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# Target Publications Pvt. Ltd.

## 02 Scalars and Vectors

5. The displacement is along the Z direction, i.e.,
1. F = 4 i + 3 j 2 k ,

s = 10 k
r = 1 i + 1 j + 0 k

Work done W = F s
= r F
i j k W = (2 i + 15 j + 6 k )10 k = 60 J

=1 1 0 6.
D C
4 3 2
R =P+Q
= [ i (2) j (2) + k (3 4)] Q

= 2 i + 2 j k
A
B
| a | = 1 + 2 + ( 2 ) = 3 and
2 2 2
2. P

22 + 12 + ( 1) =
2
|b| = 6 R2 = P2 + Q2 + 2PQ cos
From this relation, it is clear that
|a | |b| R2 = P2 + Q2, when = 90
But two unequal vectors may have same
magnitude. R2 > P2 + Q2, when < 90
R2 < P2 + Q2, when > 90
eg.: if P = i + j k and Q = i j + k , then

two vectors are unequal but | P | = | Q | 7. 1 = a 2 + b 2 a2 + b2 = 1 .(i)

## 3. For the given two forces, magnitude of ( )( )

and ai + bj 2i + j = 0 2a + b = 0
resultant is maximum if 2 forces act along b = 2a

same direction, i.e., | R max | = | A + B | and Substituting for b in (i)
1 2
magnitude of resultant is minimum if 2 forces a2 + (2a)2 = 1 a = and b =
5 5
act in opposite direction, i.e., | R min | = | A B |

For all other directions, 8. r = i j

( )

R = A 2 + B2 + 2ABcos where, is the Torque at that point, = r F = i j ( 4F ) k

angle between A and B . i k = j and j k = i
Therefore the magnitude of the resultant
( ) ( )

between 3 N and 5 N will be between 8 N and = 4 F i k + 4 F j k
2 N.
= 4 F ( j) + 4 F ( i )

4. A = 3 units due east.

= 4 Fi + 4 F j
4 A = 4 (3 units due east)
= 12 units due east = 12 units due west. ( )
= 4 F i + j

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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Std. XI : Triumph Physics

9. cos =
( i + j + k ) j
( )(
W = F. s = 7i + 2 j 4k 4i + 2 j + 2k )
( i + j + k ) ( j )
1/ 2 1/ 2
2 2 2 2
= 28 + 4 8 = 24 units.
i j + j j + k j 0 +1+ 0 1
= = = 14. Let, A = iA x + jA y , B = iBx + jBy
(1 + 1 + 1)
1/ 2
1 3 3
( ) ( )

## 10. To find the net force, we vectorially add the = i ( A x + A x ) + j( A y + By )

three vectors. The x-component is Given Ax = 4 m, Ay = 6 m
Fnet x = F1 F2 sin 60 + F3 cos 30
Ax + Bx = 12 m , Ay + By = 10 m
= 3 4 sin 60 + 10 cos 30
Bx = 12 m Ax = 12 m 4 m = 8 m
3 3
=34 + 10 = 2.196 N By = 10 m Ay = 10 m 6 m = 4 m.
2 2
and the y-component is 15. The angle subtended is
Fnet y = F2 cos 60 + F3 sin 30 3 3
sin = =
= 4 cos 60 + 10 sin 30 = 3 N 6 +3 +4
2 2 2
61
The magnitude of net force is 3
= sin1
Fnet = Fnet2 x + Fnet2 y = (2.196) 2 + 32 61
= 3.72 N
The work done by the net force is 16. p = ip x + jp y
W = Fnet x x = (3.72) (5) 18.6 J
= i[3cos t] + j [3sin t]

A.B ABcos According to Newtons second law of motion,
11.
= = cot
| A B | ABsin dp
F =
dt
A.B 1
Given, = d

3 F = i 3cos t + j 3sin t
| A B | dt
1 = i (3sin t) + j(3cos t)
cot =
3

## 1 c |F| = (3sin t)2 + (3cos t)2 = 3

= cot1 = 60 = 3
3
A.B
12. The three vectors not lying in one plane 17. A B = | A | | B | cos cos =

## cannot form a triangle, hence their resultant | A |.| B|

cannot be zero. Also, their resultant will The component of A in the direction of B

neither be in the plane of P or Q nor in the A.B
= |A| cos = |A|
plane of R . Hence option (D) is correct. |A||B|

3+ 2 5
13. Net force on the body F = F1 + F 2 = = along B
( ) ( )
2 2
= 5i + j 2k + 2 i + j 2k
18. The vector product of two non-zero vectors is
= 7 i + 2 j 4k zero if they are in the same direction or in the
( )

s = 6i + 4 j 2k 2i + 2 j 4k opposite direction. Hence vector B must be

= 4i + 2 j + 2k parallel to vector A , i.e. along x-axis.

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Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Chapter 02: Scalars and Vectors

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19. Area of the triangle = | A B|
2
i j k
1
= 2 3 4
2
1 0 2
1 +3)
= i(6 0) j (4 4) + k(
2
1
= 6i + 8j + 3k
2
1
= 36 + 64 + 9
2
1
= 109 = 5.22 units
2

20. A = a x i + a yj + a z k

Magnitude of vector A = | A | = a x 2 + a y 2 + a z 2
where, ax, ay and az are the magnitudes of

projections of A along three coordinate axes
x, y and z respectively.
| j k | = 12 + (1) 2 = 2

Component of vector A along the direction of
= ay az
(j k)
2