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5

Indices

The speed of light is about 300 000 000 metres per second.

In one year, light travels approximately 9 460 000 000 000 km.

Light from the stars travels for many years before it is seen on

Earth. Even light from the Sun takes eight minutes to reach

the Earth. Powers or indices provide a way to work easily with

very large and very small numbers.

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Shutterstock.com/Dr_Flash

n Chapter outline n Wordbank

Proficiency strands base A number that is raised to a power, meaning

5-01 Multiplying and it is multiplied by itself repeatedly, for example,

dividing terms with in 2 5, the base is 2.

the same base U F R C index laws Rules for simplifying algebraic expressions

5-02 Power of a power U F R C involving powers of the same base, for example,

5-03 Powers of products a m 4 a n a mn.

and quotients U F R C

5-04 The zero index U F R C index notation A way of writing repeated multiplication

5-05 Negative indices U F R C using indices (powers), for example 2 5.

5-06 Summary of the negative power A power that is a negative number, as in

index laws U F R C the term 3 2.

5-07 Significant figures U F R C

scientific notation A shorter way of writing very large or

5-08 Scientific notation U F R C

very small numbers using powers of 10. For example,

5-09 Scientific notation

9 460 000 000 000 in scientific notation is 9.46 3 10 12.

on a calculator U F PS R C

significant figures Meaningful digits in a numeral that tell

how many. For example, 28 000 000 has two significant

figures: 2 and 8.

9780170193047

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

apply index laws to numerical expressions with integer indices

simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws

express numbers in scientific notation

interpret and use zero and negative indices

(STAGE 5.2) apply index laws to algebraic expressions with integer indices

round numbers to significant figures

interpret, write and order numbers in scientific notation

interpret and use scientific notation on a calculator

solve problems involving scientific notation

SkillCheck

Worksheet 1 For each term:

StartUp assignment 5 i state the base

MAT09NAWK10052

ii state the index

iii write the expression in words.

Worksheet a 84 b 48 c h5 d 5h

Powers review 2 Evaluate each product.

MAT09NAWK10053 a 535 b 43434 c 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 d 23232323232

2 5

e 3 f 2 g 63 h 44

Skillsheet

3 Express each repeated multiplication in index notation.

Indices

a 232323232 b 3333333373737

MAT09NASS10016

c 535353535353838 d 10 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x

e 636363k3k f x3y3x3y3x

g a3b3b3b3a h 53n353n3n

i q3p3q3p3q3q

4 Write each term in expanded form.

a 93 b 72 c d5 d k2

5 Evaluate each expression.

a 42 3 43 b 106 4 102 c 33 2 d 60

e 9 1 5

f 5 35 g 24 4 2 h 82

6 For each equation, find the missing power.

a 8 2h b 81 3 h c 216 6 h d 144 12 h

e 4096 4 h f 2401 7 h g 64 2 h h 625 5 h

174 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Investigation: Multiplying and dividing terms with powers

1 Write each expression in expanded form, then evaluate it.

a i 22 3 23 ii 25 b i 34 3 33 ii 37

3 3 6 5 3

c i 4 34 ii 4 d i 5 35 ii 58

2 What do you notice about each pair of answers in question 1?

3 Is it true that 24 3 26 210? Give a reason for your answer.

4 Determine whether each equation is true (T) or false (F). Justify your answer.

a 25 3 25 210 b 63 3 67 621

3 9 27

c 4 34 4 d 35 3 310 315

5 Write in words and as a formula the rule for multiplying am and an, two terms with the

same base.

6 Use the rule to copy and complete each equation.

a 54 3 52 5 b 45 3 43 4 c 105 3 107

d 93 3 92 e n3 3 n8 f p3 3 p7

7 Evaluate each expression.

a i 36 4 33 ii 33 b i 28 4 26 ii 22

c i 58 4 53 ii 55 d i 108 4 104 ii 104

8 What do you notice about each pair of answers in question 7?

9 Is it true that 48 4 46 42? Give a reason for your answer.

10 Determine whether each equation is true (T) or false (F). Justify your answer.

a 310 4 36 34 b 48 4 42 44

c 212 4 23 24 d 610 4 65 65

11 Write in words and as a formula the rule for dividing am and an, two terms with the

same base.

12 Use the rule to copy and complete each equation.

a 26 4 23 2 b 108 4 106 10 c 37 4 32

d 411 4 46 e x8 4 x5 f g 12 4 g 10

Video tutorial

Multiplying and dividing terms with

5-01 the same base Simplifying with the

index laws

MAT09NAVT00002

Consider 54 3 53 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5

5353535353535

57

) 54 3 53 543

57

9780170193047 175

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

Summary

When multiplying terms with the same base, add the powers

a m 3 a n a m n

The rule above is called an index law. Index is another name for power. The plural of index is

indices (pronounced in-de-sees).

Proof:

am 3 an a|

3a3 3a} 3 a|

{z 3a3 3a}

{z

m factors n factors

a|

3a3 3a}

{z

m n factors

amn

Example 1

Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

a 84 3 85 b 10 3 10 3 c d3 3 d5

d 4m 2 3 3m 6 e 3r 2t 3 6r 4t 3

Solution

a 84 3 85 845 b 10 3 103 101 3 103 c d 3 3 d 5 d 35

89 1013 d8

104

d 4m 2 3 3m 6 4 3 3 3 m 2 3 m 6

e 3r 2 t 3 6r4 t 3 3 3 6 3 r 2 3 r 4 3 t 1 3 t 3

12m 26 18r 2 4 t 13

12m 8 18r 6 t 4

56

Consider 56 4 54

54

53535353535

5353535

535

52

) 56 4 54 564

52

176 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Summary

When dividing terms with the same base, subtract the powers:

am

am 4 an n amn

a

Proof:

am

am 4 an n

a

a 3a 3a 3a3a3 3a m factors)

a 3a 3a 3 3a n factors)

a3a3 ... 3a m n factors]

amn

Example 2

Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

8

a 85 4 83 b 10 c d 20 4 d 4

10

8x 3 y 7

d 20w 10 4 5w 2 e

24x 2 y

Solution

8

a 85 4 83 853 b 10 1081 c d 20 4 d 4 d 204

10

82 d 16

107

4

20 w 10 e 8x 3 y 7 1

8x 32 y 71

d 20w 10 4 5w 2 2 2 1

1 5w 24x y 3 24

102 6

4w xy

4w 8 3

the same base

1 Which expression is equal to 5 12 3 5 3? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D. See Example 1

A 59 B 5 15 C 25 15 D 25 36

2 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

a 10 3 3 10 2 b 2 3 24 c 32 3 35

d 74 3 7 e 8 3 83 3 84 f 54 3 5 3 54

g 6 3 62 3 63 3 64 h 44 3 44 3 44 i 34 3 30 3 37

j x 3 x4 k g4 3 g4 l w7 3 w

m b 3 3 b 10 n p 10 3 p 10 o r3r

p y 3 y3 3 y2 q m3 3 m 3 m4 r n8 3 n2

9780170193047 177

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

A 100 5 B 100 4 C 10 4 D 10 5

4 Simplify each expression.

a 3p 2 3 2p 5 b 4y 10 3 3y 2 c 6m 3 3m 8

d h 3 3 5h 8 e 3q 3 8q 8 f 2a 2 3 5a 5

g 5n 8t 3 6n 8t 4 h 2ab 3 3 15ab i 3e 4g 3 3 e 6g 2

j 8p 4m 5 3 4p 3m 5 k 16qr 8 3 3q 7 l 9u 3v 3 6uv 2w 8

See Example 2 5 Which expression is equal to 512 4 53 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

A 54 B 59 C 14 D 19

6 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

a 10 7 4 10 5 b 85 4 8 c 20 15 4 20 5

8 12 27

d 52 e 93 f 23

5 9 2

20

g 74 4 73 h 2 i 11 4 4 11 4

2

j p 15 4 p 10 k n7 4 n l w 24 4 w 6

20 y8 12

m h4 n2

o a4

h y a

25

w

p b 16 4 b 15 q r m 16 4 m 16

w

7 Which expression is equal to104 4 10? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

A 10 4 B 14 C 13 D 10 3

8 Simplify each expression.

a 10y 15 4 5y 3 b 20w 9 4 4w 3 c 24r 8 4 3r

4 10 4g 12

d 30x3 e 10m f

x 2m 8g 6

g 14d 4h 10 4 7hd 2 h 15x 6y 8 4 15xy 4 i 6e 25d 40 4 18e 5d 4

12q 5 t 4 10 8 36pq 3 r 5

j k 45a 5b l

16q 4 t 3 5a 24qr

1 Write each expression in expanded form, then evaluate it.

a i (23)2 ii 26 b i (34)3 ii 312

c i (52)3 ii 56 d i (25)4 ii 220

2 What do you notice about each pair of answers in question 1?

3 Is it true that: (27)3 221? Give a reason for your answer.

4 Determine whether each equation is true (T) or false (F). Justify your answer.

a (35)3 315 b (23)2 25 c (210)4 214

d (42)5 410 e (33)6 318 f (52)4 56

178 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

5 Write in words and as a formula the rule for raising am to a power of n, that is, (am)n.

6 Use the rule to copy and complete each equation.

a (37)2 3 b (52)6 5 c (45)2 4

d (a 3)4 a e (83)7 f (k 4)6

Video tutorial

5-02 Power of a power Simplifying with the

index laws

3 4

Consider 5 53 3 53 3 53 3 53 MAT09NAVT00002

5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 Puzzle sheet

53535353535353535353535 Indices puzzle

512 MAT09NAPS10054

) 53 4 53 3 4

512

Summary

When raising a term with a power to another power, multiply the powers:

am n am 3 n

Proof:

am n a|

m

3 am 3 3 am}

{z

n factors

a|

3a3 3a} 3 a|

{z 3a3 3a} 3 ::: |

{z 3 3a}

3 a 3 a{z

m factors m factors m factors

|{z}

n lots of m factors

am 3 n

Example 3

Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

a (8 5) 2 b (d 3) 5 c (2g) 4 d (5v 4) 3 e (n) 6 f (3t 4) 3

Solution

5 2 5

a 8 85 3 2 b d3 d 335 c 2g4 24 3 g 4

810 d 15 16g 4

3 3 3 3

d 5v 4 53 3 v 4 e n6 16 3 n 6 f 3t 4 33 3 t 4

433 6

125 3 v 13n 27 3 t 4 3 3

125v 12 n6 27t 12

9780170193047 179

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

See Example 3 1 Which expression is equal to (10 3) 3 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

A 30 3 B 10 0 C 10 9 D 10 6

2 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

a (4 3) 2 b (5 2) 8 c (3 3) 4

d (2 7) 4 e (2 1) 2 f (9) 3

g (10 0) 2 h (6 4) 5 i (5 3) 5

j (e 2) 4 k (t 5) 5 l (y 3) 7

m (c 1) 5 n (m 7) 5 o (y 4) 4

p (h 0) 6 q (q 6) 3 r (w 4) 1

s (2x) 10 t (5n 3) 8 u (4d 3) 3

v (k 5) 9 w (d 3) 4 x (2a 8) 8

3 Which expression is equal to (3) 5? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

A 3 6 B 3 5 C 35 D 15

4 Simplify each expression.

a (2d 3) 4 b (5m 3) 2 c (4y 5) 2

d (3x 2) 4 e (5u 6) 5 f (2w 5) 3

g (10d 5) 4 h (3e) 3 i (2b 4) 1

j (6d 6) 2 k (3f 4) 5 l (2c 3) 10

m (2r) 4 n (5t) 3 o (3m 3) 2

p (y 3) 12 q (x) 3 r (m 3) 10

s (4w 5) 4 t (3f ) 5 u (3p 2) 3

v (3h 5) 4 w (10k) 2 x (8y 3) 1

Video tutorial

index laws

MAT09NAVT00002 Consider 2 3 53 2 3 5 3 2 3 5 3 2 3 5

Homework sheet 23232353535

Indices 1 23 3 53

MAT09NAHS10005 ) 2 3 53 23 3 53

Summary

When raising a product of terms to a power, raise each term to that power:

abn an bn

180 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Proof:

abn ab 3 ab 3 3 ab

|{z}

n factors

a|

3a3 3a} 3 b|

{z 3b3 3b}

{z

n factors n factors

an bn

Example 4

Simplify each expression.

a (2gh 2) 5 b (p 3q 4) 2

Solution

5 5 2 2 2

a 2gh2 25 3 g 5 3 h 2 b p 3q 4 p3 3 q4

32 3 g 5 3 h 2 3 5 p332 3 q432

32g 5 h 10 p 6q 8

6

5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Consider 3 3 3 3 3

8 8 8 8 8 8 8

53535353535

83838383838

56

6

8

6

5 56

) 6

8 8

Summary

When raising a quotient of terms to a power, raise each term to that power:

an an

n

b b

Proof:

an a a a

3 3 3

b b|{z}

b b

n factors

a 3 a 3 3 a n factors

b 3 b 3 3 b n factors

an

n

b

9780170193047 181

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

Example 5

Simplify each expression.

2 2 3

a 7c b 4k

d 5

Solution

2 3

7c 7c2 4k 2 4k 2 3

a 2 b

d d 5 53

2 2

7 c

2 43 k 2 3

d

125

49c 2 64k 6

2

d 125

See Example 4 1 Which expression is equal to 4 3 52 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

A 16 3 25 B 16 3 25 C 8 3 10 D 8 3 10

2 Simplify each expression.

a (ab) 3 b (x 2y) 5 c (l 3m 5) 6

d (6dp 2) 4 e (8k 4y 5) 2 f (3m 2n) 5

g (ek 3) 3 h (w 3x 4) 7 i (8d 3y 5) 2

j (4b 2c 3) 4 k (3a 3d) 3 l (2p 2q 3) 4

3

See Example 5 3 Which expression is equal to 3 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

4

A 9 B 9 C 27 D 27

12 12 64 64

4 Simplify each expression.

2 3 4

a 6 b m c 5

7 8 2 5 x 4

5 2

2n w m2

d e 3

f

4

p

t

4n 2

2 5h 3 7k 4

g h i

3 64 10

2

3r a 2b 2 5

j 2

k 5

l 2

t d 3c

Worked solutions 5 Simplify each expression.

Powers of products a (2x 10y 15) 3 3 5x 2y 3 b (2x 10y 15 3 5x 2y 3) 3 c 18q 5r 8 4 (3qr 2) 2

and quotients 3

3a 5 x 6 3a 5 x 6

MAT09NAWS10023 d (18q 5r 8 4 3qr 2) 2 e f

ax ax4

g (4p 3h 10) 2 3 2p 2h 9 h (4p 3h 10) 2 4 2p 2h 9 i (4p 3h 10 3 2p 2h 9) 2

182 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Investigation: The power of zero

What is the value of a number raised to a power of 0, for example, 20?

1 Copy and complete each table of decreasing powers. Notice the pattern in your answers.

a b

Power of 2 Number Power of 3 Number

25 32 35 243

24 16 34

23 33

22 32

21 31

20 30

a 34 3 30 b 52 3 50 c 20 3 27

d 70 3 73 e 45 3 40 f 50 3 57

g 25 4 20 h 35 4 30 i 42 4 40

j 93 4 90 k 56 4 50 l 84 4 80

3 Any number will remain unchanged when multiplied by what?

4 Any number will remain unchanged when divided by what?

5 What is the answer when any number is raised to the power of 0, that is, a 0? Justify your

answer.

53

Consider 53 4 53

53

1 Any number divided by itself equals 1.

50

) 50 1:

Summary

Any number raised to the power of zero is equal to 1.

a0 1

9780170193047 183

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

Proof:

am 4 am 1 Any number divided by itself equals 1.

But also a 4 am amm

m

a0

) a 0 1:

Example 6

Simplify each expression.

a 11 0 b (8) 0 c g0

d (3r) 0 e 3r 0 f 8 0

Solution

a 11 0 1 b (8) 0 1 c g0 1

d (3r) 0 1 e 3r 0 3 3 r 0 f 80 1 3 80

331 1 3 1

3 1

See Example 6 1 Simplify each expression.

a 20 b (2) 0 c 2 0 d (m) 0

0

2

e m 0 f 4a0 g h 7x 0

3

0

p

i 1000 0 j p 30 k l 2b 0

3

m (9k) 0 n (x 2y) 0 o (xyw) 0 p (ab) 0

q (6r) 0 r (6r) 0 s 6r 0 t 6(r) 0

u (cd) 0 v (7x 2) 0 w 3(a 2b 3) 0 x (5v 5w 4) 0

The zero index a 70 20 b 70 20 c 2m 0 (2m) 0 d 2m 0 (2m) 0

MAT09NAWS10024

e (6a) 0 6a 0 f (6a) 0 6x 0 g (5y) 0 4 h (5y) 0 4 0

0 0 0

1 1 1 1

i 30 3 50 j 32 3 50 k y0 l y

2 2 2 2

m 2w 0 3 3p 0 n 12u 0 4 3 o (5d 0) 3 p 8b 0 (3b 0) 2

12p 0 12q 5

q r 6n 3 4 2n 3 s t 3x 3 3 4 x 9

2p0 36q 5

184 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Mental skills 5 Maths without calculators

Numbers can be added or multiplied in any order. We can use this property to make our

calculations simpler.

1 Study each example.

a 19 5 5 1 19 1 5 5

20 10

30

b 13 8 20 27 80 13 27 20 80 8

40 100 8

148

c 2 3 36 3 5 2 3 5 3 36 d 25 3 11 3 4 3 7 25 3 4 3 11 3 7

10 3 36 100 3 77

360 7700

2 Now evaluate each sum.

a 45 16 45 4 7 b 38 600 50 12 40

c 18 91 9 20 d 75 33 7 25

e 24 16 80 44 10 f 56 5 20 15 4

g 100 36 200 10 90 h 54 27 9 16 3

i 70 50 30 25 25 j 32 120 40 80 40

3 Now evaluate each product.

a 83435 b 50 3 7 3 2 c 33536

d 5 3 11 3 40 e 12 3 2 3 3 f 2 3 4 3 25 3 8

g 3 3 20 3 7 3 5 h 6383532 i 2 3 3 3 2 3 11

What is the value of a number raised to a negative power, for example, 21 or 22?

1 Copy and complete each table showing decreasing powers. Notice the pattern in your

answers.

a b

Power of 2 Number Power of 10 Number

23 8 103 1000

22 4 102

21 101

20 100

21 101

22 102

23 103

9780170193047 185

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

2 Copy and complete this table showing decreasing powers in expanded form. Notice the

pattern in your answers.

a b

Power of 5 Expanded form Power of 5 Expanded form

33 33333 53 53535

32 333 52

31 3 51

30 1 50

1 51

31 3 52

1 1

32 53

3 3 3 32

1 1 54

33 55

3 3 3 3 3 33

34

35

3 If 32 12 and 53 13 , then write each negative power in a similar way.

3 5

1 4

a 4 b 7 c 26

4 Simplify each expression in index notation.

a 104 4 107 b 23 4 28 c 34 4 35

d 52 4 58 e a4 4 a6 f a 4 a4

104 10 3 10 3 10 3 10

5 Consider

107 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10

1

10 3 10 3 10

1

3

10

104

But also 1047

107

103

1

) 103 3

10

3 4

a 28 25 15 b 35 31 1

2 2 3 3

2 4

c 58 52 16 d a6 a2 12

5 5 a a

6 Write in words and as a formula the rule for raising a to a negative power n, that is, a n.

186 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

In this activity we will discover the pattern for negative powers. We will consider base values from

2 to 10 shown in column A and indices (powers) 1, 2 and 3 shown in row 1. On a

spreadsheet, the symbol for power is ^ (called a carat, press SHIFT 6). For example, 3 1 is

entered as 3^1.

1 Create a spreadsheet as shown below.

2 We will first examine the power of 1. In cell B4, enter A4^$B$1 to calculate 2 1. $B$1

is an absolute cell reference, which ensures that the cell does not change when a formula is

copied. This means that in column B, the power will always refer to cell B1 (1) only. Fill

Down from cell B4 to B12.

3 Use Format cells to set column B decimals to Fraction and Up to three digits.

4 Compare your answers in column B with the original values in column A. Can you describe

the pattern when a base is raised to a power of 1?

5 Now consider powers of 2. Adapt steps from 1 to 3 for column C. Use Fill Down from

cell C4 to C12.

6 Compare your answers in column C with the original values in column A. Can you describe

the pattern when a base is raised to a power of 2?

9780170193047 187

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

7 Now consider powers of 3. Adapt steps for column D. In cell D4, enter the formula

A4^$D$1.

Note: D12s fraction is missing as it has 4 digits in the denominator, which the spreadsheet

doesnt allow for. Can you figure out what the fraction should be?

8 Compare your answers in column D with the original values in column A. Can you describe

the pattern when a base is raised to a power of 3?

9 Write a rule for negative powers, given the answers you have found in this activity. Discuss

with other students in your class.

Worksheet

MAT09NAWK10057

20

Consider 20 4 23

23

1

3

2

But also 20 4 23 203

23

1

) 23 3

2

Summary

A number raised to a negative power gives a fraction (with a numerator of 1):

1

an

an

Proof:

a0

a 0 4 an

an

1

n

a

But also a 0 4 an a 0n

an

1

) an n

a

Example 7

Negative indices a 2 1 b 5 3 c g 5

MAT09NAVT10010

Solution

1 1 1 1

a 21 b 53 c g 5

21 2 53 g5

188 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Example 8 Stage 5.2

Video tutorial

Simplify each expression using a positive index.

Negative indices

a 3n2 b 3n2 c p 2q 3 d ab6 MAT09NAVT10010

Solution

1

a 3n2 3 3 n2 b 3n2

3n2

3 1

3 2 1

1 n 2

3 9n

2

n

1 1

c p2 q 3 2 3 q 3 d ab6 a 3

p b6

a

q3

2 b6

p

1

Consider 91

9

1 is the reciprocal of 9.

9

1

2 1

Consider

3 2

3

2

14

3

3

13

2

3

2

1

1

2

Summary

A number raised to a power of 1 gives its reciprocal.

1

a1

a

a1 b

b a

9780170193047 189

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

Simplify each expression.

1 1

4 y

a b

3 5

Solution

1 1

4 y

a 3 b 5

3 4 5 y

See Example 7 1 Simplify each expression using a positive index.

a 6 2 b 5 7 c 3 1 d 10 2

e g 5 f z 1 g n 3 h t 2

i a 4 j 5 3 k y d l r m

2 Evaluate each expression, giving your answers in fraction form.

a 3 2 b 5 4 c 6 1 d 7 2

1 7

e 25 f 2 g 4 3 h 10 6

i 2 10 j 3 3 k 6 2 l 9 4

3 Write each expression using a negative index.

a 12 b 1 c 1 d 1

n n 83 8

e 1 f 24 g 1 h 1

105 a 3 b

Stage 5.2 i 6 j 42 k 25 l 53

a t w d

See Example 8 4 Simplify each expression using positive indices.

Worked solutions a 5h 1 b 2b 5 c 3e 3 d 4n 2

Negative indices e pb 2 f r 2s 4 g w 2y h d 3y 3

MAT09NAWS10025 i (2m) 1 j (xy) 1 k (4h) 2 l (5k) 3

m 3m 3p 2 n 15k 1w 4 o 12x 2y 3 p 12x 2y 3

q (3h) 2 r (4k) 3 s (2c) 4 t (8y) 1

u 4pq 3 v 4p 1q 3 w vm 2 x v 1m 2

See Example 9 5 Simplify each expression.

1 1 1

a 2 b 8 c 9 1 d 3

7 5 10 2

1 1 1 1

e 3 f 5 g x h 5

4 2 3 a

1 1 1 1

i m j 5r k 2 l 1

2 4 3z v

190 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Worksheet

5-06 Summary of the index laws Index laws review

MAT09NAWK10055

Indices squaresaw

a m 3 a n a m n a0 1 MAT09NAPS10056

m

am 4 an a n amn a1 1 Homework sheet

a a

m n

a am 3 n an 1n Indices 2

a MAT09NAHS10006

1

n

ab a b n n a b

b a

n

a an

n

b b

1 Simplify each expression, writing the answer

in index notation.

a 34 3 37 b 2 10 4 2 7 c (4 4) 2

8 3 4

d 9 49 e (8 ) f 58 3 5

g 65 3 64 3 63 h 38 4 35 3 3 i (2 3) 5 3 2 4

5

420 103

j k (8 2) 3 4 8 l

45 2 102 7

2 Simplify each expression.

a a4 3 a3 b t8 3 t c n8 4 n2

d p3 4 p e (w 2) 4 f (g 3) 6

12

g 2b 2 3 3b 5 h 4d 7 3 5d 6 i 30c 8

5c

j (5b 4) 4 k 24m 6 4 8m 4 l (3a) 2

3 Evaluate each expression.

a 40 b (4) 0 c 7 3 20 d (7 3 2) 0

e (2) 3 f (3) 2 g (5 2) 2 h 24 3 23

i (7 2) 0 j 45 4 42 k 42 4 4 5 l 10 3 4 10 3

0

m 52 4 50 n 10 2 4 10 2 o 1 p 10 2 3 10 2

2

4 Evaluate each expression, giving your answers in fraction form.

a 5 2 b 2 5 c 20 1 d 10 3

9780170193047 191

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

20p 3 q 8

a (3mn 3) 2 b 8a 2w 2 3 5a 3w 7 c (4a 2b 5) 4 d

5p 2 q 6

3 5 4 2

e 4 f 6c 2d 0 g 48u v h 3x

5 16uv 105 2

4 2 6

2 7x y p

i (4n 2t) 3 j k l

3 35x 5 y 3 9y

3 a 2 b4 3 a 3

m (2p 3q 2) 5 n 1 o 2n 0 p

7n b5

6 Simplify each expression using a positive index.

a 8 7 b 3 5 c y 1 d x 3

e (5b) 2 f 5b 2 g (ab) 1 h ab 1

i 4t 8 j (11t) 3 k p 3q 5 i mw 3

1

m 8u 3v 4 n 2r 6y 5 o 10e 1f 3 p k 4 n 7

2

7 Simplify each expression.

1 1 1 1

a 7 b 5 c 2 d 1

4 2 1 3 1 7

1 1

r 1 6y 2

e f g h

8 10p z 5a

8 Write each expression using a negative index.

a 13 b 1 c 14 d 12

4 2 10 9

e 1 f 94 g 1 h 53

k k x7 p

9 Simplify each expression.

a q 5 3 q 2 b d 3 3 d 7 c m 6 4 m 5 d t 4 t 1

64p1

e 5g 3 3 6g 1 f 8a 2 3 3a 3 g 7x 2 3 4x h

16p 2

i 48q 4 3q 2 j 5t 3 k 2(b 1) 4 l (3h) 2

10t 1

Worksheet

A way of rounding a number is to give the most relevant or important digits of the number. For

Significant figures

example, a crowd of 47 321 people can be written as 47 000, which is rounded to the nearest

MAT09NAWK10059

thousand, or to two significant figures.

192 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

The first significant figure in a number is the first non-zero digit. For example, the significant

figures are shown in bold in this table:

47 321 4 5

47 000 4 2

0.000 159 2 1 4

0.000 2 2 1

When rounding to significant figures, start counting from the first digit that is not 0.

If it is a large number, you may need to insert 0s at the end as placeholders.

Zeros at the end of a whole number or at the beginning of a decimal are not significant: they

are necessary placeholders.

Zeros between significant figures or at the end of a decimal are significant. For example, the

significant figures are shown in bold in this table.

809 000 8 3

0.020 70 2 4

Example 10

State the number of significant figures in each number.

a 63.70 b 0.003 05 c 7600

Solution

a The zero after 7 is significant.

[ 63.70 has four significant figures.

b The first significant figure is 3, and the zero between 3 and 5 is significant.

[ 0.003 05 has three significant figures.

c The zeros after 6 are not significant.

[ 7600 has two significant figures.

Example 11

Round each number to three significant figures.

The zeros here are not

a 56.357 b 9.249 c 548 307

significant, but they are

placeholders that are

Solution necessary for showing the

a 56.357 56.4 b 9.249 9.25 c 548 307 548 000 place values of the 5, 4 and 8.

9780170193047 193

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

Example 12

Write each number correct to one significant figure.

a 0.007 39 b 0.025 c 0.963

The zeros at the beginning of

Solution a decimal are not significant:

a 0.007 39 0.007 b 0.025 0.03 c 0.963 1 they are placeholders.

See Example 10 1 State the number of significant figures in each number.

a 457 b 0.23 c 15 000

d 4.0004 e 0.0005 f 5000

g 0.002 07 h 89 072 i 0.040

j 76 000 000 k 0.000 328 l 169.320

See Example 11 2 Round each number to three significant figures.

a 37.609 b 9435 c 168.39

d 2.813 e 15.99 f 60 522

g 1 769 000 h 385 764 i 10.2717

See Example 12 3 Write each number correct to two significant figures.

a 0.0637 b 0.903 c 0.084 55

d 0.000 158 e 0.007 625 f 0.038 71

g 0.2795 h 0.018 944 i 0.3145

4 What is 45 067 853 rounded to 3 significant figures? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

A 45 167 853 B 45 100 000 C 45 067 900 D 45 070 000

5 What is 0.005 605 0 rounded to 2 significant figures? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

A 0.01 B 0.010 000 0 C 0.0056 D 0.005 600 0

6 Round each number to one significant figure.

a 9.478 b 57.12 c 0.0367

d 0.007 66 e 0.5067 f 10 675

g 1856.78 h 0.000 28 i 56 239 400

7 A company makes a profit of $35 754 125.

a Round the profit to the nearest million and state the number of significant figures in the

answer.

b Round the profit to the nearest ten million and state the number of significant figures in

the answer.

8 Australias population in 2010 was 21 387 000. To how many significant figures has this

number been written?

9 A total of 21 558 people attended a local football match. Express this number to three

significant figures.

194 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

10 Evaluate each expression, correct to the number of significant figures shown in the brackets.

a 45.6 3 8.7 2.75 3 78.32 (2) b 15.5 9.87 4 0.24 8.43 3 2.4 (1)

55:89 89:24

e 9:732 2:765 (1) f 78.91 4 (23.6 94.7) (2)

12:27 3 15:8

1 253 p

g (3) h 84:3 3 0:0715 (4)

0:941 0:0076

The table below lists the names of some big numbers and their meanings.

Name Numeral

6

million 10 1 000 000

billion 10 9 1 000 000 000

trillion 10 12

quadrillion 10 15

quintillion 10 18

sextillion 10 21

septillion 10 24

octillion 10 27

nonillion 10 30

decillion 10 33

According to the Guinness Book of Records, the largest number for which there is an

accepted name is the centillion, first recorded in 1852. It is equal to 10 303. Worksheet

What special name for the number 10 100? Scientific notation 1

MAT09NAWK00012

Worksheet

Scientific notation 2

5-08 Scientific notation MAT09NAWK00019

Worksheet

Scientific notation is a short way of writing very large or very small numbers using powers of 10. It

Scientific notation

was invented in the early twentieth century when scientists needed to describe very large values,

puzzle

such as astronomical distances and very small values such as the masses of atoms.

MAT09NAWK10060

Technology worksheet

Excel worksheet:

Scientific notation

Shutterstock.com/valdis torms

MAT09NACT00019

Technology worksheet

Excel spreadsheet:

Scientific notation

MAT09NACT00004

9780170193047 195

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

Summary

Numbers written in scientific notation are expressed in the form

m 3 10n

Example 13

Video tutorial

Express each number in scientific notation.

Scientific notation

MAT09NAVT10011 a 764 000 000 000 b 6000 c 0.0008 d 0.000 000 472

Solution

a Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 7.64

Count how many places the decimal point moves to the right to make 764 000 000 000.

11 places

or count the number of

places after the first significant

figure, 7

764 000 000 000

b Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 6

Count how many places the decimal point moves to the right to make 6000.

3 places

or count the number of

place after the first significant

figure, 6

6000

[ 6000 6 3 10 3

c Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 8

Count how many places the decimal point moves to the left to make 0.0008.

4 places

or count the number of

decimal places to the first

significant figure, 8

0.0008

[ 0.0008 8 3 10 4

Note that small numbers are written with negative powers of 10.

d Use the significant figures in the number to write a value between 1 and 10: 4.72

Count the number of places the decimal point moves to the left to make 0.000 000 472.

7 places

or count the number of

decimal places to the first

significant figure, 4

0.000 000 472

196 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Example 14

Express each number in decimal form.

a 2.7 3 10 4 b 3.56 3 10 2

Solution

a 2.7 10 4 = 2.7000 Move the decimal point 4 places to the right.

= 27000

= 0.0356

Example 15

a Which number is the larger: 3.65 3 10 12 or 8.1 3 10 12?

b Write these numbers in ascending order: 4.3 3 10 6, 2.8 3 10 7, 1.9 3 10 7

Solution

To compare numbers in scientific notation, first compare the powers of ten.

If the powers of ten are the same, then compare the decimal parts.

a The powers of ten are the same. Compare the decimal parts: 8.1 > 3.65.

[ The larger number is 8.1 3 10 12

b Compare the powers of ten: 10 6 < 10 7.

Then compare the two numbers with 10 7: 1.9 < 2.8.

[ The numbers in ascending order are 4.3 3 10 6, 1.9 3 10 7, 2.8 3 10 7.

1 Express each number in scientific notation. See Example 13

a 2400 b 786 000 c 55 000 000 d 95

e 7.8 f 348 000 000 g 59 670 h 15

i 3 000 000 000 j 80 k 763 l 10

m 0.035 n 0.000 076 o 0.8 p 0.0713

q 0.000 003 r 0.913 s 0.000 007 146 t 0.009

u 0.000 000 1 v 0.000 89 w 0.000 000 078 x 0.1

2 Express each measurement in scientific notation.

a The worlds largest mammal is the blue whale,

which can weigh up to 130 000 kg.

b The diameter of an oxygen molecule is

0.000 000 29 cm.

Corbis/ Denis Scott

d Light travels at a speed of 300 000 000 m/s.

9780170193047 197

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

e The nearest star to Earth, excluding the Sun, is Alpha Centauri, which is

40 000 000 000 000 km away.

f The thickness of a typical piece of paper is 0.000 12 m.

g The small intestine of an adult is approximately 610 cm long.

h The diameter of a hydrogen atom is 0.000 000 0001 m.

i The diameter of our galaxy, the Milky Way, is 770 000 000 000 000 000 000 m.

j A microsecond means 0.000 001 s.

k The Andromeda Galaxy is the most remote body visible to the naked eye, at a distance

of 2 200 000 light years away.

See Example 14 3 Express each number in decimal form.

a 6 3 10 5 b 7.1 3 10 3 c 3.02 3 10 8

d 3.14 3 10 0 e 6 3 10 5 f 7.1 3 10 3

g 3.02 3 10 8

h 5.9 3 10 10 i 1.1 3 10 12

j 4 3 10 4

k 5 3 10 3 l 4.76 3 10 4

m 8.03 3 10 1

n 6.32 3 10 4 o 1.6 3 10 2

p 2.2 3 10 7 q 9.0 3 10 6 r 1.11 3 10 1

See Example 15 4 For each pair of numbers, write the larger one.

a 3 3 10 5 or 4 3 10 5 b 8.4 3 10 5 or 2.7 3 10 6

c 8.4 3 10 0 or 1.3 3 10 7 d 3.6 3 10 7 or 6.3 3 10 7

e 9.3 3 10 9 or 7.6 3 10 9 f 3.5 3 10 6 or 9.3 3 10 2

g 3.04 3 10 0 or 3.04 3 10 4 h 4.5 3 10 5 or 3.7 3 10 7

i 2 3 10 15 or 2 3 10 17 j 6.23 3 10 5 or 9.7 3 10 5

5 Write each set of numbers in ascending order.

a 3.8 3 10 9, 7.3 3 10 9, 5.5 3 10 9

b 2.2 3 10 4, 5.8 3 10 6, 7 3 10 4

c 3.5 3 10 0, 5.3 3 10 2, 4.9 3 10 2

6 Write each set of numbers in descending order.

a 6 3 10 5, 2.9 3 10 2, 1 3 10 2

b 1.2 3 10 9, 6.3 3 10 2, 8.1 3 10 4

c 4.1 3 10 1, 9.5 3 10 1, 6.4 3 10 3

198 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

Worksheet

5-09 Scientific notation on a calculator Scientific notation

problems

Homework sheet

Example 16 Indices 3

MAT09NAHS10007

Evaluate each expression using scientific notation.

Homework sheet

a (4.25 3 10 7) 3 (8.2 3 10 6) Note that with scientific

b (1.08 3 10 15) 4 (3 3 10 11) notation on a calculator, there Indices revision

( ) around the

Puzzle sheet

Solution numbers.

Scientific notation:

a Enter 4.25 7 8.2 6 = (4.25 3 10 7) 3 (8.2 3 10 6) 3.485 3 10 14 accomplishing great

things

b Enter 1.08 15 3 11 = (1.08 3 10 15) 4 (3 3 10 11) 3.6 3 10 27 MAT09NAPS00005

Example 17

Estimate the value of each expression in scientific notation, then evaluate it correct to three

significant figures.

9

a 9:2 3 105 b 8:5 3 104 3 6:3 3 107 c 6:08 3 103 2

2:7 3 10

Solution

Estimate Calculated answer

9:2 3 109 9 3 109 9:2 3 109

a 34 074:074 07

2:7 3 105 3 3 105 2:7 3 105

9 109 34 000

3 5

3 10 3:4 3 104

3 3 104

b 8:5 3 104 3 6:3 3 107 9 3 104 3 6 3 107 8:5 3 104 3 6:3 3 107

9 3 6 3 104 3 107 5:355 3 1012

54 3 1011 5:36 3 1012

5:4 3 10 3 1011

5:4 3 1012

63 3 105 3 2:25 3 1017

216 3 1015

2:16 3 102 3 1015

2:16 3 1017

9780170193047 199

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

See Example 16 1 Evaluate each expression using scientific notation.

a (2 3 10 3) 3 (3 3 10 5) b (8 3 10 7) 4 (4 3 10 2) c (2 3 10 5) 3

p

d 9 3 1012 e (4 3 10 7) 3 (6 3 10 8) f (1 3 10 8) 4 (2 3 10 3)

p

g (4 3 10 3) 5 h 24.08 4 (8 3 10 6) i 3:969 3 1019

p

9

j (2 3 10 5) 2 k 3 8 3 109 l 7:62 3 10 4

2 3 10

See Example 17 2 Estimate the value of each expression in scientific notation, then evaluate correct to three

significant figures.

a (5.7 3 10 3) 3 (2.3 3 10 5) b (8 3 10 5) 3 (3.7 3 10 7)

c (9.1 3 10 20) 4 (3.2 3 10 5) d (1.2 3 10 8) 2

10 8

e (7.13 3 10 ) 3 (9.8 3 10 ) f (1.9 3 10 11) 4 (2.1 3 10 7)

4 3

g (5.85 3 10 ) h (6 3 10 12) 4 (2.8 3 10 3)

Worked solutions 3 The human body consists of approximately 6 3 10 9 cells, and each cell consists of 6.3 3 10 9

Scientific notation on a

atoms. Roughly how many atoms are there in a human body?

calculator

MAT09NAWS10028

4 A telephone book 4.5 cm thick has 2000 pages. Find the thickness of one page, in millimetres

in scientific notation.

5 Evaluate each expression in scientific notation, correct to two significant figures.

p

a (7.4 3 10 30) (3.59 3 10 29) b (1.076 3 10 17) (2.3 3 10 16) c 6:6 3 1027

p

d (7.5 3 10 23) 4 (3.3 3 10 13) e (8.17 3 10 16) 3 f 2:69 3 1045

4 5

5:6 3 10 3 3:9 3 10

g (7.05 3 10 3) 4 (3.9 3 10 7) h i 1595 3 1959

2:3 3 107

j 5 20 k 801 1 l 3 10

m 99 n (0.7) 5

Express the answers for questions 6 to 10 in scientific notation correct to two significant figures if

necessary.

6 The Earth is 1.50 3 10 8 km from the Sun and the speed of light is 3 3 10 5 km/s. How long

does it take for light to travel from the Sun to Earth? Express your answer in:

a seconds b minutes.

7 The Sun burns 6 million tonnes of hydrogen a second. Calculate how many tonnes of

hydrogen it burns in a year (that is, 365.25 days).

200 9780170193047

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S

for the A ustralian Curriculum 9

8 Sound travels at approximately 330 metres per second. If Mach 1 is the speed of sound, how

fast is Mach 5? Convert your answer to kilometres per second.

9 The distance light travels in one year is called a light year. If the speed of light is approximately

3 3 10 5 km per second, how far does light travel in a leap year?

10 A thunderstorm is occurring 30 km from where you are standing. Use the speed of light

(3 3 10 5 km per second) and the speed of sound (330 metres per second) to calculate in

seconds:

iStockphoto/clintspencer

a how long the light from the lightning takes to reach you

b how long the sound from the thunder takes to reach you.

11 a What is the largest number that can be displayed on your calculator?

b What is the smallest number that can be displayed?

How many times does your heart beat in an average lifetime of 80 years?

1 Work in pairs and copy this table.

Name Trial 1 Trial 2 Average beats per minute

2 Use two fingers to measure your pulse. Have your partner time you for a minute. Do this

twice, record your results in the table and find the average.

3 Repeat Step 2 for your partner.

4 Calculate how many times your heart (and your partners heart) beats in the following

periods. Write your answers in scientific notation correct to two significant figures.

a an hour b a day c a week

d a year (use 365.25 days) e an average lifetime of 80 years

9780170193047 201

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indices

Shutterstock.com/Jason Stitt

Shutterstock.com/StockLite

Shutterstock.com/withGod

round follicle oval follicle flat follicle

There are about 110 000 hairs on your head. Each hair grows at the rate of about 1.3 3 10 3 cm

per hour. A single hair lasts about six years. Every day you lose between 30 and 60 hairs.

Each hair grows from a small depression in the skin called a follicle (a gland). After the

hair falls out, the follicle rests for about three to four months before the next hair starts

growing. Hair follicles are either oval, flat or round in shape. How straight, wavy or curly

your hair is depends on the shape of your hair follicles.

How many hairs are on all the heads in China if its population is approximately 1.435 3 10 9?

Answer in both scientific notation and decimal notation.

Power plus

Worksheet

1 If u 2, v 4 and w 5, evaluate each expression.

b u 3 Power plus

Binary number system

3

a 5w 2 c vu d (wu) 3

MAT09NAWK10058 1 2

e 2v f w g u 0(vw) 2 h (uvw) 2

w2 u

2 Simplify each expression.

a 5a 3 5a b 4x 4 4x c 2 y1 3 2 y 1 d 10b3 4 10b

e (3 p) 3 f (3 3) p g 8 n 3 (8 n) 2 h 6t 3 4 6t

q3q

i p3pp3p j n3nn3nn3n k

qq

3 Write each number in scientific notation.

a 438.2 3 10 9 b 0.52 3 10 7 c 0.0004 3 10 12

d 2013 3 10 3 e 57.8 thousand f 57.8 thousandths

g 6.7 millionths h 3.2 billion i 3.2 billionths

4 For how many values of a and b does a b b a?

5 The terms in the pattern 3, 5, 17, 257, 65 537, can all be generated by a simple

method, using only the numbers 1 and 2.

a What is this method?

b What is the next number in the sequence?

202 9780170193047

Chapter 5 review

Indices crossword

ascending base descending estimate MAT09NAPS10062

expanded form exponent index index laws

Quiz

index notation indices negative power placeholder

Numbers and indices

product power quotient reciprocal

MAT09NAQZ00002

significant figures scientific notation term zero power

1 What does a power of zero mean?

2 Which two words from the list mean power?

3 What is the or key on a calculator used for?

4 What is the index law for dividing terms with the same base?

5 Which digits in 0.006 701 are significant figures?

6 What power is associated with the reciprocal of a term or number?

7 What type of numbers when written in scientific notation have negative powers of 10?

n Topic overview

What was this topic about? What was the main theme?

What content was new and what was revision?

What are the index laws?

Write 10 questions (with solutions) that could be used in a test for this chapter.

Include some questions that you have found difficult to answer.

List the sections of work in this chapter that you did not understand. Follow up this work with

a friend or your teacher.

Copy and complete this mind map of the topic, adding detail to its branches and using pictures,

symbols and colour where needed. Ask your teacher to check your work. Worksheet

Power of

dividing terms MAT09NAWK10063

a power

with the same base

Powers of

Scientific Index or products

INDICES

notation power and quotients

Base

Zero and

Significant

negative

figures

indices

9780170193047 203

Chapter 5 revision

See Exercise 5-01 1 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

a 10 3 3 10 7 b 4 20 4 4 4 c a 12 4 a 2 d h8 3 h2

e 3n 3 3 4n f 10d 15 4 5d 3 g 20m 9 4 4m h 3v 4w 2 3 2v 3w 5

8 8 p 6 q 10 2 4

i 5x 5y 2 3 3xy j 24t4 h2 k 2 2

l 100a 2b

3t h p q 5ab

See Exercise 5-02 2 Simplify each expression, writing the answer in index notation.

a (2 2) 3 b (k 5) 5 c (x) 4

d (2y 3) 10 e (5t 2) 2 f (10g) 3

g 25 h 2k 5 i 5m 3 2

See Exercise 5-03 3 Simplify each expression.

a (ab 2) 4 b (5x 3y 2) 2 c (4t 2) 3 d (4h 2g) 3

4 5

e a f (2pqr) 5 g 3m h (3np 2) 4

7 2

8 6 3

7 4 b y

i 2a j (4t 4u 5) 3 3 8t 2u k l 45c 6d 8 4 (3cd 2) 2

b 8b 2 y

See Exercise 5-04 4 Simplify each expression.

a 70 b (7) 0 c e0

d (e) 0 e e 0 f g 0h

0

2p 2p0

g (gh) 0 h i

3 3

See Exercise 5-05 5 Simplify each expression using a positive index.

Stage 5.2

a 8 3 b 19 2 c x 1 d p 5

See Exercise 5-05 6 Simplify each expression using a positive index.

a (4m) 1 b (4m) 2 c (5b) 1 d 5b 1

1 1

e 2x4 f 3 g c 4d 2 h 100

5a 9

See Exercise 5-05 7 Write each expression using a negative index.

a 13 b 15 c 1 d 3

10 r r b

See Exercise 5-06 8 Simplify each expression.

a 96u 5 t 8 4 24ut 4 b (5ab) 2 c 4hd 3 3 5h 3d 6

d e 5 3 e 3 (e 2) 3 e (r 3) 4 4 r 2 f (pn 2) 3 4 (pn 3) 2

g a 8b 3c h 60n 8m

4 3 4 3

i 144t 9u 4v

4

a b c3 2 12n m 16u v

See Exercise 5-07 9 Round each value correct to the number of significant figures shown in the brackets.

a 8.5678 (2) b 15 712 (3) c 476 (1)

d 0.007 126 6 (4) e 0.9041 (3) f 301 378 (2)

g 4805.28 (3) h 0.000 87 (1) i 67 000 000 (1)

204 9780170193047

Chapter 5 revision

d 0.000 49 e 13 f 0.000 000 000 08

11 Express each number in decimal form. See Exercise 5-08

a 8.1 3 10 3 b 6 3 10 7 c 3.075 3 10 0

d 8.1 3 10 3 e 6 3 10 7 f 3.075 3 10 2

12 Write these numbers in ascending order: 3 3 10 3, 9.1 3 10 8, 2.4 3 10 3. See Exercise 5-08

22 8 10 4

a (3.65 3 10 ) 3 (7.4 3 10 ) b (1.44 3 10 ) 4 (3.6 3 10 )

p

c (5 3 10 5) 3 d 6:25 3 108

14 Estimate the value of each expression in scientific notation, then evaluate correct to two See Exercise 5-09

significant figures.

a (8.9 3 10 9) 3 (1.1 3 10 7) b (9.3 3 10 15) 3 (4 3 10 2) c (3.1 3 10 4) 2

9780170193047 205

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