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SCOVER DEBATE

Basic Skills for Supporting and Refuting Opinions


Michael Lubetsky / Charles LeBeau / David Harrington

Produced and published by:


Language Solutions Incorporated

2000 by Michael Lubetsky, Charles LeBeau, and David Harrington


All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any
form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.
The persons, entities and events in this book are fictitious. Any similarities to actual persons or entities, past or
present, are purely coincidental.

Book Design: Language S utions/David Harrington /Chikako Koyama


Produdion: Language Solutions
Layout: Chikako Koyama
Cover/Interior Design: Ty Semaka

This edition reprinted and distributed in Korea by


Compass Publishing
http://www.compasspub.com
email: info@compasspub.com

ISBN 978-89-8446-5 1 7-6


O
1
0
we
This book is dedicated to:
Brian effrey Moss
anuary 6, 1958 . June 21, 1999
He was our colleague, and our friend.
Hewi always be in our hearts.
To eTe he, y

This book is an answer to a much debated question: "Is debate possible for low level
learners?" We have tried to answer strongly in the affirmative.
However, we feel stron y that it is necessary to take a somewhat different approach to debate
for low level learners. New concepts and methodologies are required. These are the concepts
that have proven successful for us. We hope they, in turn, will be successful for you.

Stepping Stones Toward Debate


First, this book recognizes that debate is a very sophisticated form of immediate, interactive
communication. Debate assumes a high level of discourse skill. Thus, although the goal of the
book is debate, Unit 1 begins not with debate but with exchanging opinions. We assume
nothing and start from zero. From there, we have paved the way to debate with 9 small, but
necessary, steps (units) that can be taken in stride by beginners. This journey is a road of
discovery, hence the title of the book. Along the way, we learn how to support opinions with
reasons, how to support reasons with evidence, and how to organize information into a
coherent message. Continuing down the road, we learn how to refute explanations, how to
challenge evidence, and how to organize refutations into a coherent message. Finally, we learn
how to make rebuttal arguments, and then, at the end of the journey, we are ready to
discover and enjoy debate.

Metaphorically Speaking
Secondly, debate is, by its very nature, abstract. But abstractions are very difficult to teach.
So, we have had to find a way of making debate concrete, a way of making the reasoning of
debate visible to the students. To this end, we have found comparing debate with constructing
a house, attacking a house, and rebuilding a house to be a very powerful metaphor. Thus,
throughout the book, the first page of each unit cements the unit's contents to the house
concept. Metaphorically speaking, the roof of the house is the topic, or resolution, of the
debate. This roof is supported by pillars, or reasons, and the entire house rests on a foundation
of evidence. Only careful construction allows a house to withstand the attack of storm and
gale, snow and rain, wind and hail. Likewise, only strong reasons and firm evidence allow a
debate case to withstand well-aimed refutations. We also learn how to turn the case around
and see it from the opposite point of view. In this way, the house metaphor teaches us that
debate is about attacking the building, not the builder.

User Friendly Format


Third, knowing that beginners function best in a clearly structured environment, we have
endeavored to make each lesson learner friendly. Learners walk through 6 steps. First, they
experience the unit's debate target skill in the Discovery section. Second, learners see the target
skill systematically presented in the Model section. Third, in the Language Focus section,
learners practice the language needed for implementing the target skill. Next, the learners
experiment with both the language and the unit's target skill in a carefully Controlled
Practice. Now that learners have had adequate practice in both the language and the target
skill, they are ready to place the target skill within the context of debate in the Debate
Application. Each unit ends with an assignment, the Project, that asks students to dig into
their lives and the mass media to uncover the target skill in action. The Project takes debate
beyond the classroom and invites learners to challenge what they see and hear in the world
around them.

Topics: From the Silly to the Sublime


A final note out the debate topics in this book. We have included a full spectrum of topics
from the silly to the sublime. But there is a method in our madness. We have used simple
topics (For example: cats vs. dogs, country vs. city) to introduce the new debate skills. Our
experience has shown that focusing on both the content (the issues) and the form (debate
skills) overwhelms learners. Rather than discovering the debate skill, students just get lost in
the issues. However, this is not to say that there are no challenging topics in this book! We
have included tough issues such as capital punishment, gun control, nuclear energy, national
service, and economic development in the third world. But we have carefully selected these
topics and placed them to review and consolidate the target skills, not to introduce them. In
the final analysis, Discover Debate is not about issues, it is about how we talk about issues.
This book is not about global issues, human rights, or the environment. It is about how we
think about, how we talk about, and what we want to do about global issues, human rights,
or the environment. To misquote Confucius: Give your students an issue and you feed them
for a day. Teach them debate skills, and you feed them for life.

IJ'"' r:TrT n
L,l I I r

Unit ` Have An Opinion


Your Opinion
Opinions of Value, Policy, & Fact
CUS Agree or Disagree
cictice Opinion Survey
ication Debate Terms
Debate in the News
Opinions in the News

Un 2 Explaining Your Opinion 17

Explaining your Opinion


Strong Reasons
age : Compare & Contrast
Giving Reasons
h

oIIed fice Gimme one reason...


te A pp nion Brainstorming Reasons
Ct Creating a Questionnaire

Unit 3 Supporting Your Opinion 31

Supporting your Opinion


Types of Support
$ Giving Supports
ke One, Two, Three
Pli, ion Case Study
ct Researching Supports

Unit 4 Organizing Your Opinion 47


Organizing your Opinion
Signposts
Macro and Micro Organization for the 1AC
cus Debate Introductions and Conclusions
Contr& L cictice Strip Speech
Debate 7 piicaton Present your House
Project Letter to the Editor
Unit 5 Refuting Explanations 61
over Refuting Opinions
lel Refuting an Opinion
L: re Focus Types of Refutations
Stating a Refutation
C irol d Practice Point Refutation
Making Refutations
Debate Application Tennis Debate
Project Critiquing an Editorial

Unit 6 Chal-enging Supports 75


scov Challenging Supports
eI Testing Supports
Asking Questions
Refuting a Source
trolled P, Question Supports
Challenge Supports

cite Apphcation Question & Refute


ect Critiquing an Advertisement

Uni ' Organizing Your Refutation 89


Organ`IZing your Refutati n
'0de
Macr0 0rganizati n for the 1 NC
Micr Organization for the 1 1 C
uage
Focus The 1 NC
trolled Practice Refutation Format
cite Application M ini.Debate
Responding to an Editorial

Unit 8 Debating An Opinion 103


scove Debating an Opinion
del Debate Formats
4 Responding to Attacks
The Rebuttal
ractice
Rebuttal Speeches
" ition Flowing a Debate
Debate Chain

Unit 9 DISCOVer Debate 7

Flow a Complete Debate


ions Topics
Advanced Topics

Append ices 25

Transcripts 35
T Stude"ts


Hey, what is this book "Discover Debate"
about? makes debate as simple
as building a house!

In Unit 1, we prepare

the roof of the house.

In unit 2, we support
the roof with strong
pillars and walls.

De

esee



ee
r s

Then, in Unit 3, we build Care

a strong foundation to
support the house.

After building your


house, we learn how to
explain it in Unit 4.
Cats Make Better Pets Than Dogs
)0 OO O

Cost Care

25% cheaper Can walk themselves

In Units 5, 6, 7, we learn
how to attack the other

team's house.

Finally, in Units 8 and 9,


we are ready to discover
and enjoy debate!
Cost

3Cats Make Better Pets Than Dogs
`9 0 e

25% cheaper Can walk themselves



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Everyone has opinions! This New Yorker thinks that the city is better than the country. What
do you think? Do you agree with his opinion? Do you disagree? What is your opinion?

Read the following opinions. What do you think? Do you agree or disagree with the
statements under the pictures. Check (V) the box next to either AGREE or - DISAGREE.

-



::
rf

2

1. Math is the most important subject! 2. The government should lower taxes!
I AGREE. I DISAGREE. I AGREE. I DISAGREE.



0. .

OP

3. Cats are better pets than dogs! 4. Eating fast food is not healthy!
I AGREE. I DISAGREE. I AGREE. I DISAGREE.

z 27 ZZ
f 22 21
2 Zz

2 2 1

uZ

5. Soccer is more exciting than baseball! 6. U.F.O.'s have already visited Earth!
I AGREE. I DISAGREE. I AGREE. I DISAGREE.

k ir k1' '1F-{1'k.

Compare your opinions in this exercise with the opinions of your classmates.

Did you and your classmates all a or disagree with the same opinions?
Did you sometimes have different opinions?
Do you always agree with everyone else's opinion? Do you sometimes disagree?
Debate starts when two people have different opinions about the same idea.

3
Run to the Corner Game
Listen to the opinion and decide whether you agree or disagree. Run to the corner
marked AGREE or DISAGREE according to your decision. Repeat for each opinion.

Opinions of Va-ue, Policy, & Fact

U
Opinion is the starting point of discussion or debate. Remember that an opinion forms


.
the roof of your debate house which in turn is supported by the pillars and walls of reasons
and a foundation of evidence. Just as a roof can have different shapes, opinions can


have different types. Opinions usually fal- into three main types: Value, Policy, and Fact.

Fr p
Opinions of Value state that one thing is better than another.
For example: I think that dogs are better pets than cats.

ino
Opinions of Policy say that the government or some other type of authority such as

0 i.
your company management or school administration should do something.
For example: I Zeel that the government should lower taxes.


Opinions of Fact state that som ething is true, was true, or will become true.
For example: The Earth is getting warmer.

Read the sentences on the right. Decide whether they are Opinions of Value, Opinions
O

of Policy, or Opinions of Fact and write the appropriate number in the space given. The
first one is done for you.

Cats make better pets than dogs.



a0 00

Math is more important than English.



U.F.O.'s have already visited Earth.


Opinions of Value

The government should raise taxes.


J
OdOO.

Soccer is more exciting than baseball.




Opinions of p icy

Eating fast food will make you fat.



City life is better than country life.


Students should not have to wear uniforms.



Opinions of Fact

This company should hire more women.


The deserts of the world are getting larger.


5
Agree or Disagree
..

When someone gives you an opinion you should respond. The other side ot having an
opinion is responding to someone else's opinion. Depending on the situation, you can

respond strongly, (I strongly agree/disagree!) or you can respond weakly (I guess so). You
' can respond formally (I couldn't agree with you more!) or informally (Yuck!!!).
=Oy.0. OPi

Study the language in the Opinion and Response Boxes below with a partner. One
partner gives an opinion, the other partner gives a response.

OPINION BOX RESPONSE BO


0.

I think cats are better pets


that 0 than dogs.

I believe
tli at D there will be an earthquake
in Tokyo next year.

I'm certain

swimming is better exercise
0 that Q than walking.
Not me!

I feel that
LJ the government should
lower taxes. Nle too.

(no thing) Soccer is more fun than


baseball.
I think so
too.

OPINION BOX


'6 RESPONSE B x

I think that cats are better pets than dogs.


I agree (that...) (with...)
I believe that there will be an earthquake in Tokyo next year.

..
I disagree (that...) (with...)
I'm certain that 0 swimming is better exercise than walking. Not me!
I feel that the government should lower taxes. Me too.


(nothing) Soccer is more fun than hasehill I think so too.


OPinl
A

0.
PAIRWORK ` Partner A goes first. Partner B starts at the top of the next page.
State the following opinions to Partner B. Partner B wi respond. Check to see if Partner
0

B makes the correct response as written below.

A: I 'm certain that dogs are better pets than cats.


r.i M B: Not me. I love cats.
0

A: I feel that summer is better than winter


:
B: I disagree with you. I like to ski.

A: It is more interesting to watch videos than to go to the theater.


B: I think so too. It is really nice to stay home.
A: I think that smoking cigarettes is dirty.
B: Me too! I would never even want to start.

PAIRWORK 2 Partner B wi state some opinions. Pick the best response from
the two given for each opinion. Your partner wi tel- you if you chose the correct
response.
B: Listen to Person B's opinion and respond.
A: I disagree with you. I love watching Basketball.
A: I disagree with you. Soccer is my favorite sport.
B: Listen to Person B's opinion and respond.
A: I think so too. I'm worried about the future.
A: I don't ink so. Rainforests are very important for the future.
: i cs :t B: Listen to Person B's opinion and respond.
0 L1* A: Me too. It's my favorite dessert.
A: Me too. I need to stop eating it so that I can lose weight.

'i'A : s:
J Z
B: Listen to Person B's opinion and respond.
A: Not me! I think they're ugly.
A: I agree that frogs are ugly animals.
7

=

OPINION BOX RESPONSE BOX
.

I think that cats are better pets than dogs. I agree (that...) (with...)
I believe that there will he an earthquake in Tokyo next year. I disagree (that...) (with...
I'm certain that Q swimming is better exercise than walking. Not me!
=OJ`.

I feel that the government should lower taxes. 4e too.


(nothing) Soccer is more fun than baseball. I th ink so too.
0. OPi.io.

O Partner B

PAIR WORK ` Partner A starts from the top of the previous page. Partner B starts
here. Partner A wi-- state some opinions. Pick the best response from the two given for
each opinion. Your partner wi-- tel- you if you chose the correct response.
A: Listen to Person A's opinion and respond.
B: Not me. I love cats.
B: I agree. I love cats.
A: Listen to Person A's opinion and respond.
B: I disagree with you. I like to ski.
B: Not me. I love elephants.
A: Listen to Person A's opinion and respond.
B: I think so too. It is really nice to stay home.
B: I think so too. It's good to get out of the house.


. .!
14]lJ
A: Listen to Person A's opinion and respond.
B: Me too! I would never even want to start.
B: Me too! I like to eat healthy foods.
O

PAIRWORK 2 State the following opinions to Partner A. Partner A wi-- respond.


Check to see if Partner A makes the correct response as written below.
A: I think that basketball is a more interesting sport than soccer.
B: I disagree with you. Soccer is my favorite sport.
A: I feel that we should stop cutting trees in the rainforests.

B: I think so too. I'm worried about the future.


A: I'm certain that chocolate makes you fat.
B: Me too. I need to stop eating it so that I can lose weight.
A: I think that frogs are cute.
B: Not me! I think they are ugly.
8

We exchange opinions on many different topics as part of our daily communication with
friends, family, classmates, and co-workers. Not only do we have to give our opinions, but

.
0.11
we are expected to agree or even disagree with other people's opinions.

=OJ.
Listen to these four model conversations at the party. Can you guess the topic of
each conversation? Write the conversation topics in the boxes below. Do the

`
speakers agree or disagree with each other? Are they talking about an opinion of fact,
value or policy? Fill in the boxes.

-2
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Topi C'.

<F> - ,,

F
LII Agree Disagree
LilFact EliValue [lIP icy

OTopic:

LI Agree LI Disagree
LiliFact LiValue PiPolicy

or`> 0
: QD ,
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OTopic: C
l "

PO
,V

LilAgree Disagree
Fact LiliValue [IlliPolicy
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,

Agree Disagree

/

LilFact LiliValue LiPolicy 9


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L ` , l L ,1 Ik'1 ` IL II L L

.
Opinion Survey
=n

Make your own questionnaire


for a survey. Complete the
=OJ`.0.

sentences in the boxes below.

OPi
ni

h.
tastes better than
r I think that
(food) (food)

itiL' 1 (school subject)


is more interesting than
(school subject)
'` I feel that playing is more fun than playing
n
J
(sport) (sport)

I feel that the government should

I think that schools should


I am certain that

The world will become


'r J'*

f
''8 r u r

0

Take a survey. Read your sentences to 5 Report the results of your survey of 5
people. They should agree or disagree people. Did most people agree or



with your statements. Mark their disagree with your opinion?


responses below.

=OJ`.
qL

0.

rm

D
_ 0
.5-S

JI U&-i 0
-e

gree Most people agree/disagree that tastes better than


Disagree (food) (food)

Agree
Disagree
Most people agree/disagree that is more interesting than
(school subject) (school subject)

Agree Most people agree/disagree that playing _ is more fun than playing _
Disagree (sport) (sport)

gree, Most people agree/disagree that the government should


Disagree

Agree
Disagree
Most people agree/disagree that schools should

Agree
Most people agree/disagree that
Disagree

ree Most people agree/disagree that the world will become


Disagree

gree
Disagree
Agree
Most people agree/disagree that

Most people agree/disagree that


Disagree
Debate Terms

There are some special terms used in debate. The opinion in a debate is called the

Proposition or Resolution. The debate team that agrees with the resolution is called the
Affirmative Team. The team that disagrees with the resolution is the Negative Team. The
.. =OJ`.

people in charge of evaluating the debate are called Judges.

Look at the illustration below. Label the illustration with the debate words from the
0.

word box below.


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1

"C^,'r 1l4 c
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l

1 W

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0

Judge Res ution Audience


Affirmative Team Negative Team

2
Debate in the News 1

Un .
Debate is an important part of life. The newspaper is filled with debates. People state
their opinions, agree or disagree with each other, or agree or disagree with government,
company, or school policy.

=O 0.
Read these opinions from the news. Find the resolution that best matches the issue in
the story. Write the number of the resolution in the circle provided.

O
r "7`
. lION
Whales should he protected.

.
RESOLUTION NUMBER J/

1
1
2. RESOLUTION
LONDON (AP)-Figures released
last week showed manufacturing,
The number of fish is declining
consumer spending, and construction because the big ones are eating the
small ones.
of new housing all down from a year
ago. Even though these economic 3, JLUTION
indicators show signs of a further Canadian fish are tastier than
economic slowdown, the Prime
Australian beef.
Minister's office Tuesday released a
statement showing confidence in the 4. RESOLUTION
economy. "The fact that interest The government should take action
rates have not increased indicates a
to improve the economy.
healthy, recovering economy," said
the Prime Minister's spokesperson. 5. RESOLUTION
The government should not allow
the catching of whales.

6. RiJ OLUTION

Ce
0
Workers should try to help the
Ll

economy more.
RESOLUTION NUMBER -
RESt ! JTION
OSAKA (Reuters)-A new organization,
Overfishing off the Newfoundland
Consumers United, held its first annual
coast destroys fishing.
IM

conference here yesterday. The group,


I--.

founded in January of last year, aims to 8. RESOLUTION


promote consumer rights in Japan. The The economy is getting better.
main issue of discussion yesterday was
ways the government can help the 9. RESOLUTION
average consumer by improving the All of the whales in aquariums and
economy. Said conference organizer amusement parks should be set free.
Ichitaro Shintaro, "The government is
not doing anything about the economy. ; ;i. RESOLUTION

The government needs to take a more It is better to eat fish than to eat beef.

active role."
, RESOLUTION
Whales should not eat people.
f
3

More debate in the news! Here are



three more newspaper clippings. Read

wtli

them. Look again at the resolutions
RESOLUTION NUMBER - below and find the resolution that best
MARINELAND (LA Daily News)- matches the issue presented. Write the

Early this morning dozens of people number of the resolution in the circle

gathered at this famous amusement provided.


park to demand the release of all

whales. The protesters carried signs 1 . RESOLUTION


P

saying "Free The Whales Now!" Whales should be protected.


O

Tom Green, the leader of the


2. RESOLUTION

L
protesters, said in an interview that
0.

"whales were born free and they The number of fish is declining
should live free." because the big ones are eating the
small ones.

r
3. RESOLUTION
Canadian fish are tastier than
Australian beef.

4. RESOLUTION
TORONTO (Toronto Times)-A
The government should take action
Canadian study released Monday
showed that the number of fish is to improve the economy.
rapidly declining off the shores of 5. RESOLUTION

Newfoundland. This area, famous for


The government should not allow


l

fishing for centuries, has suffered


the catching of whales.
recently from overfishing. The study
showed that, in particular, large fish 6. KESOLUTION
near the top of the food chain have all Workers should try to help the
hut disappeared. economy more.
12 Weekly news
7. RESOLUTION
Overfish i ng off the Newfoundland

ADIAN
coast destroys fishing.
RESOLUTION
THEN 8. RESOLUTION

FISHERMAN'S MARKET 9.
The economy is getting better.
RESOLUTION

nn IFn n u rrF All of the whales in aquariums and


amusement parks should be set free.
linh'
0. RESOLUTION
rllliFTI It is better to eat fish than to eat beef.

u
m 1. RESOLUTION
Whales should not eat people.


Debate in the News 2


Read the following two stories from the news. Can you think of the issue being debated?


Write a resolution based on each story.

`07

TOJ
RESOLUTION
ZURICH-The International
Olympic Committee is beginning the

Ot
final round of discussion for deciding

OPi.i
the host of the 3rd Olympics of the
new millennium. An Olympic official,
who asked not to be named, said the
main contenders are still Beijing,
China; Cape Town, South Africa
and Toronto, Canada. The official
said that competition between the
n very inmen
with each city ins ;ting it is the best
/
site. The Olympic committee is still
not sure in which city the Games
should be held.

,/'

RESOLUTION
WASHINGTON DC-The American
Red Cross announced yesterday that
there is a dangerous shortage of
blood in several hospitals throughout
the nation. A spokesperson for the
Red Cross said that more and more
Americans have stopped giving
blood. In particular, it seems that the
number of high school and university
students giving blood has declined.
Compared with a decade ago,
donations by young people are down
by about 68%. The spokesperson
said that giving blood was perfectly
safe and not painful.

T/

15

.

Opinions in the News


Debate is not just something that we study in the classroom. Debate is something that

happens a-- around us. When you look outside the classroom, you wi-- begin to notice
how much the debate ski-Is you are studying are used in the rea- world. This Project asks
you t ook for debates in newspapers.
O
i
0. =
O00

n Look through a recent


newspaper or magazine. Find an Cut out the article.
article that expresses an opinion.

Glue the article to a


piece of paper.

/ Write a resolution for


the article. It can be a resolution
of value, policy, or fact.

U Bring your article with its resolution to class and give it to your teacher.
16

O O
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HU U

C Tr- ` V f:,'-Ti
11 A

Explaining your Opinion


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Sugar bombs are ,


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better than Hyper Holes!



pEx


Are
not!

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tool

Are


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oin
oi

F
Everyone has opinions but opinions do not stand by themselves! Opinions are based on
reasons which must be explained. Without explaining the reasons for an opinion,
communication breaks down and becomes childish as with the two children in the illustration
above. When explaining, the key point is to provide reasons that other people, not just
you, find reasonable and convincing.


to the short conversations. What is each person's opinion? What reason do
Li Ste flg ive? Write the reason under each picture. The first one is done for you.
they


o
.

1. Opinion: Math is the most


2. Opinion: U.F.O.'s have already
important subject.
REASON:we We- , visited Earth.
REASON:

8
Un .
P
i.p
.giy
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O.
1
3. Opinion: Living in the city is better 4. Opinion: The government should

1
than living in the country. lower taxes.
REASON: REASON:



Lar brge
1Z flules


r
IZ
0
_
Eating fast food
'

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5. Opinion: Soccer is more exciting than 6. Opinion: Eating fast food is not
baseball. healthy.
REASON: REASON:

Were you convinced by the reasons? Which reasons were convincing? Which reasons
were not? In debate, your job is to convince a judge or an audience to agree with your
opinion by providing reasonable explanations. It is the judge's job to decide which team's
explanations are most convincing and thus who wins the debate. In this exercise you
were the judge. You decided which explanations were reasonable and which were not.

19

n-'
Strong Reasons
An opinion is like the roof on a house. A roof needs walls, or it wi fa I- down. Similarly,
.

an opinion needs reasons, or it too wi fa I-. Reasons are like walls. Some walls are
strong and hold up the roof wel-. Other walls are very weak and can't hold up the roof
we I-. Similarly, reasons can be strong or weak. In debate, the audience and judges
decide if a reason is strong or weak.
P
D
.1

A strong reason must logically support the opinion.


1
y

A strong reason must be specific and state the idea clearly.


A strong reason must be convincing to a majority of people.
' P
Oi.

You are the judge. Read the opinions and the three reasons that follow them.
i

Check the box next to the reason you think is the strongest.

1. Cats are better pets than dogs...


a. because cats can see better in the dark.
b. because cats are cleaner.
c. because hot dogs have mustard; cats don't.

2. It is better to live in the country than the city...


a. because the country has more good things.
b. because I like it.
c. because the environment is cleaner.

3. Teenagers should not smoke...


a. because it makes their breath smell bad.
b. because I don't like to smoke.
c.because many people who begin smoking as teenagers later develop cancer.

4. It is better to be single than married...


a. because some married people are not happy.


b. because single people have more exciting, interesting lives.

c. because married people have more lovers.


5. The rain forests of the world should be protected...


a. because rain forests are natural.
b. because rain forests produce oxygen.
c.because trees are needed for wood to build houses.

20
Compare & Contrast


When giving reasons we often make a Comparison, show a Contrast, or show a
Cause-and-Effect relation. Comparisons are used when we want to emphasize a difference

.
or an advantage. We make use of Contrast when we want to emphasize that two things

p
are opposites. We use Cause-and-Effect to emphasize results or to show a potential


result when something is done or when something is not done.

i.

Each of the files below contains different language patterns for Comparison, Contrast,

ni y
and Cause-and-Effect. Study the three files below, then try the language exercise on
pages 23 and 24 with a partner.

` P
O

0.

Cats catch mice; dogs don't.
Cats are clean; dogs aren't.
Cats can take care of themselves; dogs can't.
Cats don't bother your neighbors; dogs do.
Cats will leave you alone; dogs won't.

If the government raises taxes, then all the roads can be repaired.
If the government doesn't raise taxes, all the roads cannot be repaired.
Smoking causes cancer.
Cancer is caused by smoking.
If smoking causes cancer, people shouldn't smoke.
If cancer is caused by smoking, you should stop smoking.

21
Debate Delivery

L
MANNER In debate, your goal is to convince the judge and audience that your opinion is
correct. Ib convince the judge and audience, you must have strong matter, which means
strong reasons, supports, and refutations. However, in addition to strong matter, you also
need strong manner, which means that you must speak in a way that is interesting, not boring.
Manner includes gestures, eye contact, posture, voice, and humor.
GESTURES Use gestures when you speak. For example, show one, two, or three fingers
when you begin your first, second, or third point. You can make a fist to show that you are
angry, or you can point to the other team when you paraphrase their points. When you are
not making a gesture, let your hands relax. Don't play with your pen, fix your hair, hold the
table, or rest your head on your hands while you are speaking.
EYE CONTACT While you are speaking, you should look at the udge and audience. Do
not look out the window, at the floor, at your partner, or at the other team. You want to
convince the judge and audience, so you must speak directly to them. Of course, you can
read evidence and check your notes, but don't keep your head buried in your notebook.
I ook i often to make eye contact with the judge and audience.
POSTURE Posture is also very important when you are speaking. To convince the judge and
audience, you must look strong and confident. You should stand up straight, balanced on
both feet, with your shoulders back, and head up high. Don't slouch, wobble, or lean on the
table. You can walk a bit between making points, but not while delivering them.
VOICE Voice control is very important. You must speak clearly, and loud
enough so that everyone in the room can hear you. Also, many people

become nervous when they speak, and they speak very softly in a
monotone. Monotone means that every word has the same speed,
volume, and pitch. Monotonous speeches are boring. The judge
and audience will want to fall asleep! When you speak, you
should show emotion in your voice. You should vary your speed, _
volume, and pitch. For example, you should stress the important

words in each sentence. You should become louder or softer


during the most important parts of your speech, and you should
pause and change your voice between points.
HUMOR Finally, when you are giving your speech, you will
make the judge and audience very happy if you can make them ;
laugh. Always remember that debate should be fun!

22

Giving Reasons

=
p
PAIRWORK Now, let's practice giving reasons! Use the forms for comparison, contrast,

.
and cause-and-effect in these four dialogs. Partner A looks at this page. Partner B uses

P
the next page.


in

Partner ^

..iy ' '


Dialog `
What do you think of Apple computers?

Oin l
(Write Partner B's opinion: .)
Why?
(Write Partner B's reason: .)

Dialog 2
(Write Partner B's question: .)
I think that orange juice is better than coffee.
(Listen to Partner B's question!)
Orange juice is (healthy/than)coffee. Besides, coffee keeps you awake; orange
juice doesn't.

Dialog 3
I think that everyone should own small cars.
(Write Partner B's opinion: .)
Are you kidding? Why?
(Write Partner B's reason: .)

Dialog 4
"h

01(Write Partner B's question: .)


Well, I'm certain that the government should not pay for all their medical costs!
(Listen to Partner B's question!)
Because if the government pays all medical costs, then it will have to raise taxes!

23
=

PAIRWORK Now, let's practice giving reasons! Use the forms for comparison, contrast,
.

and cause-and-effect in these dialogs. Partner B looks at this page. Partner A uses the
P

previous page.
p


1.y

Partner B
-
.

Dialog `
`

(Write Partner A's question: _.)


P
Oi

. Fm certain ttiat Apple computers are Detter tuan Windows computers.

Listen to Yartner I-VS questiom'


because Apple computers are (easy/use/tflan) Windows computers.

Dialog 2
Which do you prefer, orange juice or coffee?
(Write Partner A's opinion: -.)

Really, why is that?


I'l (Write Partner A's reason: _.)

Dialog 3
)
E

(Write Partner A's question:


Oh, I disagree! I think big cars are better.
(Listen to Partner A's question!)
Because large cars are (safe/than) small cars and large cars are better for families.
'b"

Dialog 4
What do you think the government should do for old people?
(Write Partner A's opinion: _.)
Why not?
Iq (Write Partner A's reason: .)

`
24
rrn'rnL !Gi
Gimme One Reason...


=
PAIRWORK Partner A looks at this page, Partner B looks at page 26. First, both
partners prepare by reading al- the reasons in their REASON BOXES. Partner A says "Give


me one reason why..." and reads an opinion from the OPINION BOX below. Partner B


answers with the best reason from the REASON BOX. Then, Partner B says "Give me one


reason why..." and reads an opinion from their OPINION BOX. Partner A looks at the
REASON BOX below and answers. Repeat until al- opinions and reasons have been used.

.=
y
"Give me one reason why...


teenagers should not smoke!

.
drinking too much alcohol is not healthy!


=
the government should raise taxes!
. it will rain tomorrow!
cats are better pets than dogs!
only police should have guns!
the city is better than the country!
coffee is better than orange juice!
Apple computers are better than Windows computers!

. REASON BOX Partner ^

Because it is safer.
Because they may All the criminals live Because they produce
have an accident. less air pollution.
in the city!

Because if taxes are Because students Because if they do


smoke, their children
lower the economy need more female
will get better. will probably smoke,
role models. too.

Because they can Because the hardware Because it has vitamin


guard your house and software is C; coffee doesn't.
and protect you; cheaper.
cats can't.

25
r

PAIRWORK Partner B looks at this page, Partner A looks at page 25. First, both
.E

partners prepare by reading al- the reasons in their REASON BOXES. Partner A says "Give
pP

me one reason why..." and reads an opinion from the OPINION BOX on page 25. Partner B
answers with the best reason from the REASON BOX. Then, Partner B says "Give me one
x

reason why..." and reads an opinion from the OPINION BOX. Partner A looks at the REASON

.

BOX on page 25 and answers. Repeat until all opinions and reasons have been used.
1

1y'

REASON BOX Partner B


POin

Because there are Because if they do Because Macintosh


smoke, they might


i

not as many jobs in computers have better


the country. get cancer as young graphics.
adults.

Because it has to
provide better Because most people Because it causes
medical care for don't know how to
liver damage.
older people. use guns safely.

Because it helps you Because they are easier


stay awake; orange to take care of.
juice doesn't.

"Give me one reason why..."

parents should not smoke!


people shouldn't use telephones while driving!
the government should reduce taxes!
universities should have more female professors!
dogs are better pets than cats!
the country is better than the city!
orange juice is better than coffee!
Windows computers are better than Apple computers!
small cars are better than big cars!

26

ral nstormi
Two important tools for building a strong case in debate are Brainstorming, and Prioritizing.
One way to Brainstorm, or to think and seek out possible ideas, is to make a word map.
Look at this example.

Braunstormin
Starting from one keyword, in this case MIc&
e-m.fve-c a mk-e
CAT, think of as many related words as a
you can and write them around the Z

keyword. Now write as many words as i


you can that relate to those words.
Write whatever comes to mind. Don't c_heap
try to organize your thoughts just yet. afwajc,

-A
c-a- food
1 EvaIuatin.
Look at the word map. Do some of the
Jf

dog.
words listed suggest reasons why a cat anImal
'"c-ow \`
P'

would make a better pet than a dog? X \


Do some of the words suggest reasons /
why a cat would not be a better pet X'
pc-hLing.
than a dog? Write down all the reasons ' VflgIc
you think of. j
p UY c-ar
r Prioritizi,
After you have written down many reasons, it is time to prioritize the reasons, that is, to put
the reasons in order from most important to least important. Here are the reasons we found
in our example word map for why "A cat would make a better pet than a dog.''
a. Cats catch mice. e. Cats are cute; dogs are not.

b. Cats are cheaper than dogs. f. Dogs are dirty; but cats are clean.
c. Cats sleep a lot. g. Cats are quiet; dogs are noisy.
d. Cats have 4 legs.

Which do you think is the most important? Which do you think is the least important?
Rank the reasons in order from most to least important.

Most Important Least Important

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

27
Brainstorm Reasons

In debate, you need to find strong reasons quickly to support your case. The debate
p

application on these two pages is a contest to help you think of reasons quickly. An

important part of debate is being able to see both sides of an issue. This exercise wi
.

also help you learn to appreciate both sides of a resolution.



ni
i
y'O.

L
n.r


11

In groups of 3 or 4, brainstorm When your team is finished


reasons for Resolution i on the next brainstorming, prioritize your reasons
page, "Dogs make better pets than cats." from best to worst. Write your team's
Write as many reasons as you can in 4 , best reasons on the blackboard.
minutes. At the end of 4 minutes, count
the number of reasons. Which team
brainstormed the most reasons?

L
Zk

--

,`

7\/

I.ii.Li Now, change groups and follow Look at the other teams'
the same steps for Resolution 2. reasons. Do they have the same
reasons? Do similar reasons have the
same priority in all groups?
Continue to change groups and brainstorm and prioritize for Resolutions 3 through 5.

28


0 RESOLUTION "Dogs make better pets than cats."

.
Reasons


p
P

i.
ni
y
0 RESOLUTION "Soccer is better than baseball."

'
Reasons

'O1.
1
RESOLUTION "Baseball is better than soccer."
Reasons

0 RESOLUTION "Traveling overseas is better than traveling in this country."


Reasons

0 RESOLUTION "Traveling in this country is better than traveling overseas."


Reasons

29
Creating Question noire
=.

This is a project in prioritizing reasons.

1. Think of a product and brainstorm reasons why people buy it.



pEx'iniy.

2. Make a questionnaire like the one on the clipboard below.


3. Take a survey. Ask several people to prioritize the reasons.
4. Analyze your data and find the most important reasons.
5. Report the data using the sentences below.
'

Reasons for buying a soft dri


0. O

flk.
Most Least
Important

Important
Price

(Low price) 1 2 3 4 5
0-`
Taste 3 4 5
(Good tast
1

Calot1 es 2 3 4 5

(Low ca0fle)

5


(GOOd ag n
n o 5

After your survey, complete the following sentences:

I chose for my questionnaire topic.


I brainstormed reason/s for buying it.
I found the most important reason/s to be

30

C `' '' _ ` ' ' 'T
11'

Supporting your Opinion

because there are For example, in


In my opinion
.3

the country you


the country is more fun things to
5

can go fishing,
much better do in the country
hiking. rock
than the city... than in the city.
climbing, and



hang-gliding.


y
*


'
P

'
O



0.

. 1-V * ' TT
n r' l L TI1

In Unit 2, we learned that good debate requires strong reasons. But these reasons must
have solid support to stand strong and support an opinion. In the opinion of the man
above, the country is better than the city. His reason is that there are more things to do
in the country. What is his support?

Read the supports below. Find the reason it supports on the right page. Write the letter of
the support in the circle next to the reason it supports.

0 In the city, if there is 0 In the country, there 0 According to the


a car accident, there will are fewer factories, fewer National Police Agency,
be a big traffic jam and cars, and therefore less crime in the city is three
you will be late for work. pollution. times higher than in the
country.

'`

When you walk in 0 I used to live in a 0 According to the


t'

city, you hear horns, small town. I knew famous Dr. Hoo, city life
cars, trains, and loud everyone and everyone causes stress. (PBS
music. knew me. We all helped Journal of Health, 1999)
each other.

32



The country is

try Z

it
better than the city The country is '
because the people better than the city

3- Su
are. friendlier. because the coun l

J
+
` is cleaner.

Ppor

n.y
`

iour

opinion

The country is better than The country is better than


the city because there is the city because getting to
o gu n
less crime in the country B B and from work is easier
thai, in the city. than iii the city. _


1 2 27


....
The country is better
rt
The country is than the city
better than the city La' m'Jes
burgers
_
because the country
because the
12

I
t t is less stressful than
country is quieter. the city.


B
J

7L-

fl F Ir lk1' '1 Fi{1'L-]


There are many different ways of supporting reasons. How many different types were
used in this exercise?

33
n'
Types of Support

Once an opinion is given and the reasons for holding that opinion are clearly explained,

those reasons need to be supported with evidence. Evidence is the concrete foundation
that supports the walls and pillars that hold up the Opinion, the roof of our house.
?

Evidence can be in the form of an Explanation, an Example, Statistics or the Opinion of


5.

an Expert in the field.


*

Read the Opinions, Reasons and Supports below. Decide whether the Support given is an
.g

Explanation, Example, Statistic or an Expert Opinion. Write your answer in the space
iy '

provided. The first one is done for you.

Cats are better pets than dogs.


This is because cats are easier to care for than dogs.


O

0.

c cc- 0 At the CATS'R US pet shop, a cat costs $100 while a dog costs $200.

OMy friend had a really big dog, a Great Dane. That dog cost so much
to keep because it ate so much food that they had to give it away.

0 Cats are smaller so they eat less food, and therefore you spend less
money.

_0 According to the book published in 1998, "How to Choose a Pet" by


Dr. Silverhair, cats are cheaper than dogs.

Cats are better pets than dogs.


This is because cats are easier to care for than dogs.
m

0 It takes about 1: minutes a day to care for a cat; it takes about an hour
to care for a dog.

O My cat can take care of itself when I go away. It saves its food instead
of eating it all at once.

0 Cats are independent. They clean themselves, they walk themselves,


they don't need care and attention everyday.

-O According to a 1998 article in Cat Magazine by the famous animal


doctor, Dr. Foxglove, cats don't need care everyday.

34
U .
This woman believes that the government should lower taxes. She offers her Opinion
with a reason and 4 different types of supports.

5 3
Label her supports: Example, Statistic, Expert Opinion or Explanation.



The government should lower taxes.


.
Lower taxes will help the economy.

y

If taxes are 1 e more
money t spe will sell



mflore anu giv hs.

'
When America lowered taxes a few

P
O
years ago, people bought more things.

i.i
ccording to Dr. MaxI Moneybags of
will
i nehelp
vaiiy
business.
rconomist, iowering taxes
orate sales
tIes fell by '% when our
government raisea taxes last year.

This man believes that the government should raise taxes. Write the letter of the sentence
on the right that best fits the label on the left. The first one is done for you.

Opinion L Tax increases in Sweden have irnpr ved


the quality of go vernment services tor
everyone in that country.

Support 1 L
Expert Opinion
The government needs more money to
provide better services.
Support 2
Statistic
Without more money the government
can't provide training for people without
Support 3 jobs.
Explanation
According to the Finance Minister,
Support 4 important services will have to be cut if
taxes are not increased.
Example
The

Listen and check your answers.

35
Giving Supporis

First, study the language files below on the four types of supports. (Note that some of the
?

language used for Explanations is based on the cause-and-effect pattern from the previous
unit's Language Focus.) Then, choose one phrase from each file and complete it with your
own words. Say them to a partner.
S.
PI

For example, my cat can...


.

When I go away for the weekend, my cat can...


'1

For instance, my cat can...


OPi.

Let me give an example, my cat can...


i

zo% of all women own...


One out of 5 women own...
One in women own...
1/c of all women own..

According to Dr. Silvercat, most cats...


A recent article in Cat Lover's Magazine stated that most cats...
Dr. Silvercat, the famous animal doctoi said that most cats...
To quote Dr. Silvercat, "Most cats..."
IfI

we don't feed our dogs, they will...


f

we didn't feed our dogs, they would...


Cats are independent, so...
Because cats are independent..

36

The supports below are missing some important key words! Use language from the


four files on the previous page to complete the sentences below. Write your answers in
the spaces provided.

.3
S.
1. he Economist magazine stated that the economy will improve next

P
P
year.


there is fl()

y
2. In his latest book, Professor Kinsey of Harvard University

.
doubt that smoking causes cancer.


1`
3. the world stopped trading with South Africa, apartheid ended.

.
1
4. , my grandmother smoked two packs of cigarettes everyday and she


1
O
died of lung cancer.

5. we save the rainforest the world die.

5' teachers give tests, students not


study.

7. Cellular phones are getting smaller technology is getting better.

8. Technology is getting better cellular phones are getting smaller.

9. days of the week begin with the letter "5".

10. months of the year have 30 days.

11. The winter months cover of the year.

12.If you spent 8 hours a day sleeping and lived to be 75 years old you would have spent
of your life asleep.

13.The number of fish in the ocean has declined greatly over the last 20 years.
_, in the 1970's, there was a lot of salmon off the coasts of Oregon and
Washington. Now, the salmon have almost disappeared.

14. the government take action, the number of salmon


not increase.

37
Lf
I
L,` ' ` , I" i 7 r.i
` ,' ` ` `

One, Two, Three

Form groups of 3 people. The first person reads one of the opinions from the first column
below, the second person then reads the reason that best follows that opinion. The third
S.
P ?


r: I
.
.g-.

a
y

^ because the
electro-magnetic

' P

Coffee is better
than tea... B waves affect the
The government
Oi 0.

should raise airplane's guidance


system.
taxes on
gasoline...

C
Smoking should
since coffee keeps
be banned in all D Wearing glasses you awake.
restaurants. . .
is better than
wearing contact
lenses...

d buildings
should be torn because school
down and F uniforms are not
There should be comfortable.
replaced... no scho
uniforms...

G Cellular phones
shouldn't be
allowed on
airplanes...
We should take
our next
vacation in the
United States...
I Basketball is because contact
much more lenses can cause
J permanent eye
exciting than The government
soccer... should ban the problems.
killing of
whales...

38


person in the group then reads the support that best matches the Opinion and Reason
given. Continue until all Opinions, Reasons, and Supports have been used.

3.5


. !O

*
For example, old
buildings often R

1
'
because it can They are often
collapse in too cold in the
earthquakes.


cause health


winter and toe
problems for the hot in the

0.
other customers.

. O
summer.
S Each cup of
coffee contains
)

because the about 105 T


'

For example,
United States has milligrams of Disneyland and
many famous caffeine. Disneyworld are
amusement both in the
parks. United States.
U For instance, a
typical soccer
Ibecause whales score is 1 to 0. A
typical basketball
V
Every time you
are highly
score is 96 to 91 . touch your eyes
l

inte you can cause


1

ligent beings
sim i ar to humans. an infection.

W S c recent
airplane accidents
because there is have been X I With higher
much more connected with taxes people
scoring in inflight phone use. will buy less gas

basketball than and that means


soccer.
less pollution.
Y I Many stLldies
j nave sflown tflat
second-hand Z According to
because they are smoke causes one study, some

old and weak cancer.


and that makes whales have an

them dangerous. I.Q. of


over 120.

39
Case Study

We have learned that good debate requires strong reasons. These reasons must have a

solid foundation of evidence to support them. Strong evidence supports the reasons,
which in turn support an opinion. Finding evidence to support your reasons often
S

requires researching a variety of sources, including newspapers, magazines, books,


P

journals, and the internet. The supports on the next four pages are al- on the topic of
.

capital punishment, the death penalty for major crimes.

Have you ever thought about capital punishment? Discuss these questions:

y

Does your country have capital punishment? For what crimes?


Which countries have capital punishment? Which countries don't?

In what ways are people sentenced to capital punishment executed?


'.

Do you agree with capital punishment? Are you for or against it?
P
O
1i

Read the sources below. Mark which sources are for the death penalty, and which

sources are against it.

`
fessor To ru Machigai of the University of
Fcording towe a 1990 study by Pro ital crimes in the United States of
! Hawaii, 67 peoplenvlct a were actually innocent.
- America between 1 UU anu ''ou

_.
Against
/
\\

Wh ffek-41c- 'e-c P
a"J u- y-? fl' e Y c Q ov- rioKG

cI
cc frii ov1- rlo ya
For
Against

40
`

I
U
3 .
There's a claim that it is more expensive for the state to execute a criminal than to imprison
him for life. That is not entirely true. It is very expensive to hold someone in prison for life.

5
Life prisoners stay in prison on average for 30 to 40 years at a cost of $40,000 to $50,000
per year.


(Journal of Prison Reform, January, 2000) For
Against


y.
V,itr 1't
I

'
1O.
Ao - i" t?-r-fo1;( -w,v&
rri o 7--f1ofr1,
piichnifrrt- doec Y1O r
0

1
T

1
For
j !'
Against

Print

r

4r hltp://www. Iiveandletlive.com


C O Q HateFu1l Smaller
sA

rord Refresh F averages Histor Searth Larger
LA

Address: a nd Istlive cam , , ;7


f
IVOr

crime?
Don't kill the innocent. Are we really sure when someone

is convicted of

sot

Three hundred and fifty people convicted of capital crimes in the U.S.A. between

erCV

1900 and 1986 were innocent of the crimes charged, according to a 1995 study.
Some prisoners escaped execution by minutes, but 67 innocent people were actually

Ho

executed.
d
el

(Amnesty International -- Report ACT5OIO9/98, April, 1995)


For
Chat '511th Others
Against

murdered another man. He was sent to prison for 22


In 1934, a man named Leroy Keith
he went on a killing spree murdering three more
years, then released. Eight months later
people.
es, Spring, 1997)
For
Against

41

'"

/ * " , \

The State of Utah brought back capital punishment in January, 1977 because
S.

in 1976, Utah had 55 murders; in 1977, there were only 44 murders, a 20%
decrease.
?
PP*

For
Against
.giy '

// ' ,

&Hn idcot
AKQ L-o cic- v-at
I-vc.
O

0 c--c 1 cHizc-fr1c hV L'ec-vi cr-c

0.

-'-'. , For
l_

Against
/.,


f0r1

Ch

r
ma

http:f/www.Iiveandletfive.com

Astof 11

AT r l
srgor Seller Print H Preferences

http;//wc.lvec!etIve.cocc - - .....
rO
tt,

A 1998 study by the New York State Defenders Association showed that the cost of
Hi
st

a trial seeking capital punishment is more than double the cost of a trial seeking life
or

imprisonment.
A recent case for murder cost the State of New York $2.1 million dollars. The cost
Pa
ge =

of the trial, if it had been seeking life in prison rather than the death penalty, was
o.r

estimated to be less than $1 million dollars.

Chat VI Slicers
For
Against

T frwrl r 0 1lurcIc4c J Isicd zX ah af'tcr 1'


f SH c4u;d of vcAc-c (JU-r c9iari.i Irviore- ;" 977.
Mai. 'c9
For
Against
-,

42
.
.
The state of Florida estimated that an execution costs the state $3.2 million
dollars while life imprisonment costs approximately $500,000.

S3
(The Orlando Press, April 1st, 1999)

.

PP.
For
Against

.
.1
In Japan, some experts estimate that up to 10% of people executed since 1945 were

'
innocent. Moreover, the number of innocent people convicted of non-capital crimes is
thought to be even higher. . _

P
O
For

i.i
(NKK television news special, June, 1995)
Against
,,\67___ _ \__ _ ` ---4-- *' ','.6 ,;,

/0 7c
y
K0'v pfr-/cone-r-c Ke- 1'95, Mnt-j
pe kv/// be- e-xe-e-Ufe-
K/ 7L/7L con'ie- I/110-eM

''''.,*, ,,,,', ----- 6'


For

Cl
Against

April Ii, l
Professor discusses crime
with university 'aw students
murders. He showed that if we
At today's 1998 Law Review
increase executions by I%, we KOE
forum, Professor Stephen Layson
of USNC said that each execution prevent approximately 105 future ducte

of a murderer prevents 18 other murders, into a


s.awa
For
Against

43
mit rTrn
Case Study
=

From the sources on the previous pages, fi in the chart below. The reasons have already

been filled in for you. Except for famous quotations, don't copy word for word from the
. S3

sources. Rewrite the supports in your own words.

Opinion Capital Punishment should Abolished.



.PP*

Reason i Pc-ii P-iaI ic xpc-cvr-



n.

Supports and Sources O ku (4C-CArhoul c-oc+c 5.2. ryuillioui dollavc1 ' m"
i 0.'P

" rkouriic.u+ c fc.uc.c. (OrIaucJo frc.cc


(O
i.
Oi

Reason 2 r
D/
/.`

Supports and Sources


/

L

Reason 3 M;ctc-c ruack.



O

Supports and Sources


Z,

44
`

.
Now, think about the other side of the issue. Review the sources, and write reasons 2

.3.y1
and 3. Then, find supports for al- 3 reasons.

S.
Opinion Capital Punishment should be Retained.

P
Reason 1 1}ic di

Supports and Sources (a) (ii 9 p1 h 9 iurdc.rc d -rcacccJ 2.0%


.ar af+r &larI1 (ifor s'ac c-c.u+cc1.

L/-ai ta-ic i Jovrpia(M O

'
(O

O 1
Reason 2
Supports and Sources

Reason 3
Supports and Sources

45
Researching Supports

0 For this project you will need to choose one set of opposite opinions.
.
i 5

For example:
The government should lower taxes. / The government should raise taxes.
P

or
Eating meat is healthy. / Eating meat is not healthy.
or
English is more useful than math. / Math is more useful than English.

or
.

Think of your own pair of opposite opinions.


1' P

0 Next, go to the library, and


O

research your opinion. You may

LIBRjy
0.

look in magazines, newspapers,


books, on the internet, and so

on. You may also want to


interview experts on the topic. (

Find at least 3 different reasons


for each side of the opinion. If it
seems difficult to find reasons,
it may be that your topic is too
rl
vague or too one-sided. If so, b H ( O

you should choose a new set of ED m



l
opinions. For each reason, you
should find at least two pieces e nZ

"
of evidence to support the ;



reason. You should try to have many different sources.

O When you have finished your research, write


Reason-Support sheets like the ones you wrote in the
previous exercise on Capital Punishment.

;1 -I1AI
.1 I -1
-Ii l]

You must include your sources. If your source of evidence is a book, newspaper, or
magazine, you should include the title, date, author, and author's credentials. If your
source of evidence is an interview, remember to include the person's name, credentials,
and the date of the interview.

46

e -a
II

,i,I SM
n'
Macro Organizat Ion for the AC

The first speech in a debate is called the First Affirmative Constructive speech, or the

1AC. It is called a constructive speech because it begins construction of the affirmative



case/house. The 1 AC has 3 parts: The Introduction, to introduce your opinion to the
O

udges and the audience, the Affirmative Points, to give your reasons and supports, and
2

the Conclusion, to finish your speech.

Look at the speech below and match the labels on the left with the speech parts on the
1

1y`.

right.

0 Our third point is simplicity. Soccer is


much easier than baseball. Baseball rules
Introduction take hours to explain, and you need a
bat, glove, and baseball diamond to play.

Soccer rules are easy and all you nee d is


O

a soccer ball and a field.

0.

Our first point is cost. Soccer tickets are


er than baseball tickets. In

Point 1 this city, the price of a ticket to a baseball

game is about three times hipher thin rhP


price of a ticket to a soccer game.

0 Thank you, Ladies and entle en.


Today, we are debating the resolution,
Point 2 "Soccer is better than baseball." We, on


the affirmative team strongly support this
resolution. We have four reasons: cost,
excitement, simplicity, and color.

0 Our second point is excitement. Soccer is


Point 3 much more exciting than baseball. In
baseball, 90% of the time the players are

0
just standing around waiting. Soccer has
iction all the time.

We have talked about cost, excitement


simplicity, and color. We have shown that
Point 4 soccer is a much better sport than


baseball. For these reasons, we beg to
propose.

0 Our fourth point is color. Soccer


uniforms are much more colorful than
Conclusion baseball uniforms. The New York
Yankees, for example, have one of the
most boring uniforms in the world.

50
Micro Organizat Ion for the 1AC r


In the Macro section, you learned that the first speech in a debate has 3 parts: The


Introduction, the Affirmative Points, and the Conci usion. Usually, you wi" have 3 or 4
points in the first speech of a debate. Let's look closer at one affirmative point.


Each Point has 3 parts: the Signpost, the Reason and the Supports. You can have as

O
many supports for a point as you like. Look at this diagram.



Introduction

y'
-

Point `
o

Point `
P



we

1. Signpost: Our first point is cost.


i
-e

2
2. Reason: Soccer tickets are much cheaper...

P
Oi 0.
3. Support I: A ticket to a baseball game costs...
n.

3
4. Support...
5.Support...
-

Point 4
-

Conclusion

Look at the first point. We have underlined the Signpost, drawn a box around the Reason
and circled the Supports.

ir first Doint is tickets cneape n t ity, th


price or a ticket to a baseba game is aDOut three times higher than the price of aT ket to
soccer game.

Look at the first point. We have underlined the Signpost, drawn a box around the Reason
and circled the Supports.

Our second point is excitement. Soccer is much more exciting than baseball. In baseball, 90%
of the time the players are just standing around waiting. Soccer has action all the time.

Our third point is simplicity. Soccer is much easier to understand and play than baseball.
Baseball rules take hours to explain, and yo u need a bat, glove, and baseball diamond to play.
Soccer rules are easy and all you need is a soccer ball and a field.

Our fourth point is color. Soccer uniforms are much more colorful than baseball uniforms.
The New York Yankees, for example, have one of the most boring uniforms in the world.

51
Debate Introduct Ions
Unl

The introduction in a first affirmative constructive speech, the 1AC, has a simple structure.
t

INTRODUCTION FORMAT
4- or

Listen and fill in the words.


nizing your

Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. We are debating the resolution


. We, on the affirmative team, strongly
support this resolution. WTe have
reasons:
and
oin

PAIRWORK Practice giving constructive speech introductions. Partner A is the speaker


and uses the page on the right. Partner B is the judge and uses page 54. Using the format
oi

above, the speaker greets the audience, states the resolution, and outlines the affirmative
n

resolution
points while the judge listens and writes the res _.ut.o. a-nd
ndtthe
._ a {-firma+ive
noin onn
rmat.ve po.nts
.. -. e
clipboard as in the example below. For introductions 1 and 2, Partner A is the speaker

and Partner B is the udge. Switch roles for introductions 3 and 4.

Thank you, Ladies


Today's Debate and Gentlemen. w
"Soccer is better are debating the
than baseball." resolution, "Soccer

COSt baseball.''
is better than
, on the
excitement affirmative team,
simplicity strongly support this
color resolution. ,V' have
4 reasons: cost,
excitement,
simplicity, and color.



l


n"nt`:

----,
/,)

52
`



O t y's oe e 0


Today's Debate

O
"Capital punishment should "Smoking should be


be ab ished." banned."



mistakes health
respect for life hospital costs




ha bilitation pution
ugly brown teeth

1
' P
Oin
I
O L , l"\

0, a rtne r tJudge
r

Partner B Judcie

0.

O



y

'
PO

er B Speaker

Today's Debate 0 Today's Debate


"Capital punishment should "Smoking should be


be retained." allowed."

cost smokers' rights


rrence tax money
victims rights

54

Debate Conclus ions

U
The conclusion in a first affirmative constructive speech also has a simple structure.

O
INTRODUCTION FORMAT

Listen and fill in the missing words.

Ladies and gentlemen, we have talked about



and


.
and have clearly shown that


. For these reasons we beg to propose.

y'OP
This is a general format to conclude a debate speech. In the first blanks, you give your
signposts. In the second blank, you repeat the resolution. Finally, you state that for these
reasons you support the resolution.


ORK Now it is. time for you to take a turn behind the podium. Use the

0.
PAIR
Introauction tormat and the conclusion format you have learned in the exercises below.

B.
Partner ^
Make an introduction for this resolution: Make a conclusion this resolution:
for
Today's debate


"A small company is better to
work for than lar ge company"

' opportun 'ty


salary
flexibility

Partner B Partner ^
Make an introduction for this resolution: Make a conclusion for this resolution:

Today's debate
"Homework should be
ab ished"
free time
dating
sleep
55
=jjJ. m
Strip Speech

PART Form smal- groups, and read the speech on the next page. The speech has
back into the correct order. Write the

0.00000.00


been cut into pieces and mixed up. Put the speech


letter of the piece in the space provided. Three of the pieces have been done for you.

Stl

2a
O

1 .'*.
9'

. .....



.... .'..

1
y


'

1 * ....'
",;,..."'''

Support la
POi.

lb ,,['[[:'.
i

Signpost 2 ''''' -__Conclusion ''''''''''''''


2

Listen and check your answers.

PART 2 Form a new group. This time, the teacher will give each student one or more
pieces of a new strip speech from page 125 in the back of this book. This time READ your


pieces to your group; you must not show the pieces to your group members. Put the
speech back into the correct order. Write the letter of the piece in the space provided. The

first piece has been done for you.


1

Su

Signpost 1 ''''"
I 3

Support la -J''''''''
3b-

Support lb
3c

Su

2 ` . '..

Listen and check your answers.

56
;l lr

=r ' i a ;;'

O .
.
C. Our second point is hospital costs.

l .9 0.`O
.
D. This is a big problem on train platforms, where many people ignore the no smoking
signs and blow smoke in your face. We should ban cigarettes to get rid of this problem.
[. According to the American Cancer Society, every cigarette you smoke shortens your life
by approximately 7 minutes.


ank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. Today the resolution is, "Smoking should be banned. "

0.
G. This is because smokers get cancer and other diseases more than non-smokers. S
miss more work, and spend more time in the hospital.

H. We have talked about health, hospital costs and pollution. We have shown clearly that
cigarettes should be banned. We beg to propose.

I. We, on the affirmative team, strongly support this resolution. We have 3 reasons: health
hospital costs, and pollution.
,./

,,.
.*.,,..'.
.'.".
Cigarettes fill your lungs with poisonous chemicals, causing cancer and lung disease.
,,'',,'.

K. Smokers cost the country a lot of money.


'',.,'6'`'.'..'.`''.H j *.

1. Also, according to the Ministry of Health, the average smoker requires over $200,000 in hospital
costs over the course of their lives. The total bill for the country is over $50,000,000 a year.
'. ..,... ,.

M. Furthermore, this has directly affected my life. My grandfather died of lung cancer two years
ago. It was a long illness, and it caused my family much stress and sadness.
,,. .*.,,..,.,,,,
N. This is because when people smoke, they blow many poisonous gases into the air.
'.'./ :.rH( " 4/1 - * _4 ___
0. Our third point is pollution.

57
.
Present your House
.
1

PAIRWORK in Units 1, 2, and 3 we learned how to construct a house or a debate


case. In this unit we have already learned how to present the finished house. Now, it is

time to practice both constructing and presenting a debate case.


Find a partner. Decide who will be PARTNER A, and who will be PARTNER B.

.=

.
O.

n Think of a resolution. If you can't E Think of reasons and supports to


think of a good resolution, look at page 123. hold up the roof of your house. PARTNER
A completes construction of the upper house
on the next page by writing the resolution on
the roof, the reasons on the pillars, and the

supports on the foundation. PARTNER B


uses the lower house to do the same.

Thank you, Ladies and


Gentlemen. Today, we
are debating the
resolution ...

/
1
i

Fl 1 IdI PARTNER A presents first. Use the PARTNER B listens to A's case and
Macro and Micro structures we have learned fills in the roof, pillars and supports of A's
in this unit. Be sure to use the Introduction house. Then, B presents while A listens and
and Conclusion formats we have studied. fills in B's house.

58

.
^I
Construct A Case

O
Listen And Fill In

'9

y'

Partner B
Partner ^

8
O
Construct A Case
Listen And Fill In

O OO 0 2
O

59

0.
P
O
Letter to the Editor

Newspapers don't just give the news! The letters to the editor section allows readers to

exchange opinions.
O

Read Naomi Park's letter to the editor and answer the questions below.

1.What is Naomi's opinion?


i

2. How many reasons does


Naomi have? StopThe Highway
.g

3. What are her signposts?


y

Dear Editor,
4. What are her suDoorts?
'

5. Do you ever read lette


to the editor?

P
Oi.i

6. Have you ever written


a letter to the editor?

On what topic?

Sincerejy ,

Noni' Pk

Write a letter to the editor giving your opinion on the topic of your choice. Use the
organization we have studied in this unit.

60
nm [

b ll
r I ;T

IJ
U
e

HJ
e

U
U

j f. I rc . :it.c. h . JZ

l1 1

C TF _ ` yr '` '_
r i L '1_.

Refuting Opinions
.

There are two sides to every story. For every opinion, there is an opposite opinion. For every
reason to believe in an opinion, there is also a reason not to believe in it. To really understand
an opinion or an issue, it is not enough to see it from ust one point of view. True
5 ".*.*1

understanding of an issue means to think about the opinion and reasons from both points
of view. Let's try that.

Below are the cat team's reasons why cats make better pets than dogs. Can you find an

opposing reason from the next page?


P

TT=

5 l 27

)0 Cats are

, z ^2:

l ,Z smarter

1


than dogs.
5

- Q Cats are cheaper


than dogs. A cat

costs $200 dollars; a dog


costs $400.
S25/month S27/month

d o.

F n


Cats are cheaper to
feed than dogs. A cat J 1:
costs $25 dollars a month, a
dog costs $27 a month.
J D

n: 0 Cats are cuter


than dogs.

I

'' m

,\`

7O Cats are clean;


b

/X
'

dogs are very dirty.


r

'
l

`
l.

0 Cats were the


TThst popular pet in
ancient Egypt.

62

0 That is not a significant
difference! Two dollars a Y

5.".

$27 - $25 = $2 month is not a significant
Who Cares?


of money!

G

.*
iii


.1
1I That's not always true!


, am some aog5 sucn as


cocker spaniels, are very
cute, while some cats are



mean and ugly.

0
..
' Ll f

H
That's not true.
''

111 l
l
Dogs are smarter
lr e
a a]

cats. They can


tricks.


0 That's easy to solve.
Give your dog a bath!

0 That's not relevant!
Ancient Egyptian
history is not relevant for ofl
choosing a pet today!

M1
necessarily
o That is not flecess
fri P! ,/^,_ _

puppies for free!

mrlmnn
Stating why something is not so is called a refutation. The dog team refuted the cat
team in six different ways. What kinds of refutations did they use? The answer is on
the next page.

63
Refuting an Opinion

Refutation, which means to negate or deny something, is used in debate to tel- why the

opposing team's point is either not true or not important. More specifically, a point can be
refuted by saying that it is not true, or that it is not always true, which means that there are
.5

some important exceptions. Or we can say it is not necessarily true, which means that there
"..

is some doubt about the supporting evidence. If a point is not important, it may be
*.n

40% True
PE

True 6ut NotImportant

Read the following affirmative reasons and the negative's line


O=

of thought. Check the boxes that best complete the refutation.


S

Cats are better pets than dogs.



Cats are better Negat ve thinks $5 is a very small amount of


money.
C pets than. dogs, because a cat costs So this is: Not True
1uu wnlle a aog costs IU


Not Important

Cats are better Negative thinks Dogs are smarter than cats. D og
cats.
can learn to do tricks, cats can't.t.
0 pets than dogs because cats are
So this is: Not True
smarter than dogs. Not Important

Cats are better Negat ive thinks Some dogs are very cute while

some cats are mean and ugly.


pets than dogs because cats are So this is: Not True
than dogs. Not Important
cu

O

* Negat ive thinks Egyptian history has nothing to


Cats were the do with choosing a pet.


ost popular pet in ancient Egypt So this is: Not True

Not Important


Cats are better Negative thinks You can easily give your dog a
bath.
([ pets than dogs because dogs are very
dirty.
So this is: Not True
Not Important

Negative thinks There is no proof that cats have


nine lives.
0 pets than dogs because cats have
lives.
So this is: Not True
Not Important

64

unimportant because it has nothing to do with the resolution and is thus not relevant, or it

.

may be a very smal numerical difference and is thus not significant, or finally, it may be a
problem that has a simple solution and is thus easy to solve.

5
".*
Not True

.
Not Always True

x
Not Necessari True

'
E
Not Relevant

Not S ig ficant

0.5
Z
Easy to Solve

Negative says This is Not Truc not relevant because $5 is a very small
not always true

not significant amount of money.


not necessari true easy to solve

Negat uve says This is Not True not relevant


because dogs are smarter
not always true not significant than cats. Dogs can learn to

not necessarily true easy to solve do tricks, cats can't.


Negative says This is Not True not relevant because some dogs, such as
cocker spaniels, are very cute
not always true not significant


while some cats are mean

not necessarily true easy to solve and ugly.

Negative says This is Not True not relevant because Egyptian history has
not always true not significant nothing to do with choosing
not necessarily true easy to solve a pet.

Negative says This is Not True not relevant because you can easily give
not always true not significant your dog a bath.
not necessarily true easy to solve

Negative says This is Not True not relevant because there is no proof
not always true not significant that cats have nine lives.
not necessarily true easy to solve

65

.5

f.

66
..i
P
0
.5



Types of Ref utat Ions
First, study the two language files below for making refutations based on Not True and Not
Important. (Note that the file on Not Important contains three smaller files: Not Significant,
Not Relevant, and Easy to Solve.) Then, study the pattern for stating a refutation on page
67, paying careful attention to the example. Finally, use the steps to make a refutation of
your own.

ly rue.
Not Tr eTh t's n

ot tru .That's

untru .That'

s fals .Th t's no alwa


ys tru .Th t's not nec ssari

kI.4 c:...:g:......%e
' "' ' ,--.'-.---:.--- :[l:-
That's not important because the difference is not significant.
That's not important because there is so little difference between...
That's not important because the difference doesn't matter.
That's not important_because
Not Relevant

Easy Solve ,

" .-'
the difference
<, is too
..,..-. small.
,- -I .
_
N_____________________________

I
I


-
Stat nga Ref utat Ion


On the previous page you studied what to say. Now, let's study how to say it. There are five


steps in stating a refutation for an opinion. They are as follows:

.5
`


SIGNPOST
.

"
Their first point was...


They talked about... Their rst point



They mentioned... s care.


REPH ASE
.


They said that cats
They said that...


The other team said... require less care.


Our worthy opponents claimed...

5
3. NEGATION
That is not important!
This is not true!
That point is totally untrue!
Even if that were true, it is not important!
That is not important!
That point is clearly unimportant!
4. WHY The whole point about
It can't be true that... care is not relevant to
It is not always true that... owning a pet.
It is not necessarily true that...
The whole point about... is not relevant... (Note: The Negation
This whole point is not significant. and Why sentences are
Everything they said about this point can be easily solved. often combined into
one sentence.
Their example is not relevant to the point. For example: That is
The statistic they gave is not significant.
T

not important because


h

e statistic they gave is not necessarily true. the whole point about
h
TT

e problem mentioned by their expert is easily solved. care is not relevant to


ln

e explanation they gave was not relevant. owning a pet.)

5. RATIONALE
The reason that we
Sometimes it is also true that... have a pet is to enjoy
There is no connection between... takin g care of it!
The difference is too small to be important.
To solve it, do X instead of Y!
The reason that...
Just because X is true does not necessarily mean
liiit Y ;c l cr, triir

67
r
L-' ' ` I , ' - 'l l J-;r7
. `r.i
".
Point Ref utat ion

Your teacher wi give you either an opinion POINT CARD or a REFUTATION CARD from the
back of this book. As shown on the next page, students with P NT CARDS move around
.

the room and read their cards to the students with REFUTATION CARDS. If the cards form

not have a clear


5

an opinion POINT-REFUTATION relationship, say Match! If the cards do


opinion POINT-REFUTATION relationship, say No match! Keep track of how
many matching
cards you find. Continue unti- you talk to everyone. How many matches could you find?
.

One? Two? None?


1

Look at the following two examples.



cards form a POINT-REFUTATION relationship.


o These
'!?[ W1
two

51

POINT CARD

People should he allowed to have



That's not always
uILi.t.?_1:__I
true. Many gun owners
don't know how to use guns, so they
guns. If people have guns, they
often have accidents. ey don't protect
can protect themselves.
themselves, they shoot themselves!

cards do not form POINT-REFUTATION relationship.


o These two

P NT CARD
That's not true. Human rights
Nuclear weapons should be include things like freedom of speech.

abolished. They are very expensive. Human rights don't include


the right to have guns!

68

rOINr-KpfLirk-r:oN


nNP ri-1p nprLIT-AT-ipN
Kp ITtAr rDMS ITt 6pSTee=

" .5
MAll Lt WITTt T-frtp OFtNIpN

.
Fp!N AKm 7

.
*
*


P
1


Qk
bude-,

B h .
Match
h
C
,
Q Q h
h 4
h
:.T !'! n.ri I
L , ' , . 1 . . .
Tr
' . . 1 ` ` '-

Making Refutat ions

With a partner, read these four affirmative points and write a refutation. The resolution is:

"There should be no school on Saturdays." If you need help, the people below can give
you hints.
.5
".*..1

0 Our first point is family. If




P

students don't have school, they


will spend more time with their -/,,.

families.

OOur seco nd poi nt is cost. If


schools are c losed on Saturday,



10.5

the schools w 11 save much money


on heating, electricity, and teachers'
salaries.

Our third point is free time.


If there is no school on Saturday,
students will have more free time
to enjoy their hobbies and interests.

Our fourth point is lesson


re aration. If teachers don't

have to teach on Saturday, they
will use the time to study or prepare
lessons or make tests, etc.
, sH

r Whatcould
tfu
ow

students do other
rd

How much
ee

than spend time with


ent
do s spend their
00

their families? money does it cost


to heat a school oii
time now?

Saturday?
0

Listen and Write


Listen and take notes on the affirmative speech, "It is better to be married than

.
single." Write your refutation for each point in the space on the right.

"
5
ef tat jon

.


eeCL/,



;, m i



fi

5
-

r'


_ / ` ,/,,,//

_--

-

__ _/,,-,/,,.--,,

71

Tennis Debate
We have studied both the affirmative and the negative sides and are now ready to
1.

have our first debate! This is a very simple debate game called Tennis Debate.
".*.

Make teams of 2 or 3 people. Half of the teams will be Affirmative Teams and half of the
teams will be Negative Teams.
.1P

/!U7
IJk
E

1. A resolution* is given to the Affirmative team. The Affirmative team has 3


minutes to brain and make reasons and supports in favor of the resolution. The
0.5

Affirmative team writes their reasons and supports, then passes them to the Negative team.
The Negative team has 3 minutes to think about possible refutations to the Affirmative
team's points.
mr Tennis Debate begins. The teams face each other. The Affirmative team serves
The Tenl
by reading its first reason and support. The Negative team volleys by giving its refutation.
The Affirmative team must then respond to the Negative team's refutation. The debate
continues back and forth until one side can not respond. The last team to give a response is
the winner.

In this round, the negative team is challenged to think on its feet. First, the Affirmative team
brainstorms reasons and supports in favor of the resolution and writes them down, but does
t1 ni its first reason and
not pass them to the Negative team. Then, the Affirmative
support. The Negative team listens, and without prior preparation must quickly volley back a
refutation. Again, the last team to respond wins.

`71
In this round, both teams must think on their feet. First, the Affirmative team receives a
resolution and, without preparation, must immediatel y serve a reason to the negative. The
negative must return a refutation. The last team to answer wins.

*The resolutions for this game may be provided by your teacher, or as an easy warm up
you might use the resolutions you have already brainstormed on page 29, or you might
choose from book.
the resolutions listed on pages 123 and 124 in the back of this

72
U .
Tennis Debate

Res ution: Cats re better pets than dogs.


5".*.
Affirmative Team Negat .ve Team

P
Cats are better That's not true. Cats are


than dogs noisy, especially at night.
because cats


5
are quiet.
Z
1

That is easily solved. You can


teach dogs to be quiet, but cats
are difficult to teach.

>
That's not always
true. Some cats may
be noisy but almost
all dogs are noisy.
U
U

/
Critiquing n Editori

Naomi Park's letter about Highway 26 got printed in a magazine! However, someone
disagrees with her opinion. Why? Read the ref utations written next to the letter.
..

2. Not Significant.
5

1. Not Necessarily True. The total government transportation


Road repairs cost nearly $40 budget is over $500 million. $31
million is not a lot of money for
million dollars a year. Where


the government.
did she get these numbers?

p

1///V,`* `'


4. Not Necessari
r True.
0

It depends on the
StoD The Hiahwa

h
L l.rt n
a
kind of buses.


3. Not Relevant. Some buses are

O]
I'm writing about the government's plan for the new
Our roads are in

r
Highway Number 26. 1 have two reasons to oppose more expensive
'4

good condition. Why this plan for a new highway. My reasons are the cost than this.
do we need extra
repairs? '
rn
seen,
Netes,
and the environment.

Concerning the cost, the planned highway is just too


i) 5. Not Relevant.
Not very' many
expensive. For the same million dollars we
people ride the
2

could renair all of the roads in the city and have


enough money left tobu v 20 new buses. To use the
money on just one road is a waste.
-

se buses we have
flow; most people
drive.
As for the environment, the planned highway will run
b
through what is now a beautiful forest and some

'
n
xcellent farmland. This forest is the home tothe
)i

a bird which is endangered and


s our protection. We should not destroy the


v
eI

environment to build an unnecessary highway.



ngC

n .Lrt
k
br

Because of the cost and the environment, I urge


:dS

everyone to oppose the government's plan for


La
1
l
rR

`O

Highway Number 26. 6. Not Significant.


ba!
s

The highway will


O
a a
eo
r

Naomi Park resu


not destroy that
e

much forest or
lS
ab C

ns

farmland.
t~
n
,B
nb
u
A

7. Not Relevant. ' `


a
eP

The highway will not disturb the spotted owl's


life and there are other forests where it lives.
ht
i
ygElle

Find a letter to the editor, or an editorial in an English magazine or newspaper. Find the
most important points, and write possible refutations.
l

74

0O O




n"uHU,HU

.


'

Challenging Supports

0
0000000 00000 0

0
00 0
C

0 0
Super Springo Hecilthcisizer


0000 000 00000

, 0

, \/- 0
1

_ ' 10

S.PP

0 0 0
7/
C
.5

Z k0

In this unit we will practice challenging supports by asking questions and testing evidence.

Look at the claims this television spokesperson for the Super Springo Healthasizer company
makes for the SSH health system. Check whether you believe or doubt each support he gives.

No more dieting! With the SSH system you 0 The SSH system works.
SSH improves health!
can eat anything you want, as much as you
want. n C

SPORn7L1 Aprilgg


Soper Spring0
REVi[WFb
INS,o
HeaItp.
'Zo-

recent studies show that there is no connection


between eating and health. Experts have proven that only An article in the April, 1999 Issue of Sporty Lite magazine
rhythmic wrist movement from using the SSH can build a said that SSH improves health
healthy body.

I BELIEVE THAT! I DOUBT THAT! I BELIEVE THAT! I DOUBT THAT!


76

O

The SSH system is recommended by

o medical professionals as a method for

.
Everyone loves the SSH system!
reducing high blood pressure.


C.
lO

p
p
p
Z

O

7,'

1
S.P
X
)

-
"

Ps
Rhythmic Wrist Movement and regular cigarette smoking
100% of the people asked agreed that the SSH is the
reduce blood pressure and improve health.

*
greatest.
(journal of Sports Medicine, May 12, 1919)

I BELIEVE THAT! I DOUBT THAT! I BELIEVE THAT! I DOUBT THAT!


O

Increase blood protein levels with the


0 SSH works because it is the only
system that uses the patented
fantastic SSH system! RWM method.

Di Marcus Wellbeing, president of SSH products, has said


According to the famous actress Maryland Munro, the
that the SSH machine is the only way to build a healthy
SSH builds strong bodies in twelve ways by increasing the
body because no other product uses the patented RWM
level of protein in the blood.
method.

BELIEVE THAT! I DOUBT THAT! I BELIEVE THAT! I DOUBT THAT!

Did you believe all of the salesman's claims? Which ones did you doubt? In debate,
it is necessary to challenge the validity or truth of every support and every piece of
evidence.

77
n'
Testing Supports
..

All supports are in doubt until proven. Just because the other team offers evidence as support
'

does not mean that the evidence is valid or that the support is necessarily true. We doubt or
test the evidence given in supports by asking questions about the source of the evidence.
c

0 Is there a source given for the evidence?



.
.
. s

The evidence is not necessarily true if the source of the evidence is not
given and we cannot test whether the evidence is valid or true.

0

PP5

Does the source explain its claims satisfactorily?


.

The evidence is not necessarily true if the support just states that
something is true or is good without explaining how or why.


Is there a date on the source?
The evidence is not necessarily true if there is no date on the source or if
the source is old because the information may be out of date and no


longer valid or true.

If the support is a statistic, is the statistic valid?

The evidence is not necessarily true if there was not enough data
collected or if the collection method is in doubt.

0 Is the source of the support an expert in the field?

The evidence is not necessarily true if the source of the evidence is


not an expert or does not have satisfactory knowledge of the field.

0 Is the source biased?

The evidence is not not necessarily true if the source is biased, meaning
that the person, company, or other source of information would have a
reason to make a false claim or would profit from giving false evidence.

If the answer is not satisfactory then proceed to refutation of that support.


78
Asking Questions


Most debates have a question and answer session between speeches where the debaters can

.6
question the other team. Here are six files for questioning supports.

C1 .P
n
g
0 If there is no source

l
What is the source for that information?
Where did that information come from?
Is there a source for that information?

S
O If there is no explanation given

.
5
What is the reason for the source's conclusion that . . .
Why does the source believe this?

O If there is no date given


What is the date for that source?
How recent is that source?

0 If the statistic is questionable


What method was used to collect this data?
Was enough data collected?

0 If the source's expertise is questionable


Does the source have enough experience to be called an "expert" in this area?
What is the source's experience in this area?
,.'

0 If the source might be biased


Does the source benefit financially if people believe this information?
Isn't that source biased?

79
V

PAIRWORK Partner B looks at this page, Partner A looks at the previous page. Partner

A starts by reading one of the supports against nuclear power. Partner B listens and
chooses the best question for challenging the support. Partner B then reads the question

C

while Partner A checks to see if it is correct. Continue unti- all six supports have been

correctly questioned, then switch roles.



Questions
n
iS.p

.
What is the date for that source? Was enough data collected? How mans
people did you ask?
P r.s

Does the source have enough knowledge What is the reason for the source's
about nuclear power to be called an conclusion that nuclear power is
expert? dangerous?


What is the source for that information? Isn't that source biased?

a. nst Abortion
0 Supports A
H According to The Phizzer Drug Company,
abortion should be banned because
there are much better methods of birth
control available.
Ars Bks?

I
Dr. Shin, Director of the American
Medical Society, wrote that "Abortion
is murder...." (1997).
Ans Rprison2

K According to Professor Pat Thanaton, L I According to Ih ournal of the American


"Abortion should be banned because a Mkinc an Psychology So Y,
child inside the mother can feel pain. abortion is dangerous for the mother
Abortion is murder." (The New Times, and often results in her death.
Ans DcrtrP
January 25, 1999) Ans: Expert?

82
Challenges Supporis

Un
PART ` A debater is provinq the resolution: "Cats are better Dets than doas."

ti6.
\4/ Her tirst p nt is that cats are cheaper than dogs. She has six supports, but each
support has a problem. Listen and match each support with its problem. The first one is
done for you.

ahll
i'

eni
n
Support 1
! No Source Given

SuPors
Support 2

O LNo Explanation Giv

.
Support 3
No Date Given
O

e Statistic Is


Support 4
[T Question a e

Support 5 Th e Source's Expertise Is Questionable


O

Support 6 & The Source is Biased

PART 2 Now, listen again. Stop after each support and practice refuting the
support. Use the five-step sequence you have learned. The first one is done for

SIGNPOST
Their first point was cost.
RE PH RASE
They claimed that the May 1999 issue of al Weekly stated that cats are less expensive.

NEGATION & WHY


But this is not necessarily true! The evidence they gave was very questionable.

RATIONALE
They gave no explanation for why cats are cheaper!

83
Question & Refute

PAIRWORK The man below is trying to prove the resolution "Birds make better pets

than cats. Partner A looks at these two pages. Partner B looks at pages 86 and 87. Partner
a

A starts.

0 Reason Our first point is cost. Birds


' America's foremost make better pets than cats because they are
authority on pets" cheaper. According to Pet Lover Magazine

the cost of feeding


1
S.

Average Cost of Feeding a


Pet a bird is much,
much lower than
P

Catfood . . . . . $1.30
Dogfood. . . . . $1.80 the cost of feeding
Ps

Fishfood. . . . $1.00
Bird Feed. . . , $.25 other common
*

Mansfield ists the move is pos-- pets, including


"nroves the overall
cats.
m

0 Reason My second point is safety.


:o rTL17'LTflflTflnmm Birds are better pets than cats because they
-I

are safer. Dogs bite and cats scratch,


'.1

NEW YORK (AP) Heavyweight boxer


therefore birds are
1,l'

Charles "Killer" Lubetsky said in a prefight


interview that he hated all animals and has
safer for both
-J fll

never had a pet in his life. But if he had a


pet, he would have a bird. When asked adults and children
why he would choose a bird over other
pets. Lubetsky replied that "birds are according to a
'1 1

safe." He said he is afraid of dogs because recent lntervlew


they bite and of cats because they


scratch. "Birds are safe for adults and with Mr. Charles
children," he said Sta*
Sou Lubetsky.
`

O Reason Our third point is child


Dr. Doj;,_ < development. Birds are better pets than cats
deveJOpm Ssor of_Child

because they benefit young children. In his


J

"As senior professor of child


development at the University book, Child
of London, I have always said
that birds are the best pet for
Dr.
families with children under 12 Dolittle says that
months. The singing and
chirping of birds help develop birds help children
in children an appreciation of
song and music." develop an
Dr. Dolittle's book,
Child Rearinq, published
appreciation for
J y 1894 song and music.

84
Read al- six reasons and supports to Partner B. - Then, Partner B wil-

U
question the supports. Try to answer Partner B's questions by using the sources to the left

n
of the man. If you can't answer a question, say "Sorry, I don't know." - Then,


Partner B wi-- try to refute your source.

C.in .P
rlelelll'-

light of the fact thrhse o

Smart Birds,
Reason My fourth point is intelligence.


Birds are better pets than cats because birds
Dumb Dogs 0h are more intelligent. Recently, experts say
A wc
that birds such as
D r. U. Wing, the famous
expert on pets, believes
t
hani parakeets and
that birds, such as parakeets canaries are

S
and canaries, are smarter than and it
half of I actually smarter
dogs and cats. Moreover, birds are ates (56
cheaper and better for children. Last than dogs or cats.

.5
Zoology Today Octoher 999


V VU
O Reason Our next point is runaways.
V
Birds make better pets than cats because

birds never run away. Cats often run away
from their owners;
birds do not!
Birds are confined
in cages; cats are
not.

0 Reason Our team's final point is


cleanliness. Birds are better pets than cats
C because they are cleaner. I have seen it
written that cats
(-a-I-c ave- JI avicJ have- f(eac. are dirty animals
(-a-I-c
c4z. aicI ti-ivovv up all that have fleas,
oVe-v 1-ie- houce-. 11v-cJc aye- le-au fu( while birds are
afrlcJ c-(e-akl. VcI v-ve-v- rvaI-e a
beautiful and
clean and never
mI
make a mess.

85

\ Testing Supports

PAIRWORK Partner B looks at these two pages. Partner A looks at pages 84 and 85.
.6

Partner A starts.
C

As Partner A reads the six reasons and supports, take notes below.

Proposition "Birds make better pets than cats."


-.

Signpost 1
9.

Reason
1 S.

Support
pPs

Signpost 2
*

Reason
Support

Signpost 3
Reason
Support

Signpost 4
Reason
Support

Signpost 5
Reason
Support

Signpost 6
Reason
Support

86


- Now, look at your notes and question the supports. Use the check list below.


Keep questioning unti- you find a weakness in the source.

C
IS THERE A SOURCE GIVEN?


YES (Go to number 2) NO (Question partner)


-.
b,/

9
.1
0 IS THERE AN EXPLANATION GIVEN?
YES (Go to number 3) NO (Question partner)

S
.
P o's

*
IS THERE A DATE GIVEN?
YES (Go to number 4) NO (Question partner)

IS THE STATISTIC QUESTIONABLE?


YES (Question partner) NO (Go to number 5)

O IS THE SOURCE'S EXPERTISE QUESTIONABLE


YES (Question partner) NO (Go to number 6)

0 IS IT POSSIBLE THAT THE SOURCE IS BIASED?


YES (Question partner) NO (Give up!)

[n A After you find a weakness, refute the support as follows: Signpost, Rephrase,
Negation, a nd Rationale.
SIGNPOST

REPHRASE

NEGATION & WHY

RATIONALE

Critiquing n Advertisement

Don't believe everything you read! ust because something is on TV or in the newspaper

does not mean it is true. Advertisements are the best example. Read the ad below for

the Kickhard Karate School. Do you trust the evidence? Circle doubtful data and ques-

C

tion it. The first one is done for you.


0 cc2 a i,
S. .

pP *s

iWinner the
Karate Scho


of the Year
Award
No. 1 choice in this
year's national survey
Air

"TIelebest
best training

Master
anywhere!,i"
ctorSuzuki,:
( chief instru at ISJCKflOIC

' No better place


to learn Karate!"
e a Re :
au-srare pie oaung conesj winner


_ni' 11 . L
" ,,''

r
l `' I L"" L

Find an advertisement in a newspaper, magazine, or pamphlet. What evidence do they


give for using their product or service? How many questions can you ask about the
company or the product or service?

88
JI-e-I r
r I


l-
.

-`
.J
_ '


'I.'.

Sr

. C: `r -r _ ` ! r '1
11' A 1 .
O1'.1
Organizing your Refutat Ion

When organizing a first affirmative constructive speech you brought together reasons
.
1

and supports and then presented them systematically to prove the resolution. Now, in
organizing the first negative constructive speech, you will bring together the skills you learned

People often think of debate as


ro 'c co(i-loii
a speaking skill. However, the
first step to good debate is to
nU ,

listen and understand your


pe-opk- chouId 'e onoonent's nosition. Without
IJ ,nU

real understanding ot the otner


team/s n nts. it is impossinie
to successtullv retute them.

IListen tO an atnrmative speecn


on tne resolution 1-Ul peopie
0 should be vegetarian." Fill in
the blank spaces in the
LISTEN attirmatives nouse.

Don't listen passively. You will


be responsible for everything


'c r_o!vfloii
pr.o11c choi!d 'e-
the affirmative says! Listen
critically, and look for potential
nU

weaknesses in the affirmatives


pH
"nUi

7
points and supports. Use
!

- ref utations to attack any


n

weaknesses you find.


Now, listen to the first half of
a negative speech against the
0
affirmative speech. Check (V)
,
the refutations you hear.
ATTACK l

The negative's job is not ]ust


to be critical of the affirmative.
T5 'c Kco(ioi: The negative must also 7
f'c.oplc choi(d Lc. replace the affirmative house
v-t-ii1 with a negative house of
, ( ,
superior construction.
Listen to the second half of the
speech, and fill in the blanks
in the negative's house.

90

for refuting explanations and challenging supports, along with the skills you learned for


building the affirmative case, and present them systematically to disprove the resolution.

j
Now, listen to a 1AC and organize your refutation to it.

-

'
7

.

"
f.
-7


e

This is not necessarily true. It is It is not true that meat is difficult to

e
possible to raise animals and catch fish digest. Our bodies are made to digest
without harming the environment. both meat and vegetables.
This is not true. Hamburgers taste

l
es
It is not true that cows are cute. They
much better than salad.

are actually rather ugly animals.


That is not important. Vegetables have Animal rights are not as important as


many important vitamins and minerals. human rights and, if we stop fishing or


raising animals, millions of people in the

Z
e
-

f od industry will lose their jobs.


e
-

,,

nIO

0 O

The negative is not just destructive. The negative doesn't simply attack the affirmative's
points with refutations. The negative must be constructive and offer a counter-case to
the judges as well. This is where the real debate begins.
..,

91

for the NC

Macro Organizat Ion


The negative team gives the second speech of the debate, the first negative constructive, or
the 1 NC. The 1 NC has 5 parts: the Introduction, the Refutations, the Transition, the Negative

Points, and the Conclusion. The Introduction introduces your opinion to the judges and
audience. The Refutations attack the 1AC, the first affirmative speech. The Transition links

the refutation portion with the negative case. The Negative Points are your own reasons

and supports for your opinion and the Conclusion finishes your speech.


i.g

Look at the first negative constructive speech, the iNC. on the right page. Write the letter

of the portion of the speech next to the appropriate part it fills in the 1 NC flowchart below.
y

'


Affirmative
POINT 1
Refutation 1

Affirmative
Refutation 2
POINT 2

Affirmative
Refutation 3
POINT 3

Negative
POINT 1

Negative
POINT 2

Negative
POINT 3

92


0 We have talked about health, the economy, and taste, and have shown that we should
not all be vegetarian. For these reasons we beg to oppose.


O
0 Our second point is the economy. Millions of men and women work in agriculture,


fishing, and the food industry. If we stop eating meat, they will lose their jobs. This will
cause hardship.



0 Their second reason was animal ts. TeyTh said that animals have a right not to suffer.
We have two responses. First, it is not true that animals have rights. Rights come from

1
our country's Constitution, and our Constitution says nothing about animals. Second,



' .
animal rights are not as important as human rights, and if we stop fishing or raising
animals, millions of people in the food industry will lose their jobs.

"f.
0 Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. Today we are debating the resolution, "All people
should be vegetarians." We, on the negative team, strongly oppose this resolution.

i
First, I will refute the affirmative side; then I will give our points.

0 Our first point is health. We must eat meat and fish in order to stay healthy. Meat has
a lot of protein, and fish has both protein and iodine. It is difficult to get these
nutrients from vegetables.

0 Their third reason was the environment. They said that fishing and raising animals harm
nature. We have two responses. First, this is not necessarily true. It is possible to raise
animals and catch fish without harming the environment. Second, it is not true that
animal farming hurts the environment, since animals produce the carbon dioxide that
plants require. We must keep the balance of nature.

0 1 have refuted the affirmative's points. Now, I will give ours. We have three points: health
the economy, and taste.

OTheir first reason was health. They said that it is not healthy to eat meat since it is high
in fat and difficult to digest. We have three responses. First, it is not true that meat is
difficult to digest. Our bodies are made to digest both meat and vegetables. Second, it is
not always true that meat is higher in fat than vegetables. Some fruits and vegetables, such
as bananas and avocados, have a lot of fat. On the other hand, some kinds of meat, such
as turkey, have very little fat.

0 Out third point is taste. Meat tastes good, and many countries use meat in their national
dishes. Can you imagine Thai food without shrimp, Japanese food without sushi, American
food without hamburgers or German food without Wiener schnitzel. Eating meat is
enjoyable and an important part of our culture.
93
i'"
Micro Organizat Ion for the NC

You have already learned that the negative speech has 4 parts; the Introduction, the
Refutations, the Negative Points, and the Conclusion. Let's look closer at the Refutations.
O

Each Refutation has 4 parts; the Signpost, the Rephrase, the Negation which often includes a
reason why, and the Rationale. You learned about Signposts in Unit 3. Rephrase means to

repeat the same idea with different words. Negation means to say that something is NOT.
9'

The Rationale is where you explain your reasoning for why something was NOT.


1
o

Refutation
.r

LRefutation 2
I. Signpost

2. Rephrase
.

3. Negation

4. Rationale

POINT 1 :

1

POINT 2


POINT 3


CONCLUSION

Look at this first refutation. We have underlined the Signpost, drawn a box around the
Rephrase, double underlined the Negation and circled the Rationale for you.
Their first reason was health. Fhey said that it is not healthy to eat meat because it is hiiTTn
and difficult to digest.jWe have two responses. First it is not true that meat is difficult to digest.
Our bodies are made to digest both meat and vegeTi5T) Second, it is not always true that
meat is higher in fat than vegetables. ome vegetables, such as avocadO rhave a lot
some kinds of meat, such asTFkey,Have very little fat.

Look at this refutation. Underline the Signpost, draw a box around the Rephrase, double
underline the Negation and circle the Rationale.
Their second reason was animal rights. They said that animals have a right not to suffer. We
have two responses. First, it is not true that animals have rights. Rights come from our
Country's constitution, and our Constitution says nothing about animals. Second, animal
rights are not as important as human rights. If we stop raising animals and stop fishing,
millions of people in the food industry would lose their jobs.
94
The NC


The language used in the Negative Constructive Speeches differs slightly from the


language used in the Affirmative Constructive Speeches. Read the following Introductions.


Which one is from an Affirmative Constructive Speech and which one is from a Negative

O
Constructive Speech? What are the differences?



-fn 7 rr i-r.i-i. L(r r!r iFV




Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. Today, Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. Today,
we are debating the resolution, "All people we are debating the resolution, "All people


should be vegetarian." We, on the affirmative should be vegetarian." We on the negative


team strongly support this resolution. We team strongly oppose this resolution. First, I

' .R
have 3 reasons: health, animal rights, and the will refute the affirmative reasons, then I will
environment. give the negative points.


*.
Introductions for Negative Constructive Speeches

i
First, I will refute the affirmative reasons, then...
Let me first refute the affirmative reasons, then...
First, I will attack their case and then...
I'd like to refute their points, then I will present...
, , ..',,.;,0- ,,-

The First Negative Constructive Speech and all of the speeches after it contain a Transition.
The transition is used to separate your REFUTATIONS from your POINTS.

Transitions for Negative Constructive Speeches


I have refuted the affirmative's points. Now I will give the negative's point
points...
I have refuted their points. Now, let me give ours. We have _ poi

The conclusion of the Negative Constructive Speech opposes the resolution rather than
proposes it.


Conclusion for Negative Constructive Speeches
We have talked about.... and have shown that ....
For these reasons, we beg to oppose. 11
95
r[]I[IU [4;[{-
Refutation Format


O





1

'
.


1

Does your country have an army or navy?


In your country does everyone have to serve in the army or other branch of the military or
do some people volunteer to serve?
In some countries, all people must serve some time in the army. This is called national service.
What are some countries that have national service?
Some countries have no military. Which ones?
Do you think it is good to have an army? Why or why not?


\ /
p4

army.
esesRT
` Listen to the 1AC on the resolution "All people should have to serve in the
Take notes below.

Notes

96
l
PART Z Below is the 1 NC to the 1AC, "All people should have to serve in the army"


from the previous page. Form groups and read the speech on the next two pages. The


speech has been cut into pieces and mixed up. Put the speech back into the correct

O
order. Three have been done for yo u .






Intro
ansition '




Part2 1


' .
Negative Signpost 1 I..

Rf. 1
O

O
Rephrase 1

Negative Point

lb
ega '''''''
O

Rephrase 2

"

Rephrase 3

e3

Listen and check your answers.

97
I

r

A. Rich people can always find excuses to avoid national service. During the Vietnam War,
Bill Clinton avoided serving in the army by moving to England.
O

B. It is not true that national service results in a stronger army.


C. Our first point is cost.


i
n.

D. National service will increase the chance of wars with other countries. If we have a large
army, other countries will be afraid and have to increase their armies too. In general,
when two neighboring countries have very large armies, they are more likely to use
them in time of conflict.
'.

E. If you serve in the army for only 2 years, you don't learn enough to be a good soldier. It's

better to have a professional army, where people serve between five and twenty years
and receive more training.

F. Their third point was jobs.

G. We have talked about cost, freedom, and war, and have shown that all people should
not have to serve in the army. For these reasons, we beg to oppose.

H. However, it is totally untrue that national service treats everyone eq V.


I. Our second point is freedom.

J. First, I will refute the affirmative's 3 points; then I will give our own.

K. Second, there are easier ways for the government to solve unemployment.

1. First, this point is not necessarily true.

M. Furthermore, if the young people are forced to join, and don't want to be there, they
will have a poor attitude and weaken the army.

`'
98


N. Their second point was equality.


Their first point was strength.


O

P. National service is very expensive. Every yeai one soldier costs the government over
$100,000. If we multiply $100,000 by the number of young people in this country, we

n
see that the cost is much too high. The money would better spent on hospitals and


schools.

0.' ." i
Q. They said that if we have national service, our army will be stronger. We have two
responses.

f.
T elieve that we can reduce unemployment by putting all young people in the army.

O
t
S. Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. Today, the resolution is, "All people should have to
'serve ines the army." We, on the negative team, strongly oppose this resolution.

r It can always create jobs by building more roads and train lines.

U. National service violates human rights. In a free country, people should be able to
choose their own jobs.

V. Our third point is war.

W. France, for example, has national service, but also very high unemployment, especially
among young people.

X.They said if we have national service, all citizens will share the risk of dying in a war.

Y. I have refuted their 3 points; now I will give the negative points. We have three points:
cost, freedom, and war.

99
M In -Debate

In Unit 4, we learned how to organize a 1AC. In this unit we learned how to organize a

iNC. This mini-debate reviews organizing a 1AC and responding to it with a iNC.
O

:[I I iiY I[IIiiU


N

I
n

Divide into Each team


'

chooses a
.

groups of four.

resolution from

Each group then

forms two debate 123 and


teams of two peop 1AC to


each: Team A and hate. Be sure to choose
1

different resolutions.

One person from


Team A gives the first
affirmative Team B listens to the
constructive speech first affirmative
for their team. constructive speech,
takes notes, and
prepares a 1NC,

a first negative
constructive speech.


One person froii
Team B gives their
first negative

constructive speech
Team A listens and with refutations and
takes notes. the negative team's
p nts.

Now switch roles. Team B gives their 1AC while


Team A listens and prepares their iNC.

100



O


1


' ."
fu

1
Use the house above to plan your affirmative case. Use the space below to take notes.
Take notes under the 1AC heading when the other team presents its 1AC. Take notes
under the 1 NC when they respond to your 1AC speech.

`O



, Responding to an Editorial

`* `'
.O

1/7 Read Ken Carr's letter to the editor below


1

refuting Naomi Park's letter about Highway

26. How many refutations does he make?


I I 11II (J
How many points does he give in favor of

Stop The Highway the4


I'm writing about the government's plan for the new lead Highway 26?

Highway Number 26. 1 have two reasons to oppose for

this plan for a new highway. My reasons are the cost


and the environment.

Concerning the cost, the planned highway is just too


million dollars we


could repair
expenstve. r the same

l
' .

enoughon
money money
just one
left
)3Brady

Dear Editor,
As for the environment, the ph
through what is now I want to respond
"*.

excellent farmland. This for to Naomi Park ' S letter of


April 1st, "Stop the


rare spotte 0 a bird whi Highway .
government She thinks the
needs our protection. We s Should Stop building
environment to build an tue

C:
tullaney.
ra
disagree . Highway 26 . I
Ellen
IkIss Because of the cost and th n her letter Naomi
Park said that the
1

Ba:g everyone to oppose the F


Sen 3S too expensive . highway
up Highway Number 26. million we could She said that for the same $31
repair all of the
ergssen
Marc City and buy new bu ses . where
roads J-n the
these figures did Ms . Park
Further, she does
knarn
aurdss
Anne might need not explain
repair all of

![

Sincerely ,

NOt1I -q

PROJECT Find a letter to the editor or an editorial in an English language newspaper
or magazine. Write a letter in response. Remember to use what you have learned about
organizing ref utations.

02
No! Our house
is better because...
Our house is
better because...



O O n l o

Oiir .J ts ". e

.1 r.

S
S " 1.
I B i i.
TrZT*
Debating an Opinion

The First Affirmative


8

Constructive Speech
(The 1AC)
A
r

-.


0
1

The Second Affirmative


Constructive Speech
(The 2AC)

The Second Negative


Constructive Speech
Here is a typical six-speech debate. There (The 2NC)
are two debaters on the affirmative
team, and two on the negative team.


Which team speaks first? Which team
speaks last? What is the function of each
speech? Match the description of each
of the speeches on the next page with
the speech on this page. The first one is
done for you.

104
U .
This is the first speech of the debate. In this speech, the affirmative's
first speaker constructs the affirmative's case. This is the only speech in

0 8
the debate that doesn't include refutations.


.
In this speech, the second negative speaker continues the attack on

1
9
the affirmative case, and then supports the negative case by refuting
the affirmative team's attack and by adding new supports. This is the

An
last of the constructive speeches of the debate. After this speech, no

OP-.
new reasons or supports may be added. The debaters are finished


constructing their cases. Next, the rebuttal speeches begin.


0.
.

-

This is the negative team's first speech of the debate. In this speech,
the negative team must first attack the affirmative's case and then build
their own case.
7 -7

This is the last speech of the debate. The first affirmative speaker
compares the affirmative and negative cases and explains why the
affirmative has won the debate.

In this speech, the second affirmative speaker begins the attack on


the negative team's case. Then, this debater su pports the affirmative
case by refuting the negative's attack and by a dding new supports to
the case.
.-,<: Y

This is the first rebuttal speech of the debate. The rebuttal speeches
analyze the debate. The speakers explain to the judges and to the
audience which team has won the debate. In this speech, the first
negative speaker compares the affirmative and negative points and
explains why the negative team has won the debate.

How many constructive speeches are there in a debate? How many rebuttal speeches
are there? What is the function of the rebuttal speeches?

05




0

Debate Formats
n
There are many different debate formats. Sometimes one person debates against another
person; other times a team debates against another team. Teams can have 2, 3, 4, or
even more people. Sometimes the affirmative speaks first and last, other times the
affirmative speaks first and the negative speaks last. In this textbook, we have used the
American Parliamentary format. But you can choose the format that is best for your
.7-

class. Have fun trying out different formats, or invent your own! Try the same topic
using different formats!

..g

I
A= O

\/
First Affirmative


Constructive 4,



Negative Constructive 5,
1

Xq

Second Affirmative

Constructive 3'
Negative Rebuttal 6'

Affirmative Rebuttal 4,

1AC: First Affirmative 1NC: First Negative


Speaker 8'
Speaker 8'

2AC: Second Affirmative


Speaker 8'
,
/ 2NC: Second Negative
Speaker 8'

AR: First Affirmative NR: First Negative


Speaker 4, Speaker 4'

06

~/-
l F



Affirmative Points -+ 4, Negative Points -+ 4,

(First Affirmative Speaker) (First Negative Speaker)


Affirmative Attack -+ 3'

V
Negative Attack -+ 3'

. >.
(Second Affirmative Speaker) (Second Negative Speaker)

Affirmative Rebuttal -+ 3'

OPi.i


Negative Rebuttal 3'
(Third Affirmative Speaker) (Third Negative Speaker)

. r] F7:
Lfr F

1AC
Present Affirmative Case:
1st Affirmative Speaker -+ 6' iNC

Attack 1AC:
1st Negative Speaker - 3'
I'

Present Negative Case:


/

2AC 2nd Negative Speaker -+ 3'


Attack 1NC:
2nd Affirmative Speaker - 3'

2NC

l

Rebuild Affirmative Case:


Attack 2NC:
3rd Affirmative Speaker -, 3' 3rd Negative Speaker -+ 3'

Rebuild Negative Case:


4th Negative Speaker -+ 3'

NR
Negative Rebuttal:
/

AR 5th Negative Speaker - 3'


Affirmative Rebuttal:
4th Affirmative Speaker -+ 3'
107
Responding to Attacks
=.t

n the 2AC or the 2NC, the speaker has two jobs. First, they must attack the other team's
case. We studied how to do this in Unit 5, Refuting Explanations, and Unit 6, Challenging


1-

Supports. Secondly, they must respond to attacks made on their case by the other team.
soeb.n

We respond to attacks in 4 steps.

1 . SIGN POST .m;


i An o1.10.

Our first point was... Our first point was cost.



2. REPH ASE POINT
We said that... because... We said that cats make
better pets than dogs

because cats are cheaper


than dogs.

3. EPHRASE ATTACK
They said that this was not true because... They tried to refute this
The other team claimed that this is not saying that cost was not
always true because... relevant because you can
They responded that this was not get a pet for free from
necessarily true because... an animal shelter.
Our opponents stated that this was not
important because...
They tried to refute this by saying it was
not relevant because...
They answered that this is not significant
because...
They promised that this was easy to solve because...

4. ANSWER ATTACK
However, this is not true because... However their refutation
But this is not important because... misses the point because
However, their refutation misses the point animals from shelters
because... are often not healthy
and difficult to train.
You should always get
pets from a pet store,
and dogs do cost more
than cats in a pet store!

108

The Rebuttal ,

. .
The last speeches in a debate are called the rebuttals. The purpose of a rebuttal is to
summarize the debate and explain why your side has won.

80
Example Introduction for a Rebuttal Speech

.1

Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. We have been debating the resolution, "Cats are



better pets than dogs. We have clearly shown that this is (or is not) true. Let's look

1 O1.1
at the major points of this debate.

Their only important points have been...

They lose their point about...


' because they never gave any reason or support.
' because we refuted that... and they never answered our refutation.
' because they never showed that it was more important than our point...
because it is not true since...
' because it is not important since...

' they never talked about it.


' they never gave any reason why it's not true or important.
' they didn't answer our response that...
' they responded... but this is not true since...
' they responded... but this is not important since...

We win this debate because...


' their points have fallen, while our points still stand.
the most important point in this debate is... which we have won.
09
['Ti1 1[]I[I U 'i4[[-
.
Rebuttal Speeches


Form smal- groups and read the Negative Rebuttal speech on the next page. The speech
.

has been cut into pieces and mixed up. Put the speech back into the correct order. Write



the letter of the pieces in the spaces provided. The first piece has been done for you.
o8

1
.
r

Introduction-Part
>. pO


in l

''''''''''"''''


Form smal- groups. The Affirmative Rebuttal speech on page 131 has been cut into pieces
and the pieces mixed up and handed out to the class. Put the speech back into the
correct order. Write the letter of the pieces in the spaces provided.

Rebuttal 1 l
1 A Point 3

part 1

Transition

A 1

0

.
........
A. Our second point was help.
'..

O.8
'''J - --,-------
B. First, the affirmative team talked about cost.

C. Our first point was protection.

V
1
D. The affirmative team responded that cats catch mice, but this is not important. My
partner explained that you can always buy mousetraps if you have a problem with mice.

OPi.
E. Overall, we win our key points, and have refuted the affirmative team. Therefore, we
win this debate, and ask you to choose dogs instead of cats! Thank you!

i
F. We explained that dogs are more useful than cats.

G. Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. We have been debating the resolution, "Cats are
better pets than dogs." We, on the negative team, have clearly shown that this is not true.

H. They lose this point, however, because it is not true that a dog costs more than a cat.
As we said before, it is easy to get a dog for free at an animal shelter.

---- ----

herefore, we win this point, since the affirmative team has never responded to this.
T he affirmative team never showed that cats have any significant use.

J. Let's look again at the important points of this debate.

K. We explained that a dog can protect you from thieves.

L. They responded by saying that house alarms are better than dogs. We win this point, however,
since the affirmative team never explained why an expensive house alarm is better than a loving dog.

M. They lose this point, howevei since my partner clearly explained that it is possible to
teach a dog to be quiet.
`,* ','','.,',,,*.`66,
N. The affirmative also talked about noise. They said that cats are quieter than dogs.

On our side, we had two main points: protection and help.


111
` Debate Chain
U .

This is the fina- project of this book. In this project you wi review everything that you
have learned so far.
8 0.7 ing

Form groups of six people or less. Choose a resolution that your group is interested in.

One person writes a lAG The second person reads


Dayl and passes it to a second Day Z the lAG and writes a 1NC,
person in the group. and passes both the lAG

and the iNC to a third person.


A. O
0. pi

4,,,,
_/

__ /
,,

The third person reads The fourth person reads all


Day 3 both speeches and writes a Day4 the speeches and adds a
2AC and passes it, and the - 2NC, and passes it , and the
other speeches, on to the next person. other speeches, to the next person.

'',,we


,,',,

I

-

-



-

-
-
-

-
-

/,'
-

__
-=,','-,,4',

,/,

[[Ees

The fifth person reads all , The last nerson reads all
Day5 the speeches, writes the Day 6 ) the speeches, writes the
- negative rebuttal speech affirmative rebuttal and
and passes it, and the other speeches, to the last passes it, and the other speeches, to the teacher.
person.

,,-,[EI
J

,,>/
) /
/=,'.
_/,''',,,,/, .__


,/
,= /,4=-=4
\

_ee
-/,,
`'4, ,,,,=/,_
-

,,',,,./-,
_ ,',',,,I //.
,=4,',

,, ;,_,/,_,,,4,

,.,,
-

_/,//

-

4
-

= ,=/ ,,,,,,,,
,=,=;/

J
=.
,4=,,,=, _'/,,=_
///
' __/___
4-
/,
,,,,- /,,, ,,,',',, ,

, ,/.,,-=*,,,,ee=/,,

_ _ _, ,


-
-

114
How to Judge a Debate
How to judge a debate? Often, both the affirmative and negative team have strong reasons,
supports, and refutations. If you are the judge, it can be difficult to decide who wins and who loses.
The first rule of judging is: relax, and follow your feelings. In a debate, the debaters are supposed
to make a good impression on the judge and audience. If one team made a much stronger
impression on you than the other, they probably debated better than the other team. As you judge
the debate, you want to compare the two teams in three areas: matter, manner; and method.
MATER Matter relates to each team's logic and reasoning. You should ask yourself questions
like: Were their reasons clear and easy to understand?
Did each reason have a good support? Did they refute the other team's reasons and supports
clearly? Did they defend their points well from the other team's refutations? In the rebuttal, did they
explain why their points stand, and the other team's points fall?
MANNER Manner relates to each team's speaking style. You should ask yourself questions like:
Were the speeches easy to understand? Were the speeches interesting? Did they speak clearly, with
good pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary? Did they have good voice, eye
11 contact, gestures, and posture? Did they make a good impression on the
udience? Did they use humor?
METHOD Method relates to each team's organization. You should

7sp ;
poil
Did each team balance making their own points and refuting the other team?
In the rebuttal, did they explain why they have won the debate?
WEIGHT ' Different debate rules give different weights to matter, manner
and method. American debate tends to emphasize matter; British debate tends to
emphasize manner; Australian debate tends to emphasize method. However; all
three aspects of debate are important, and you should consider all three when
deciding which team has won the debate.

15
A very good way to improve your debating skills is to be a judge. Learning to look at a debate from
the judge's point of view will give you a better idea about what persuades a judge and what doesn't.
When judging a debate it is important to flow the debate, and then use your flow notes to fill in the
judging form. Different debate tournaments use different forms. There is a Discover Debate Judging
Form, identical to the one below, available to download from the internet at
http://www.compasspub.com/debate

PART I In this section, judge each speech on Matter Method, and Manner. You must give
each speech a score on a scale of 1 to 10. Then, add up the scores. Usu ly, but not always, the
team with the highest score wins the debate. Occasionally, one team will have poor scores for
Manner, but their Method and Matter persuades the judge to agree with them. Hence, they win the
debate. But that is a rare case. Usually, the winner can be decided by simply adding up the scores.
In the case of a tie, look at the rebuttal speeches. Which team did a better job explaining why they
won the debate?

PART II In this section, write comments about each speech. To help the speakers improve in
the future, it is important to give honest, direct feedback.
You can comment on good things the - - -
speaker should continue to do, or on
biscover bebate Judging Form
bad things the speaker needs to change Name of Jadge:
Resolution:
to become a better debater. You can Speaker Points Rate speeches on a scale of 1-10
"1 1-4 Fuji 5-6 Average: 7-8 Above Average; 9-10 Excellent)

N1
1

ARl
give comments about Matter, Method,

R1
Speeches: 1 AC 1 NC 2AC 2NC
or Nfanner.
Manner: /10 /10 /10 /10
0

l
1l
Method: /10 /10 /10 /10
se1

e
o
1o
Matter: /10 /10 /10 /10
PART III In the final section,
s
0l30
Total: /30 /30 /30 /30
l1

explain which team won and why they (crieral Comments: Give feedback mn cacti of the speeches
30

won. Don't just say they have won 1st AC Speech:


0 110

because they have a higher score. 1st NC Speech:

Explain why they got a higher score. 2nd AC Speech:


For example, explain why you scored 2nd NC Speech
the winning team high in Matter and Negative Rebuttal:
the losing team low in Method. Affirmative Rebuttal:

Decision: In my judgment the svittner of this debate is:


0 The Affimuative Team. 0 The Negattve Team
I believe they have won this debate hecause

Judges Signature

116
" Flow Complete Debate


Listen to a debate on : After the 1AC, stop and
predict the negative's iNC. and take a flow
Now, listen to the
.0

the resolution, "Cape

Town, South Africa, should response. Prepare a iNC in the space below.
host the next Olympic speech in the space
OSc'o.

Games. Take a flow of below.


the 1AC in the space
below.
b

1`8
=n .

After the iNC. stop and predict the Now, listen to the 2AC, and take a
affirmative's response. Prepare a 2AC flow in the space below.
speech in the space below.

OS


'.
.
r
o.

After the 2AC, stop and predict the


Now, listen to the 2NC, and take a

negative's response. Prepare a 2NC flow in the space below.


.O.

speech in the space below.


S


O
I.
'

20
After the 2NC, stop and predict the
negative rebuttal. Prepare a NR speech Now, listen to the NR, and take a
flow in the space below.

O. OI
in the space below.

Scover OeV f

121

After the NR, stop and predict the Now, listen to the AR, and take a

affirmative's last response. Prepare an flow in the space below.


.0

AR speech in the space below.


O OSc
b
'

Look over the flow for the


entire debate. Which team do
you think has won? Why?

122
7
' 1 , ^
rT7 n : T.T TL
, ' , ' `


IOPICS
Choose from these topics.

..
OS

c
MEDICINE / HEALTh


People should ye the


t to die.

' .


06
f
\ eG0a\SS"
better
afl' ` salJew%

.
an
patiehitS
poctors
incUr2e diSe2""
Abortion should
banned/allowed.

G COrn O 0\d

catiOfl should have to study ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,


O Students

O Students should not have to study,eeeeeeee- d.ttetent classes .


strong students students should be in
we
and allowed to___________________
g Students should D e
should not be allowed to_,,,,_-
OStudents

or\S.

pr

endaflgr ed
The gover
speces.
nmeflt should ban
commercial
otect
oufl
\l aCa'onb'
OWe shoutd take
sea

oU\'
whaling.
next vacation 1n

r than homogeneous
countries


ODiverse
countries.
greater effort to
Companies
hire moreshould
minorities."
make at\e' l1
0neS.
Onethi
should rd
be reserved
of all seats
for wo
in
23

*.O.
Advanced Topics
Here are some advanced topics for advanced debaters Once you have tried out the new
1

debate skills that you have learned on some easier topics, you might like to try debating
a more advanced topic. Here are some resolutions taken from actual American debate
tournaments. Good -uck, and enjoy debate I
s

The state should/should not


seek the death
penalty in capital cases involving persons

This country should be pacifist.


under the aze of eighteen.


O I

The government should use force to We should study world history rather
make peace. than domestic history.

The government should force


integration of the sexes in
c
econolmc
The gov ernment
growth
environment.
for
should
the good
sacrifice
of
professional sports.

The people should reject big


government. The go vernment shollld Increase
ion of weapons.
regulat

ould have
Developi' g nations si a democracy.
rather than
dictat0rsh'P Fun is more important than work.

24




1 1:


Strip Speech for Unit 4 (page 56)

X
0 Finally, many more people work in convenience stores. If there are no cigarette sales,
0
convenience stores will lose money and have to cut the num her of workers

Millions of people all over the world work in the tobacco industry and will lose their jobs if

XX X
cigarettes are banned.
0 0

We have talked about smokers' rights, taxes, and jobs. We have shown that cigarette
smoking should be allowed. We beg to propose.

Cigarette taxes make much money for the government.


0 00 0


Our third point is jobs.

According to the tax office, the government collected $40,000,000 dollars in cigarette taxes

X X
last year.

Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen. The resolution today is, "Cigarette smoking should be
allowed."

We believe that people have the right to smoke.

XX X X X X X X
0 0 0

Our first point is smokers' rights.

We, on the affirmative team strongly support this resolution. We have three reasons:
smokers' rights, taxes, and jobs.

According to the Agricultural Ministry, at least 200,000 people work on tobacco farms.
0 0

In addition, according to the Department of Commercial Affairs, as many as 500,000 more


people work for the cigarette companies.

Our second point is taxes.


0 00

People should have the freedom to do what they want, as long as they don't hurt others.

Furthermore, those tax dollars are important. The Minister of Finance said in an interview
recently, "If we lose the taxes from cigarettes, we will have to take money away from
schools and hospitals." (Newshour, May 3, 1998)
According to Dr. Marsha Blacktooth of California University, "Smoking cigarettes in your
own home doesn't hurt anyone else. In a free country, people should be allowed to smoke."
12

(Smokers' Magazine, May, 1999)


This is not true. There are many


safeguards against accidental launch of
nuclear weapons!
LNuclear They
weapons
POINT
areshould
very
CARD beexpensive.I
abolished.

P NT CARO
Nuclear weapons should be banned to
make the world more peaceful. That example is not relevant!
If we have nuclear weapons, other Chernobyl was a nuclear power plant,
countries may be afraid and attack us. not a nuclear weapon!
If we ban nuclear weapons, other
countries won't want to attack us.

P NT CARD

Nuclear weapons should be abolished This point is not true! Nuclear


because they are dangerous! Nuclear weapons are no more expensive
weapons are radioactive and harm the than other weapons.
environment. Remember Chernobyl!

POINT CARD

Nuclear weapons should be abolished This is not true. If we have nuclear


because they are dangerous! weapons, other countries will be
A country might launch a afraid to attack us!
nuclear weapon by accident!

127
``,
```
I

That is not true! Just because you


have a gun, doesn't mean you can
go hunting. You need a car, a hunting
license, and innocent animals to kill.
, Z

I L . ] : r1
That is not relevant! Popular opinion
is often wrong.

L
N People
POINT
guns.
should
if you
Youhave
can
be CARD
allowed
go
a gun.
hunting
to have J


POINT CARD
U

That's not always true. Many gun
People should be allowed to have owners don't know how to use guns,
guns. Having guns is a so they often have accidents. They
basic human right. don't protect themselves,
they shoot themselves!

That's not true. Human rights include


things like freedom of speech.
Human rights don't include the
right to have guns!

29
`

000 0 00 00 0 0


Strip Speech for Unit 8 (page 1 10)
We said that cats are quieter than dogs.

X

The negative team had two points: protection and help.
In conclusion, we have won all three of our points, and the negative has lost both of their's.

X XX X
And clearly, we have won this debate. Thank you.

The negative team loses because they have not listened to, understood, or answered our
points. Let's look at the important points of this debate.
Our first point was cost.
The negative team also loses, their help point. They said that dogs help people, but my
partner clearly showed that this is not always true.
Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen.
The negative team responded that cats make a lot of noise at night. We showed that this is

X
easy to solve: keep your cat inside at night. The negative team never answered this.

In this debate, the resolution has been that cats make better pets than dogs. We, on the


affirmative team, win this debate because we have clearly shown this to be true.

They lose their protection point, because we showed that you can always buy a house
alarm. They said that house alarms are more expensive than dogs, but this is not true. You

X
don't have to feed a house alarm for years, and years, and years.

O Instead, they showed us a book saying that you can teach a dog to be quiet. However,
hooks about teaching don't always work. There are many math textbooks at the
bookstore; it doesn't mean that everyone can learn math easily. Similarly, you cannot
teach all dogs not to bark. So, in genera!, cats are quieter than dogs, an we win this third

X XXXXXX
0

and final point.

Please remember in the second affirmative speech, my partner said that most dogs don't help people.
Only special dogs with special training do.
00

We said that cats are easier to train than dogs.


000 0

Let us look now at our points.


Our third point was about noise.
Our second point was care.
We said that cats are cheaper than dogs.

They responded that you can get dogs for free from the animal shelter. Howevei my partner


explained that dogs from the animal shelter are often difficult to train and are not healthy.
Again the negative never answered this response. Therefore, we win this point, too.

The negative team never answered the point about care at any time. Therefore, we win this point, too. x
X
131
The authors would like to thank the following people:
John McLaughlin for his kind support in promoting the book with us, excellent copyediting skills
and crucial help in the final stages of production.
Joseph Dilenschneider and Robert Weshcler for their keen eyes and superior copyediting skills that
made this book even better the second and third time around.
Graham Bathgate, Allan Murphy, and Jerry Winn at ELEC for piloting parts of the book.
Barbara Wells at Soka University.
Keith Lane for performing the Herculean task of arranging the 1999 Distinguished Lecturer Tour of
Kyushu and allowing a preview of the book at six JALT Chapters. Bill Pellowe for creating the
website of the Kyushu Tour.
All the JALT members in Kyushu, especially Tim Allen in Nagasaki, Peg Orleans in Kitakyushu, and
Joe Tomei in Kumamoto. Special thanks to the faculty of Miyazaki International University for
giving us the opportunity to present to their entire freshmen class. Rieko Nagamasa, Claire Tyers,
Sachiko Ikeda, Sophia and Makoto Shang, and Hisako Sokei in Kagoshima.
Don Hinkleman in Hokkaido for his early support and enthusiasm for this book.
Brent Jones for the invitation to Kobe to speak on debate.
Special thanks to Hali Bogo of Sagami Women's University High School for her advice and support
as the first draft was written and piloted.
The 1998-9 Oral Communication "C" class at Sagami Women's University High School, who sat
through the first testing of this book and suffered through many revisions.
The staff of The English Resource, David Maher, Noriko Ogawa, Miyoko Abe, Akiko Fujita,
Toyoko Nagai, Tony Dobbie, Michio Abe, Miho Amemiya, Reiko Hisatake, Kimie Tanaka, Yoko
Terada, Yumiko Oki, Izumi Kato, Dana Chaffin, Mieko Yoshinaga, Raphael Bourgeois.
Special thanks to Chris "Tiger" Bartlett for logistical support and enthusiasm, and to Chikako
Koyama and Chidori Ando for their hard work and long hours making this book look good.

Michael Lubetsky would like to thank:


Professor Shigeru Matsumoto, for welcoming me to the world of academic debate in Japan, and for
opening up many professional opportunities.
Professor Thomas Winant of International Christian University, for his friendship and encouragement
during my years coaching the ICU Parliamentary Debate Team.
The dedicated and tireless students of the KUEL Parliamentary Debate Committee and the ICU
Debate Society, under whose leadership parliamentary debate in Japan has reached international
standards.
The equally dedicated and tireless teachers of the Nagano English Club League Debate Tournament,
whose pioneering efforts at the high-school level have become a model for the rest of the country.
Jason Gottlieb, Sailaja Sastry, Michael Henderson, Dennis Waechter, Kathleen Hall, Kevin Tuttle,
Laurie Smith, Michael and Inga Tepei Michal Cahlon, and Michael Farago, for their years of

33
support and friendship.
Finally, to Skip Swanson, for joining me on a two year adventure of healing and growth.

Charles LeBeau would like to thank:


My life support system, (Bill, Michael, Yuko, Sal, Satoru, and Adam) for their unswerving loyalty,
encouragement, and faith.
MJ, God's gift to us, ever reminding us that the impossible is always possible--even in the fourth
quarter with the clock running out.
And most of all, my family (Nobuko, Ray, and Jay) with apologies for not being around many
holidays or weekends during the last 3 years.

David Harrington would like to thank:


Mami Ushida, Kikiyo Harrington, and Tsukasa Harrington for showing him that Peace Love and
Happiness is all that really matters. Just know that I love you and that you give me that peace and
happiness.
My sister, Rebecca, my brother, Dick, cousins, Trudy and Nancy and all of their families because
family really is important.
All of the friends that help me keep it together, especially Masami, Kaori, Kagetora, Jonathan,
Keiko, Hiroko, Joe, Tomoko, Pat, Jeff, Pancho, David, and Tanuki master.

Michael H. Lubetsky taught for four years at Sagami Women's University High School, and coached
the debate society at International Christian University. As a student at Princeton, he was the top
speaker at the 1993 North American Debate Championships. He has attended the World University
Debate Championships six times as both a debater and judge, and sat on the Grand Final
Adjudication Pane! in 1997. After four years of teaching and writing, he has embarked on a new
career in Her Majesty's Canadian Foreign Service.

Charles LeBeau was once an aspiring jazz musician a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away. Since
landing in Japan in 1982, he has taught in both the university and corporate worlds. Currently, he
is chief instructor at NIC Tokyo, conducting its two-day Power Presentation and Power Negotiation
seminars. He is co-author with David Harrington of Speaking o2Speech, basic presentation skills
for beginners and author of "Multimedia Presentations" in Multimedia Language Teaching.

David Harrington has taught English to speakers of other languages for over 15 years. David has
taught students of almost every age and circumstance from preschoolers to graduate students. He is
the founder of The English Resource and the co-author of Speaking of Speech, Whats in the Cards,
and Street Speak.

134

Transc pts V

Track 2-15 (p.4)
3. Man 1:

I was watching sports classics on TV the
other day and they had this show about
Michael Jordan. Man! I believe that he
is the greatest athlete of all time.
Nlan 2: I know what you mean. I think so, too.
Listen to the opinion. Do you agree or disagree? Run to
the corner marked agree or disagree. Repeat for each But you know, soccer fans, especially in
opinion. Brazil, think Pele is the greatest athlete
of all time
' The country is better than the city.
Man 1: Yeah, I've heard that. But I still think
2. The city is better than the country. Jordan was a better athlete than Pele.
3. Cats make better pets than dogs.
Man 2: Yeah me, too. Remember that last shot
4. Cats are superior to dogs as pets. in game 6 of the 1998 finals against
5. Math is the most important subject. Utah when he stole the ball and...
6. English is the most important subject.
7. The government should lower taxes. 4. Woman 1: Do you wanna go to a concert this
8. The government should decrease taxes. weekend. There's a big outdoor concert
9. Baseball is more exciting than soccer. in the park.
10.Baseball is not as exciting as soccer. Woman 2: Nah, not really. I think it's going to rain
11.Eating fast food is not healthy. this weekend.
12. Eating fast food is good for you. Woman 1: No it's not... I saw the weather forecast in
13. Spaceships have visited Earth already. the paper. It's gonna be beautiful weather.
14.UFOs have already visited Earth. Woman 2: I doubt it. It always rains when I go to
an outdoor concert.
Track 16-20 (p.
Listen to the four conversations at the party. What are
the people talking about in each conversation? Do the V
speakers agree or disagree? Are they talking about an
opinion of fact, value or policy? Fill in the boxes.
Track 21-27 (pp.l8, 19)
1. Man: Would you like something to eat? I'll go Listen to the short conversations. What is each person's
get you one of those little sandwiches over opinion? What reason do they give? Write the reason
there.
under each picture. The first one is done for you.
Woman: Oh, Thank you. Can you get me one of
those sandwiches on whole wheat brown 1. Archie: Look at that woman on TV. She sure does
bread? know how to do those math problems.
Man: Why? Don't you like white bread? Math is probably the most important
Woman: Yeah, white bread is OK hut I think that subject in school.
brown bread tastes better. Ethel: Really? What makes you say that?
Man: Really? I've never liked brown bread very Archie: Well, because we use math everyday of
much our lives.
Ethel: Oh!
2. Man: Would you mind not smoking?
Woman: Excuse me? 2. Guy: Science fiction movies are so cool. Don't
Man: I said, "Would you mind not smoking?" you think?
Woman: Are you serious? This is a party. People Marilyn: Un huh. Oh, I love science
always smoke at parties, and I think that I fiction movies, too. Ya know, I'm certain
have the right to smoke in here. that UFOs have already visited Earth.
Man: I'm sorry, but cigarette smoke makes me Guy: Why is that?
sick. Marilyn: Well, it's because many people have seen
Woman: Well, why don't you go outside on the them
Icony?
Man: I think I have the right to be in here. Smokers 3. Son: Mom, I'm sure glad we live in the city.
should smoke outside on the balcony. Mom: Oh, Really? Why is that, hun?

35
Son: Living in the city is better than living in the Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Today we are debating
country because there are so many cool the resolution, "Soccer is a better sport than baseball."
computer stores in the city. We on the affirmative team strongly support this resolution.
Mom: Ah, that's nice honey. We have four reasons: cost, excitement, simplicity, and
color.
4. Chuck: Look at this, Harry! Another tax increase. Our first point is cost. Soccer tickets are much cheaper
Harry: Yeah, I know what you mean. The than baseball tickets. In this city, the price of a ticket to a
government should lower taxes. baseball game is about three times higher than the price
Chuck: Yeah! The government should lower taxes of a ticket to a soccer game.
because lower taxes help the economy to Our second point is excitement. Soccer is much more
grow. exciting than baseball. In baseball, 90% of the time the
Harry: Right! players are just standing around waiting. Soccer has action
all the time.
5. Wife: What are you reading? Our third point is simplicity. Soccer is much easier than
Hubby: The sports page, dear. There's an article baseball. Baseball rules take hours to explain, and you
here about soccer. need a bat, glove, and baseball diamond to play. Soccer
Wife: Oh, I like soccer. Soccer is so much more rules are easy, and all you need is a soccer ball and a field.
interesting and exciting than baseball. Our fourth point is color. Soccer uniforms are much more
Hubby: Mm? What makes you say that? colorful than baseball uniforms. The New York Yankees,
Wife: In soccer the action never stops. In baseball, for example, have one of the most boring uniforms in the
players just stand around a lot. world.
In conclusion, we have talked about cost, excitement,
6. Radio: Food scientists have discovered that eating simplicity, and color. We have shown that soccer is a much
fast food is not healthy. better sport than baseball. For these reasons we beg to
Driver: Hmm? I wonder why they said that? It propose.
must be because fast food is high in fat.
Radio: The reason, the scientists said, was because Track 30 (p.52)
fast food is high in fat. Listen and fill in the words.
Driver: I thought so.
Thank you ladies and gentlemen. We are debating the
Radio: Stay tuned for sports next on WFAT.
resolution "Soccer is a better sport than baseball." We on
the affirmative team strongly support this resolution. We
I have 4 reasons: cost, excitement, simplicity, and color.

Track 31 (p.55)
Track 28 (p.35)
Listen and fill in the missing words.
Listen and check your answers.
Ladies and gentlemen, we have talked about cost,
Thank you. Thank you. Thank you. excitement, simplicity, and color and have clearly shown
Ladies and gentlemen, the government should raise taxes. that soccer is a better sport than baseball. For these
The government needs more money to provide better reasons we beg to propose.
services.
First, according to the Finance Minister,
important services will have to be cut if taxes are not Track 32 (p.5o)
increased. Part 1
Second, it will take 15 million more dollars to complete Listen and check your answers.
construction on that new subway. Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Today the resolution
Third, without more money the government can't provide is: "Smoking should he banned."
training for people without jobs.
And finally, tax increases in Sweden have improved the We, on the affirmative team, strongly support this
quality of government services for everyone in that country. resolution. We have 3 reasons: health, hospital costs, and
Thank you for your support. pollution.
Our first point is "Health."
LI 1l
Cigarettes fill your lungs with poisonous chemicals
Track 29 (p.48) causing cancer and lung disease.
Listen to the speech and fill in the blanks with the numbers
from the house. Some numbers may be used more than According to the American Cancer Society, every cigarette
once The first one is done for you. you smoke shortens your life by approximately 7 minutes.

136
Furthermore, this has directly affected my life. My According to the Tax Office, the government collected
grandfather died of lung cancer two years ago. It was a 400 million dollars in cigarette taxes last year.
long illness, and it caused my family much stress and
sadness. Furthermore, those tax dollars are important. The
Minister of Finance said in an interview recently, "If we
Our second point is "hospital costs." lose the taxes from cigarettes, we will have to take
money away from schools and hospitals." (NewsHour,
Smokers cost the country a Jot of money. May 3, 1998)

This is because smokers get cancer and other diseases Our third point is "jobs."
more than non-smokers. Smokers miss more work and

spend more time in the hospital. Millions of people all over the world work in the tobacco
industry and will lose their jobs if cigarettes are banned.
Also, according to the Ministry of Health, the average
smoker requires over $200,000 in hospital costs over the According to the Agricultural Ministry, at least 200,000
course of their lives. The total bill for the country is over people work on tobacco farms.
$50,000,000 a year.
In addition, according to the Department of Commercial
Our third point is "Pollution." Affairs, as many as 500,000 more people work for
cigarette companies.
Cigarettes make the air dirty.
Finally, many more people work in convenience stores. If
This is because when people smoke, they blow many there are no cigarette sales, convenience stores will lose
poisonous gases into the air. money and have to cut the number of workers.

This is a big problem on train platforms, where many We have talked about smokers' rights, taxes, and jobs.
people ignore the "no smoking" signs and blow smoke in We have shown that cigarette smoking should be allowed.
your face. We should ban cigarettes to get rid of this We beg to propose.
problem.

We have talked about health, hospital costs, and pollution. ri


We have shown clearly that cigarettes should be banned.
We beg to propose.
Track 34 (p.71)
Listen to an affirmative speech on the resolution: "It's
Track 33 .56) better to be married than single." Take notes in the left
Part 2 column. For each reason, think of a refutation. Write
Listen and check your answers. your rcfutations in the right column.
Thank you Ladies and Gentlemen. The resolution today Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. We are debating the
is "Cigarette smoking should be allowed." resolution: "It's better to be married than single." We on
the affirmative team strongly support this resolution. We
We, on the affirmative team strongly support this have four reasons: housework, cost, love, and advice.
resolution. We have 3 reasons: smokers' rights, taxes, Our first point is "housework." If you are married,
and jobs. your husband or wife can help you around the house.
Your wife or husband can help you with the cooking or
Our first point is "smokers' rights." cleaning, which takes a lot of time. According to a new
government survey, husbands and wives now help equally
We believe that people have the right to smoke. in the household. It makes your life iiuch easier.
Our second point is "cost." It is much cheaper to be
People should have the freedom to do what they want, as married than to be single. This is because you can share
long as they don't hurt others. expenses such as food or rent. Also, married people pay
lower taxes than single people.
According to Dr. Marsha Blacktooth of California Our third point is "love." Marriage increases the amount
University, "Smoking cigarettes in your own home doesn't of love in your life. It's wonderful to come home every
hurt anyone else. In a free country, people should be night to someone who cares about you. It's sad to be
allowed to smoke." (Smokers' Magazine, May, 1999) home at night all by yourself.
Our fourth point is advice. If you are married, you can
Our second point is "taxes." talk about your problems with your husband or wife. It
helps to talk to other people about your problems.
Cigarette taxes make much money for the government.

37
Keeping your feelings to yourself is not healthy. It has affirmative team strongly support this resolution. We have
been shown that married people live longer than single three reasons: health, animal rights, and the environment.
people. Our first point is "health." It is not healthy for people to
Ladies and gentlemen, we've talked about housework, eat meat. Meat, especially beef, is very, very high in fat.
cost, love, and advice, and have clearly shown that "It's Meat is also more difficult to digest than fruits or vegetables.
better to be married than single." For these reasons we Vegetables have all the vitamins, minerals, and protein
beg to propose. that we need to live. If we eat only fruits and vegetables,
we will be much healthier.
Our second point is "animal rights." Eating meat violates
the rights of animals. It is wrong to kill an animal or take
a baby animal away from its mother. We should not cause
animals to feel pain and suffering. We should respect all
Track 35-4 1 (p.83) living beings.
Part 1
Our third point is "the environment." Raising animals
A debater is proving the resolution: "Cats arc better pets hurts the environment. We cut down rain forests to make
than dogs." Her first point is that cats are cheaper than farms for cows. We also destroy life in the sea, catching
dogs. She has six supports, but each support has a problem. more and more fish. Vegetables need less space and grow
Listen and match each support with its problem. The first much more quickly. They do less damage to the
one is done for you. environment. By eating only vegetables, we help protect
My first point is cost, cats are cheaper than dogs. our planet.
1. According to the May 1999 issue of Animal Weekly We have talked about "health," "animal rights," and "the
magazine, cats make far better pets than dogs environment," and have shown that all people should be
because cats are less expensive. vegetarian. We beg to propose.

2. Cats cost only $100 while, on the other hand, dogs Track 43 (pp.90, 91)
cost $200 or more. Now, listen to the first half of a negative speech against
the affirmative speech. Check the refutations you hear.
3. Also, according to my English teacher, cats are
Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Today, we are debating
cheaper than dogs because cats are smaller.
the resolution, "All people should be vegetarian." We on
the negative team strongly oppose this resolution. First, I
4. Furthermore, in her book Cats for Me, famous pet
will refute the affirmative side, then I will give our points.
expert Dr. Woof, claimed that keeping a cat as a pet
Their first reason was "health." they said that it is not
cost less than keeping a dog because of their size
healthy to eat meat, since it is high in fat and difficult to
differences and the amount of food they eat.
digest. We have three responses. First, it is not true that
meat is difficult to digest. Our bodies are made to digest
5. According to the pamphlet Ten Reasons to Buy a
both meat and vegetables. Second, it is not always true
Cat published in 1998 by the Necko Cat Food
that meat is higher in fat than vegetables. Some fruits
Company, cats are the economical choice because the
and vegetables, such as bananas and avocados, have a lot
cost of feeding a cat is lower than the cost of feeding
of fat. On the other hand, some kinds of meat, such as
a dog.
turkey, have very little fat.
Their second reason was "animal rights." They said that
'. Finally, at one pet store I saw recently there was a
animals have a right not to suffer. We have two responses.
cat on display in the front window priced at $100
First, it is not true that animals have rights. Rights come
while the dog on display in the very same window
from our country's constitution, and our constitution says
was priced at over $350. This statistically proves
nothing about animals. Second, animal rights are not as
that dogs on the average are more expensive than
important as human rights, and if we stop fishing or raising
cats, thus cats would make the cheaper pet.
animals, millions of people in the food industry will lose
their jobs.
Their third reason was "the environment." They said that
fishing and raising animals harm nature. We have two
responses. First, this is not necessarily true. It is possible
Track 42 (pp.90, 91) to raise animals and catch fish without harming the
Listen to an affirmative speech on the resolution "All environment. Second, it is not true that animal farming
people should be vegetarian." Fill in the blanks in the hurts the environment, since animals produce the carbon
affirmative's house. dioxide that plants require. We must keep the balance of
nature.
Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. We are debating the
resolution: "All people should he vegetarian." We on the

38
Track 44 (pp.9O, 91 ) Track 46 (p.9?')
Listen to the second half of the speech and fill in the Part 2
blanks in the negative's house. Listen and check your answers.
I have refuted the affirmative points; now I will give ours. Thank you, Ladies and gentlemen. Today, the resolution
We have three points: "health," "the economy," and is: "All people should have to serve in the army." We on
"taste." the negative team strongly oppose this resolution.
Our first point is "health." We must eat meat and fish in
order to stay healthy. Meat has a lot of protein, and fish First, I will refute the affirmative's three points, then I will
has both protein and iodine. It's difficult to get these give our own.
nutrients from vegetables.
Our second point is "the economy." Millions of men and Their first point was strength.
women work in agriculture, fishing, and the food industry.
If we stop eating meat, they will lose their jobs. This will They said that if we have national service, our army will
cause much hardship. be stronger. We have two responses.
Our third point is "taste." Meat tastes good, and many
countries use meat in their national dishes. Can you It is not true that national service results in a stronger
imagine Thai food without shrimp, Japanese food without army.
sushi, American food without hamburgers, or German
food without Wiener schnitzel? Eating meat is enjoyable, If you serve in the army for only 2 years, you don't learn
and an important part of our culture. enough to be a good soldier. It's better to have a
We have talked about "health," "the economy," and professional army, where people serve between five and
"taste,' and have shown that we should not all be twenty years and receive more training.
vegetarian. For these reasons, we beg to oppose...
Furthermore, if the young people are forced to join and
Track 45 (p.9 don't want to be there, they will have a poor attitude and
Part 1 weaken the army.
Listen to a first affirmative constructive speech on the
resolution, "All people should have to serve in the army." Their second point was equality.
Take notes.
They said if we have national service, citizens will share
Thank you, Ladies and gentlemen. Today, the resolution the risk of dying in a war.
is: "All people should have to serve in the army." We on
the affirmative team strongly support this resolution. We However, it is totally untrue that national service treats
have three reasons: strength, equality, and jobs. everyone equally.
Our first point is strength. National service will give us a
stronger army. If all people serve in the army, we will Rich people can always find excuses to avoid national
always have a large body of trained, ready-to-fight soldiers service. During the Vietnam War, Bill Clinton avoided
in case of an emergency. In Israel, all people serve 2 or 3 serving in the army by moving to England.
years in the army. This has made Israel, which is a very
small country, one of the most powerful in the world. Their third point was jobs.
Our second point is equality. National service promotes
greater equality and fairness in a country. In a war, many They believe that we can reduce unemployment by putting
soldiers are killed, causing great sadness to their family all young people in the army.
and friends. We believe that all citizens of a country should
share equally in this danger. If you have a volunteer army, First, this point is not necessarily true.
many people join simply because they are poor. This means
that poor people die in war, but rich people do not. France, for example, has national service, but also very
Our third point is jobs. National service will lower high unemployment, especially among young people.
unemployment. Because most young people will be in
the army, there will be fewer people looking for jobs. Second, there are easier ways for the government to solve
This will make it easier for other people to find work. unemployment.
Also, soldiers receive training in things like computers,
driving, leadership, and so on. This training will help It can always create jobs by building more roads and train
them find jobs after they leave the army. lines.
We have talked about strength, equality, and jobs, and
have shown that all people should have to serve in the I have refuted their three points; now I will give the
army. We beg to propose... negative points. We have three points: cost, freedom, and
war.

39
Our first point is cost. Track 49 p.112, 113)
The 1st Negative Constructive Speech
National service is very expensive. Every year, one soldier
costs the government over $100,000. If we multiply Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Today, the affirmative
$100,000 by the number of young people in this country, team is proposing that cats are better pets than dogs. We
we see that the cost is much too high. The money would on the negative team strongly oppose this resolution.
better spent on hospitals and schools. First, I will refute the affirmative points, and then I will
give our own.
Our second point is freedom. The affirmative talked about "cost." They said that cats
are cheaper than dogs. I have three responses. First, this
National service violates human rights. In a free country, is not always true. Many dogs are cheaper than cats; you
people should be able to choose their own jobs. can even get a dog for free from an animal shelter.
Second, it's not always true that dogs eat more than cats,
Our third point is war since many dogs are quite small. Third, the price difference
between dogs and cats is not significant. Dogs tend to be
National service will increase the chance of wars with only a bit more expensive. They tried to prove their point
other countries. If we have a large army, other countries by quoting from Pet Magazine, a source that I have never
will be afraid and have to increase their armies, too. In heard of. Have you?
general, when two neighboring countries have very large The affirmative also talked about "noise." I have two
armies, they are more likely to use them in time of responses. First, that point is not true. Cats are often very
conflict. noisy, particularly at night! There are at least S cats near
my house, and they often spend all night screaming at
We have talked about cost, freedom, and war, and have each other and waking me up. Secondly, this point is not
shown that all people should not have to serve in the important because it's very easy to solve. You can teach a
army. For these reasons, we beg to oppose. dog to be quiet. Cat teaching, however, is impossible!
Now, let me present our case. We have two points:
protection, and help.
Our first point is "protection." Dogs protect you and ,your
home. Cats don't. Imagine that you have gone to bed and
have gone to sleep. And suddenly, you hear a window
Track 47 (pp.1 12, 113) smash! A thief has entered your house! If you have a dog,
Listen to the following debate on the resolution: "Cats it harks loudly and can chase the thief away. On the other
are better pets than dogs." hand, if you are a cat owner with no dog, well maybe the
Finish flowing the debate. thief will steal your things, and even steal your life!
Our second point is "help." Dogs often help you around
Track 48 (pp.l 12, 113) the house. For example, they can bring you the newspaper,
The 1st Affirmative Constructive Speech or get your slippers. If you're blind, dogs can guide you
around. Cats do none of these things. Cats just eat your
Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Today, the resolution food and then run off and forget all about you.
is: "Cats are better pets than dogs." We on the affirmative We have talked about protection and help, and have shown
team strongly support this resolution. We have three that dogs are much better pets than cats. We must oppose.
points: cost, care, and noise.
Our first point is "cost." Cats are much cheaper than Track 50 (pp.1 12, 113)
dogs. According to Pet Magazine, the average cost for a
The 2nd Affirmative Constructive Speech
cat is $50 dollars while a dog costs $75. That's 50%
more than a cat! Furthermore, cats are smaller than dogs, Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. My partner and I are
so they eat less food. Less food means less money. proving that cats are better pets than dogs. First, I will
Now, our second point is "care." Cats are much easier to refute the negative team's points, and then I will support
care for than dogs. Cats, they clean themselves and walk my partner's.
themselves. If you have a dog, however, you must take The negative's first point was "protection." They said
care of it everyday. It's a large burden. that dogs can protect your home. But this is not important
Now, our third point is "noise." Cats are much quieter because it is easily solved. A house-alarm system is cheaper
than dogs. Dogs bark at cats, dogs bark at people, dogs and more effective than a dirty, noisy, smelly dog.
bark at other dogs, and dogs even bark at the moon! Their second point was "help." They said that dogs are
Cats, on the other hand, meow quietly and won't disturb more useful than cats. We have two responses. First, it is
your neighbors. not always true that dogs are helpful. Most dogs just lie
Oh! Well, we have talked about cost, care, and noise, and around the house all day. Well of course, some dogs do
have clearly shown that cats, urn, are better pets than help blind people, or offer special help, but they require
dogs. We beg to propose! very expensive and special training. Second, it is not true
that cats are useless. Cats catch mice, which is a far, far
better thing than any dog has ever done before.
40
Well, I have refuted their two points. Now let me support Our second point is that dogs are more useful than cats.
my partner's points. The affirmative team responded that cats catch mice. I
Our first point was "cost." My partner showed that cats have three responses. First, this is not a significant problem.
are cheaper than dogs, and that they cost less to feed. Most people don't have problems with mice. Second, even
The negative team said that this is not always true because if they do have problems with mice, they can easi solve
you can get a stray animal for free. But stray dogs are this problem by buying cheap mousetraps.
often dirty, sick, unhealthy beasts. We think you should Third, it is not always true that cats catch mice, some cats
always get a new pet from a professional breeder. This are very lazy and prefer pet food.
makes sure that the pet is healthy and easy to train. From In conclusion, we have shown that dogs protect you and
a professional breeder, dogs are almost always more that dogs help you. Therefore, ladies and gentlemen, please
expensive than cats. The negative also said that the cats join us in opposing the resolution that cats are better pets
are just a little hit cheaper than dogs, and the difference than dogs. Thank you.
is not significant. This is not true, Ladies and gentlemen,
particularly for poor people. For poor people, even $5 a Track 52 (pp.1 12, 113)
week is significant. The Negative Rebuttal
Our second point was "care." We clearly showed that cats
are much easier to keep than dogs. The negative team Thank you ladies and gentlemen. Today's resolution is:
must have agreed because they had no answer to that "Cats are better pets than dogs." We on the negative
p nt at all!
team have clearly shown that this is not true. Let us look
Our third point was "noise." We explained that cats are again at the important points in this debate.
quieter than dogs. The negative team said that this was First, the affirmative talked about "cost." They lose this
not true since cats often make noise at night. But this is point because they have not proved cats are cheaper than
easy to solve: cats only make noise when they are outside dogs. Moreover, we have shown that you can get a perfectly
with other cats. So, if you keep your cat inside, there is healthy pet for free from an animal shelter.
no problem. The negative team also said that you can The affirmative team also talked about "noise." They said
teach a dog to be quiet. This is not true. Dogs almost cats are quieter than dogs. They lose this point, however,
always bark whenever a stranger walks by their home, since my partner gave expert evidence showing that dogs
no matter how many times, and in how many ways you can indeed be trained to be quiet.
teach them not to. On our side, we have two main points: "protection" and
"help."
We see that the negative team's points are all not true, not
important, and not relevant, but our points are all strong, Our first point was "protection." We explained that a dog
true, and relevant. We have shown very clearly again that can protect you from thieves. They responded by saying
cats make better pets than dogs. And we beg to propose. that house alarms are better than dogs. We win this point
because they never explained why an expensive alarm
Track 51 (pp.ll2, 113) system is better than a loving dog.
Our second point was "help." We showed that dogs are
The 2,ld Negative Constructive Speech more useful than cats. The affirmative team responded
Ladies and gentlemen! Dogs are beautiful, friendly, loyal, that cats catch mice. But this is not important. My partner
loving animals. My partner and I strongly believe that showed that mousetraps are a cheap, easy solution.
they make much better pets than those selfish cats! Therefore, we win this point because the affirmative team
Let us look at the affirmative points. They have said that never showed that cats have any significant use.
cats are cheaper than dogs. But, as my partner said, this Overall, we win our key points, and we have refuted the
is not always true. You can get a dog for free from an affirmative team. Therefore, we win this debate and ask
animal shelter. The affirmative team doesn't want animals you to choose dogs instead of cats! Thank you.
from the shelter. They prefer to waste lots of money on a
pet from an expensive professional breeder, rather than a Track 53 (pp.1 12, 113)
free animal from a shelter. Many people have adopted The Affirmative Rebuttal
beautiful, healthy, and free pets from animal shelters.
The affirmative also said that cats are quieter than dogs, Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. In this debate, the
since dogs bark at strangers. But we already explained resolution has been that cats make better pets than dogs.
that you can train dogs to be quiet. The book, How to We, on the affirmative team win this debate because we
Train Your Pet, by Dr. Caleb (1999), has a whole chapter have clearly shown this to be true.
on how to teach your dogs to be quiet. The negative team loses because they have not listened
Let us look now at our points. Our first point was to, understood, or answered our points. Let's look at the
"protection." The second affirmative speaker said that important points of this debate.
this is not important because it is easily solved with an The negative team had two points: "protection" and
alarm system. Well, ladies and gentlemen, an alarm system "help." They lose their "protection" point because we
is expensive, and money, ladies and gentlemen, is always showed that you can always buy a house alarm. They
important! Besides, you can't cuddle up and pet an alarm said that house alarms are more expensive than dogs, but
this is not true. You don't have to feed a house alarm for
system, can you?

141
years and years and years. The negative team also loses Our third point is "national unity." The ympics would
their "help" point. They said that dogs help people, hut bring South African people together. Right now, South
my partner clearly showed that this is not always true. Africa is divided by race, language, and wealth. Sports
Please remember in the 2d affirmative speech, my partner tend to make everyone in the country proud and help
said that most dogs don't help people. Only special dogs, promote unity. To quote Archbishop Desmond Tutu-a
with special training, do. They never answered this winner of the Nobel Peace Prize-"Sports can be a vehicle
refutation. So, this point falls. to reconcile our Rainbow Nation. We can light a torch
Let us look now at our p nts. Our first p nt was cost. that will bring prosperity to our country and all the people
We said that cats are cheaper than dogs. They responded of Africa."
that you can get dogs for free from the animal shelter. In conclusion, we have talked about "money," "fairness
However, my partner explained that dogs from the animal to Africa," and "national unity," and have shown that
shelter are often difficult to train and are not healthy. South Africa should host the next Olympic Games. For
Again, the negative never answered this response. these reasons, we beg to propose.
Therefore, we win this point, too.
Our second point was "care." We said that cats are easier Stop here and predict the negative response
to train than dogs. The negative team never answered this
point at any time during the debate! Therefore, we win Track 56 (p.1 18)
this point, too. The 1st Negative Constructive Speech
Our third point was about noise. We said that cats are
quieter than dogs. The negative team responded that cats Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Today, we are debating
make a lot of noise at night. We showed that this is easy the resolution, "Cape Town should host the next Olympic
to solve: keep your cat inside at night. The negative team Games." We, on the negative team, strongly oppose this
never answered this. Instead, they showed us a book saying resolution. First, I will refute the affirmative points, and
that you can teach a dog to be quiet. However, books then I will give our own.
about teaching don't always work. There are many math Their first point was "money." They said that South Africa
textbooks at the bookstore; it doesn't mean that everyone would make a lot of money from the Olympics. We have
can learn math easily. Similarly, you cannot teach all dogs two responses. First, it is not true that the Olympics always
not to bark. So, in general cats are quieter than dogs, and make a profit. The 1976 games in Montreal Canada lost
we win this third and final point. six hundred and thirty million dollars! The Canadian
In conclusion, we have won all three of our points, and people are still paying for that even today! Second, it is
the negative has lost both of theirs. And clearly, we have probably not true that South Africa can make money off
won this debate. Thank you. the Olympics. South Africa doesn't have enough rich
people to buy tickets, or enough large companies to
sponsor events.
Ir Their second point was "fairness to Africa." They said
that Africa has never hosted the ympics, and therefore
should have a turn. This is not important. This is not
Track 54 (p.1 18) relevant for two reasons. First, this is not relevant because
Flowing a complete debate many places have never hosted the Olympics, such as India
or China, both of which have more people than all of
Track 55 (p.1 18) Africa. Second, it is not relevant because the International
The 1st Affirmative: Constructive Speech Olympic Committee chooses the host by deciding who
will host the best Olympic games, not who hasn't had a
Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. Today we are debating turn yet.
the resolution, "Cape Town, South Africa, should host Their third point was "national unity." They said that
the next Olympic Games." We, on the affirmative team the ympic Games would bring South Africans together.
strongly support this resolution. We have three reasons, This is clearly not true for two reasons. First, it is nor true
"money," "fairness to Africa," and "national unity." that all South Africans will support the ympics.
Our first point is "money." South Africa can make a lot Probably many people, particularly the poor people, will
of money from the Olympic Games which can he used to be angry when they see the government wasting money on
build more roads, more hospitals, and more schools for stadiums and swimming pools instead of building much
its people. In recent years, the Olympics have been very needed schools, hospitals, libraries, roads, and health
profitable. The 1996 Olympic Games made millions of programs for the poor.
dollars for the city of Atlanta, as the 1992 Games did for Second, it is not true that the ympic Games will benefit
Barcelona.
all people of South Africa. It will only help people in Cape
Our second point is "fairness to Africa." Africa is the Town. People who live outside Cape lown will be very
only continent that has never hosted the Olympic Games, angry and feel ignored. Clearly, ladies and gentlemen, an
and it too should have a chance. Europe has hosted the ympics hosted by South Africa will further divide the
Olympics 27 times, North America, 12 times, Asia, 4 country, not unify it.
times, Australia twice, and Latin America, once. Africa, I have refuted the affirmative points, now I will give ours.
which the world so often ignores, should have a turn. We have two: "cost" and "other cities."
142
Our first point is "cost." We believe that the Olympics also never hosted the Games. But this is not relevant. India
will cost South Africa too much money. To host the and China are countries, while Africa is a continent. The
ympics, the government will have to build many negative team also said that giving new countries a chance
stadiums and swimming pools. The total cost may come to host the Games is not important. We strongly disagree!
to millions of dollars. South Africa is a poor country, and The true Olympic spirit is about promoting international
the money should be used to build roads, hospitals, and communication and understanding. Africa is an important
schools, not Olympic sized swimming pools! part of the world community and should be given the
Our second point is "other cities." There are other cities chance to host this important world event.
better able to host the Olympics. For example, Toronto, Our third point was "national unity." We explained that
Canada already has many beautiful stadiums and a lot of the ympics would bring pride and unity to all South
experience hosting sporting events. It also has many large Africans. The negative responded that the Olympic Games
companies able to act as sponsors. Beijing is another city will anger poor people, as well as people outside of Cape
that could host the ympics better than Cape Town. Town. This is totally not true! We know from experience
In conclusion, we have talked about "cost," and "other that hosting the Olympics makes an entire country proud.
cities," and have shown that Cape Town should not host Also, the Olympics will attract more tourists and more
the next ympic Games. We must oppose! money to all of South Africa.
In conclusion, we have talked about "money," "fairness
Track 57 (p.1 19) to Africa," and "national unity," and have clearly shown
The 2nd Affirmative Constructive Speech that South Africa would benefit from hosting the Olympic
Games. We strongly beg to propose. Thank you.
Ladies and gentlemen, hosting the ympics would have
great benefits in South Africa, Africa, and the rest of the Track 58 (p.l 20)
world, which is why we must support this resolution The 2" Negative Constructive Speech
today.
Let me first refute the negative team's points, and then I Ladies and gentlemen, hosting the Olympics would be a
will support my partner's. big waste of time and a bigger waste of money for the
Their first point was "cost." They said that the ympics people of South Africa. We strongly oppose this resolution.
would cost South Africa a lot of money. We have two First I will refute the affirmative points, then I will support
responses. First, it is not true that preparing for the my partner's.
Olympics will be expensive for South Africa. Many people Their first point was "money." They said that no ympics
in South Africa don't have jobs, so labor is very, very has lost money in the last 20 years. Well, ladies and
cheap. This will keep costs down. Second, the problem of gentlemen, in the last 20 years there have only been five
cost is easy to solve, since most of the money will come Olympics! Five is not a significant number. It is a very,
from sponsors all over the world. The South African very small sample size of all the Olympic Games. They
people will not have to spend much money preparing for also said that the Olympics will have international
the Games. sponsors. That is true, but again it is insignificant! The
Their second point was "other cities." They said that other amount of international sponsorship is much, much less
cities like Toronto or Beijing would be better Olympic than the amount of money required from the host country.
hosts because they have more experience and money. We Their second point was "fairness to Africa." They said
have two responses. First, experience is not important. that Africa is a continent and China and India are
Most ympic cities are first time hosts, and Cape Town countries. This is totally irrelevant! China has more people
has experience hosting large African sporting events. than all of Africa. Just because Africa has more space
Second, it is not important that Toronto has lots of money. doesn't mean it should get the Olympic Games.
Toronto is a very expensive city compared to Cape Town, Their third point was about "national unity." They said
so its money will not buy as much. that the past has shown that the Olympics make a country
I have refuted their points, now let me support our points. proud. We think that South African people would be much
Our first point was "money." We showed that the Olympics more proud if money was used to improve education and
could make a lot of money for the South African people. to improve health care. My partner has explained that
The negative team responded that the ympics could poor people will feel angry if the government spends lots
lose money. This is not necessarily true. Every Olympics of money on sports stadiums. They have not answered
over the past 20 years has made a profit. We have learned this point.
from Montreal's mistakes. Also, the negative team said I have refuted the affirmative points. Let me now give our
that South Africa doesn't have rich companies to sponsor p nts.
the Games or rich people to pay for tickets. This is not Our first point was "cost." They said that in South Africa
important. Most Olympic sponsors are international labor is cheap. This may be true, hut it is not important.
companies, and many rich people will travel to South Building materials are very expensive, and the government
Africa to see the Games. will have to borrow money at high interest rates. So, as
Our second point was "fairness to Africa." We explained we said before, the ympic Games will be expensive for
that Africa should have a chance to host the ympics. South Africa.
The negative team responded that India and China have

143
Our second point was "other cities." Everything the Track 60 (p.1 22)
affirmative said about Cape Town can also be said about The Affirmative Rebuttal
Beijing, plus, Beijing has more money, more sports
stadiums, and more and better roads. Ladies and gentlemen! Today we have been debating the
We have shown again, ladies and gentlemen, that the resolution, "Cape Town should host the next Olympic
South African government should not waste its money on Games," and we have clearly shown this to be true. Let's
playing sports! We must oppose! look at the major points of this debate.
The negative points were "cost," and "other cities."
Track 5 p.121) In the negative's first point about cost, they said that
The Negative Rebuttal South Africa has high interest rates and is expensive. Of
course it will cost money to prepare for the Olympics.
Thank you ladies and gentlemen. We have been debating However, the Olympics will also bring in lots of money.
the resolution "Cape Town should hold the next Olympic The negative loses this point because they've never shown
Games," and we have clearly shown that this is not true. why the cost would be greater than the income. We, on
Let's look at the major points of this debate. the other hand, have shown that the last 5 ympics have
The affirmative points were "money," "fairness to Africa," made a profit.
and "national unity." They lose the point about money Their second point was other cities. The negative team
because they never showed how Cape Town would make talked a little bit about Beijing and a little bit about
money from the Olympics. The examples that they gave, Toronto but didn't make a clear organized case for either
such as Atlanta, are not relevant. These are rich cities city. They didn't even talk about this in their rebuttal! So,
from rich countries with rich people and rich companies. they lose this point because they did not develop it.
They lose their point about fairness to Africa because Our main points were "money," and "fairness." As I said
they never refuted our example of China. They said that before, we win the point about money because we have
the continent of Africa has never hosted the Olympics. So offered evidence from the last five Olympics. The Olympics
what? That is totally irrelevant! Africa is a big piece of will bring in lots of money to South African people and
land surrounded by water. China is a big piece of land improve their lives.
surrounded by more land and water. We also talked about fairness to Africa. The Olympics
They lose their point about national unity because they will bring honor and respect to the entire continent. The
never explained why poor people who don't have enough negative has never denied this. Africa deserves greater
food to eat would enjoy new sports stadiums in their respect and recognition. Therefore, we win this point, also.
neighborhoods. The Olympic Games will give South Africa money, jobs,
Our most important p nt was "cost." We win this p nt and world recognition. Clearly, Cape Town should host
because they never gave any evidence that international this great event. We strongly propose!
companies would give enough money to pay for the
Olympics. Without international sponsorship, the South
African government will have to borrow money at very
high interest rates. This is a big cost to the country.
We win this debate because the most important point was
money. We have clearly won this point. Therefore, we
strongly oppose today's resolution.

144

Refuting Source

In Unit 5, you learned the five steps for stating a refutation. Refuting a source is very similar.

Read the five steps below for refuting a source. Read the example refutation on the left.
C

Then, use the steps to make your own ref utations.


1 5.

SIGNPOST
.

Their first point was...


Their rst point
was money.
2
'P

REPHRASE
.5

They said that... because... They said that cats are


cheaper than dogs
because Dr. Silvercat
said so.

3 NEGATION
This is not necessarily true. This is not necessarily
true.

4 HY
The evidence they gave is very questionable. The evidence they
Their evidence was not valid. gave is very
questionable.

5. RATIONALE
They gave no source for... They didn't explain
They gave no date for the source on... why Dr. Silvercat is an
The source for... is outdated. expert in this area.
They didn't explain how the source reached th
conclusion.
They gave no explanation for why...
Not enough data was collected.
Their study didn't collect data properly.
They didn't explain why the source is an expert in
this area.
Their source is not an expert in this area because...
The source is biased.
Their expert is biased.

80
Asking Questions

U
Most debates have a question and answer session between speeches where the debaters can
question the other team. Here are six files for questioning supports.


C

0 If there is no source given


What is the source for that information?



Where did that information come from?



1 5.'
Is there a source for that information?

P
0 If there is no explanation given

.5
What is the reason for the source's conclusion that . . .
Why does the source believe this?

If there is no date given


What is the date for that source?
How recent is that source?

If the statist ic is questionable


What method was used to collect this data?
Was enough data collected?

O If the source's expertise is questionable


Does the source have enough experience to be called an "expert" in this area?
What is the source's experience in this area?

If the source might be biased


Does the source benefit financially if people believe this information?
Isn't that source biased?

79
'

PAIRWORK Partner B looks at this page, Partner A looks at the previous page. Partner

A starts by reading one of the supports against nuclear power. Partner B listens and

chooses the best question for challenging the support. Partner B then reads the question

C

while Partner A checks to see if it is correct. Continue until al- six supports have been
correctly questioned, then switch roles.
.n

Questions
i

-1

. :
5

Was enough data collected? How many


people did you ask?
o'


What is the date for that source? Jl


s*

What is the reason for the source's



Does the source have enough knowledge -l
about: nuclear power to be called an conclusion that nuclear power is
dangerous?
lexpert:
;"' -L

t
what is the source for that intormatiori' -l
Isn't that source biased?

Supports Against Abortion


G s1

Abortion is bad because a child inside the


H According to The Phizzer Drug Company,
abortion should be banned because
mother is a living, breathing human being there are much better methods of birth
with a fully functioning heart and brain. control available.
e

Ans Source? Arrs Bios


1

Dr. Shin, Director of the American


J
Four out of five women we interviewed
Medical Society, wrote that "Abortion said that they were against abortion.
is murder...." (1997).
Ans: Reason? Ass: Dato5

IC I According to Professor PatI Thanaton, L I According to The Journal of the American


i-'oor[iori Sn URU DCl1 C
1_.l_1 oanncu ec.ause
I
cniiu insiue tne morner can reei pain.
a
Abortion is murder." (The New Times, abortion is dangerous for the mother
and often results in her death.
January 25, 1999) Ans: Expert? Ans: Data?

82
m
Question Supports

Unf
PAIRWORK Partner A looks at this page, Partner B looks at the next page. Partner A
starts by reading one of the supports against nuclear power. Partner B listens and chooses the

i .
best question for challenging the support. Partner B then reads the question while Partner

6^hl
A checks to see if it is correct. Continue unti- al- six supports have been correctly
questioned, then switch roles.

el
Supports Against Nuclear Energy

n
inSu
^ B According to the Clam Oil Company,
Every year millions of people die from nuclear power stations are never safe

PPos
radiation poisoning. because of the possibility of computer
failures.
Anrn Source2 Aes: Bias?

r.
C According to the magazine, Scin c
D Chef Pierre, the famous chef from the
television cooking show, Cook for Me,
Canadian, nuclear power plants can leak said on his show just last week that
radiation and therefore are not safe. nuclear power is bad because it causes
Arss: Date? cancer. Ann Experf)
---1 ,.....-.,....

E F Everyone thinks nuclear power is a bad


Professor Chen of the ULMC Biology
thing. According to a survey I took at a
Department, wrote in the May 1998 issue party last New Year's Eve every person I
of Natural Life that "Nuclear power is
asked said that nuclear power was a bad
dangerous." thing because of radiation leaks.
Ans: Reason?

O Questions


Does the source benefit financially if What method was used to collect this
people believe this information? data?
.

Is there a source for that information? reason for this belief?

What is the source's experience?


How recent is that source?
What subject is the source a professor of?

81

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