea traffic came to rhe Bay of Fundy it only nine were able to complete rhe trip. A strong south-
was realized rhat Brier Island was a sea hazard to shipping. west wind accompanied by snow struck the area and
So, in 1809, the second lighthouse between Halifax and those rhat were fortuna te enough made harbour. Only
Saint John was constructed on rhe western side o f Brier ts- nil" ; were abl e to continue rhe trip unha rmed. Th e
land. Thomas Green. a t wo-masted scho on er, struck Cow
Ledge and broke up. Her cargo was carried by the
I t is possible that Brier Islan d holds the record for light- tide along the shores and much of it was salvaged by
houses on rhe A tlantic Coast, averaging one per mile as i ts rhe fisherm en.
to tal lengrh is onl y th ree miles. Fr om the lists o f wrecks
at or near this Island there is evidently a netNI fo r the oper- 15.4. SIGNIFICANT HISTORICAL SITES. We were un-
ation of rhese lighrhouses. Follo wing is an account of most able to identify any historically significant sites at Brier Is-
of these recorded. land. However, Joshu a Slocum, the first man to sail alone
around the wo rld, grew up in Westport. His life there and
The Jennie B. Thomas was wrecked at Peters Island, ms aeven tures have been t he Subject at numerous articles
December 30, 1897. The schooner Shaffner Brothers and, certai nly. his memory is still honored in the area; a
was wrecked on Gull Rock Bar, January 1I , 1906. The Len- cairn having been erected near Peter Island on the Westpo rt
nie Burrill gr ounded on Peters Island Shoal February 12, shore.
99
.·.".""'.....' h"" '...· T-
o
George Melville Cochrane, 19 19 ,.
S.S. Corinthian, 1918
Neptunas, 1847 Empire S torey, 194 2 ,
Peggy, 1797 Washing ton, 1856 •
",
Eq yp tian Prince,
Lydia, 1854
Arm ada, 1879
Union, 1808
No name, 1842
Coast Guard, 1888

"
,
"

es

St. Martin, 1846
Aurora, 1908 u
. .•
Thomas Green, 1846
oorntometn. 1918
··· •, ,• 'I'.
Thetis, 1842
, n
~,
-:':'t.. ,."I, ,..
"S m
,~lr,.

W. E. Gladstone, 19 18
Aikaterini, 1944
" '
J,t
, -'.: .• ./$
• :« '
" ~I
20
i;-;:i r--if>-
__ , ""01
Reform, 1837 -; Grace Darling, 1914
Georgia E, 1911 Gladstone, 1888
lO~
Betsy, 183 7 Milenda, 1899
Bess, 1881 George, 1837
S.P. Masson, 1861 Eclipse, 1837
General wotetev, 1875 ss
, Albert J. Willis, 1941
Westway, 1925 Little Belt, 1829
Cambria, 1876 Industry, 1800's Comet, 1842
Newburg, 1898 Alfred, 1900 Emaline, 184 5
Champion, 1924 Jennie B. Thomas, 1897 Gearging, 1866
J. Morton, 1881 Jane Porter, 1884
Acadian, 19 10
Mikado , 19 16
Orleans, 1941
Nina A. German, 1912
n William Mason, 19 16
• Ena F. Parsons, 1932

,
00

Florence E, Melanson, 1912
Envoy, 1854
Primrose, 1827
Margaret, 1856
Nelly, 18 18
NAUTICAL MI LES
, Ambassadress, 1854
a I 2


FIGURE 15.3.1 . SH IPWRECKS ON TH E COAST OF BR IER ISLAN D. N.S. (After Shea. 1970).

100
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to thank Mr. Claude Mondo r and Mr. Duncan We wish to than k th e following individ uals who provided
Hard ie, Parks Canada, for their assistance with th is wo rk. Mrs. Wells with inform ation du ring te lephone or personal in-
terviews.
Dr. David Gaskin. Depart ment of Zoo logy. University
of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario wrote th e sect ion on Marine
Mammals and provided te mperatu re and salin ity d at a. We
wish to th ank h im for h is contri bution. Willett Mi lls, Halifax
Shirley Coh rs, Halifax
Bob Bosien and Myles Flewelling. MRA, sha red field Dr. Eric Mills, Dalhousie University
duties wit h the author . Marg MacKay typeset the manu- Ross Ande rson, Halifax
script and Stewart McKay proofread the final copy. Paul Brody. Halifax
Wickerson Lent, Brier Island
We would particularly like to thank Barbara Wells for Dr. van der Kloet, Acadia University
her deta iled literature search. Much of the infor mation in Dr. Darryl Grund, Acad ia University
th is report was made available through her effo rts. Dr. Chalmers Sm ith. Acadia University
Dr. Peter Sm ith, Acadia Un iversity
Henry Porter and the staff of the Canadian Coast Guard Dr. George Stevens, Acadia University
Service at westport assisted us in numerous ways and mad e Dr. Bogan. Acadia Un iversity
our visits to Brier Island part icularly pleasant. Dr. Ian Maclaren. Dalhous ie University
Dr. Fred Dobson. Dartm ou th
Russell Conley of Deer Island is thanked for his patience Dr. Dick Brown, Canadian Wild life Service. Dart mouth
in towing our disabled boat across the Bay of Fu ndy. D.L DeWolfe, B.J. Mooney. Bed ford Inst it ute

101
REFERENCES ANON. ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1838 THERE
WERE 415 PEOPLE LIVING ON BRIER ISLA ND. PANS.
ANON. PERSPECTIVE NOVA SCOTIA. N.S. Dept. of Develop- Vol. 449.
ment, No date.
ANON. REPOR T OF JOHN DOUGLAS ON BRIER ISLAND
ANON. COUNTY PROFI LE-DIGBY. N.S. Dept of Develop- LIGH THOUSE. JU L Y 5, 1916. PANS Vol. 227, aoc. 122
ment No date.
A NON. SI TE OF A MONUMENT HONORING CAPT, J.
A NON. HISTOR Y OF NORTH POINT LI GHTHOUSE, BRI ER SLOCUM OF WESTPOR T· THE FIRST MA N TO SAI L ARO UND
ISLAND. The Digby Courier, Thurs. March 9, 1972 THE WORLD ALONE. Olronicle-Herald AU!JU$t 15, 1964.

ANON. NOVA SCOTIA TOUR BOOK. Dept. Trade & Industry, ANON. PETITION OF CHAR LES JON ES AND OTH ER IN·
Halifax, 1959. HA BITANTS OF BRIE R ISLAND RE ROADS. PANS
Assembly Pe titions: Roads & Bridges 1830.
ANON. CANA DA 1974. Information Canada, 1973.
A NON. 1300 PEOPLE ARE ISOLA TED B Y ICE IN ST, MARY'S
A NON. ISLANDS DECLARED DISAS TER AREA. The Digby BA Y WHICH PREVENTS FERR Y RUNN ING·BUT HAVE
CQurier. Feb. 5. 7976. PLEN TY OF SUPPLIES. MairStar·Feb. 29. 1968. p. 6.

ANON. PETITION OF INHABITANTS OF LONG ISLA ND, A NON. FINA NCIAL STATEMENT OF THE INSULAR STEAM·
TOWNSHIP OF WES TPORT. DIGBY COUNTY, AGA INST A SHIP CO. LTD. , WESTPORT, DIG BY COUN TY, 1893. Printed,
GRA NT OF PART OF THE COMMON BEI NG MA DE TO 1page. MG I , No. 1161.
SHIPPEY LEN T AND JEREMIAH BROOKS. Westport. 10th
February, 7844, Crown Lands Papers, Digby County ( 1844) ANON. CHURCHES B Y THE SEA. Halifax Chronicle-Herald,
April6, 1957.
ANON. HISTOR Y OF THE WESTPORT BAPTIST CHURCH.
Pans Vert File: Olurches : Digby Coun ty; No. 5. Bailey, L/tY. NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY AND BOTANY OF
DIGB Y NECK, N.S. Inst Sci: er. & Tr. Vol. 9 (68-82). 7894.
ANON. DIGBY VILLAGE INCORPORA TED. Halifax Herald
Dec. 17. 1946. Bancroft, M.F. DIA TOMITE A ND PEAT DEPOSITS OF DI G·
BY NECK. N.S. Dept Mines. Ann. Rep. on Mines for 1946-
ANON. RETURN OF PUPI LS IN 18 46. Pans School Papers: pp. 24-243, 1946.
Academies Vol. 1. Digby Co.
Biggar, H.B. ea. THE WORK OF SAMUEL DE CHAMP LAIN,
ANON. NEW A ND COMMODfOUS SCHOOL HOUSE ERECT· V. 1(1599-1601). The Glamplain soctetv, Toronto, 1922.
ED THERE. Report of the Superintendent of Education. 1873-
p. 67. Bird. Carolyn. NA TIONA L RESEAR CH COUNCIL. Halifax.
N.S. per. comm.• 7977.
ANON. A CLUB CALL ED " FREE DISCUSSION" HAS BEEN
FORMED A T WESTPOR T. Nova Scotian February 76, 1857.
p . 6 col. 3.
Bousefield, E. L CANA DIAN ATL A NTI C SEA SHELLS-
A NON. PLA OUE TO BE UNVEIL ED ON JU L Y 22,1961. PRO- National Museum of Canada. Ottawa, 1960.
VID ED B Y THE SLOCUM SOCIETY OF MASSACHUSETTS-
Glronicle-Herald. July 19. 196 1, p. 7, Chronicle-Herald. July Bumpus, D.F., et: al. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR STUDYING
22.196 1. p. 5. Olronicle-Herald. Ju ly 24. 196 1,p. 3- NON- TIDAL DRIFT WITH RESUL TS OF EX PERI MEN TS
OFF GA Y HEAD, MAss. , A ND IN THE BA Y OF FUNDY.
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