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FULL PORT VS STANDARD (AKA REDUCED) PORT VALVES:

1. REF: http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=20283

When only considering pressure drop and the ability to pig the line, there is no benefit or justification to use reduced bore ball
valves.

The diameter of the hole through the ball determines the required OD in order to have full contact around the seat when shut.

Usually, the diameter of the waterway is around 60% of the ball OD.

So, the ball OD for full and reduced port valves cannot be the same size for a given valve size.

Said another way, the ball OD for a 3 inch full port is much larger than a 3 inch reduced port valve.

Because of this, manufacturers cannot use the same castings for full and reduced port.

A larger body is needed to enclosed a full port ball, so there is more material, more machining time, heavier valve, more cost.

In addition, the valve operating torque is a function of the ball diameter cubed.

So a larger, actuator is need for the full port valve.

The weight of a full port valve with actuator can be up to 600% more than a reduced bore valve.

The cost goes along with the weight increase.

Now considering cost sensitive general services such in HVAC chilled water, city water, instrument air systems, etc. where many
decades ago, used globe valves (high pressure drop, but tight shut-off) or suffered with leaking gate valves (low pressure drop, but
leaked), the cost and performance benefits of using reduced bore ball valves was huge.

Because of the cost difference, significantly more reduced port valves are sold than full port (by a factor of around 3:1).

This fact says a majority of valve applications can live with the increased pressure drop.
2. REF: https://www.directmaterial.com/knowledge/full-port-or-standard-port-whats-right-for-you/

Most full port valves are ball valves that come in several types of metals, such as brass or stainless steel.

Full port valves, also known as full bore valves, have no restriction of flow from the original pipe diameter.

That means the full port valve will maintain a consistent flow rate.

The full port design reduces cavitation (the formation of empty space) and pressure drop.

If you look at the picture, on the right, you'll see a DuraChoice full port stainless steel ball valve.
Full port valves are recommended for pipes where both solids and liquids will be flowing through the valve. The open design reduces the
amount of build-up which could affect the valves performance over time.

Do you see a difference between the two valves?

Notice that the pipe diameter of the full port valve (right) does not decrease as you look through it. Compare that to the standard
port valve on the left, which is also made by DuraChoice.

Durachoice Full Port and Standard Port Ball Valves

You can see the interior diameter is smaller for a valve with the same connection size. Standard port valves cost less and usually come in the
same or lower pressure ratings as full port valves. They can be just as effective in some applications where full flow is not required.

The smaller opening, though, can cause pressure drop and create cavitation (the formation of empty space) causing wear on the valve.

Before making the final decision for your project, you'll want to assess your budget, the type of material you are needing, the type of
material that will actually pass through the valve, and whether a consistent flow rate is absolutely needed.
3. REF: http://www.flow-controls.com/news/What-is-full-port-or-reduced-port-ball-valve--8.html

For the full bore valve, the bore diameter i.e hole in the ball has the same internal diameter as the pipe, whereas a reduced bore
valve has a smaller bore diameter than the internal diameter of the pipe.

For example, the bore size in a 3/4-inch full-port ball valve is 3/4-inch in internal bore, while the bore diameter in a reduced
(standard) ball valve is 1/2-inch in internal diameter.

Full-port ball valves are used where their low flow resistance is of value such as on pump suction pipes, where a pressure drop can
affect pump performance.

They are also used in flows containing mixed liquids and solids where flow restrictions can cause separations in the materials
causing buildups and thus reducing the flow in the pipes.

Standard (reduced)-port ball valves are used where pressure drop, turbulence in the flow and material characteristics are not a
concern. They also have the advantages of smaller size and lower cost.

If there is no strict demand on flow rate, you could select standard (reduced) port as the price is more economic and the weight is
relatively a little lower.