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1. These are tiny sacs in the lungs through which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
takes place.
A) cilia B) alveoli C) bronchi D) breathing

2. The mechanical process of moving air into and out of the lungs; also called ventilation.
A) breathing B) alveoli C) cilia D) respiration

3. Tiny hairlike extensions of cells that line the respiratory tract. They move in a wavelike
fashion to help eliminate dust and germs from the body.
A) bronchi B) breathing C) alveoli D) cilia

4. A group of specialized cells in the right atrium of the heart that establish the basic rhythm of
the heartbeat.
A) valve B) atrium C) pacemaker D) ventricle

5. Risk factors for high blood pressure include all of these EXCEPT
A) Obesity B) Exercise C) Excess cholesterol D) Smoking

6. Oxygen-poor (carbon dioxide-rich) blood from the body returns to the heart's
A) left atrium B) right ventricle C) left ventricle D) right atrium

7. Which of the following is NOT a respiratory disease?

A) SARS B) asthma C) emphysema D) hypertension

8. The primary goal of cellular respiration is to release this from digested nutrients.
A) Energy B) Carbon Dioxide C) Sugar D) Water

9. What are the five main parts of the circulatory system?

A) arteriosclerosis, hypertension, heart attacks, edema and heart failure
B) pulmonary, systemic, lymphatic, circulatory and respiratory
C) oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen
D) heart, arteries, capillaries, blood and veins

10. Which of the following DOES NOT happen during inhalation?

A) The diaphragm moves up.
B) The pressure in the lungs decrease.
C) Air moves into the lungs.
D) The ribs move upward and outward.

11. Which base pairs are found in DNA?

A. AC and TG C. AG and CT
B. AT and CG D. A-U and C-G
12. A section of chromosomes that codes for a trait can be called a(n):
A. nucleotide B.base-pair C.gene D.nucleus

13. Which of the following is a correct definition of genetics?

A) The study of transmission of traits from parent to offspring.
B) The study of genes and traits defined by genes.
C) The study of DNA.
D) The study of variation between members of a species.

14. Which statement about nucleic acids is not correct?

A) They are macromolecules.
B) They are organic molecules
C) They are typically long, linear molecules.
D) None; all of these statements are correct.

15. What is the main function of DNA?

A) It stores information for protein synthesis.
B) It can be mutated.
C) It directs the process of protein synthesis.
D) It provides energy for the cell.

16. Identify the correct order of organization of genetic material, from largest to smallest.
A) Genome, chromosome, gene, nucleotide
B) Gene, chromosome, nucleotide, genome
C) Chromosome, gene, genome, nucleotide
D) Chromosome, genome, nucleotide, gene

17. A gene:
A) Can be described as a unit of heredity.
B) Contains information to produce a particular protein.
C) Affects traits at the cellular level.
D) Can exist in many forms.
E) All of the above.

18. If a person receives an X and a Y chromosome, that person is:

A. female B.male eyed D. mentally challenged

19. Which of the following is NOT a trait that is the result of, or is affected by, the interaction of more
than one gene?
A) human skin color
B) cleft palate
C) height
D) sickle cell anemia
E) human eye color

20. The location on a chromosome where a particular gene is located is known as the:
A) allele
B) dihybrid
C) locus
D) diploid
E) autosome
21. What is a major cause of variation within a species?
A .sexual reproduction C.extinction
B .asexual reproduction D. photosynthesis

22. In which population would you expect the most rapid evolutionary change?
A .A small population with a high mutation rate in a changing environment.
B .A small population with a low mutation rate in a stable environment.
C. A large population with a high mutation rate in a changing environment.
D. A large population with a low mutation rate in a stable environment.

23. One way to increase the number of organisms in an endangered species is to let the few remaining
individuals of that species breed. However, this breeding may also lead to species extinction because
inbreeding over a short period of time may
A. reduce genetic diversity
B .increase beneficial mutations
C. produce a different species
D. increase fertility

24. What percentage of all living species will go extinct within the next 20 to 50 years from human
activities if steps are not taken to conserve species?

A) 1-2% B) 5-10% C) 10-20% D) 50-75%

25. Why is genetic diversity within a population important?

A) so the population is less susceptible to disease

B) so individuals of the population can survive when the environment changes
C) so museums can have more realistic collections
D) Both A and B are correct.

26. An endangered species is _____________ that will become extinct if nothing is done to stop the
cause of its decline.
a. any species of animal
b. any species of plant
c. any species of animal, plant, or other living thing
d. none of the above

27. What are the greatest problems facing plants, animals, and people?
a. habitat destruction
b. illegal hunting
c. introducing new species that can cause problems
d. all of the above

28. The region with the highest number of endemic species overall is

A) Philippines
B) Madagascar
C) Brazil
D) S.W. Australia
29. The most pervasive form of habitat disruption is

A) urban development
B) clear-cutting forests
C) grazing
D) industrial development

30. Categories of species vulnerable to extinction include all of the following except those that

A) have high genetic variability

B) are hunted or harvested by people

C) have a declining population size

D) are local endemic species