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Long-term Athlete Development

LTAD 101 - Introduction

Istvan Balyi
National Sport Centre Vancouver Victoria
sportscoachUK and Sport Canada LTAD Advisor
The University of Victoria
National Coaching Institute
45 hours
Objectives

Brief overview of LTAD


Relative Age and Developmental Age
Review the impact of Growth and
Maturation on programme planning
How to operationalise LTAD
Conclusion and recommendations
If you want to teach latin to Johnny, you
have to know latin and you have to know
Johnny

If you want to teach basketball to Johnny,


you have to know badminton and you
have to know Johnny

We know basketball very well BUT we do


not know Johnny or Jane from age 9 to
16 PERIOD!!!
The Long-Term Player/Athlete
Development Model
Contents
Foreword 4
Acknowledgements 5
Introduction Learn to Train (Under 12) 6
Strength Training 21
Speed 51
Aerobic Training 61
Flexibility 64
Mental Training 70
Hydration and Nutrition 78
Planning for Games 84
Lets Go Games 95
Games Skills Tactical Awareness 106
Programmes for Development 113
Istvan Balyi
Coaching Skills 137
World leading expert on Long Term Player
Technical Development - Football 146
Development
Technical Development - Hurling 197 who described our Fundamentals manual as
Warm up 245 an example of good practice world wide
Games for Better Team Play 266
Code of Conduct 283
Bibliography 289
Introduction to Learn to Train: Long Term Player Development Model: - 8 Steps

COACH
Retirement & Retain ADMINISTRATOR

INTER PROVINCIAL
Training for Excellence SENIOR COUNTY AND CLUB
Sports Institute NI
18/19 +
Training to Win COUNTY and U21 Squads,
F.E. & H.E.

Training To Compete 15/16 To 21/23

Training To Train Secondary Education /County Development Squads U14/15/16


U.12- 16 Club U.16

Learning to Train 8-12 yrs. Primary School P. 6-7


Sec. Sch. Yr.8
Club U.10/12s

FUNdamentals 6-9 yrs. Primary Schools P 3-5;


First and Second Class& Club U.8s

Active Start 0-6 yrs. Pre School P.1/2


Infants and Higher Infants
A Framework for Activity
The LTAD 101

Is an 8 stage-model
Is Made in Canada
Supports the 4 goals of the Canadian Sport Policy
Encourages physical literacy
Based on developmental and not on chronological age
Encourages an optimal competition structure
Promotes lifelong physical activity
LTAD is
Optimal training, competition
and recovery programming with
relation to biological
development and maturation

Equal opportunity for


recreation and competition, it
is not an elitist model

Tool for system change


What is LTAD ?

LTAD is not just another plan (for


the files)

LTAD is a philosophy

LTAD is a too for change, culture


change in sport

Identifies the current gaps in the


sport system and provides
guidelines for problem solving
LTAD

Is a guide for planning for optimal


performance for all stages of athlete
development

Is a framework for full sport system


alignment and integration

It is designed on empirical / practical


coaching experiences and on scientific
principles
Active Start
Seven
Stages FUNdamental
of
Long-Term Learning to Train
Athlete
Training to Train
Development
Training to Compete

Training to Win

Active for Life


Active Start Stage
Chronological/ Development Age
Males and Females: 0-6

Fundamental
Movements
Gymnastics
Swimming
Running
(Wheeling)
FUNdamental Stage
Chronological/ Development Age
Males 6-9 and Females: 6-8

Fundamental
Movements
Skills +
Learning to Train Stage
Chronological/ Development Age
Males: 9-12 Females: 8-11

Fundamental
Sport
Skills
Physical Literacy
First 3 stages of LTAD
Before the onset of PHV

Fundamental Movement skill


+
Fundamental Sport Skills
=
Physical Literacy
=
Base for Excellence & Participation
Training to Train
Developmental Age onset of PHV
Males: 12-16 Females: 11-15

Building engine
and
sport specific skills
Training to Compete
Chronological
Males: 16-23 +/- Females: 15-21 +/-

Optimizing engine
and
sport / event /
position skills
Training to Win
Chronological Age Males: 19 +/- Females: 18 +/-

Maximizing engine
and
event / position
skills
PODIUMS
Active for Life
Enter at any age

Healthy
Life-long
Physical
Activity
Universal Sport System Gaps
( Mind the gap ! )
Selected Universal Sport System Gaps
Young developmental athletes undertrain and
overcompete

Adult competition schedule is superimposed on young


athletes (the system of competition)

Adult training programmes are superimposed on


young athletes

Male programmes are superimposed on females


Selected Universal Sport System Gaps

Chronological age versus biological age (or


maturation level) dominates training and competition
designs from ages 11 to 16

The "critical" or "sensitive periods of accelerated


adaptation to training are not utilized by coaches at
the Learning to Train or Training to Train stage
Universal sport system gaps

The most knowledgeable coaches are coaching at


elite level, notwithstanding the most knowledgeable
coaches should work at the developmental level
(FUNdamental, Learning to Train and Training to
Train Stages)

Coaching education marginally covers the basic issues


of growth and development, maturation
Universal sport system gaps
Parent's education is neglected with regards to long-
term athlete development (nutrition, regeneration,
maturation and psycho-social development, etc...)

Administrators education is neglected with regards to


some of the essentials of technical programmes (The
Big Picture)

Recover, regeneration programmes are not


integrated and sequenced with sport-specific
technical / tactical programmes within annual plans

Lack of the integration of sport science, sport


medicine and sport-specific technical-tactical
activities
Universal sport system gaps
Consequences

Overcompetition and undertraining*

Damage done between age 6-10 and 10-16 cannot be


fully corrected (players / athletes will never reach
genetical potential)

General motor skills are not learned before age 11


for females and 12 for males
Universal sport system gaps
Consequences

Training is geared for "outcome" and not for "process"


for the developmental athlete

National Training Centres receiving mediocre


athletes - regardless of money and expertise, cannot
recover from the "damages" of earlier training
10 Key Factors Influencing LTAD
(Balyi, Ross & Way - 2005)

1. Ten year rule 6. Mental / Cognitive /


Emotional Development
2. FUNdamentals /
Physical Literacy 7. Periodization Principles
3. Specialization 8. System Alignment and
Integration
4. Developmental Age
9. The System of Competition
5. Windows of
Trainability 10. Continuous improvement
Athlete Development and Support
Programmes
Athelet Support system - Knowledge base
Development Budget
T2W

T2C

T 2T

FUNdamental

ATP Advanced Training & Performance


10 Key Factors Influencing LTAD
(Balyi, Ross & Way - 2005)

1. Ten year rule 6. Mental / Cognitive /


Emotional Development
2. FUNdamentals /
Physical Literacy 7. Planning and Periodization
3. Specialization 8. System Alignment and
Integration
4. Developmental Age
9. The System of Competition
5. Windows of
Trainability 10. Kaizen - Continuous
improvement
Factor # 1.
10 year rule !
It takes 10 years of extensive practice to
excel in anything !

H. Simon Nobel Laureate


10 - 10 - 10

10 year or 10 000 hour rule (Ericsson and Charness, 1994


and Salmela et al., 1999)

For the athlete and coach this translates as slightly more


than three hours of deliberate practice daily for 10 years

10 %

90 % ???
The 10 Year Journey

Cross Country Skiing statistics indicate it takes


skiers approx. 20 years from the time they enter
the sport to the time they first make the Olympic
team
There are no shortcuts !

Peaking by Friday
As soon as we start to train = we train to win ?
Process and not outcome !
2 FUNdamentals
Physical Literacy
Physical Literacy refers to the mastering of
fundamental motor skills and fundamental sport
skills
What Fundamentals?

Fundamental Movement Skills


CANT CATCH?
Cant Catch? Wont play!

Hockey Gymnastics
Cricket
Canoeing
Aerobics Rounders
Golf Sailing
Baseball
Cycling
Athletics Softball
Skateboard Netball
Squash Basketball
Badminton
Tennis Rugby
Jogging Soccer Handball
Swimming Dance
Walking American
Football

Adapted From Mike Jess, University of Edinburgh


Aerobics Cricket Rounders

Walking Baseball
No ABCs ?
Swimming Softball

Running
Rugby
Gymnastics
Basketball
Soccer
Netball
Athletics
Handball
Cycling
American
football
Skateboard
Sailing
Hockey
Canoeing
Golf Tennis
Dance Badminton Squash

Adapted From Mike Jess, University of Edinburgh


Fundamentals ABCs
Fundamental
Movements Skills and
Fundamental Sport
Skills provide a base
for future movement
capacity Basicmovementskills
requiredinallsports

FUNdamental
movement skills
+
FUNdamental sports skills
=
Physical Literacy
FMS+ FSS = Physical
literacy
Before the onset of
the growth spurt
Before age 11 for
females and 12 for
males
3. Specialization
Early Specialization Late Specialization
Sports Sports
Complex skills are All other sports,
learned before including cross country
maturation ski
Gymnastics, diving, Involvement in the
figure skating, early stages is still
swimming
important
Foundation cross
country ski
requirements should be
introduced during the
FUNdamentals stage &
firmly established
before the end of the
Learning to Train stage
4. Developmental Age
Refers to the degree of
physical, mental,
cognitive & emotional
maturity as opposed to
chronological age
Combination of a childs
physical development &
mental, cognitive &
motional maturity
Athletes can be 4-5
years apart by
maturation levels
5. Trainability
Accelerated
adaptation to
training
Critical or
Sensitive Periods
The 5 Ss of
training:
1. Stamina (endurance)
2. Strength
3. Speed
4. Skill
5. Suppleness
(flexibility)
6. Physical, Mental, Cognitive, and
Emotional Development

Holistic approach to athlete development


Emphasis on fair play & character building
Programming designed to consider athletes cognitive
ability
Long-term ramifications of short-term planning need
to be taken into account
7. Periodization
Periodization = Time management
applied to training
Framework for arranging training
processes into a logical & scientifically-
based schedule
Sequences training & competition into
months, weeks, days & sessions
Connects the stage the skier is on to the
requirements of that stage
8. Competition Calendar
Competition is a good servant, but a poor
master
Competition
schedulesshouldbe
selectedbythe
coach&athlete
basedonthe
athletes
developmental
needs
Sportspecificsystem
oftraining&
competition
9. System Alignment
To date CCC has monitored the development of
LTAD concepts closely & has applied the
principles effectively to recent program
development in the areas of:

Athlete development (revised Bunnyrabbit,


Jackrabbit & Track Attack programs)
Coach development (the new competency-based
NCCP)

Must keep going


10. Continuous Improvement
Modernization of the Canadian sport
system
Education, health & sport / physical
activity alignment
All aspects of LTAD need research related
to implementation
KAIZEN
Periodic updates to CCCs LTAD guide will
be undertaken in the future
Playground to Podium
Stages of Development
LTAD:
identifies sequential
stages for training &
competition that
respect a child's
physical, mental &
emotional
development
encourages lifelong
physical activity for
all levels of ability &
disability
Summary
LTAD:
Is an initiative of Sport Canada
Is opportunity for change
Is a framework for reviewing current practice
Is athlete-centered
Is a pathway from ski playground to podium and/or
being active for life
Helps all children become physically literate
Provides guidelines for optimal performance
Recognizes children play for FUN
Integrates the needs of athletes with a disability
How to?
Age
Chronological age
Relative age
Biological age
Skeletal age
Developmental age
Training age
Sport-specific training age
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
If one year can have such an
impact, what about 2, or 3 or 4 or 5
years of difference???
Athletes can be 4 5 years apart in
developmental age!
Factor # 4.
Growth & Development, Maturation
1992

E W, K V, S S, C D, S D-L
1993

P P L,
C M,
T L,
BR
Choosing early,
average or late
maturers?
Consequences of the Growth Spurt
Training and Children
(C. Williams, 2005)
Poor evidence of large physiological benefits
studies in children
Growth spurt
Loss of
Growth and maturation effects oftenco-ordination
unaccounted Biomechanical
breakdown
Improvements have been found but generally
Skill break down
prepubertal < adolescents < adults
Factor # 5
Trainability

140
A B C D
120

100 Genital Development


80 General Development
Neural Development
60 A FUNdamental
B Training to Train
40
C Training to Compete
20 D Training to Win

0
Age 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Influence of maturation:
Different patterns of system growth during childhood
Size attained as % of postnatal growth

100

80 Neural

60

40 General
20 Genital
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Age (years) Adapted from Scammon, 1930


Windows of Trainability
(Windows of Opportunity, Optimal Trainability)

Sensitive (Critical) Periods (Tanner - 1989)


Accelerated adaptation to training (Viru, et al, -
1998)
Windows of trainability (LTAD - 1999)
Windows of opportunity for trainability (Bar-Or and
Rowland - 2004)
Windows of trainability refers to the sensitive
periods of accelerated adaptation to training,
which occurs prior to puberty, during puberty
and early post-puberty

The window is fully open during the sensitive


periods of accelerated adaptation to training
and partially open outside the sensitive
periods

The window never closes!


Magnitude of training response
Fast & large response
Slow & large response

Fast & small response

Slow & small response

Time course of training response

Variation in trainability.
(Adapted from work by Bouchard et al., 1997)
Trainability

Based on chronological age:


Skill
Speed
Suppleness
Based on developmental age
Stamina
Strength
Biological markers
onset of PHV
PHV
onset of menarche

Reactive Periodization
Program design for the developmental athlete
Active Start
Seven
Stages FUNdamental
of
Long-Term Learning to Train
Athlete
Training to Train
Development
Training to Compete

Training to Win

Active for Life


10 Ss

1. Skill (technical tactical


decision making)
2. Speed
3. Suppleness
4. Stamina
5. Strength
6. Structure / Stature
7. Sychology
8. Sustenance
9. Schooling
10. Socio-Cultural
LTAD to your Next Training Session

Athlete Annual Plan


Single
Chronological Age
Double
Biological Age
Triple
Training Age
Multiple
Periodization Periods
Preparation
Micro Cycles Meso Cycles Phases Competition
Introductory Developmental Transition
Development General
Shock
Stabilizing Specific
Maintenance Pre-competition Pre-competitive
Taper Competitive Competitive
Peak Restorative Transition
Restoration
Transition

New
Sessions Evaluation
6:1 = 4 / 6 / 9 / 12 / 15
5:2 3:1 2:1
Plan
6. Structure / Stature

Stature during maturation


Developmental age
Sliding scales of trainability
Structure after maturation
Diagnostics strength and
weaknesses
Full individualisation
patterns, tempo of
maturation
Reacting periodization
Measuring and interpreting PHV
( How to PHV ? )
Adolescent Growth Spurt
PEAK HEIGHT VELOCITY (PHV)

Croissance soudaine a la pubert


Pic de croissance rapide soudaine
Phases of Measurement
Phase Phase Phase Phase Phase Phase
1 2 3 4 5 6
25
Very Rapid Growth

20
Very rapid deceleration
CM
15
Rapid growth Rapid deceleration

10
Slow deceleration

5
Steady growth Cessation of growth

0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Age
Technique of Measurement
Technique de mesure
Chapter 2. Measurement of PHV to
indicate growth and maturation (Dr.
Craig Williams, University of Exeter)
Growth and Development Section (What is?)
Technical and Protocol Section (How to?)
Programme Planning
Chapter 3. Training, Competition and
Recovery Programme Prescription for the
Developmental Athlete. (Istvan Balyi and
Graham Ross)
Trainability and Adaptation
Developmental age
How to use collected data in programme
prescription
How to design an annual training, competition and
recovery programme a step-by-step protocol
7. Sychology - Psychologie
The foundation is the cognitive,
mental and emotional development of
the athlete (readiness!)

Preparation for all the


stages of LTAD
8. Sustenance

Nutrition
Hydration
Rest
Sleep
Regeneration
10. Socio-Cultural

Socialization via sport


Sport socialization sport
sub-culture
(Life style; 24 hour athlete, etc.)
Team building
Group dynamics
HUMILITY
RESPECT

LEADERSHIP

FAIR PLAY

INTEGRITY

ATHLETE
ETHICS

hwenger04
y Active Start
rac
it e
l L
i c a FUNdamental
ys
Ph
Learning to Train

c e
len
el Training to Train
c
Ex
Training to Compete

- o ng ty
l tivi Training to Win
e
L i f l Ac
s i ca
y
Ph
Active for Life
Conclusion and recommendation
Do not treat your developmental athletes as miniature adults

Monitor G & D, M regularly


Once a year from 0 to 6 years
From 6 to the onset of PHV once a year
Standing height
Sitting height
Arm span
After the onset of PHV four times per year
Standing height
Sitting height
Arm span

Find the solution for Relative Age


Learn how to deal with Early, Average or Late maturing athletes
Educate parents
Participants
Keep the talent in the sports, do not let them quit for
nothing!

Learn how to manage Adolescent Maintenance

Train the trainable


Readiness
Windows
Training effect
You are making or braking an athlete from 8 to 16!

Improve the quality of planning


Reactive periodisation
Accountable for every day
You are as good as your last training session
Questions ?