CTPOIlTE,TIbHAA MEXAHlfKA
JolOCI1DA.
A. DARKDV and V. KUZNETSDV
STRUCTURAL
MECHANICS
1119
VDC G2~.U4(U7~.8)_2U
rlllro,lllcti,jl'1 11
Cb.pwr 2. BEAMS
1.2. GC1I(>r1l1
"
2.2, ltl'lIel '(In I"n""ncc L.n.." I~,r 5illlv1r SIIJllll"'!lC(1 n"l""a ... itIL
0<" Wlll"'1111 O"Irho,," .....
"
3.2. 1;('lIdinl:: M'~l1l'''1 /lad Shl'M )110"('1)"" UtiCO' ror Sm1t.l)' Sur'
J",rl.l~l lJeam!; wi1h (lr "1t.hOlll ('v"rhllll&
4.2, lortlll'lIcC LJHe~ 101' ~i"'Jlll ('"ulile"er 1\eam~
5.2, {"nneu"" Lines III ClI.<C" nflllClir"el LQIl,1 Apl,llca1.wu
8.2. D"INlllillOlwlI <of Fon~e~ \'1),1 .\r"II";,,l" \\ill, llll' ,\,,1 "I Ill'
fh,,,u"I; I.in" . . . .
7.2. Uf'h'l'tulUlItinn "I Ihl' J',lo~1 u"rllv\,u,,,I,h, P,,~ili,," "f ~ L"p,1
8.2. J)('\.{'''llinnlillll of Matim"m Mlirncnr lint! F"rtl" "'1II~
E:quh'pl('nl Uniform 1.'1/111:0
9.2. MlIlIl"'I'/lll Sl.lirally Oot"nmnalc ~(,;'I1i~
10.2. o...l.cmli",.!lon of M'lml)'llt." 31,,1 t'v....f!S Inlturrd hr a ~)'",l,(',u
of lIi'lH Loads in Mulli"I"'" Sl::llit;aU)' O..tcnninatf JW!""~
11,2. Inn,",,1('1" I.i"". for Mllrll~I>oIn Shtio.l.lly OClI!'rUlln.k' 1.\(0.1.11'1"
12..2. Il~utlinl:: M'~nl'lLt!l and 5b{'{lfllog POt~f';'I iI"I.,w:N! by Fu'l'd
Ll...Il.S in :::tlltkally Oell'nnh".le O,,"l", KnCi' Pra",..~ altd
~alo ... 1 t'ol}1:t1n:o.l OMigll . . . . .
/ntro,l,,,'lloll It
1.1. Sl1j'llOrts 15
2..1. G('QIllcVklll Stllbility '11 Flllllltd Slrochlrc.' li
3.1. $laUCIlII)' Dcotl>nni",.le FHll1lC"l ~hurtuf(,!! . ;"'\5
Chapter Ta. SlOPE AND OEFLECTlONS. COMBINED AND MIXED METHODS 5B8
(hi!! relalion Will' di!<o\'cnJ1 ill 1G78 by H()Lt'rt Hooke ,,'hu e~pl'l!~d
it as "uL tCtlsiu sic vis" (""Ihl' t'xtellsion is liS lt~IIL as Lhe forcc")_
The facl that l'(lmpN'$'<i\'~ slrcs."CS;l, '\Oitdl as the tendle Odes l'XiSl
in the ao~ Sl'cliun of It ht'am suhjcclcorl to J'f'lltling was discoven:d
in lh(' s(lc(lllll half of l'!to HHh coni ur)' as tho OUI.C.OIllC or It S(.ri,'s "f
tl:8lS condudl'll with grl'nl thorolJglml;.,~, At that /.iuto tilt' rapid
dt\v'llopmcnl. of t.rncle.s lIrl(1 indm:lriC'H. was c(lll~tanl.ly (',ailing FIJI'
neW :"'illlllifw acllic\'l'ItIClll~'1 Among whkh was thl' COn'~ct soluLlul1
nr ~he I"rolJlcm of bendin![' pnt. by Glllilei,
SiglJirlcltut atll'ltnct'~ ill lIigllN In:llhttnHitks and mt'chllIlics
achieved ill th~ 18th Ct'otury l'ontributC'd greatly Lo lilt, t/(lyclop
merIt of sludil's in till) strellRth uf cHllt'riMI! I\lld slrllClllro~, Works
by J. I~agrrlll'lo 1I1lt! L. Euler wtlre of IJOrtkular inl)KlrlallCC in Ihis
ro5lk'Cl.
Vigorous gftl",lh of iudllslry in thco HHh cell(UfY. thl' illtroduc~
tiOll or. the .. tl!llIll l'Il!!;illl', thc cOlljjlrut,tiOll of railways, bridges.
dams. CMlltds, 11\'l."1' su'amships and lln..IlL Luihlil)g!'I lIccclt'ratpd
thl.l sLudit's ill lilt' stn'llgth of 1'1lgi11C{!r11l1(' Illllwrial~ und alrut:lurcs,
The cvorgrowin~ comrJluKilr 01 strudural forms lInd tho pre.~sill.r,r
dornalHI fC/r 11 l'('llurliOIJ ill IJllildil1g' co"ts resulted ill lilt' develop,
1110111 of new lIIolbo.l:; of .\Ilr<'Htl'th cOlllputrllion :lnd in the forlllali(ill
of a lIew ulIgincoring scioJlccstrudllfl\l mcdll\lIirs (tll"o rlllloll
Lho tht'ory of 1IIr'll:t<l"OS).
Trtl:;5e:;, al'\'lu::d Sy>ltCIIIS, rclninillg wnlb and ri,l.!id rrames form
the nll\iJl c1aS'<cs (If structures d~all. with 11)' 1II(l(Il::1'11 :<Irllclnral
ll1('chanics,
III thl.ir simplest form Jnltn~' of thost' strlWtllteS h:id lIi..en all"l'adY
1I~'(1 by Lho 11IIcit'lIls, bUl the methods or their cOlnl'ullI.tioll l't'lllailll'ld
ulllwoWII.
A L prU,'ll.'nl. trllSSI.'>l Ilud Irian.!tuJaled S)'!llcms Rl'C widol)' u:;CII
irl hrirlge lllld rllof t~oll:;t.lIcLi()1J (hridge IIUrl roof Irus,S!.'s) liS well
liS ill lra\'c.llirtJC 1;,1'.1 lit':>. toWt'r Cl'UIH.'i'S. Ilowerlinc lowcr.':\, R('fi~d
:'llppol'l.s ,uHt in a largo 1l11UdJ('.1' uf othl'r slnlfl,l'lres.
Arched ,~YSlI'IIIS JnflUl' their IIppl'arll.nr", ill allcil~lIl, ROJllc. wh('f(l
thoy WOfIJ iltlCCC....c;rulJy used rur the cOlISlrllclion of nl3S1lnrr brid~1'1!
Ilnrl aqut'lhll'l..'!, In tile i'K'COIlt! hnlf or Lhe 19Lh ('entury thc!'l6 sJsl.ems
becnmo useu ill Slloclbrid'lt.l construction Mid in the 20Lh ("","ltlty
reinforce.<! cOII('rolt' Ill'.,.'omes tile ffi::lill Itlnterinl USL'li for Illat Lype
of 51 rucll.res. ,\ I prcSl}nl arthcd sy"'lcrns nr.' widely u.;cd in ninny
killd;'l or Iltrgt'sI13n construction work.
llttainillg .....alls have h{'('n used to prevent. tllo ~Iiding down (\{
steep !ollopt's in varj.ltls hfUllchos of engineering activi I,it's sinCC' ti III~S
inlnJelllorial. Higid frAllleS became \\'i,!e.spn'ad ill mudern tinll'S,
reinforced cOllcrelc (llld litcel frames uciuK' ,'urren!!y ulled for tllC
COl1strucLion or si IlgJe llnd mlllti~toricd i nil usl ri3 I Anrl other bui1dinW!.
As a rcsu II., mulhoos of compuLllLioll of COllLllhcllk,J rcduuoullL
strudllre." tHin.! bt.ell furLllC_r pcrIcc\.iollcrl and simlllifJcll lu such
an ('.:ttclll that today tJll'Y nrc lIscd in everyday lh:.<:i/oCll prartice.
IlllporLllnt IHlvanc('s hll\"e 1I1so hl'tln mndc ill lhu stud ius lIf thin
walled tuhular 8()clioll~ which MU rrcqul'ntly lltiliZl~d ill uircrnfl
constl"llctioll as well as in otber brnnches flr cng:illcerillll'_ Vuriolls
probltlUlS N"11\tud 1.0 tile stability of structure."l Iwvl;J bl.'ell sUl~ct'$rtllly
soh'cd. or hiLa t.he nYtlami,,. of IHlginl.'lJring iltrucLures hu\'& bciln
acqllirillg all eVllr illcrell~illg impurtnncu. 11. forms 1l0W a scparntc
brr\llc]l or 1111.1 f;tl'llctllral Ulccbar1ic."l, Slllllll os Lhl' l,heory or 1I1l\'ul
alld neronautical an:hite<.:turo.
I\[nung t.he Soviet scienlists and I't.!SllArch workers the folltl\\'ing
hH\'C made Lhe great.eSl.l,lontributinlls to the dev~lopmcllt of strnctur
allllcdlnnics: A. Krylov, U. GaJl.'rkin, A. Gvoldo\', H. Zttemochkirl.
1. RnLinovkh, N. SLrcllll~ky, I. Prokofytlv, N. BCluktwv, N. Bclya
cV, V. Bototin. K. Zavriev, A. Smirnov, S. PunOmllrtW, V. Vlasov
M. FilonellkoBorodkh, P. Papkovich and 1\. SniLko.
1. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS
OF STRUCTURES
Lt. SUPPORTS
The word ,rOllml wiU hen'alter refer to any rigid invnriable body .
.. In ,,;ome ca!e5 lIlovllbla supports aclualh' cOIl:!lsl or a v('rtienl e!l.'D1NLl
with hingo! al both extremltjell, in whieh ease t)ley nrr rofl'l"l'I)tl 10 ll'" l)~rHlulu",
fllppurlf. .
I" Kill~"'lI/IC AIlIlIII~I. of Slrl<clurCI
~::'1=~t:_~:r
.__ liingo
~
,,
rf)Cker
F: : .:' '.'.
,
,
+ 
,
,
Fig G.I
17
"" ".
AA
".;.
.
(oj 
fI,t. 7.1
... {tJ}
,
:
.
' .  .~~~~~_._._'"
:
,
,
,, ,, ,
A'4'
(.1
FIt:. ~.I
m ,n
,
,.
ie 8/:
.
,"
'm 'n
r
,m
,,
, n
~,,~c_
A?.n",:~
F'K. 10.1
,.
20
~
All the plane tru5..'<tJs represented
in Fig. 11.1 belong to the simple
8 {i S b frames, each having beon obtained
successively by adding hinged joint.~
7~ to a basic pinconnected triangle
abc. in the sequence indicated. Any
9 S 2 I
triangular combination of three
70742 pinjointed bars may serve as a basis
for verifying the gcometrical stahil
9 J ity of simple framcd structures.
Thns, any system consisting solely
11 8 s , 1)/ triangles l.~ obvtously unyieldi'lg
7 s , (geometrically stable). This property
may be checked with etplal SUC('es~
in a reverse order, viz., by rejectill.lC
onc by one all the hinged joints
together with the two bars abutting
to each of them. If in the outcome
, a pinjointed triangle is obtairu'd the
system is glJometrtcally stable.
Fig. 11.1
.Let 115 now establish the rclo
tion between the number of bars
ond joilltll forming a simple truss. As stated IlllOve, such a truss
consist~ of. onc basic. pinjointed triangle, to which a number of
additional joints have bllen successively attached, each by means
of two separate bars not in alignment. Let S be the number of hars
and K the number of joints. The hasie triangle consists of three hars
and thrl'o joints; all the othor joints, numbering (K  3) are
2.1 Gtamdrlctd Sfal>"/t/l af Framtd Structure!
D[z]~
(a) (b) (c)
Pig. 12.1
Fig. 13.1
Iq) Ib)
/'
," o
~',
I \
(Plate)
,
Iq)
(b)
Fig. /5.1
All the above 8[)plie~ equally to t.he cOllocclion of any two g('o
Illctrtcally s . . ,. ble slrucluns (or rigid pla~) between thomselves
thus pcrnliUing to formulate the following rule: two rigid plate~ will
form a geometrically ,Iable (unyldding) sYltem 11 /My art connected
together by ml'llllS 01 thru bars which are not p01'alIel and do 1/ot con
verge at a common pOint of intersectton.
If a hinge is placed at the point of intersection of nny two of the
three bllts and is connected to the plote, the system will remain
unyielding and may be regarded as consisting of two separate plates
cOnJll'ded by means of onl.\ r,ommon hinge and one bor (Fig. 1fl.1b).
It follows that two di$ks may be rigidly connected together u&ing Om!
hing(' olld one bar provided the direction 0/ this bar d~1 not pou through
the ce"tre 0/ thu htnge.
Three plates Inlly Le connected to form one single unyielding
~yslcm with the aid of tbrea hinges placed at the ,erUces of a trinn
i:le, ('nch of these hinges c.ounectingone pair of plates O'~ig, 16.1).
r\lterllatively the sall1e result will be obtained by placing six inde
pt'lldent bars (Fig. 17.1), as each hinge Dlay be replaced by two bars
illtcrst'Ctingt at the cenlre of this hinge.
However.! the sy~tcm represented in Fig. 18.1 is instantaneously
unstable, the intersectiolJs of the bars connoot.ing each pair of plates
+
As wHl bo shc;>wn in Art. 6.1" e\'01'I very small ull~rnal IOll.lls .nay streSS
tl.& installtaneousl)' IJn!toble systE'ms very hellylly.
"P~rlllIellinl'a hllying 9 )Joint of inter&l'Cttou in the infInity,
Ftf. 19.1
Fig. 20.1
2.1. GeometrIcal Stabllltll 01 F"am~d Structure'
Fill. 21.1
/
. ,,
(b)
P"g. 22.1
I ;J;:
Fig.
;J;:
28.1
1
f
~
P
r
I,)
rig. 24.1
\ ~ 1'1
Fig. 2!U
~
' D',
Fig. 20.1
Fig. 27.1
28 KIMmatit Analyd, 01 Struclurt.
such wbere the forces acting in all of its ban may be wmputed using
equations of equUibrium alone.
It. may btl sasily shown that stresses in the bars of a hinged truss
subjected to concentrated loads acting at the joints will be always
normal to the cross seetiODS of these bars. Indeed, having 58paralt>.d
one of the bars. say, bar ab, let U.!l llIoalyte the conditions of its
equilibrium (Fig. 24.14, b).
If no extern:11 load is applied directly to this bar, it.! equilibrium
will be ensured only in the case when the forces N acting on the
bBr through the hinges a and b are equal in amount but opposite
ill direction. TJlese forces will always pass through the contres of
the hinges since in our analysis theso are assumed to be frictlonles.'l.
It follows that forcas N will act along a Iiue connecting tho hinge
cenl.res and, therefore. the cross sections of bar ab will lie subjcetlJd
eith('r to direct t8nsion or to direct compression.
Should \.he ~rus.s contain curved bars, these will be suhjected to
bendillg 1Il0menls in addition to the normal forces just mentioned,
tile maximum value of these moments equalling M.,.u, = A'j
(Fi,lt. 25.1).
\\"hell the truss as a whole i.! in equilibrium under the :!lction
of e:tLcrnal loads and reactions (Fig. 26.1a), each of it.! joints is
also in equilibrium (fig. 26.lb). Accordingly, the external load
applitrl 10 any jnint And the internal forces in the bars conveI'l:ing
lit lids joint must be balllnced.
Statics will furnish each joint subjected to a system of concurrenL
cOpb.lIllf forces .....ith two eqnilibrium equllLions
zx_o aod !y=o
If the truss contains K joints, we mllY form 2K equations or
equilillrium wb.ich must provide for the determinotion of all the
inlernal forces in the members and of the three unknown param
eters of the reactions. Any otber equilibrium equations which
may be formed for the truss as a whole or for any part thereof can
be derived from the above and consequently will contain no addi
tional information.
Hence the truss will be statically determinate. if the number
of its ba.rs S ill equal to double the number of joints K less 3
S_2K_3 (2.1)
As will be readily ob~rved, this is tbe snme relation as the one
sivinl,{ the minimum number of bar.l of a geometrically stable system
lexpression (1.1 )1.
Consequently, any limpk truss obtaintd by the Sltccessiue addJ.tton
of foints to a htnged triallgle, each Joint being connected by means
u
0/ two baN IWl tn. alignment. is both geometrically slablt and SUltically
ddermi1U1te.
If. when rOlloting the Ilumber of bars of a truss, those forming
its supporls were also laken into consideration, expression (2.1) will
becomo
S,o/=2K (:~.1)
'"The ~llall'~js of su(\I, syUt'ms is co"si,l~rd in drlail )a1er (see Art, 6.4).
2. BEAMS
1.2. GI>N~I\AL
In cerLpln trelltiN.'s Oil th(' S~fellRth ul m~teriab. po.!!iti\'t' Il(lnoJing 1lJ()IIICnIS
lilT(' plolhHl flU thlll!ide of COlDllrcs..ro Min'"
32
The sign of the shearing force ean be also ascertained with the aid
of the bending moment diagram. using the following rulo: T~ shear
($ positive in anTI cross eectian where tJu nlperpo!ition of the azi.t of the
elemt!nt with tk tangent to the bending moment diagram r~uires
a clbckwUe rotation of the former, provided the angle of rotation does
nol ex.ceed 00".
lAft. f_ at'
H M right WtiM
RIgllttl'/d" 0(
l,rt portlDrt
Q
PIt. 1.~
Fit. 2.2
Q=~
<I,
(4.2)
in other words, the shellr is equllt 1.0 the ftrst derivative of the bend
iug moment in terms of dx (thl'oTt'1ll of Zhuravsky), tile liign COllVCU
lion;)s set out above rOmaill.; in ftm:ll for M' alLd Q, while thc positivo
diJ'ccliorl of the :rnxi:; is fr'om left to right.
MUl"c'O\'t'l', there is equally lilt, rl'l,ltil1!l
dQ
fj .=
d,
(5.2)
whit;h meilns tllat the iutensity of tho distributed load applied nor
mall.v l(1 tho boam axis is e(IWII tn the lirst deri\'nlive of thc shear,
the distributed toad being I'eckollcd 1lositivc whclI it is directed
llpwllrns.
The following can he easily deducted frorn those two reLations,
t, ~~(';:,ati\'e she!u's l:UI'rospond Lo dcc.rcasing bending moment
Vil I IIC'$, indicatr.d hy all inrTCasl'l of the bonding moment diagrllm
11(.diIlOlles from left tll l'igllt. Silllilnl'ly decreasing hendiltg moment
dingfillll or'oinntcs will :;igIlify that tho cllr'respouding shear,s aro
'positive.
11 ." r!eemerl IlnUllCeSS311' tu dwell ill dl'taH 'lit tho eorr..spolldillll demollstra
lions.
2, The sLeeper the slope of the ltlrlgcml ~o the hending mOulCllt
diagram, the greatel in Clbsolllte villut' is the slLear, for the l(ltlet
is IlUllIeriealJy equal to the JHllUrlll tangellt of the angle flllIll(.!I1
by the tangeul to the diagralll and the llMm axis.
::l. The bending moment will pa~ through II maximum or a lIlilll
mum at thoso cross seclions whore the sheul" is niL
4, The hending momeut diagram l)(~lwcell two (:ollcelltl'l,tcl~
loads (110 distrihuted loads intervening) forms a straight linc,
generally inclined, while that of the shear rcdllCCS to a hori
zonLal.
f). ,J\ conic parabola for bl'mling moment diagram wiU correspond
to n Illlifnrlllly clistrihutod load, Uw sheal' diagram becoming ill
that CUMl an inclinecl straight line,
Ii. The convexity or the bending momellt diagram i~ n,lways llll'lwd
in the direction of the distributed 10<1ds.
7, Concent.rated J():HJ~ cause hrellks in t.he oirection of tile bendinlt
momllnt diagram aTld jumps in the shellf diug:rum, 'fhe rises and falls
in the laHer case are equal in amount and direction to the magnitude
of tile COllcelltratod loads us met wllen moving from left to right
along the beum.
8. The change in the Illagnitude of tile lWllding ffilHnont occurJ'ing
over a certain portion of tile heam length is equal to the area of
the shear diagram over Lhe same h('um length provided no external
momllllts are npplioll thol'eto.
9. The change in the mugnitucle of \,ho shear occurriilg o\'er a l\et~
tllin porlion or the be<111l length is equnl to the area of the distriblllod
10:1<1 !liagrllm over the same beam lengl:h.
In the present chapter we shall $tudy tht! methods of stress comp\l~
tation in cro~ sections of SilHply supported beams carrying moving
louds alld in t,hose of IIlUltilipilll c<Hltilevor beams subjected hotll
to lixed Hlld moving loads . .Moving loads are frequently enwt1nlcl"cd
in the r,omplltatioll of Lriclges, overltea.d cranes and other el1!;inccring"
stl'ucturas. An example of a moving load to; furnished by a f,l'uin
trl\vellin~ along a railway bridge, or an overhead crane modng
along nune trllck~, etc.
Stnwi01; /lud strains in tile Jiffm'enl etemQllts of 8. slructure depond
On the p05ilioll o( the moving load. In order to determine the maxi
mum design stt"csses, it is always nOSS3ry to know the mo~t Ull[tl~
voura!Jlo position of the load or loads for tlle element concerMd.
Thus, when designing the cruss section of any truss momber, the
rnOVilll! load must be so plncod liS to (luuse the grca~cst possible stress
in this particular member. This loading IlOsitioll is usually l'l!ferred
to as the most uri!mlOurable or dangerous. A distinct most unfavoura
ble load position ean be alw~ys found for each truss member, every
cross seetion of a beam, etc.
It should be 110tl'd t1lilt thill remain!'; tnle not only for sl,resse.<;
bllt also for rraclious at thl;' l'lIIPllorts, for deflectioll!! and so forth.
Tlle rlesi,ltn of structures subjertod 10 moving loads is grcllLly
hcilitated by the possibilily of applying the principle of Snprtposi
lioll. This mcans lhat. t.hl! inh.Wll31 forces, fihre stresses 3ud strains
__t'
A
Fig. 3,2
The 'JriIlCipl" of ~upcrpll~itjoll applies lIr.t only 1.11 the ell.!I(! of cOllcenlratell
l"arls lint equally 10 di~trib\lte,llo31Is, IJcllding moments, temperatllre ~t.re~<;e~,
etc,. It dor.s lJot Ilpplr in lhe ense or buckling witb bending, In all cases when
!.hI) material drM not follow Hoolw's Jaw and in some otlier cue.~.
'* lnflue.tlce Iinl1J< rep,'o.."1.'llting the variations of ",ithl'r stresses <or ~Lrail\S "'/In
:llso be plotted for unit benrling JllOmonLS, (lxLernal for~ normal tu the crO;;lJ
se<:tiOll ani! other type~ of l"lIds. moving aLong t!JL" ~truetllrl'.
;:Jj; Ileum:
Olomelll) ill all cross sections of the beam for one definite j)ositiulI
of Llu~ lcwd, wherC!lls lhose of tho illnueoce line indicate Lhe variation
of a !'(.lI'arnc.lU;!r (Sll:Y, of lhe Sllllle belllling mOlllt~ILL) in one particular
ero."!; ,<:cctlQII whorl l,he load IUti Ly Ira/!el.~ i.l Loug the I{)hole ll1nglh of
lhe beam.
, p., ,
loJ 8
(fJ) .... ,
r
le!
F,/(. :/,2
vary trolll 1,(}1'0, when Lhe load is direcLiy o\'er this sl1l'porl, 10 1
when it is over lhe lefLhand OI1l'. In order to determilltJ the roacLiOl)
A in Ll,r/ll~ of x, we Clln write tho cqllaliolL of Njllilibrium of moments
of all the eXLernal force.,; aholll tlle l"igltl,hand fillpport.
ZM,,=AlI'.t=(J
wlumce
p<
..1=,
Howevl!r. !iillOO P = 1, lIum
1< <
A=Y:":"t
This eqllaLiOH ~iv~ \I.'; the 11Iw go~erl\illg the vAriatiorl of the l'eacLioD
A as the load I) = 1 ~Itirt.s from onc point to another.
PlotLing out the lelllliorl j\lsl e.!ltahlishetl we obtllin the illnUon('l'
line for I'he reactioll A al Ihe Idtlllllrd support. Since this cquatioll
is of lite fir.::t dt'gr'CC ill terms (If or. lite influCIlCC lille will he rec.li
Iiuear (Fig. 1i.2b) ltlld
for.r=O A" 0
for r = l ,
:1=1.= t
The ordinates to tb~ inllut'Jlce IIlte for the reaction nrt.! dimen
sion'e:'\S. for both ;r. lllld tare expresscd in units of Jength.
Some senll' JIlust be solec.ted in order tu ]JIOI the influetlc,t.! line.
If. fur irl.~lanc{'. we adopL a !'.l'IlllJ of 1 ill I cm. WI' shull Iny flr!' I cm
OVUI' Lilt' loft.hlllul Sllllport. WllOl'll A = I. The ordinato to the innll
I'flee Iin{\ for tbe n'llcLion at A ffit'USllrcd H (]istaneo x frOIll Lhu tjl.thL
ltlt110 SUjljlurL will equal T' Thi!' ordinale wjIJ be lluffierir,lIJly cqu[l1
1.0 tllo r<.>:lctiOII it wht'll lhe disLanet> (.() the lond l' = t liS lU<'MIUrcd
from th~ ri~hthand sulljlort equal.'c .t. f n other words. tht urdinalr
UI t~ infllf~1U'1' hue lor tlK rroctton A at Q. given crO$! stlon repreSitmu
to !fUJ1. tJ~ value 01 tM mid rtoctiOlI af tlU' tnrtant whm tl..t wut load
Pis plaud dirf"Clly tWtr this rrO# scrlion. Accordingly, till' nllll{llitud<,
of the t\.'.actioll A corresponding Lo 11 gi"an positioll of thu 10lld J1 = 1
fAlll ht oht.ainC'd by simply sc.....linl: oft Lhe ordinate to thc innUlmc.c
Jillt' at tht! )mint o( I(lad applic.ItLiulI.
WI,en the load actually appli<,d 1(/ tho IJeam umulIlll.s to PI' the
reliction A will lIe ObLltilJoo by mllltiplyiug the ordinate LO tha influ
ent'~ lil\l' at lhe POillL of loarling (tllis ordiltuLe. [15 olread)' 1Ilcntiullcd,
rel'l't':'iclllillg Lbe feacHol1 A COl'rll.\ljlflllding to a unit Joltd) hy lIHJ
III1IgniL1H!c of FIIIcc J),. SltOllld n Jl\1IJ11H'" of conconlr"tcc! vartic;t1
loads ad 011 lite beum i'lirnuhllll(,otl.~ly. lhe totlll rCl\cLioll A will
bc fl'ltnd a:s the :sum of scpiltat<, rOflclion~ tlue to enclt of Ihose tlif
fl.'ft'IIL fMC.eJ;.
I..el u.~ tlOW I'rtll:.ei."d with tb.e consLrllction or Ihe iUnllCIlCC HUI'
for l'Caction B. For this purpose wc mflY e(IUa~ to :ero tho sum o[
Ill 1Ile 1Il0m(lllts of t.!xlcrnal furC(!s ahuut the hinge ('clllre at .4;
IoM.1 = Hl+P(l:t)O
leadillg to
I,hell
,,
Bn ..  = 1
38
:md
~heD B  lt
I
0

Fig. 4.a represcnls the influellCt' line for tile real.'Han B. The
ordinales to Ibis line am again dimensiOlllcss and th(' !leale should
'* Ihe same as for rellctiull A. These ordinates roprt"scnl tile amount
of reaction B W!lOll tlllllil load is applied nt the (.ross section COrrl\
;';Iwnding to tlH." given urdinate. Hence weenn delermillc this rellctioll
for n l(Hld unity by simply measuring tho ordillatcs 1.0 I!tO influence
line.
I' ,
,.,1 '"r=t
(0
P,g. j.t
'i.M tJ  Al Pr  0
whence (with P=1)
pJ: h: J:
A=,=T""'T
ror,1;_l~k A=.lik.1++
I I
l/l(lutn:o!' linP f.:w :
I 8
I
I
Frg. 6 i
The flirt that some of the ordinates 1.0 tlll\ influenc.. . lillt's art, this
tllllC ll:'gnlive indiClll.CS that wllen the load point coincidoSl WitJI
these Jl('~atiVl' or(ljllltlc~. Lho rl,1actiotl JJ ilselF is al~o IIegnLi\'(! or,
ill ol.Jll~r W(II'dS. direel.C1d dOWIIW'lrU.'i.
TIle SIlOll' pro(.cl)U['(l liS dcS(:ribcll "ho\'o should be followl'J for
LIlO ('_orlstI'Uc.LiOIl of tnrlucnce lines fOl' thc l'cncUOnS of 11 hO/HO c:lllti
lc\'crhl!& UVCr il.<: righlhand sUJ)I10I'1.
fig. (;.2 represents the influence /ill(\S 101,' Ihe reacliuns (If It hefllll
whh two 0\,crhall,,5. The reader is irl\:ill'fl 10 write l.ht'o c,Mrcsp1llldillq:
equnliolls on his own.
,
'",
1
i..t
I ...
I
;"1
'" ,I IP.,
A
,
I
,
I /
,
I/"fluMC'l' lu~
... far /1/1
~
,<I
word::!, those linlls will simply h..'1.\'U to bo extcnded 10 the left cxLronl
it)' o{ \hc o"erhal\f (Fig. 8.2l: and d). 'I'he reader is oncc again
ill\'ited lO check himself analytically thn illnuellce lines so obtained.
i\"ow lot U:i ~ whAt happens in St,.'CLioll TT siLllaled II distance
c (trllll tile left tllld of the overhang (Fig. 8.2a). Once agnin wc must
l'ollsi.lcr two posltion~ of the unit lond P.
(l) 1'11" loud point t.f ta the right of sectlcm Il (Fig. 8.2a). '11 this
casu 1I1erc arc no external fon'Cs to the left of IlCctioll ({ and thoreforl!
"the B~'''H'
whore Xl is the cH!llnncu from the I01lt.! point to ~clion 11. 'rIds
distance may vllry from 0 (when Lho lOAd point coiuciocs wHh tllCo
.~cction COllc,cl'ued) to c (when the 10l1d reaclies the (!lid of the over
hallg) .
For tileS{! two c.... tro.Il{'. values or XI wc have. respccl.i,ely. 111'1 = ()
IIl1rl M,r = ie. This portj(w of tht! influence line is roprescllttld
in rig. 8.:2, nogative ordinates bolng ploUed downwtlrcls. Thus,
Fig. 8.21' reprtl!l4!nLs the bending moment innuence. line for ~tiOrt
f} for tlllY posiHon of the load.
Let us proceed wilJI tho eonstroctioll of the shear QII influence
line for section fJ.
(f) A" long as tM load ren/.Uill./r to thl rtght of till' ~ction ~ll('ro are
no fol'('cs whlttsoe\'or lo its left Itud therefore QII = O. The corre
sponding part of the i"nuc.nce !ille (frona IlCcl.ioil If to the support
at E) is represl'lIted in Pig. 8.2{ by a horizontal stretch coineitling
with tho xaxis.
(2) Whrft t!lf! Ilnit load [.~ to the kfl of mlum If, tho sllenr OIl =
= _ 1 Which moans thot tho sheDr rOmains constant irresp('.cti\'(~
of tho position of 1,.110 load point, provided it lies to tho left of the
seclif'll. This port.iOll of t.ho iufluunoo line is reprcselltf'd ill Fig. 8.2{
hy It Hill.'_ parallel to the .rln:is. opgative t:;h('ars bnill~ plOlll.'d down
wards. Fig. 8.2f gives the shoar infhlencc line for ~ctir"l J I in its
e11 tiruty .
'\5 will be noticed, tho bending moment and shear illnu~nee Iin~s
for .!'t'c1i(lIls st'lcetcd within 1.he' o,erhang dHTer very SlIhsttllltiaIly
ff()lI\ th~ rolatif1l;: to soctions situated between the supports.
In Pig. 9.2 we have represented the bending mOIll",nt innupn(:l'
Iillos far 11 number of scetians of a fxo.am eantilevcring over bolt"
sllppart.s. sections /I and vr. coinciding with tho IClH.hnnd nntl
righthand support!, respcctinly. The sbear inDuencu lil'll:!! for t,h.e
same sections are presented in Fig. 10.2. Two soctions eorre.'l:polJ~1
to each suppurt. s~ctions Jla and VIa being inunedialely to the
left thereof, and soctions lIb and Vlb immediat.t>ly to the tight.
Il will bo notod that she.. r innuence lines for sections Ha Rnd Jl~
liS well as for SCe,Hons V/a aud Vlb are quito different..
I If m Irv~rp I IIQ lib III IY Y "1" "1l> ~11
, ltofWf!1oellJ>t
, I ,
frr N"
,
r I I , 1 1
J
I
"
:
I
I I I ,'
1 f _ '''f~
Q I I
UMI flJr "'1/1
I '
Pig. 11.t
I'rublem. H j~ rl"Quircd la l;vllstruet the l'l'noJlng 1ll0Ul('nlltlld sllt'ar wnu('flct'
11Ile,. (or ~_Liull'" of 1I beam ffl'fl"5(!nted in 1'1".1 t .:la. till.' \.lJlillo..... r lru\'elllng
lromrLO
",11"111111. t'iTl!1 eoustruct Iht.' illnueD\".(> Hllo fur I'e.rlion A. H"IIIn r. ~ing
rIgidly CAITU,e<:lA...1 to """"" All by lIIeall;; of the S1.allCliillU 11'1. tllu JVitCliol\ A
will l'qllal (.!ef1 "'jg. Il.Zb)
Till] I'l'lldinll mUfflN,t, in soo(llon III for "11)' l'U.'itiull of I!II' unit lo~d 0"
li('.~Jl) ,. will l'l.JOIlll
"IIlAII
AC'<l:urdingly, t/,o bellrliug UlOtlWnt inlluunc(' JlIll.' fm' hl.octJUII III will Ill) i,><JUlUL
...calll' ~iluiJl\r to Ihnt "f Illu JelllllulIl ",uclwlI. thl) latter'.. ordirUHc. ,,,I,,,,s
being lLlulllplil',j by 11 COIl~lllllL fnCl.at ('llllal
)MA to a. Tbl~ illfltHlnCC Iillc Is rep.{'!'(>llll.'d ill
Pig. H.2c.
The slll"" innl,lllll<'O Hnl.' will he (lb
101
c [/liut"! tluvugb Lho !!1Il1' procelluro l.nu
will
diiltr in llU rt'~lll'<:l frnm Ihlll f"r IrDC_
iiiiB
tinu A.
m
~
"1Jlll1lfllilli
103d P the readiou remains equal
to 1. Adopling nn nppropriatl' scale
as e:l:plailLcd in_Art. 2.2, we call trace
PIll. 12.2 lhe illnllCIlCt' lin' sbuwn ill "'ig. i2.2b.
In orJor to lilld lhu bclldillg rnOlncllL
innllCIlI:e lillc for scclion I IOt'alcd II distalltc c frolll th~ I,rth;tllfl
l'::r.ln'llIity of t!lll LcalO. wc shall proc:Clul in the ~lI.lI11: way a!< ill II'e
case of a l,cal1l wilh U\'tJrhllll!{ rcproSClIlld ill Pig. 8.2. Lo..
(t) wlh.'1I tho load is lo lhe dlSht or StJclion / (,~lid Iille in
Fig. 112.2a)
(2) when the load is to the ldt of S(lCtiOll 1 (dash line in
Fig. 12.2a)
ft.f/ =  i ' x l = XI
where Xl is tile distancc from load point tu 5('t:linn I;
forx,_O Mr=O
(orxl=c 1\1/=c
The correspondillg infiuence lioo is ",presented in Fig. 12.2c.
It is quite similnr to Lbo bendillg moment i'lnucnce lin(: for n section
within th.e cantilcvcring portion of a beam with an o\'crhang (sce
Fig. 8.2e).
J[ section I is chosen directly lit the !Support ~1 (c being equal
to I), we sh.aH obtAin th.o influencc lillO ef the rixl.dend moment
AlA' This line is shown in Fig. 12.2d.
For 0 btainillg th(j shOAr inilucuoo line we shall proceed as desc.riholl
in the previous article.
(1) When the unit load is to the right of section I the shear i~ nil,
JlO fo)'(es existing to the left 01 this section.
(2) When the unit load is to the left of section J the shear 0, 
=  1. which means that the ordinates to the influence line will
remain constant and equal to  t over the whole slrtltch from section
1 to the left extrenlity of the beam.
The shear influence line 0, is rcp['(':renled in Fig. 12.2.... It has
exactly thll same sho. pe as the one for suction 11 in the conlilovoring
part of the beam wit.h o\'!'rhong shown in Fig. 8.2f.
n, .
, ,, , that these portIons ore dofinile
(Fig. 13.2d).
~~ I' :lI1!I<le17'e lme
, for M, However, when tho load is
I
1::', I
C,
.... I I
CotIIlflCt,ng IUlf' within the panel mn, it... dract
will be transmitted to the gird
((/)
, ,, er at panel points m ami /I.,
its (",omponents R", and Rn'
!hown in dash lines in Fig.
14.2a. being equal to the cor
"1 responding reactions of Lbe
stringer beam.
 In order to find the shape
of the innuence line when the
'11. 13.2 load is within the panel coo
\aining tho sect.ion. let us fmd
the value of any function S, set up in section. J by a unit load
(P = 1) situated as stat.ed aoo"e. Assuming that y", and y" arc
the ordinates to the influence line at the correspooding panel
poin~ (Fig. 14.2b) and using the method of superposition we C30
wriU! tho following equation
and
_ P (dI) 'I (dt) 11:
/1 n  cl cl .
where d = panel length
z = distanctl from the load point lo the righthand panel
point.
Substituting the values of R m and Rn in the llrst cquatioll, we
obtain
" d_:
8 1 =7 YlII+.Y'
,':J=j'"
, IR"
r~~~' ':,]
+
'" [ I I
m: . d
I
~n ~
I1IITITIITI~ru~n i
(bl t=.====~
Fig. 14.2
'I
I I I I I '_
~
l I: I 1/f1f'[~ lilleforMU
I I
I
nor'
I
<.> I I I I
1 I I I
_.:"l"n"fl""":="line"","f~"'O'"'_J
Fig. 15.2
Fig. 15.2 represents the influence line ror 111 llnd Q corrl'~pundillg'
to .$Octions I and I1 of a beam witll Ull overhang.
lnilucnce lines for the reactions havo boon omitted all thoy flo J101
dmer in any respect from those of a bum subjected to direct loading.
la) J'
I
(' r
:' "*;a! :.....
.. .,. I I
I
Fig. 17.2
influence line must be measured at all the load points, they must be
then nmltiplied by the respective loads, the products so obtained being
finally summed up.
Problem. Using the influence line for the bending moment JIff represented
in Fi.g. 17 .2b determine the value of this moment in section I of the beam shown
in, FIg. 17.2... This beam carries three concentrated loads the amounts of which
are also indicated in the same figure. Ordinate values at load points are shown
on the infiuence Hne, but they can also be scaled off the drawing orcaleulated.
Solution. Tbe bending moment in section I equals
M 1 = P,h,+P2h2+P3h3 4XO.5+8 X 1.0+10x 1.0=16.0 tonmetres
'rhe 6rst term of tbe righthand part o[ the equation is preceded by a minus
sign, the ordinate hI being negative. .
trated loads qd% and the bending moment in section I due to all
of these loads will be then obtained hy a summation of all the prod
ucts qd:xh" or
Mt=~qd%~=q~h,.d%
the load intensity q remaining constant,
The integration limits c and d indicate that the summation must
be carried over the whole length of the beam section, along which
the load is di~tributed.
The term ~ h" dx represents the area bounded by the influence
line, the ordi~atcs corresponding to the limits of loading and the
xaxis (this area being shaded vertically in Fig. 18.2b) for h" dx
(a) ~
~
~_x~' w !lll;Wofflce'une :
(h) l ri, ' I ,h. :fa'M1 :
Fif. 18.2
(c'
w,
(d)~~1
rr
, I{nfluem:e line
I (or Q,
I
I
o ~ __ ~'_IJ
Fig, 19.2
Sol"ti"n. AS this load is spread over the whole length of the beam the areas
bounded by the influence !inllsmust be calculated for the entire span.
Detcrmlnalion 01 rtaction A. The area bounded by the influence line being
Dettrml""tilln III t}u ,hqr Q,. The inDuence line consists 01 two portions
bounding areall equal in size but opposite in sign
&ls=i+++; &li+i
Therefore
(+++)=0
Q,=q(WS+W,)q
Problem 2. Determine with the aid of inftuenee lines the bending momenl
and the abear in section 1 of a simply supported beml with an overhang loaded.
n indicated In Fig.20.2G.
Fit. 20.2
$1I1"'/toll. Start by drawing the inDuenee lines for tbe bending momenl and'
shear in section 1 (Fig. 20.2b and c).
m~:~:r~,,::= li~:~~~:b: ~~:~:r:{~d r:.~ ~dl:~u:i t~ ~~.6~d;~N
the area IIlot under the inDuenee liDe of the uniformly loaded stretch tot.1,
w,,=+X8X 1.6_6.4m1
Therefore the required hending moment will amount to
M t  Pll j +'1Wj3X 1.6+2X6.0f0_8.0 tonmetres
~_+X8XO.8=3.2 In
Accordingly
Brams
We shall now show that the lunction S of any load (whether con
centrated or distributed) acting over a straight portion of an influence
line will be eqlUJ.l to the resultallt If 01 this sY$tcm 0/ wads multlpUed
by the ordilLatl' h o curre,~poltdtllg to this resultant. In effect let us eoo
:!Iid~r the influence line for fUTlction S presented in Fig. 21.2 and
i
1
I
I b
:!*f
cl I
_
I
1 )
I" I
I
I
1
J
I"'
~,
00
{}J
0/1
,'"' I
..j
"I
I .I:: ~ ~ I
I <:;  I
a et  0
In(luefla! lint! for S e
Fig. 21,2
Ft:. 22.2
(a/
7J;a
r"
r
, ,
'
+ r
,m m,
InflfJWlO:1 (<fie fur Ht
I
(b)
e n n, "
 I fp!llHfI<.... llM
fIT H,
le)
e , ,
'"
I/n(luence line
Id)
'rr"
, for a,
" ,r
,,r
,
 .
: Influem:;U!ie
fur Qr I
I') a " ,
b 1
1 L....1.
FIt !! 2
P,
p, r r,
'
P, P, P.
,,
" ",
'
,' , ,"", ~x
" d ,I'," I'
" " ,,
"
"
,
" I,
11
"
11
,
a '. " " '. 9
Flf 24.:
7.2. Deltrmi,wtlo1l "I tll~ Most Unjavoural.ile Po.<it/on (I} atMId 1)1
small"r 'han in tho first casu. Any othttr position of the.set of 10Clds
~.ollsillertld wOlllrl equally lead to a :!lIwUer value of the bending
mOlllent.
l~i~. 23.2b shows the po~ition of the same set of loads prQviding
for .1'1 r",in'
Fig. 23.2c and d indil'ates Lhe load positiolls corresponding Lo
thl:' maximllln and minimum values of the shearing force. In Lhe
first ~o.!>El it is a::iSunwd that the lefthand load stands an illfmitesi 4
mal distance to the right of section I and therefore it.s anlount must
be filultipliNL by the ordinate ab (Fig. 23.2c). In the second ease
it. is ussumerl that it is the righthand load whic.h is infinitely dose
to sertion I from its left and therefore the amount of thiJI load must
bo multipliod by tho ordinaw ab l (Fig. 23.2d).
Let us consider now the innucncc line for a function S cOIl.~isting
of a. Ilumber of straight portions interstlctil1g at points a. b, C, d, c, f.
and g and n set of conccntraled loads (IS indicawd in Fig. 24.2,
the loads b~illg in position I. As will be scen, none of these loalhl
stolid over the verticos mentioned above. As~mming tbat the whole
~t of loads is shifted over l\ distanc.e x to the right (position [/),
tht'_ ordinate hj, cOrrespon.ding to a load Ph will be increased by
!J,h l = o'x tall <x, *
",hilt\ the i1lcrement of fUllction S will equal
l_,. 1=,. l_n
/:J.S = ~ PI6,h j =
~I
LJ
'_1
Pi,lxttlll<X/=o'X ~ PItana/
~l
(C.2)
Should we shift the set of loads agllin by 6.x to the right (posi.
tion Ill) the new increment of function S would still be given
b~' t.he oxpression (6.2). Assume 1I0W that position 11 corresponds to
the maximum value of the function S (in other words. that this
posiLion is the most unfavourable or the most dangerous one). III
that case the increment AS will be positive when the set of loads
1!'l shifted from position I to position Il and negativo whell the lonns
move from position 11 to position IJ1. Thus, when the ~et of loads
pa~IlS through its most unfavourabltt position, the incroJnent of
;_1>
tlw function S (and accordingly lhe sum
.sigil .
,,Ll Pi tan (It) mlJ.'~l ChaJlge
As will he easily seen from expression (6.2), a change in :;iftl1
of tho illcrenumt 6.S may occur only when onc or more loads whirh
*11I Fill. 24.2 tht> Bnglrs,,",.,,"~, o;~. ""I' Md al Are pU5ilive wl,ilst Lho llfi!l"l,'s
,~ und 0;" Bre negatlvl'..
"The samo remains true fQr minilll1lm V!,hle$ of the flllH'Llon S.
wore previously sitllaled over one rectilinear portion of the i..IlDuence
line have shifted to an adjacent portion.
1 ~ follows that a d4ngaous posiUo/~ of thL SIn of load$ wtll occ~r
luhen one or more load points coinclck with the ordi.na~s panillg
thrtJugh the apicn 0/ tM influence lint:. This important remark grutly
faeilitaw$ the seareh for the most unfavourable position of the
loads, as it reduces the number of trials to the cases when one or
several load points stand over the soid apices.
Hereafter botb the load and the apex iD the influence line ovor
which this load mu.st stand to ioduCll a maximum of tho function
undor consideration will be termed critical.
Let us assume now that position fl is the most unfavourable
onc and that it occurs when the r,riticnl load P3 stands over th"
critical apex c of the inOuellcc line (Fig. 24.2). ln that cast: the incre
ment /is must be positive when the system of loads shifts towards.
tne right from position I t() position II and it must bo negative as
.
!loon as the load P, passes to the right of point c. For the samll reason .
the sum ~ P1tan OJ must be posilive when the 1000ds sLalld to
i_I
the left of the dangerous position and becomes negative as !loon as
they hQ\'e shifted to the right of the latter (see exp. (6.2)1. \Ve must
also have p,tan u! >P1tan 0, which leads to It: >cx,. Thus,
the slope of that portion of the inBuence line which is lo the left or
the critical apex must be greater tban tlte slope of tho portion !<ituat
cd immediately to the right of this apex. This condition is satisfied
in Fig. 25.2a only. It follows that ll. critical poinl t" flu IllfluenCi'
line wW always coincide with one 01 Its conlH'X apices or peaks, the
same temainillg true in the case when tho minimum value of II fune.
lion is sought. This again reduces the number of trials necessary
to fllld a dangerous posiLion for a given sel of loads.
It should be noted that thc intcrsection poillts of an inDuelle@'
line which form peaks when the maximum value 01 a function is
sought cease being such when its minimllm is required, and vil.'.e
VCJ'!lll. Thus, in Fig. 25.2c points c, e, anl: g of the illflucn~ line form
peoaks when S,."", is sought, while poin\s at b, a, and 1 would become
such were the minimum of S required. In order 1.0 a!C(!rtl:lin the
nature of the extreme points a and g of the influence lino th(' :I:axis
lOhould be extc'lded in both directions (as shown by d3.s.h lines in
It may It:l.ppl'.ll that having Jl!aclled it~ mu:imum, th(' function T't'llHlins
constallt during Lhe PISSbgo or certain 10000d.t from ODe of the apices to tJll'! n/'lt
one. In tllaL Clse a maximum ""iIl exist even though liS is nil And no (olld is lit
nn apex:, but the ruJe just ulontioned still hoMs good, for iniLll\lIy this DIuimUl"
nccurred when the uitical load (or loads) stood over an ai~x (or apices) of lho
illnUllllCfl line.
,
n .~
, , ~
I'J 'b)
a
___ 0 """"lliLLCtlll.l>= 9
d f
ra,
Fig. 25.2
J.'
" " J.5 '.0
" ".S ' "

"
.,  ~
"~ig. 25.2.:), thl'S8 porlion!o being considered as part of this innuence
lint) with zcro ordillll.lf's.
<
We havcalready stll.l.Cd that when~k.ingS...,,,,thesUln ~ Pj X tan
is posttttlt' Ichtn the ft't of loaJis is slluat,.d to tM kIt 0/ its most
wl/IJJ)OI~r(lble position and negatilN wkm thi$ set }un shlf~ to the
.., "I
right of flu> lnUt'r. It ill clear that whcll 5"'1" is required, the sum
j .....
~
,, t:ln
PI'will lU'gatlve whm the luads are to flu> ll.'/t
UI hI! their
dangerous posWon alld positive whm they are to its right. Tllis al'iO
0;
,
Ho'
No' , Nd N0.5 NaG ffo.7
d
J.' ,.,
FIC 28.2
will
Th~ luads being shifled r~om ~ight to left the sum ~ PI lan
~I'main negati\"tl as long as nil Ibe luads are situated over por
., Q l
~ioll.'J Ix and ccl of the innucnce line formin:; negative an~le."l with
1110 ,<\XIS. As stated before when the loads pass throngh 11 dangerous
t)O.:liliull, this SUllt mu"t challge sign and become positive. Ac.eord
injtly, we musl contiuue to mo\'c the londs in the same direction,
+
"llic/!sa alld d do ll,!t [onn peaks fllld lheroforo the pa~Mge of a load O\'l)r
Hnc of the.e 111''' Ilt)inls is of no danger.
(.2. TJf.len"illalioll of fhe },fosl UII/llvourable "uti/ion of 11 Load 65
i.ll., from righ~ to loft UlLtil thissUlll he(comos positivtl. Lot us consid
(.[ till' loading rtlpruscntclL in Fig. 28.2. So long as tho loads remain
tu I.IlC rjgh~ of Lh~ po.~ition
j=n
1
h P" tall a, = pI 5+3.5)+(3.5+3.5+3.5) 1l j _
i_L
t t1
(3+3)"F=m:<O
But a~ soon as they sllift to ~he left tllis slim becomes
This weans that the pas~age or 1./11) S<!t 01 loads from n position
sliglltly 10 thl: right frOlTl tllO one indicntou in Fig. 28.2 to a posi
\,ion slighlly to its left C(llISCS a change in tiLo sign o[ the increment
AS fr<l/n negative to positive. Therefo!'e, the position represented
ill Fig. 21Ll i~ ,I dangerOUs onc and load S is a critical load.
Suppooo now that the Il1nds Xos. 8 ami 9 (sce fig. 20.2) which are
still beyond tILe limits of our structure when the fLrst dangerous
loading OCCllr!! nre considernbly greater than all the other 10D.ds and
total1iJ tOil!! oach. ln that case ii the train of IOD.ds is shifted furtller
Il~ tbe loft so tllat load~ 8 IiIld 9 would reach portions be nnd cd or
l~"
the illnUcncc line thtl sum
..2l Pitall a j would again become Jlcga
tive, and at tbe monLcnt onc of these lo;;uls passes thu peak b it will
change sign again. Accordingly there would be a !<econd dangerous
positioll of the set of loads considered, for which the vahw of Srn"",
should he ngnin cnleulatl:ld. The larger o( tbe two maximums should
be adopted lor design purpo&!s.
Let us now consider the cage when tlte innul:!llce line forms n
triangle as represcnted in Fig. 29.2. Let Per denoto the critical load,
: ,
P the Sl1m of the lOads situated over the lefthand portion of
the influence line. and 2l Pthe
R
sum of these loads over the right
hand one.
..._.
"Vc have shown prc.. iou!'I1y that when the set of loads is to tho
left of its dangerolls position, the sum ~ PI' tan , is positive and
when it shift~ to the right the sum becomes negative. In other words,
~853
;>lj
a .. 1.m 6.Gm
1~8m
Pig. :to.2
Flit. :;/.2
'_lm
in thc prc~nt case
tll,nat,{ZP+Pu )+ tau all T,P > 0
L R
""d
tan (XL 'iP
L
+ tlln all (T.PR + P cr) <0
Substituting in the noo\'c t'xpl"llS!iuns for tan (h aod~ A:,,:"
for tan all (st't! Fig. 29.2) a/ld cUfying ont some clenlcntary
trllnsformal ion:'", we ohtain
"lPTr>.. tt>
L >!L
and
Xf' P.,II'
'' <
(j
!l't/J"
."dding to hol h llide.'5 of the ir!:!! c:<prc.ssiun c''~_ 11 lid tQ hoth
sides of the ."el.'und OlH' +
!P
wc get
~P+/)<r+"ll'
P ')~>
('f.P'o C ' "
, lIb b
!./J J..l'c'T~/'
r.P~< L "
l. aIJ 6
SlIll6titutillg 1 (or (a+b) and delloLing lhe Slim of all the loads
by IP, th!'Se expressions will cllsily rf'duce 10
T.P + 1' > 1:1).1 (7.2)
L
and
, < I[J.j
!,{l (8,2)
This shows that \ho socond load is tho critic"l olle fol' onl)' ill that
cr'!:!C botll of ~l,e hlt'(j\lalitl~'s hccolUn satisfled. Effectively, let l;P=;1.5 tons
~/lll l'("r=3.5 tons, U'C'1l
:I:P+Pcr",,3.:i+3.5 7.0> I,. 31.'; 10ns
I
anI!
,
:I:P::03.5<4.3i5 t(ln~
The mo. t unfavounhle position of tIle train of loads lhus (ound is inJlc,1\ed
ilt fill'. 32.2_ 1n order to find tho value of Smllx Ctlrrl.'sIIOlldilll,l 10 this loading
let Ill< find 1110 ordinalo~ h 1, h z, h~, "" and h~
~ , .!
:
I
j"fluef/Ce line
1l far H,
I
 I
l/nfluence lUTe for
M,
.
I
:Jnfluenc!! LW!! far
I" ~~::~Cll~~.
I Q,
 l       __
 I J"fltJem:e lifle (or
Q,
Id)
  
Fig. :JiJ.2
It i~ assumed that tll\' loads 1ll3y 116 distribu'oo (lVer a stretch of (lny length.
70 llrca/lll
frOIll which it may lie SCClJ that tl1Cl"O will he alll':I)1) all! y ()IW
dcl'illitc vll.!nc of the t'qllivalolLt !oad fol' cacll paltieuJar 10lldlllg
llldt'od, s{,lving the ahov\" equlltioll fol' f)cq we obtain
Zf'fh,
(hq=,,
In ()UI' cXtlllIple of Arl. i.2 we hllVt' fuund that. for the train "r
lond!' eOllsiuol'Ou the maximum value of a certaill fUllctioll S l" 
tulll'd D.1. III l.hi... case
\I.l O. I '275
fJe'1=T)(F=T= . tOllS per metro
:r
rt migllt sceUl tbat this h\ads w; c.Ut.tly llowhct't~. far in order
to Hnd an Ilqllh'alclIt load wc IllIlSt rrrst dtll.erluillO the mitxirllUIll
value of the [Ilfl(.'tion IJy trial. In rlJaHty this is Ilot su. I,'or n triaHgu
lar influence line the intensity of an equivlllcnt I(lad far iJ given .''.et
of f;oncQnlratcd loads is indopendent 01 tho lH!tual valuc or tile
ordinates to the infillQJll'C line IInd will altel' only witlt a ()hang~
in ~he length of thll~ portion llf the .structure which C,HTies UlO load..,
find witll 11 varill.lioll in the position of tho innuenclJ liuo apt'X witll
r~spcct to it:i tlxtrt'mHies. This jlcrmits CUwpllttt.tion and labulllliun
(or rcprcsenltltioll ill the fOl'm of t!raphs) of eqllivaknt. load jnl.en
Sith)8 pertaining to typical loading schemes and to tile rhoro wnl
lOom shape:> of triangnlat infilU)llce lines.
Ld //..~ cuU simU.ar tu'" lujluN/(le lints when the ordinal~ 1'/ (mt of
!lti'm mayix' Obtllifl.N1 hy mulUplyLJlg tho~ of lhe other by Il cUIMtlmt
fllcMr. aud lrt liS show thal t1u' inlttuity 0/ tM l"fJuit;lIknt wml/f fnr tlOO
simL/ar lull'S r('mains Ihi' J(UI~.
la'
I
la
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
tb, 1
I
I
a
Fig. M.~a and b n!pl'fJ"C.nts two such lines; the base longtl,~ of
tho.'" liul'S lire the samo while their ordinalt\s differ by a constant
factor equa 1 \0 u.
The ('qui\"<tlent load for the line in Fig. 33.2b is
. IPllli . .
q..,~ with 1I;=nJI1
lllid
Q' =U.5nh(u+b)=,lQ
whllro III ll11d Q <Ire tho ordinllt.e aud the area of the innUonCll line
rcp~&lnlcd in I"ig. 34..2a. respectively.
Suhstil\lllug Q' and hi by lhtlir values expresso<!. in terms of Q
and h we fmd
tor linc a.
D~tllI"
\Ve !Iave t.bus proved t.hat. equivaltmt loads for similar inOut'lI<'C
Ijll~ are identical.
The intensity of ..ho equivalent load depends 011 three fllctors ollly:
(1) the llistribution aod magnitude of th" loads; (2) tho Icnglh of
the loadl'li portion; (3) the position of tlll'l :lptlx of the illflucllce lille
over the span (or over the loaded portion of the structure).
TroUl
~
~~~
~  _... .~ ~~ 
~~
_.............
.... .., ............. <::<:: ~~ 'ton
", ........ ..; <') <OS ~~
OS'"' ... .; ... <i ... ~~ ~~
"""
I'!,"e
(r(Jtll
H,
..., ....._.........
'
"'.,~""'
~ ..........
....,
... ~~
,
~~
..............., 
. . ..........
..........
..., ...,
  ,
...," ;o?, cS~ u>r's I~"
...., <; <"\ ") <":i ~~ "'S <"j "'S; ...
~" ~~
, "',>1:..'
, , 1 S G7 8 . ID 11 12 13 14 IS16 1718
,.It. J!f.2
,,,
I 7.00 7.00 i.l~I
<i. :tu 3.5l' :{.:IO
3..1~ 3.01 2.St
:,. l!j 2.57 2.1~
5 :.UII 2AI 2.41
:L2f1 2.2(,
"8 2.1lQ
,.
7 2.71 2 21; 'J.2H
,. Vi3
2.51
2.:m
2.~
:.:.;(.8
2.2:1
2A2 2.16 2.11t
 12 2.2!l :.'..0." U16
1.!'l7
" 2.16 .. 88
1I\
"
211 ....
2.0:1
1.1',,!
1.88
1. ,7
1,(;9
1.82
1.7!1
1. 70\.
'"'" 1.41
.. '"
1.27
t,2!1
1.::11 1.22
I(iU
110
120
'"
..1.32
1..:ro
.."
1.22
J.:!Q
I. IS
1.15
l.l3
J:'lIJ 1.27 I. 18 I. II
tt,v 1.21; l.H; 1.10
I!JrJ
'00
1.2>1
1.:t3
1.15
1. 1>1
.....
.. 07
1.00
,"
liLl
11~J
1.21
I.a
I.W
l. 12
LII
I.lU ..'"
"" 1.18 .. OO .. ""
t.ll5
7\
(a) ~
,
<
  , I
I Iltr~,7('it 't,ile r, D'S
~~
1_ I
tb) { 6:
 h~
Jm Gm
Ft::. 36.2

IHle s1"'1l1J In' 1""I,~I. the ll'1~lh of !JIb tlllt'lion toI.aJs 8.0 Ill. lu e"hllran 3 "I
'l'ahl(! 1.2 .... le' 1,,,,1 Ihllt Ihe ~'<luivaJ..nt 10"'\ fl.H' I""i" III ...." .. hl equal ill that
e.l3(: :l.2X lOllS 1Il"I' Il,ttru. TI,u muimum I~ll$it'" prodll('~d h) an 11, train will
th~,<t 1.0 dL'i\"{',j fl'UlII the follOWing e:o:pn~ion
Du_O.SX39.911_IU.t'S ltlns
TI'(j lUOU;lUIIIll cumrrcs..><ion ...ill 101.' obl"inod by 1000ding Ihl" wltol(> ~Iret.eh
ill'CI'" Iho 1H';:":l.l(vo, I",rlioll of \ht' inllu('net' 1I11l". i'rmn 1'lIlill' 1.2 wu (Illd lnal
fur 11 IcDglJ> l_ <4 In IlK IlflUi'l3Ji>"I I"ad i~ 2:.57 tOIlS !Joer moire (!N.' culumn 3).
TI" IllUilllUlll CODlI"l'!i!!WlI will Ih('ll he givcn by
;; oi
;!f).~_ kit..,il _7 X 2';'; X 1ii X "2  t I. 24 I."UII
la) ip....
~a ~
Jl,.ai
'.
Z/11t 118/11
:
, 0
, '''''0m
iI
:/
!l ll.n. fir Ir1flu~ Hr
(6)
~l @ I
I
lint for Qr :
(C)JJ ~ et>  =:
e az E
Fit. 37.$
iUl'\'C.lillll J 01 une Iwlk:r:lf1'. ~pre~nled in Fig. 37,2/) ilnd r. 1'110 I>dltgc is :ljlllin
5ingJt, trat"k "lie, loo r.lils bc'''il" f,xl'd, to ."ltiDRer'S .ml rro5,5 be.un! t.u,,\M,rll'd lo)'
1\\'0 IlIlTallp) g,rd.....,.. AccOl'dil1gl)'lhn .,quiv~tellt load ror one Rirol... r wi l.be hair
of tloal giVl'/1 III 'rable 1.2.
$of"I,o'l, IJ.,,,,,.m/tWllofl oJ AI! "'U' TI.... J('ngt.h uf Ihe> J(lltdin ~bouM lit)
lukl'Il ~ual lu lite whole ~Il>l" of llC ll:irtlet, 1.0;1" to 10.0 m. As Ihe ~I'''X or lI.e
InDuen((' lIne fnll! 1...'lw('l'Il Ihe llh1l.rtet !pan IM/illt and Ih ... enll of th" !:u'd"r the
cqujva!""L lOAd l!lU~t 1'0 found toy intl,lrpohtLion. to'or all If, twin
ca'
AI._"''''__ ..,'t__'c"om'''__..,c
(0'
"I D
A C
IOm
'dl
,
M,tGtm
Ft,. 18.2
be hridged over, tIle design load being evenly dislriLull.'d and oqllsl
to 2 lOllS per metre. In the fir!!t instance let liS try separate simply
snpporlcd be;JlUs (Fig. ;~.2a). The bending momonts At miuspan
of each beam will amount to
qli 2xl0l _
MO=T%O.,.25 tollmctft"$
III the middle of the 51'all He tile bending moment will tllllollul Lo
:!:X1Ot :!II) _
Mt=.T= I" lOllllwlres
.~ J;: "k J; ;b ;t
la,
J;aI,,'J;
a
J;
,
,
J"
.~ J; J; \Ok J; J,.
.~ :J;
0
;t: J;;
re}
B
(fI
oc~
~""" J"
c ~
Fig. .t!J.Z
/\ I(ll.'tbod or illYll~Lill'uting Ihl' geomelricul ~Lllbility of a muWSpan hinged
1Jl'~m \\'~~ p",~sl.'nILod In Art. 2.1.
9.2. Mulli'fI~n Stllticalfy Dclcrm.inatr IJcam.
Fi/:. ,/1.2
~ ~
,,)
JJ: a
~ JJ7' o~
Ib}
~'
0
~
Pig. 42.2
Fig I.B.2
" S'/MI5
A 8 ; C r D
~ Jm
A 8 .1
JlJ, :Al l"
Fit. 4;1.2
;;a; LJ :;;A;;;
Fig. dS.2
;;;;;;;; L.1~
.11
la}
lJ
p 1: la}
I>;; I
I
TIle heam ECl? is SUIlporLeJ hy two bllrs at its end E and rests on
a verlieal har !<taluling directly 011 the ground at C. The supports
of bl'arn PD arc exactly similar, LllUS ensuring its stability.
Tho exalllples presented ahove lead to the establishment of the
following rulE1s relative to tho distribution of hillgt'::l in beams which
have no blllJLill enll;;:
(t) there may be no more than J! hinges in each spun;
(2) thl'rI! musl be no hinffes in the spans adjacent /0 tile one provided
with 2 hinges:
r (a)
~
(6)
Fig. dB.:!
(3) spans con/ainlug (I/lt" hinge only may follow each olJli<r~;with
the exceptton "i One 0/ th.. extreme spam where there shOl~ld be no hinge
at all.
Thus far we have cOJlsidered cases whore all tho supports but one
were freo to move in a horizonlal direction. Lel us 1I0W exnmine
ca,o;.es where two or moril supports MC frxed and will allow 110 hori
zontal tli:'!placemellt. In this CilSC the introduc.lioll of ordinary hinges
he{~omcs insurrLcicnt for the transformation of the cuntinuous beam
into n stlllically dctcrmillllLe one. This would require the inSLallatIon
of mobile llinges which offer lIO rc~islancLl to horizontAl displace
ments. QIl{' of these hinges is fCptcstmled ~chcmalicaLly ill Fig. 1i,').2.
An example of a sLatieAHy dnterminato beam with lhree Iixcd sup
porls and two JI\(}vfLble hinges is given in Fig. 46.2a, the interaction
of its elcments heing schelnlllically indicat<110 in Fig. 46.2b.
'f}le reader h invited to establish 011 his own the rt.\hllion between
the uJlmlwf of li.xl'd supports and of mobile hingllS in n Sl.atically
determinate llIultispan beam.
The 1lI0st commonly used multispnn hinged lX'ams arc represent
ed in Figs. 47.2a and 48.2a.
'0
" The first one is characterized by alternating doublehinged spans
and spans d"void of allY hinges. It l;on5i~l, thus or 1I. series of beams
wHb two uvorhang,;; supporting su.'lpended' simple beams. Tbe
second beam is characteriud by the presence of 0. hinge in each
of its spans with the oxception ol the last olle; .. b.e i1llerllction of
ils ell!m~nL.'1 is represented ,~bematically in Fig. 48.2b.
'0'
(f)
I n
(9)
21
(h)
FiK. 50.2
IJ("I111/.<
The yalllOS of the two reactions just fQllna Cllll he dux,ked using
the cquilihl'illlll equation uf the Vlortlca] cOllrpOJl('lIts
,ry = PjqazR,+H",+lljJ=
= 2"1.2 X t0.13+2A+ 1.4= 3.8+:~.8"=O
whl'refrom
IIl.~ II ;'q'4+P 2(I,.
fll+/l~
O.6X 1 Z \.2 x 0r.'.'} x 1.21 +:1 xl = 0.5G6 ton
I l."
10.'1. Del~Tmt""U/o" 0/ MtlI.un" Imd POTU.
".
O.l1 (1.2+ I + 1.5)+ 1.2 x 1.2
1 1.5
C/ + I +1.5) +3 x l.&
= Ii ,1j7/, tOll5
leadillg' tu
MD =  R,l, _  0 .5UB X 2 _  'I. 1:32 tOIllOc:tres
Tht! lll'gativc vnhw of the mOlntmt (lblninoo indicnt.cs lIwl lhis
momC'JLt act8 il) a diroclioll opposit.~ tn the onc indicnted ill
J"ig. 50.21. ~'rOIlI t.hu IJIluilibrillm l"qulltion
~Y= H,+R.o=O
we get
Having dl'lerminOlI 01111 t.he reactiol\S at tILe supports and all the
pressures l'~t>rlcd by t.hll separate 1l1ements of t.he betlll1 on each
other, WIl may now proceed with t.lie determiuat.ion of shears Q and
bending moments Jf act.ing iD t.hu \'ariollS Cl'Ogs sections of t.he beam
aod with Lhe OOIl::l~ruCt.jOIl of the corrci1pnllding dingram,. There
are t.\Vo Wtl.}"S of carrying out these compulat.ions.
l1) The shearing fOrcefol Q and the hcmding mornent~ .11 for the
multi5pall staLicnlly dckrmillat~ l}lJnrll undur rOll~id('ratiolL
(Fig. fJO.2a) may be determined ill thll Sllmt> WllY as for an ordinary
sl8tically dettlrlllillnto beam taking inlo cOllsidurnlioll only the
. Bum.
The value..; uf t.he shears "hUll obtained for all tho five portion$
of the ~am will furnish the shear ditlgrlull represented in }'iJ:t. SO.2g.
TbI' ~IHHng momcnt dia~ram will be obtainod by thtl S('(ond
of the two methods desrribed. The corresponding graph for lht)
t1loment ABlft will be derivefl (ruDI tbe momenLs due t.o the actifms
of the force P. = 2 tons. to the l"OActions at the supports R.\ =
= 2.4 tons and R" = 1.4 toilS, to the uniformly distributed IOnd
q = 1.2 lons per metre, and to the intOl'aclion forre R,  0.6
lon (!lee Fig. 5O.2c). Tbi.'1 graph will he r~tilincar along thu lelt.
hand overhang at = 1 metro amI O\'('r the span l, "'" 2 moLn'!!, no
distriblltcd load acting along these ports. At Ute luft cxln:Jlllly
or the beam the Ix>ndillg moment will be nil. at the .<;upporl A it
will total Pia. = 2 tOnmetres Sill! over too support n it .. quIlls
PI (al + + 11) ll~ll = 2 (1 : 2) + 2.4 X 2 = 1.2 101l1Il1111'es.
Within the portion nll l (righthand overhang) the oonding
moment dipgram will be concnve, for this portion 0'
t1u~ beam i!l
!uhjected to a distributed load acting in n downward dircclion.
At the righthand extremit.y nf lhe element ABll 1 the bellding'
moment will again cquaI1.oro. The dntn so obtained yield the dingram
represented in Fig. 5O.2h.
Using the same procedure we shall obwin tho bonding loomont
dingrnm IfzCH a Wig. SO.2t). At both extremities of the boam
(hingeil1l11'1.nd H~j the bendinc: moments will equal 7,ero. Under the
IOll.d P z the moment will aqnal R.,a:, = 0.566 X 1.5 = 0.849 tun
metres and over the support C it will amount to
R,(o$ + a~)  P~ = 0.566 (1.5+ 1.0)  3 X 1 =  1.58!"1 tOilmetre!!
Over the lefthand overhang tlkt graph will be curvilinear while
between the supports it will be represented by a strai.ght line. These
data will be again used for the cOnstruction of the bending moment
graph pertaining to the element H zCI/ J (Fig. 50.211.).
The bending moment diagram rorthc eklrncnt HIH~ will be bnund
cd by a COnic parabola e.J"actly similu to the one obtllilled for tI uni
formly loaded similarly supported beam (Fig. SO.le). Its maximum
ordill..'\l:e will equalqi= 1
t.2:1 = 0.t5 tonmetre. The (Hagmm
for the eloment HaD will be bounded by a straight line pas.Cling
throllgh zero at point H 3 and through the top of the ordinate JIf D =
= t.132 In at the wall afi shown in Fig. SO.2h for the corresponding
element.
Al! these separate Rraphs when placed together will furnish t.he
bending moment diagram for the full length of the bC81n appearing
in Filr. 50.2h.
The reader i!! invited to check the Q and the M diagrams IIsing
the expressions mentioned in Art. 1.2.
", Brll.m.
,,4 J; J;. Jk J1
~ J; J; ;;;; J;
~ J; J;; 71 ~
A ;7k J; 7k A
Fig. SJ.2
lm
Jm Jm s'"
Fi~, .S2.2
leading to the constrllction of the bendillg moment and ShCPf dia
grains for tile bellm oC Fig. 52.2 and to rmd tlae longth of the overhang
,
Fig. 53.2
In Art. 5.2 uf. the llrescnt chaptor wo have 51wwn that when tho
load i~ tra\l~mitted throug"h secondary beams (stringers) thtJ influDnce
line for the main cndsupported beam tcmains rectilinear. We
shall show now that in this respect influence lines for mullisllah
sLalically dctl.rrninale beams are quile similar lo LllOSO just men
tioned.
i\sgnmc that it is required to draw t.he influence lines for reactions
A, IJ and C of beam A C represented in Fig. 54.2a.
The element CD of this beam is freely supporled at one end, it.s
othor end Leing hioj,<ecofinected to the end D of the cantilever heam
AD. \Yhcn tho llnit load is appliod to the element CD the reac.tions
aL pointsD and C will be exactly the same as in the case of a simply
supported beam, bllt when the load shirts to beam AD the reactions
at pllinls D and C become niL Accordingly, the influence line ror
rtlllcLioll C will hnvo the shape indicated in Fig . .54.2c.
As legn.rds the reaction at support A its value wilt be the some
as for an ordinary beam wilh ovcrh:l1lg as long as the load unity
is applied botwetm points A (1nl! D. When this load is applied III
point J) the reaction nt A will be diructcd downwards ancl will
roar:.h its maximum negative value. When the load unity moves
"lon~ the clemellt DC the pressure excrted at hinge J) wIll equal
~ > in ot1to1' wurds, it will have the same value as though it were
transmittccl to tho .'!.ante point t.hroll~h a stringer nnd crOSt; bl\llfO.
Accordingly, the (nnuence lino for rtlflclion A of Lhe element DC
will he tllc.tilinCll.r with B. zero Ol'dinale at poinl C. This illnuollce
line i.'J reprc~nted in rig. fi4.2d while that for ~ho rl'aetioll aL poinL
B is shOwn in Fig:. 5!. 2e.
Let us consider now tho cOllslruction tlf Lhe influence lille [(lr
the shears ill sections 1 and Il of the stl'ucturtl scltemlllically ropre~
Slmtcd in :Fig. ~;'.2a.
Section 1 will be subjCf:,ted tfl tho action of lh.e ~hcarin~ [orc.e
only Whl.'[l Lhe unit load P is applied hetwcon abrllmcll~ 1 and
joint 3. Wlllln this load is app1ic{lll.~ joint Z, it is hilly LransrlliH(ld
to the overhung of the llIBin bean. with the shear in sedion { then
becoming ('qllUl to 1. Whell tile load unity shifts to the luft or
to the right of point 2 the pressure at this juint will dtlcren!ffi beco m i lIg
nil \\'lwlI the load roaches point.l or point 3, the value of the said
prcSSJII.'C diminishing proportionally to the distance of the load
from one. of Lhese two points. Accurdingly, lhc iufLllen,;e line will
he trianguLar ill shape wilh an ordirlatll. at genion I = 1
(Fig . ."I5.2b).
BI!Qm,
A
la,
(
,I. l
,I
I
I I
(~}nA; I
.~
i 1Pf faence line I
I for C I
I j,
10'
(d/\
,:fnflllence Bline
f~
I';
,I
,
Fig. ,;1.2
d 23~SG78910 11
rah"m r;I I f;r~ Cr.
~) :I~ ~fl! JlJ, ,
I : tA Infwl1nce line for Q; 8t
(6) ~l : i I
,,
I
\~. I1 \
,,
I I: Influence fine far al( I
f I I r I 1
(c)
1
1
I
1
,a
__
1
hS
I
,_
'0
Z
'
1
I 10
,I
a $
h~

c,6.___ 
h
be "
Fig. 55.2
11.2. JlIfllUTl~e LIMI far l\1ul/upan Slatlcally l)e1un~jTla[e Roam> 93
la)! ~
I Im I
lO;:
1 I'
I
i .
g I.
,e,
I I I I I
I I I III I I , I
'''Ilue,,~e line I I t I I
j
I
(d, I !
I [or MD I
I 1+'
I~I~
I I
[ Q.96m 
ri Z.Gm
Fig. 56.2
1011 tho value o( the shearing force in section .fJ will vary from
Vl,2 (or h,o) to zero, the latter vl'lluQ corresponding to the Case when
the load reaches the abutment. The varintion of any function being
linenr when the load shifts along a secondary beam, we may simpLy
'Connect the ordinates at points 2 and _10 with the points or zero
ordinate 1 and 11 (Fig. 5.'>.2c).
Let us now consider the construction of influence lines for slat
;calL~t doterminate beams of more tha.n two spans. Tn such cas~s
'it is always recommeuded to begin with tracing the interaction
'scheme.
Fig. 56.2a represents such a bealn, the interaction scheme of
;ls four cIemellls being shown in Fig. 56.2b. Let us fw~t construr.t
the influence line for the reaction at support A (Fig. 56.2c). For
tllat part of tIle beam from its left extremity to the hinge HI the
<otlStruction will be carried out exactly in the same 'Way n~ r'lr
BetJ./fI.
ab 1  :r1 '1
,1 ="'2 Wlll'flce ab=l~' 2=1 X 2=0.5
rA'l ll!l now cOll!lrucl the inllul'lIcc li~ for tbe LcndinlZ moment
"cting over seo.:tioll 0 of (wr ht!am (Fig, a6,2d). When the Il!lld tra,'{'is
alull~ porliolllI:,D tho construction "f the influcnce tillO WIll be ('XIH'.t
h' the SIIme:l..'1 for a cantilen'r lx>am with a builtill t'nd (:<ec Ark 1i.2).
fltAAing to pol1ifln If~C we uoticc thllt lhe prcssuro R 3 YlIriefol Ilro
pllrliunnlly to t.he difoltallt.:e of tho unit load frolll point C rotlching
:U!N' whcn tho load is O"er this pOillt: therefore the innueflcu line
over this ]lOI'lion will ho repl''I!S(\lltcd by a line tl'Il!ll'('ting poiut cl
with n point of ZNO ordinate at C. Point 8 under hillgc Il z will bo
obtnined by extenuin.et this Hno until its intel~etiofl with 11l{' vortical
pn.'Osiflg through this JJingtl, IInd tho last portion of till' HnC' between
hing('s lt z arid IJ, will b(l obtained by connecting point e with a
POill~ of zoro ordinate at. the hiuge HI' Tbtl similitude of trillngles
pormi\.s the computation of the ordinate r! as follow~
e/12 12
== "., wllelJcc'l = cd';;7 = 2 X 0.48= 0.96 to
~ ~. ~.~
It is apparent that.. the illnucJ)("c lino for any fUlIction ill any lIection
of a mullispan statical1}' determinate bteoam may bu eonsLruetcd
follo"'ing tile prucedure outlined hereunder:
(I) The influence line corresponding to that portion of the beam
whi(:h contains the section under eonl\idcration is COllstrllcl.t..d l,xlI.ct.ly
in thc same WilY Qfol for 11 simply !upportcd heam (with or wiLhout.
overhangs).
'Thi~ {"HQ"""' frQlll the equilibri"m of ..,l('ment 11,11 2,
(2) The ordinate ubtained at the paillt where the beam member
conllli1lillg the section meets with the adjactlnt one is then conne\l.l.cd
with a point o[ urO ordinate under the 8t\Cond support o[ thifl laller
elument. The same procedure JIlay be fuJlowed in order to oblnin
the iT.OLlence line uver Ul(1 more dislant elements o[ tile beal/I.
(3) The ordinates to tho j'l(lrtinellt points of the inOucnce line.
may be deri\'ed from tho similitude. of triangJes which cUlIstiLulo il.
The reader is inviled la chrn,.k tho inOuellctl lines represonll,d
ill FiiS. Si.2 nnd 58.2.
"
,Hl,,",~i1f= _(_ p%I)=P:rj
"
"
F.ltm.ttd 11. 1'1,0 lnlemal f,,~es aNin!:, oYer .ny 5tCition tlbtaoce ;,:: from
l!)to left end Ilr the elernenl BC 'I..i11 {'l]ual
rj'_:I:Y_O Nlr_1:X_P
L L
M ll <= 1:.41 _  p~
L
Grallh!! obtuilllld WiLb the aid 01 Ihe abll\'e ElXpC!lSions .re roproduced'
in Fill;'. 5!L2b. t nnd d. H Sh"llld be no1ed th;.t lhe t.lpre5Sion~ ohLalncQ {or At'
r"
I
Ilnfl~1!fIC9 l~fN"1
I 8 I
I
I
r"
I I
I/!'f/uem:e Uf/efor :
i M.. I
I I
(d) "";",,,,,,~
I
I
Ilnflu8f1Cf1 lineforl
I
I
':
I I I I
I
I
:
I
f
I 1411 I I , I I I I I
I I I.'I~I~'
le) I I
Ul7m1lttJl""l~l
~ .......
I
Ftg. 57.2
n k
I I r. I I
/ , , I 'f.I I I, I I I . I '
AB ~'I 0,11 El F
l.f. __ l~....L,""I_L....... .hk. LI ~11..11.. 'L+L_
I Z I Z I 2. I
2 I 2 z ~ ~I 2 I Z Z I
I{~I I ~I I I IfnfluenceUneforAI
Ih) I"""'"IJ.~~ , , I
) ~ I :  1'1 I
I I I I I I I 1
I '~lllll
I I I 1
I I " Iln(Weni:e li.ne for lJ I
I') I ,_, I,! I
I I ~ I I I
I I I I I J I
r I I I , , I
I , I1nflllence line for I
Id) I .....100 M
i~:"f1"'''1I",:r~:
I I ....~ I
le) I_I I
Pig. 58.2
12,2. Hrll'filll/ NC/1WII$ fllld SI'NIr/IIK Fvrce~
(H)d (/ ,10 Ilot ~ati~Ir cxpr(\"I!iulL (' . 2) of 11.1'1. 1.2 derived fWlII the theorem of
Zhlll'l,,.~kS' Ind..,NI.
dill! = diP.. j ) I'=fE
(I'lj dXj
t
Itl~lead or dM =Q'
d',
Thl~ is ,low 10 the fac~ l!uH III ~tl<J1I I or
thE' beanl 1,(f~jl;H' \'alue~ "f the ah~'j~
~(lS WC1't\ tJlE'aslIred lIOWllward~, III {,thE'r word~, rr'om l'igll~ to left, while the f0:.>1:,
tiO'1 dM
(! _. ~ ,
rl'rnnms \ru(\ "11 1y WIle" '. UJJ~,l$1lIlS
1"'.!'ltlv~ '.' nr,_ !Jl(!u!ured [('oJ)O h . [l
\Q right.
A ,
(11)",
r ~r (b)
,,'
"'1" 59.2
Lt'l II~ now eJl1lck the {'{jllilibrium of joinl H. ~,,!,arnting it rrol11 lit"
1Jlh{,r 1'lIrt~ of tl.e ~tnwtur(\ 1I11,] applvi".~ at Llw cut~ th~, illleruJlI {(lI'ros coml!"tcrl
nhovQ wo <llttain the f{ll1owing e'lui)lbrium cquntiulIs (Fig. .'i9.2e)
:.M11= M1l4 ,JIllc 1'<1+1',,=0
~Y_O
;/ , ,
/'
~ p,
,.,
,0>
P ''
,0> (6J
,..
~.~,
('r:~ '"'
.
p
~", ..
Fi,. 60.2 Fi,. 61.2
12.2, Bending M~mwt$ and Shltaring For~e. 99
Solution. Choo~ing once again the lower ends of tbe vertical @Iem@nts M
tbeir lofthond oxtremitillS, nlllrk them with asterisks. Subdivide the knee frame
ito;elf into four separato:! portions and write for each expJ'(lssions (1.2) through
(3.2) giving the shearing ~nd nonnal iorce.1 and tho bonding moments.
PtJr/ltJlI I
,
QI=:EY=qzl
Portio,. 1 J
PorlJon III
QI1I=_IY_P_qo; NIU,,",_IX __ I/o
R R
q~
},f I1I =t.:I~2P(Z9a)q4( "
2 )
Z3
P~rlion IV
QIY __ :EY __ qo; NIV=_IX",,_P __ qo
R R
_ qo (z~ ~)
Tbe .liogr.1ms Obtained using the above expro~ionJI <lTt" repTt"senled
in Fif(. 60.:.!:/), r lInd d. Fill. 60.2" repr11_o;ents joint B !lubjecled to the internal
forces anrt moments acting at the cuts. It will be eeslty obSl.'rved that all 1ho
equilihrium equations for this joint aTO SlItisfied:
qll2 3
:ElIJ B  _qa 2 2+2'10:10
IX ... +qllqa_O :EY =qaqa. .... O
I'robl"m 3. Required to construct the Q. Nand lr1 graphs for lhe Wltically
determinato frame TepreSl'ntl'd in Fig. 61.2a..
Solullon. Detennine reacti()n~ RA' R" ilnd JI B shown in Fig. 6l.2a utili7.ing
tbe wellknown equilibrium expressions
!M 11'" R A2a+ Paq2Da_O
wborofrom rornernhoring that P"""qa wo obtain
2qa~qo3 a
R,,= 2a qT
T.M A  _11 D2<l +q2aa. + Po "" 0
and lbus
2qaz+1a3 3
RH"" 2a Tqa
IX=PH/J=O
giving
He_P_qa
7'
100 B~(II'u
Q'_o:
PorUon. IT
QIl _ _ p _ _ 'Ja;
lihd"g for
Z10 ,uIl_O I'lUlllor "'211 .1I 1t "'_q,,1
Po,litltl 1 If
Q"I_R... _qz,_q (,iZl): Nttl_~p qll;
, qr~
" '"  R IlrlPfJ;t~'l ("
7r3"T .4)
Olll q ~
rlfl 3 HI
"'lien "'124 .j '"" Tqa oH = 2.1,,1
Tile ,hearing force Q'll =9 ( ;  "",) bct"AJmes oil ",lIen %'1_; an,l
lI.(~rdingly lho ~ndjllg mOlJM'lLt will 1>11$ in this H"GtiOD t.h1"O!\Rh R mui.
ilIum or a tnil1imum
M '" q (0:
4/11_ 8Ill) Tlld:
7
1'orl,o.. IV
Q,v_lI n _'/fJ: NIV""_RlI __ ~ q": .HIV __ fln,'l;~ ... q"rt
whe_n %,_0 M1V .... o
whl!'lI .l:,_21l JU'Y .. 2'11/1
The correspomllllg di.a~llS for Q, N and AI .rt' re"re~nt(\ol in Fig. (;1.20,
t lIod d.
Prtlld..m oli. 11.'quirt"<l to elln~trn tbo Q. .\' .nd ,u di.grams for 11 heam n'pn'
~nted in Fig. &2.201.
SOIIHUOIl. ltcplueo the iQClined load P by iLS vertical Dnd h<Wizont.1 eompo
ntnts P, :md Pz
P",_P,_ Pcas4S"_O.707/>
and dctcrmintl reletlon RA whioh will suffice in tbl' eM'!.' uuJrr eonsideration
:f./If/!= R,,21 + PilI. 7071 + p'~1.7Qil_O
12.2. nl'n(/(tlg Muml'lIu and Sht'arltlt! }'orl'u 1(01
wherefrom
~(1.707P~+O.i(l7PJ:) I 17070707
2l   Z . X0707P_ O.853P
.;.... ,~ A
?
i,!
Q sraph
(b)
N graph
t,!
(d)
F,,;. {j2.2
Par/loll J
Q'_il... __ O,R5.1P; _!'{f_O; ltl f _" R ...'rl _O.&'"'~P.r1
whco :1',=0 _If' =0 when %)=21 NI = 1.70!'Pl
Portion J f
QH _P y =O.707P; Nil _ P:r O.707P
.l{lJ _ P",O.iU71P~ (i.70l1".;?l "" 0.707P (O.707l+1.707lx;?)_
 P (1.70710.707"'2)
w!ton %2~"() 1IJ11 = l.i07Pl wllen :1'2=1 M IT =  1'/
Par/itm II J
102 B~"I1I&
, ,. p p
(a'
n p :
q
, F1 'p
 @.
" ,. p
N 
,
# ,.~
(U;;to
'1::
,
."
a
R"r:t @<'
p
a a p
le)
p @
a 
, p
Fig. 63.2
,
a
p
HI
q
"" I ,
a
"
a

"
~
" ,,
, ,,
p,!!'
~
a
"
,
p
b ,"e,., ~ ",
" rh!
q
p/=lJr (c)
,
, ~
a
<"
p
( ,)
Fig. 6/.2
103
~'XM II
};,;_~ L~~
~11;"'~
!Of
f II
, (e)
FI/I. 2.;;
II
IQU
~ i.~
c
,,,
" (II)
;0'
W H
C /I
Tie
A ,
A (d) ,.. f!
. re)
FIG. 5.S
P,
c P, P,
,
;;;4'
fa}
IV.
tio" V,t. When this i.'l known we mAy solve the equation ~ JfcO
L
c:tpl'l!SI!iJl~ that UllJ sum of m01l1ellts of 011 forc.es 3eting ontllO leh
part of till' arch about hinge C is nil. this equation containing the
ronc:lion V,l which has just. lxen determined and tbe unknown reac
tion 11 A' We may thtlll proceed with the solution of an cllHation
OXIHO..c:silllt that tho mOIU('lIt of all external forces abouL hing<' A is
I~
F" 7.:1
7lro which will give 1I!l the nllue of reaction V R ,md thOlt obtain
tILe mal!niludo of H JI t'quilling LQ r.ero thl' projection nf all the
~J(k'rnal (oref's Oil thl:' nori7,OIltaL
Till' computations just drscribcd may ht' ChflCkcd usinj:l' the equa
tions
!Y =0 Rnd IM("=O
Tf thB Lwo ,O:llpport!l wl.\te at cliITOI'Cnl lovels as in (~ig. i.il/l, tho
('4unLion ~)V" = 0 would cUlltnin twu ulllmown.'; V" /tTlt! If..\.
thus requiring' the solution of 11. ~Y:ltem of two equalions with two
11J1lcrlowns. This can be easily avoi.ded if hol,h reac~ions WeN r~s<)h'cd
into cOlOponclll::i onl! of which woulct follow the linu C()rJll("cting
tile two ~upporl., ,1 and B (Pig. 7.3b), Whrn these components v:~.
Vi,. fr. lIud 11'0 arc Ilott'rmilltHl. t.Iltl "er LitI! and hori7.onlal compo
1l0l\~ will be castly found u5in~ the t'xpressions
V A = V;" + 1I;" !tin 0:: V II  VirIlssin 0:
lI,A=JJ;"tosa; IJnlfilcosa
%, \lR..\PII,CAL NETIIOD
1'ho graphiC<ll determinatioll of the reactions requires that tIte
rosu.ltants RI and Il z of all ilio forcC!s applied to tlll' left and to the
right of the Qntral hinge should be found in the firllt place. '['Ile
wactiollri indlle.ud by cne.h of these resultauts RI and /l2 will then
bEl dl'hmoiocd, their sumllllltion giving t.he fm31 \'aluu of tile reac
tioll l't'quinld. Wc may stnrt wilh detcrlllilling tbe rcactinos at the
SUPI)()rt ('au..~ by the ajlplication of t.he foreo li" In this ca~ the
reactiun at. th~ righLhnnd !!upport 0 1 II\Ust pass throll/.t:h Illc hinge
at this sUllport and the hillge at the crown (fig. 8.:1a) as otherwise
!he rll,::hthand portioJl of the ardl wbich is subjected solely to the
reaction at B l and th~ interaction of hin2C C ('ould Ilot remain ill
equilibrium. With fCactiol\ Al arisini: at the lefthand ~UI)llort,
tho orch as a whole will hil ill equilibrium under tho nclioll or th",'C
fvrl:es .1 1 , B l , NI
" A R,
8,
o 8,
8
rb,
,
stratcd in F'ig. 9.3. At the outset resultllnls III and 112 ore found
u~ing tllo method of force and funiClltar polygons whereafter the
procedure followed does 1I0t difIer from the onc just described.
Problem I. Using hoth methods d9'>Cribed "hove determine the support.
reactions of a threehinged arcb supporting two vertical loads liS indicalNI
in Fill. 10.3<1.
S"lulioll. t. A wzlyttcal mC/Md. Reptaeo the support reactions by their com'
ponents Y A, ]fA and V D. 1I I! (Fig. 10.3b). III ordcr '0 de!crmioe the magnitUII&
lIf V A equate to lOTO tha sum of all the forcl,lS actinj(" on the arcfi al'O\ll
llninl n
(I 3)
Ilc...~ M" is the moment of :Ill the e:<t9rn1l1 Lo~ds about the hinge aL the right
hand suppOl'l.
The mngnitulle of l/ .. will be obtained from Wo equilibrium of the moments
"r all C:o.:llll'nlll forccs aeting on the left lu:llf of the are}l about lhe erown h;ll~ C
whell~,e
,
~Mc= V",hf{",1 PI (1101) 0
H A
V Alt PI (It
1
<It) MC
/ (2.3)
Horo M~ is Lho !lJO/llllnt of all tbe load~ (ox('llpL of H",) aIJting ou the telL
hand porLion of the arch :thout point C.
1'lIe vortieal road ion V Jl will be obtilined by summing up And equllting:
10 7.'!ro lhe 1Il01ll0l\LS (If all tho ext(!rnal fOl'e",s about hin~ A
:::,M", __ V nl+ P::a2+Ptal =0
whence
(3 ::1)
Hl'rl" MA is tbe ruoment of nil the loads ahllut tho leftblllld support.
Thl.' last unknown roaetion f/ 11 will be found by projoeling all tllo forces
on the raxis
nAHnn ~~
The l/lst fonnula shows that the fhru$/$ ari$lRI al both lupports o/lhruhtngea
,!!mm~lrical ar.nu ,ubjuud to ,,<"rlieal load, a~ equol in site and oppodt~ /"
,lireclloTl.
Substituting in equations (1.3) through (~.3) tllll numorieal values of all
the paralllotlll"S wo obt.aln
V .., 4 (1031+3{IO6) 28+12 4l<lns
~ 10 '0
4x3l3x6
V H to _3 tons
,,
p.\
,
 '
.~ ~:)a,
P.I(
0

C_
l\p,
0
, ,  ,
'
" ,
A,l
A /,,/A:;:
,
 R, R,1... , \82
'
B,"', ...
8
fa' IbJ
Fit 9_'
,
la,
A
"
H,,"'Jt
'f
fh'
~"'~t I
,,
". B fi;"
I
0
, o
0
v, (el
, I
,
0
0 P, 0 P, ,
0 I
v,,"'Jt I
'c
la'
,, "";1 lfI'"
,I
i'P. 7 ........  __ J
'" a H~=Jt
A
a , I Srot8
t f r ft
Ftg.10.6
1I2 l'hruHIIlIl,d AuJlr6 IUTd Prtuttt'
rutin t}t upr""lon, (l..1llllld (.1' ..fI it ",Ill bt obl,rl'<!d IAa' lIu wrtk"j 'upporl
"art/MU 01 ti,unl,,:fil lI.rd!e, It,lU'VIIlK L',rtlNIlldlo alOll1 illL'C' file 'amI ""ho"
'fl In, ",adig,., gJ ,Imp!, ,"pport,d k",,,... of tlu .",m' ,pt'" and lo}Gded In rile lIIIlfll
Io"f{/ (t'lg. 10.3c). The bending 11101ll0'llt III mldsptln of this !loam "ein~ l'quIII 10
M~, 111, illru,l 1ft the artn 5upporl, mall IN oblllined hg dlllldln: till' krultn:
mOIll,,,t by /114 tiN of IM IIrlll [51~0 ~ua.Lioll! (2.3) and ('.all.
2. Graphllt,ll m,lhull.. Usin(l the schomatle dr;'wing of ~hll aT('h (Fig. to.3d)
[t't us connect hinges A Ami D with the crOWl1 hinge C, oxumdillg thc.oc lioe~
dine' I llnd III to their interlleCtloll wilh the di..,)ction of 'ort:Oll p~ (,ml p,.
T1h!J1'rtively, HI, pnintll K 2 and Kt. Thew looilllS are lhcfl connecled directly tu
l'OIll!!.A Hin/: lllltnd I1 llille 1fT).
FJg, 11.3
IA'! us now Ill)' 011' loO SC:lIle forces Pll;Inl! PI (\'octOI'!! 1211nd :18) nlong 11 \,'T
tied a~ in t'la. to.:k. "'01'1"" PI is tben resolved into two tQtnlHlIlent.3 ill' DJ
pauJlol to the linO\lIV antllllsee Fig, H.3d) fOf" whkh PI\I'PO~' r"ys 2:' ~nd
1.$ ore trOl.'d through its ~nJ$. For(:1) P z i., resol'(!llln Ill" SlIme ....ay thlls "Lt.ain
inK a ray 21 oquml in amOllnt to A~ IInd para lid 10 the 11,,0 1 anti iil 111)' 34
<"\Iu'!.' ;n OmOI.lOL to R~ and I'nrollel to Ilflt' Ill. nlOl1'After TJ)'~ 1..s and.i6
3ro Wired paralkl to hnes 2.5 and 21. r"sreethely. Hay 61 ....iIl he l"Qual \0
the 1('1I(';lIon al A lmtl u.y '6 to the reaction 3t D. Tht' verliullllHI Iwri~Ollh'
<:omp()I>l'lIta of tbllSll TNcliollS " .. , VII .nd If A' n.ll Ill'(' <'ll5ily found.
I'rnblem 2. Dolormillll al1~lytielllly Ihl' thrusl of nil nl'<:h rcpr~f'nlel1 hi
ti~. 1t.3 nniformly loaded <I\'('r the erlllro "'Ilan wILll Itn illlNlsily q.
SDII<!iDn. Starl with dClrrmining the fcn(';tiollS III tho "'ul1jJ(lrB U~jllg Ih"
following "llllilibrium oqllntionll
~MB""O ond ~MA_O
~,I/HVAIql ~_o
't.M",_lfsl+qlY_O
V.. Yn7 QI
,
In t!to cuo of vertical londs nlone the thrnst lI ... =ff 1f =f' m"y
Ill> ,leU'rmino<l hy rlluatinll I(J 'Zl'ro thn momt'nts of :Ill ('xtl'mnl fUfC<!S lIctins
2,.1. SUI'!,ort lI~odtmls uf" T"rc~!li"l:rd J1rc~
p
H.
I
11
8 \1:.1
8 L..~
",
rr
..1_ ,
Gm I"
Smte
v, q,,,_~l_,qm
/0 )
.'iU/IIl/QU. I. AlllIl!lt/f(lllll~lhDd. J,d ll~ t<\"olvE! tho rl/fCll l' int'! its v('Ilklll
nlll\ ],orizol\tlll c.umpullel1ls
p"",,,,~XO.8=4 toM: I'r=:iXO.f>=3 tons
The vertical rI'neti,,)) V A lIlllr \l"~,, II(' dotcl'miul'd fr'>]" till' equilibrium
'~'IUlllioTl "I tlw ",om'ml!! about pojnl, JJ
~M}I12Y" 9PII+3PrO
whl'lle'
:~Pu3P" :m'J 27
12 ~r:r=122.25 ~ons
V Jj"= r,x3+i:lx3
12
17' ,
,",,'." u,,~
,,,. 1"111' now det.erminl' tIle Ill,riznnlut rl'8CliolJ 1,,,
""l,wtillg tIl1.H(1 lie
Ilwm"lltg 1) oil I"Kes aclino: <m ~hll Icf~ lildf "r the arel' nhou~ tl\l.' CI'O\\"
hjnge C
Ill,
HA _ '.'."x'
"""'' =::;''' ' '",""_
3X1
4
4X3
0,375 ton
'rb" ncgatil'o sign oblainild indic."lW!! tbat tllu reaction ll" 'i.s di~k>d
tnw~rfls the left, Tu determinl: ti,e reliction II n l(\~ us equllte to ZCl"O the SIIIlI
or hnthontnl JlrojllCUons of all tho fotCl's;
~Xll ... +P,,{fTJ=O
wh~ncu
lfn =0.37:i+3 .... 2,li2.', tLm~
2 Crap"lcal m..thad Tt>lc{' line /1 through hing~ B HIIII C until it,. intl'N('c~
tlon wIth tho dIrection of !orr.c P at point J( (Fig. 12.3a). Point K wHI tlwll be
('onflocled by line / with the hinge A, Thon Iny to ~nle Inl'Cl! P JlI.mllcl lo it~
directi<lll as ShOWll in "'ig. l2,311 and through Hs l'flds trace rays J.~ llllU 2$
parallel tu linos 1 and 11 of Fig, 12.3a. [0511~,<:_ti,,(~ly. Thoil I_wo rafs \\'illl'o)lm
~nt to sen III ttLll "('nctinns at the ~upport.~ A and l); Llw;r' l",rimntlllullll vortica I
cumpoucnu :U'O /fA. un(1 Hr!. VA and V lI
M='ZM= 2:M
r. 11.
N~W
,. w
, (1.3)
N = r.c ~ 1'.\ sill ~I' .!...1f'1 cos ~rI.P~ sin rp + 'LP" c,os q' (2.3)
, "
where J: and y = coorllina~'.':i
of point K on the centrc. Iilll~ of the
(l,rch
1j'1 = angle between the tangent to the wntre line
of tlte arch at point K and a hori7.ontal
P iI and P" = vertical ami horizontal components of force
P, respectively
xI' nnd Up = coordinates of the point of application of
forcl) P.
In the CX1)re~'$iotl$ for Q, jl;J and N the summation must comprise
the componentf: f.J~ and P" or all Lhe external loads and forces applied
v, I
Ft!!. 13.8
to the aro:h to the left of section K. In the case or the arch represented
in Fig. 13.3 only onc component of focet\ PI (P., or P u ,) will ellter
L'llo each of thesc equations. It should be noLed that the stresses
Q, M alld N could be expressed with equal success using the forces
to the right of :<cction K.
If verlic.al loads alone are applied lo the arch (Fig. 14.3a) all the
horizonlal r.ompollents P", are llqlHll to 1.ero, t.he \'erticaJ compo
llcnLs P y equal P Ilnd~the thrust HA = H D = H, In this case ex
"
111\
,
Q. (V.\  r,P) cos '4:1I sill (I'
M =
,
V"x  ZfJ (J,Ij,)Hy
(al
" I
(
,_.vp' .
~
,
8 c
H
x__
lv,,
,,
(0)
to lhe S:llllc I'):HJS as !'ltown in Fill'. 14.3b Itlld tIle t'xp .. !.\~ion
IV,\)'  'LP (x  xl,llliIC bending momenL JIG ill the S<lmc scdil)fl
flf tho SlIllle b031ll.*
Wit.h t110SC rlt'.signnLioll:;; the IIJJOVU expn'ssions !lecome
Q ~01.'os(pIlsill(1'
1\1 ... AJolly
N QGsin(f+J1cosrp (3,3)
O"lIllghl ht called 111<' he"1Il ~Iwilrjn!: f()i"t~c, and MiJ till) lIl>111f1 Imnd,ug
1lI0'fllnt.
J.,Y. l)~t"nJi .. atro" of Slr~lItI in rhruHi"gro Arth~1 11i
Oll~ Lho lIlagnitudes of Q, !If and III ha\'e been deL.crminetl for
a llurflcicllt number of crO$ sections, the graphs of thc~ fuocticllIS
will 1)oJ casH)' constructed. When verlical forces alone ad Iln \,Ill!
arch, allY of the three sets of tltluations (l.3). (2.3) or (3.3) limy Ill'
used, ill otlWf ~scs use should be madc 01 exprt"ssiol\!:l (1.3) or (2.:J).
H will be noted that in the C\"tlllt of a "crtical loading eAch gmph
may be obtained by the !'!llouualioll of two other graphs. }'or inslonc:o,
the bending moment dillgl"llm /lIay be ohltlirlefl by summilll% liP
P=&t
8, '!._
H.
v, v,
1'/;:. j!; !J
tbe bomlillg monu'llt diagram MO For reference bcam with till' grtllJh
of Lb~ arch ol1:1inHWs y mllltil,li~11 by fH), this illustrating \cry
clearly l.he extont Lo which tho Oendillg lJIolllonL<;; aft reduced in
the orrltes.
I'ruhlelll I. lIclI"if"C(1 tu df!lerminl' the rcacti'1D~ lOt lLLe ~l;Ip ....t' 0,. ,...11 (I~
lha boudinl{ !noment. shc.lIr _lid )\.. nnol fO'"Cl......chng ........, SOCllUn ". <If a Il, ........
hinged areh "l'l"~'nl.t'd ill fiR. 15.::S. Tbe ccnln' lille ol tile ard, follo",~ a c..."jc
p~"lIb()lll lI:ivl'lI h)' thc equal.OII
4/ I 4.<1 {12r} ... 112r)..,
y .... p{ .rJ.r I~Xl~  !:l
The Illllgl'lIt of lIw nngl<! {onnl'd hy lht' tllngc"t to the Cf!nlrll line "f lilt!
urch and tho l.xi.~ of ~h~is.sa~ wilt ho: gh'e" b~' the rtrst dori\'<Itivll lOf Lt,l]
pnr:.lloJ..
, 122.1'
lll.ll<P:o .... 1I u
'18
For point K (.1:'<:3 metres) this tnngent will be givo" by
tllll'flt""
122><3
9
2
,
Th~ (rOllctions I'll the supports will be dCI(~rlnjl1cd using ~ho lollowillg
"quatlons
V _2X 6 X 9
A
+8 12
(0.5+0.866j3 11 ~31
= " On~
the..
,
!.Mc = ~'A6 q6x3 H ...'.=0
11,.,= ,
t1.73XO2XI8
=8.60 tOn!!
+
Their values CQul<1 also bp found directly u5ing a!ljlroprllltc t;,J)!e5.
.9..';, Determifllllilm of Slreu~$ in rhr~~H/t'/[fd Arc~,' 11~J
V'
il'"!laIIII1n~~~t~f1~i~,~P:':'lE.b"'3~ml
'0'
,I.,'" ",
, ~
"
H ' .H,,~8:;", _ ~.!_
+
C~ 
.f..~ IZm v.
(r. 1
Id'
("
Qgraph, t
Hgroph, tm
"J NgrrJph, t
Mgraph, tm
,Fig 76.3
S ..I"'I<"'. L.,\ U5 Ikt~.'rluinl' fi~rt llic Il'<lctiu... ,s at 111<' SUIlllt'lrt.! V .. ami V"
I 3
!Ma_V....I_ ~ XTIf'bO
wlwllc"
TI,<" ,ud, c:arr)'iu" \'("rlitltl ltlad~ alone. t'),:)lrl09iullii FS.3) lllll) ~. u>\,,/ Inr 11...
(un~l.I"ur""'u df lh"{,, Jf alld ,\. Kralll,!' H'll'll"".
~"K. l!i 3b repro~"lli simply ~UPIl<.>rl<.>d I'('fert'llt.. 1){'<l'" I,,,,,,,,.. ill U,,, ,.,,,ne
way u~ LI... Mc/' and Fig. Il>.:k und d reproSC.nt.:lll)(' IIl.glflln,; .. r lilt ~lw,,1"1' {.I" allll
ll('ndi'IJt 1Il'~U'"l.II MiI. .\11 h.... I,", emnpullllious :afl.' fflt.'red 110 T"ble I :~ ..."IUlltn
I ooul.:\lI,ing lIlt' "h:l(i~s J; or Ihe P<'jnt.~ ,limit lire :...<:h crul'''' lull' IlIktu "I "ne
lIlo'Ln' ,u(,rO'IOl'III:<, find tOhllnn :1 tonL'liniug lhe turrw<p..",linJ; Ul,II1I1' ........ (;,Ir\l
hllto(! \llolIlK 1111' ('sllr,,~'<ion
if 12.2"
Vl1(I~) r,'
Colun'n 3 COIlI,'liIlS 11t~ "ulu,'!' of t.'ll q> onmr",tod rrolll
41 lj_;r
l.:lIl'J,y''"'/f (1_2;1:)_2,.._
"..Ill It' lI". [,,]lu"'III.'! th"lr eoh""Jl~tJ,"'hll,'r.(','~I,l{1~' of q', ~1l11' 1'1lI1"'h". 'I'hl'
val",~~ uf Q~ nud MQ lahlll111t>11 '" cl,11l1l1119 i und 13 ut' t"k.'Il !lIr"11.\ r."1Il lho
eon'('~pmllliu~ tlj~l:nm_~ l'O.'llI'Otluccd In Fig. lr..tlr at,,1 d. Cull1mn.~ l:I lhl'uu!l:h 12
tOllllliu Ihl' 1,."dur.lIt of tIll' 1I1o{'Ilr (,0 :uld the ~hrn.~L 1/ h)' ~'!I 'f. C"~ if' ;",,1 Ih.,
,.f
v.t1illa\Il.'< u .. (('lIlro lint' "I the ar{'h.
Thelnst tllrw e(,lull"'~ o( Table 1.3 (r"llOmn~ f<l. 15 anti 10) <,;.",I"in the \'(11
\IllS of Q. M and.V ~r.~inR' u,'er Ih{' (,<lrrt"~I'Ollding tr!S I't'l:t,{.".. "r lht.' "who The)'
11l\\'~ 1Mll'1I (.0<111'11100 u.cini rOl1nula! OLlj .....ili.." Il~n::< tb.1t Ih.. maltllilurl{' ...1 Q
....l\! .. hLai,ot'd by >snnunilllt Ill' dl'l.efS apl't'Mill!l' in rolurnns 9 1l0ld H'. Ih, ,'.1".. of
.tI b~' "ullIlIliug Ill' drlll{'R flf ..IWIlIlS 12 and liI, and 11". 'al", "~I ;\' _lhQ."'I!
01 column! ~ lItul t 1.
The ~hl'ar_ Il(oudillR 1ll""'DI1t lIllU 1""''''111 (;u'({' oliagrllJus II/'I....llrllllj: ill
t'ig. 16.3<0. 1 and g hllve ~Il con~Ir\l(led USill1' Iht' dal:! tuntsdl'lf.'d III Ihl' 1lI!'1
Ihl'('(l (,,,IUIDDS of Talllo 1.:. h, Ihese Illrff diugram" Ih; "rdinalE'!" 1.;'1.... 1.('('.11
1,1 ,,11 'rulll 1. 1"...i7.",nLal litis; in "dditlon Ih., h('J,di'lI! mUll""t di1.gnlO
NlI'r{':it'IIU'd in lIig. W.:Vt loilS I~n con~trtlcl ..o(! by layiug (.Iff lh,'"I' {/... Iin~ll~
h,lm 11It' curv,,r '~"In' Hili <lr 110" arch.
 fur (Ollvoni'tlcu. ,I ilJnrcn!. >,(,,Ilh'~ loll"!"! JM:I\l1 atlnpl,,'l fur di lJl'I""lHli"g"1.lIl~.
~U"l .\'
'B.
11=1 '"
o o o
Stl"l (I 'o"
'~JVUI
U", o
~1I 
."0\
~l"'II
1,,.,1.Cg= ~~
i> "I. ,.t)
StlU1.o
lu "
122
2. GRAPUlCAL METHOD
,
N~~I
P, , , a", A
3
P,
__ [1 B,
0  ,
B P,
8 z .' I11
B,
Ib' ''
P,
C *,
A
,,'
Fig. 17.8
.
'1.~lIIg
I
Lie Iorllln Ia ~  .11 N'
IIltving l'lid 01T thm;e cc.ccntrkiti~ )Ilong the Ilormolll to lbe
(Ilnl~ line (If LilO 3~h. the line of pressllr'\' will be obtailled by sirn
ply c:.lJllllllt:tilll; LO'.;cLlwl' '.h~ points obtairlcd. The cOIJ!lI.ructiorl uf
It line o( Pn'~urt ror all arch whose reactiolls Wl!'" doletmillC'd in
Fig. !l,3 is illllsLrll.tod ill Fig. 18,3. Fig. UJ.3 reprt'Sl'Jltls tile delotmi
natioll of inlcrmd forces actilrg o"er !OOtion k of lhi!l llN;h.
When vtlrLicnl loaul! ILlonc are applied to the arch. tho horizoll
tul component (If allY I'CsultanL of forces tu the right oc 10 the Icrl.
of 11 ,c;(octioll will IIlways t'qual the lhrll!iL If,
EfII:lr ray "r Ill... !,1l1~'g"n of f"rces (til!. 111.3/" has the ~"Int !Itlr;wnt/l.(
c"mpvrllml e.ll'n[ 10 1J1I~ ll,rll~t.
'0 ) 'b)
Flit. IS.!
P,
I d
(b)
1<1
FI,. 19.3
',
n H
Fig. 20.3
120
P,
AI
JI
P,
CV
5
(0) "
(Cl
FI,.21.3
SI'(;ti!HI.~
of du' (lrek. In ollwr words. thcso t1iS[llIlCl!~ consUtllt.c a dia
gram of LlIu bundin:r tnomt'lIt5 ""iUI Lh\J !lolc diITl.'renCt. that in this
t;aSl till} dillgrum will be silul'Itoo on the side of thE' cQmprcsscd
lihr('s. F'i~. 21.:i t\'Iln:scnls ljlldl a diagram fl('rtaillillg to Lh~ arch
!!hoWIl in Fig. HI.:i4.
rJlJIJI~m J. It i~ rl'qui~ to (On:ILruf;t grapbkally IIle Jlr~rf' tine of the
o!'f.h ~uml}'Uld III 1'J()hl..,m :.I <see Fig. H;';11 IInd 10 delerruloo Ihe sl.l'llSl"P in ~
lion ,. illtliral..d in fill'. 22.38.
Solulllm. L.:t 11.'1 rt'plllC" 1/... ~lnHonllly dl!trilouled load IIrl,lil.'ll IQ the left
half of 11,(\ orch l.y I; (ont:('utr1l11.'d fol'C(lS IIffiounl1n!:" 10 Z 10uS uWe11 and 111:til1g nt
tIlt' G~ntrl'$ (,f (j t"IUld portlo!ls ('1Ich 1 ll,elro long. After lbat_ ll't liS GOII~lruct tllo
IQr(;,Q polygt,,, U,;llng the values 01 thl.' l'f'ac.li()n~ computl.'d in Problem 2 RUlI Ihe
IU;llh :1(1\1311) :1I1,,1i()<! ond 11'1 \1~ tI'/lCO Iho r..,/s llhrllugh V/lll\s in ["jll'.22.3"
Drllwin)t la~ in fir. 22.3/1) 0 series of strings pllralld 10 lhoSG rays Wl' >hall
obtain 11 llOlygon of prll!!ur". TIl@ area helw~o tl~ f;ent~ lint' of tho anll :lIld the
hne ol p~ur(' ~11l1l1etJ \'Ilrlieally In th" fIgure jllst. mentiool'll repff'l'l'nLS tho
diagr:lln or Iwnding m<illlen~ .'if. In lOall}' rt'.!pecLll it i! analogolll' to thc.o rlia&:um
ol,tai!Wd ..u~lyli.,.lI)' in Problfom 2 and !'l'pre~hld in Fig. Ifi.M, I",t diltnQ
il)' the fIIcl l.!,at in the JUlllr c.a...~ \.he 'hstanoos bad to be IlItll~red D"'UI.J1y
to lite rcnlre line or the ordl aDd 1101 ""rlkallr (llrls ",as relll'ele(l hy a hateblnr
normal tu Ihe C(,Dtn! !inN. MI'T{'over, tI,,, diagr.m i~ loc.all'd lIut I" till' com
JlTessed IlI..e5 in~tead of Ihe oXI(uuled fllll'l'lIlS was the usc in Fig. tn.3h. TlJl!"ether
with Ihe lITulo of lenlfLhs i1nd fol'ces IIn addi~iollAl sc.nJe 10 which the bl.'llding

N N
,I
~I
" I
'" '
I
101'" '11
~
!=c,.'!
wI;=j
..
~
.;
1:'
",;
,
~
.:J
~:  .
~
,. 
"
'0 ,
,
"
~

~
.~
~

~
~ ~
~
s~.~
N
:.! <' 3:t
,,.
,0"'"1:11\ "rdin:llI.ell mould bo 1~1l5ured In I.ho graph is iodle_I'OiI III riJ:. 22.:{.
Tills Ip~k'(" !glo is obtained by lllultiplying the 5Ult' or lengtll b) the 1II.gllil.Udu
"I tl"." UI"lsll'qual in tbls c.~ to 6 tons.
Al l\(>inl k lht' bondiflll mOfllol:nt .'jll ~ ollUlllled j'r Tnl'.:!ur;ug the ':"("",1)011,1
lUg "rdill'lI> in the irf"aph whi<:.h fumi~hl!!' a value nl Lh~ lonmlJot.ml;. The
~IW:lr I" 1.1,1;<; "llCliufI will be nil as the tlnltffillo Uu.> ('nlre Ii ....e v[ the ore'" is
lll'lrallel W ll~ polrr<1II 'If P/'E'!<!lUl'E'. ,...bilc tho norrlllll force N. ill fqU..t h. the
en)' IV (ng. 22.36), i.c., w 7.1. tons.
~~
whclICC
V",z._'tP(z_u}
11
It will be 1IotOO that the nllmern\,or iu the last cx'lression
is 'qual to the btmdiug moment ill the correspouding section of
the re(!'rt'uce J)t;jj,m. Lu., lo .M~, and 'herefort'
.M~
T)=u
Substit.u\.ing this e..(prc.~,:~ioli ill tbo equatiun y11 wc oLtaiu
the followillg uXllfusgioH for t.ll!' eeutro !ille of fill arch of IlHIXi
mum t;!CHILomy
A1~
Y/T
C011SI'quelltly, in the cast' of vertical wadI; manmuln C(;OIlOmy will
be (lcht~ved tf tht ar(;h ((',Lire line flJlww~ the bendIng mOllumt diagram
of /l. simply sllppor~d beam.
,,,
,,,
r,) ,,
H~'~'H""'1
. '  0: I ;    i"; :~::~~1~H,;.;;H
8
.;.>'1 ~ 1
V,
Influence for V;l
, ,,
,
lnfluNlce \Un/;,
,, roe v, ,
,,) )1
, ,
,
,
Influence
,,:Une for H ,
Id)
T"
(
k
Jilt:. 21.3
Art. ~.2. This Int.'8ns lhaL OlO influtmce lines for V A and V /1 do not
tlirfer from the influence lines for the support reactiollS of a Simple
heum: th{'so influence lines are represented in Fig. 24.3b and c.
Since the thrust Jl is determinccl by the equation if " .l~; ,
the corresponding infiuence line will have the same shape a~ that
+.
for the t)(lam moment j\'1~ differing frolll it only by a constant [actor
'fhii> influence line is shown in Fj~. 24.3d. Tn case l, = l~ T
011,) urJiJlaw of this inllueuce line at jJ $ectioll passing througll tJl(!
I
cl'uwn equals 7;j'
r . . . . . . c
hy M~, Q", and Nit wc shall say Uw.t thl) loa([ is appliod lit the mlU
tr:l1 poillt when the value of the c(lrwl:;ponding stress and tllerofore
the ordinate to the (~orresponding inlluellcc line become nil. It is
obvions lllllt w}lI:m tbe line of acUoH of n force passes throll~h ouc
of tbe abutml1nt hiugcs, all the strcsS(!s at (lny section of the (lrch
will be nil. In addition, there are uther MIII.ral points (HI the arch
which are of groat interest for us. Thus, if a load P is applied at
point Fm of the arch represcllted in Fig. 25.3 the bending moment
in section k will reduce to zero for the resultant of all tILe forces
to the left of tllis section (i.e., reaction 11) passes through its cen
l.roid. Accordingly, point Pm will be a neutral point in rela~ion
to the bending moment acting over section k. Point Fm will lie un
the vel'tk.al 11Rssing throllgh the intersection point F of Iill':! Ak
and 8C.
lf we consider the arch shown ill Fig. 26 ..3, the bending moment
in section k would reduce to zero only if the load P were applied
"
at point F". to a special bra~ket fixed to tbe arch between sectioD
le and the CroWD hinge, for in this case the direction of reliction A
would again pass through section k. However. if no such bracket
existed. there would be no real neutral point in relation to the
bending momen& <acting over section k. III effect if the roiJlt of
Ftg.26.$
. '.
"
fi r 8
,I"
, 't '~
I  v~
""' I, I.
FI,.n.$
Therdore
whence
1/:'/0 (4.3)
U",= Y/o I2+%/oJ
s
, M
c
A
Fie_ 29.H
~
Fig_ ,10.11
F~l
p.,jl(~.
l
~
I
r,
whencc
 It" collpll = (iUn) tan ~
aud accordingly
u lUn~ (63
n tllnj} Wl'f/l; )
Um
Pig. :12.3
5.6. Dtlfg,. 0/ Thr__JlIIlXtd. Ard...c $lI.bJtcftd to AJouillt Lotulc ta?
l'his expression shows that the influence line Q/I may also be
oblained by the summaUon of two infiuence liues, the firsL for 0:
all the ordinates of which are multiplied by a constant factor cos 'Ill
alld the seond for Lhe thrust H tbe ordinates of which ore multi
plied by (sin IPA). 'l'he inl1U1mce line for Q. obtained jll tbis \\':lY
F p./
>. c
la' "(. 'f" (" ,
k I
/,,~
S
A~ I,
, '
I '
,, : , 8
is represented in Fig. 33.3c where abk j kt4 ill the inDuence line for
Q: cos P.. aDd the triangle tu:b is the inl1uence liue for H sin lp...
Point d in Fig. 33.3c must fall on the 53me vertical a3 the neutral
point F q'
The same innuence lino Is shown in Fill_ 33.3d with the only diner
ellce that its ordinales have been laid off directly from the xaxis.
,,,Id FrtJ~~
""In order to construct the inDuence line
ThruIlingtd Archu
I
,,,
(iJ)
';!po k'" ! 1<"*.
,. I ......
~/(' I ...... " .....
_ A I I
I I ~ ~ i, _ ..L.fLl
Id I , I I I
(bJ ~'i";O
,  I l/nfll1t!tlCe
'0\: Unt' for NtlI
t "~. I 1
I Y, I J'"
,
'I'SUlrpi(
I 11 .... I
rI
c b
I I ,
, I I
I I 1 6,
I l r 1 ~
I I le! Ir e'
::
I I
i
I
I
i
I
I
..:1....
I 1 I I I
I I I, I
I
I I
! I
I "'i:
1L
I I Influe!ll::e line {or Nit I
r I I I 1
I I I Cl I
I I I
, I ,
(c):, I: :I
I ,
d
u.
Fir. j/.3
(~jg. 34.3b. H",re ub".ktG is the influence Une for Q: sin ff'k and the
(,ri(lugle abc rcpreos<>nts the influence line for H cos (Pit. Lioes a,b
5.3 l)~$lgn of ThruHinud Arch~s SubJated to Mol""/! f>o'U!8 1351
1'1
(0)
Fig. 35.$
The cOnstrUflion nf Will innU(llIC" lin"s requ;rud may nil\\' ill' Cllnil.'ll out us
tollow1!: seal" tllf on the verticaL pa~s[nR through the Lefth:md sUJlJlorlthe l'lIl~ths
%",eo~ 'h nnd 1!in Ih asindicatell in Fig. 35.3b. cAuddandconntct the ordinates
<'Ibtaiuc(\ wiell t}l(> ptojec.tion or th'l neutral point on the ;tIl,xis. Aftl'l' Lliat fmd
the illler~et.jon of the "erlieal paSl;;ng thl"",gh lilo crown hing!' C with tilll lin.. ~
jU~1 obL.ained. Connect this pOilll "I intel''!t'ction with the point of ~('ro orcli"all1
at t!l<) rh,htlland support. [1'io,) nlso the jwint of intersect,i'lll of thl~ nhovl;' line
with the vorlicalllas:;ing t1ll'ollgl, section k. On th~ bending moment jnnlJ('I'~c
lino IhL.~ point i~ connlletcd clireocl_l)' with th" zero point at tl10 I"rtbund support,
whit!' in Lho~ Ior tho Hhenl' Q. an,{ for Ul(' normsl fQrc,<l N.~ parllHel 10 tl,,: line
d'.'leMllil)r:o ill the fll'St place s!wlIhl be truced through tho l(~fthnlld support
ulIlil theil' IlIlc.,;ocUon wilh tl)(' \'('rtiC<l1 mcnLion("d &bovll. AppJring Ihl' Juws
of ~i!tlilit"dl'. to the IrillngJM i"voL""d, wo may now detennine th,' onli""",;;. 10
thn p('r~in('J1~ points nf the innnence lines, the '11',","5 und.'r lit"."" lin"s and Lhe
lnterrwl for(,e~ Indll(:l'd in ~.~'llon k 01 tI,e arch by till' j:!h'en ~r~lelll (of 10~lIls.
la) In{lIIt1IU Ih,~ for Jr.

cd_lip
."'f iib
'="T""'
The af('ll 'md"!' Ihe inlhll'nce lbw corrcspollding to Ill\! di~tfillllted load
Njllals
M l.t25x4.8 1).7[>(61.8) 225
w(l  2 2 . square metrl,lS
_ _ ~ eosfJ'1l;
_k3k,  llXIl; cos ljIll;=XO.832
wlwn,=" k~I<~= 63 0' 0
.tlv
~.I'"h I1 . I1 l)

(', ,Ilip
"" ;rZ,,0.451
;;To; 0.002
.\' O.lnX;i 0,128+0511)'2., ".,
)q =2+ :! Xv"'2. vi'
o=~~
F W
(bJ~
,
,I''
, I
I1 I
"
1I I .'
,
,
I t 1 I .nr<.J.CfIC'e ltfJf
"''''!!Jj''>i<,J,;
 , r, I , , or
I,' ,
MA,
i'
i I I
"
' I,I,,~
'
,
(..ne
I for ,.,
f
""" ,,,, ,,
I
moment of tile nnrmal force applied III PtJiut s of the St'clioll about.
~he npper point of the core k, and will he hen'aftcr c.alled the ror~
moment. The core moment. differs from t.he ordinary ht'nding mODlent
by tht' fact. that it.<~ computation requires that Ute di"tance of
the forces (to the left or \0 the right. of the sect.ion) should lw
measUr<'d not to lhe ccntroiil of the section hut to the Uflpl!r or
the lowcr point. of its core.
ThtJ norJUal l'Itre:l..~ lit point n may he determined in a similar
way, ollly in this CAse the momenl of exlernllol forces should be
tAken ubollt tho lower core point. n Ilnd tho approprint.o rl!Sisting
moment. W" should be used in lieu o( W ...
N (ttt)
0',,= IV
n
rhru~Jfinged Archt. and Framn
Thus
,., tb)
",.:'44'6 ~ ~..,A 8
",
Fi,. 89.3
tbe stl'\'SSl'S ill thilS purticular ca<:c. Stresses in the cross scctioll~
uf botl. al'\'hes will be exa.ctly th(' .!ame alld LIte illtcrlllll roret! in
UU~ LitJ will 00 ('qual \(J Ih", hOrizOlltal thru.!L lJ IJ' The Vl'rtil'u)
"'actions \"A and VI' will al~ n'lIIain llxacUy the.' J"1I1llt.'. Thus,
ttll' iJlnlll'lll'tJ line.! fur Li,O llbutlll('llt I'\'actions nlld Lhe ."lru8..('s
10}
,
,., D
c
[ I! [
"0' "0'
A
8 81it
"
Iv, I"
Ft,. 40.3
equating La wro the ~um of all the /IloHlcnLs of the external forces
and Framu
flpplied to tho left (or to the right) half of the il.rch 3hout the crown
hinge C. The stresses in all the cross sectiOllS of the arch 11$ well as
the methods of constructing the corresponding innuollce lilies may he
derived frOIll the expressions (1.3).
Y! q_zt/m
In!lum,,'t' lire (1Jr Q~
aWl
~~
O~,4 a4!,'
(to)
;b,.
f"wm
AWUJlI!llll
c
y'" 8,
.'
(0
In{lu''lN:e litll/ for v.
re'"! ~
,WiillIC lll1l!IiIIl:!In
(j) lnflue.'!Cf111rNiJ ler q/ linl"k
lnf/.JNI'/CIe Une {or v"
~~1sr~,.!f.
. . {(VI! _
(If J
~, ~ ,
~  .
'.. In(//lIme/! the fqr Nt In{lw"ro
'.
Ii!:!.........
...Jj c().<'!'Ir...
= I. 2"8
~ t.!~U~'ll'~ll'lllllillillrn.."
(;;r ;;;',;";;:O\",
/;'1 I,,!lufflre iI"I! for 101*
1 (!,
ISU"
Pig. 41.~
Problem I. Gl \'e_R the arch with surcrelevated tie (Fig. 41.3,,) foll()wlllg a c_onie
parabola dofmed ill' tho pquation
4t
y=V{l:>:);r;
R",qllirO?d to det('I'lTlillO tllfl roaetions V A , VB and H B thl) tensIon in tho lil'
NIle' the intcmal forco~ MA. QJi. And N~ find to COtlSlrllo::t tl,o influ..nce Iluos
for all thoSll !lIrce~ Ilnd strl),';!oCS.
5(11111/(111., The reactions ne 'le_lermined rrom the eqoilihriulIl ot(oaliDn.~ of
all the &xlcrnal r<l~S ading un 110" :II'd,
~.l'IlJ.AIq ~ +'1'11_0
" ,
IM"'''"T 'T+Pllh) Y pl..,O
~X=JI,,_o:
t}J...l.. p (,
t' 118' ')
7 =,
2Xl2+'(t IF
") .. rt
1 I)n~
111/_')
Th,! It'nSil.'1l in tl1<' tip is OOI('rmincd from
It'c Y
l
A 'ZN/i.P 2'1"0
'11 I
It 2xl2"
1 qlt) I ,u} IOXT,
Ntlr~ ( Y,,yS 7=(1  <': ~121(l,,~
wh.,K' M~ i'" 'I.e hending moment arling over I'eCliQJl C W a !imllle I1(ollnl ~o"'n
in tig. 'L3b.
The llugle 'h fllfTlled bv the tangenl Lo th(' (entrt.' line or t!tll 1"'l;h aljluintlc
Ilnd the ~n:xi,. and Ihe urtlinlle y" 01 point k anI dt'lf'nnllled IIJ!' r"II",..~
t(lnT~_~
dz dr
[2L(Iz)z]_iL(IUl
It J~
.,
fur .r_,l:~_3 m tanl:p",,t.on<rlj
.....hul'drolll
'1', =u 33<12'; Sill lh'" 0.1.'15; CO! If1 _ 0.832
"d
<If 'X4
1>'1 If" (1 ...1).r,t =""""i"21 (12  3) 3  3 metre,
""
'"
Jt
lnnuell(' line r." the tie tensi'ln ... i1111(' ri"riv<ld 'rum tbe cqullliUfl Nrlt~T
t
(500 Fig. 41.3(1.
,',,(\ (on!lI'llrtion o( inJlnf'n<:r. lines for QA .4I, .nll N a wlllt"j ha.....>d on the
following 1'('11111"n~ NlIlilll.t in e\'(\ry re~pl~t W UIO,lse of (::l.:S)
Qh  0''; (OS (j"'!l  N tit sin 'r"
["
Na _2 2'Xfl.1.B3 ~:r(O.~85' O.{if.a+ ] ,
1.:'20) +4XTX U2(.... 12.20 tUlIS
TIIlS!l v;llul'~ C"illc.itle l~.l~ct If with 'hose (oulld l)redoll~ly. A11 the <:u"f'ul,,
HtJl1$lUllr Ill! Mlo;ly It'J:llrdl\d .ll COr(~L
, v... ...,.
{I .. ""'"  
H, I I~t
~, 
H,
'\ "l,
"
  rX l.:t" 0.62'1
1f1lP,+ fI,,_
'7:: uo.I\z., . . . 1.a75 t"h!
Ri.'ganlllli ~hl' low"t l'xtrrmitf tlf tlll'l
uprifthl! a". tlK'" "'f'ha"d on1l. "'~
rntly n"W Iin,1 lI,,' "'lN5.."S acting ""er
5('CI1,ll1' I1l :lIl<l ..
(b)
QMf/AII.lj2~ ton
M~,_  211 .. .",2XO.G2,'i _
_ t .2'l tOIlmdt~8
The truss ii' n (rtlmed strncturo whkh will cont'LllllC tu form 1111
lloyicldillJ; cOlllbi''lllliofl ('\'('11 when all its rigid joints lIfC cOII\'on
lionully I"t!plnccd I.ty pufl'ct hingl'5. As It rule, lru5S('S are used fUf
the &1.l1ll' purpnscs U!l bl!3mS Rlld gird~rs, except that the spans thel'
('O\'N arc usually much larger. In tlWEe cases solid w(lb beams
hecorllc uneconomicnl duo lo the fact that the strength of Ull" web
cnn never be utilized \0 the full t.'xtel\t (unit stresses ill the web
l>llillg lower than in the nallgl's as will be st'CIl from Fig. 1.4) and
also due lo the dan~r of web buckling which becl'lInC5 more and
IIlOrc acute with thc increa&'_ in the lK>iH:ht of the bc,;lm~.
I n framed structures such as trlls..~ (providBd the loads net at
tJlC joint"') all the members are subjocll!d oit1Ler to direct cXWIl5ion
or compre.&<iull which enJ'lllTe::i a far better utitiz.atioll of the nlak
ri3!s, lh.. sIre.!!." diagrltlll fur ('aell of these JIl('mbt,rs being pracli
calJy reclangular. Thercfort> the lrusses arc alwayll much lighter
lhan solid wob ht'alll:'! of the same span and thl'saml'height. A typ
ical cxnmplc of a IruSS is showl! ill Fig, 2.4.
Apnrt from h'odimensional trusses in which all the bars are
~jluotud ill OllO allt! the !laltle plaoC'. thol'O exist tllroodilr\P,flsional
'51
or S!JllrC rramod structUN$ in which the cluments arc situated in
!lCvt>ra! plalle~ (Fig. 3.4). Huwever, ill a gN:lal numhllf or c,ases the
dcsig'll of tllN'l.(!illlcnsiollul framed structures may 00 reduced to
the C3~\l of scverfll plane !Iy~tcrn3.
Tho span of l\ lrlL'>.'l (Fi~. 4.4a) i!S the dist.allce between it.<! sup
porLs. TI~ low(>r IUIlI upper longitudinal members fOtlO the upper
and !OWt:f cJwrd.'1 of the ltllSlS, while the memoors which conned
fl,. J.4
the two chunls arc called the wrb memkr. The latler may h~ !'tub
dividl'([ illto /.It'rtica.l.~ and dlagoTUlLs or into stmU! and ties, the
struts lJcing always cOlllprussed and thl' ties cxwndcd. A cOllnter
braet: i.!l n lllcm!:K'r dH!ligncd to resi.~t !KIth tensilo and cornpN!l'fSive
stn'SSl'3. The cnd pusts also called batter brllces connect tho upptr
chord lo the lowllr onc and R1tly I>e N!garded as belonging boLh to
tbe upper dlOn! and to the web mt'moors. Tbe dist81lcc between
two adjac,l'nt joints mensured along the horizontal is usually called
a pa,~l. llac juiUlS Lhl'omsclvl'S being frequently
reft!rr~d to as panel
poinls.
The fulluwillt{ li~'e criterions l!Iuy kln'\.' as It b:t... i~ for th", cJus.... i
lh:lllillll oC tru~S:
fa) the shape M thn upper and lower chords;
(b) (lin type of Ih... wuh;
(c) the cOll\liLioll!o nL Lill' support.!:
(,I) thu dC'sLillllliorl of Lhe sLructure;
(c) thl' le\'el of the fluor.
in IlCCOnlalll'C with Lllu fir.... t criterillll, t.he trusses mny hfl sub
,Ii\'idud inlo Lfll.'i.';es with parallel "'lOrds (Fig. !I.t,a.) tllll! illlo (loly
==m (/)
Fig, 5.4
b'MH\I l~lld lriilllb'lIlltr IrIlM{'!< (Iig. 4Ab nll,1 r), Trus~II with a 11'11">1
bolic L1ppclr etlOrd (Pig. 4.4b) btIOlllf to I.he fir!'>\; o{ I.he Ia...... t tW(lldllds,
The socund uitcrioll permits to subdivide the lrUI!.'<C.!I iulO Lbose
with n Iriilll~ular pattl'fll of LIlt.' w~h lfiU. 5.<'ia). Lho~wilh II quad
rllllgulllr pntterTl formed by verlielll:" alii! dingoll:'lls (Fig 5.4l')
'In lb... 1S111::1~ll!vc;kinK o:"untti"s. whl'l(' .11"
lr'ellllllltj..,il~' (.1 trll"S lyJlt'!'
tire calle,1 arL~'" thll !lam!!! 01 eogiul'i'rs whu first ;uln,dueoo Iloe1l1 Oil II lllrge !;(':11E'_.
this Lrll'>S is knO\\"1 Il~ thQ If/Jrrtn tm.' {T~, /lot.. l.
uThe ltlo~e \\ld,I} used of no"sc arc th!! l,~(,tl lt1ld th" lfo.u II'U"~.';, Ih~'
fln;t I.o"ing ch"rllcled,tHI 1.0)' (':(tendu,1 ,Uog"nnla ,uu] cOIol,n"."...ri "e"tica!s, IUIlI th,'
".'<:ondhY (~tl'll~('il "(lltkll]S i\nd cor"prl!,~\l(ld dlllj?onn].<; t1'r. ''''/rl
tflOSt~
in Wllkh Ihe wc;h mcmbl'rs fnrm a lel.lt~r K (thc snr~dlt~d
Klmss sllOwn ill Fig. 5.4c). lint! 1'11I1l][Y trusses. tf1(J webs of whil~h
are forllled by the sllpt'rpositioll of Lwo or rIlort'silllpll'gTit!s. illlls
t.rakd in Fi~. !JAil. e llnd f. lIsulllly rdcrrt'd to 11.'1 thn dOli hie. or
mnJLiplt' lrlJs~s*.
TI\() Lhird c_ritcrion {It'l"mits to disLinguish Imt.wcun tfw orditHlI'Y
endsupported tru~t'S (Fig. fiAo), the cantilcver trll~~ wil.Ji a
lllliltill cnd (Fig. 6.'1/1). the tr'IlSSCS (;ant,ill'vcrin~ ovor ono or bot.h
snpporl..<; (Fig, oAr. lino d, rCllpectivcly), fllld Jinlllly thcl)l"of~t"IL
lInd nrched t.rIlSi:<'." in Fig. /i.tie lIlle! f
As regards their lI11sLination the t,rll.'<sns llllly h('_ suhdi\'hlod illto
ruof tl'USSCi> (Figs. 7A{/. llnd 4.1ir.), br'idge lrusses (Figs. 1.Aa HmI
8.4) alldllliscdlanoo\Js t.rU1<80S 1Isml ill CfUUC o:ollslrudioll IFig, 7Ab)
Illld in tILe eomtruc[ioll of VAriouS tOWNS. b(>_n\.S, ('.k. (Fig'. 7.4(").
III fJridgc ('()I\~tfuclioll lhc l.rnss(.s Ilfl.~ lrcquC'lltly ~Ilh"j\'id~'ll
into lhroug:hbl'iclgn lrusl\CS, in whidl the 1'1lilw3Y (or rMd) is o:orr
ried directly by tlle hottom chul'(1 joilllS (Fig. 8An), tllc rll'(',kLridgc
tl'lIsses whort~ the upper chor'ds or their joints (\!IL'ry the rolhlwHy
(Fig. k.<\b), 111111 fitll1l\y I.lw I.rllsSllOl w]wre thu cleck i.~ t;l\rried a[; ~me
illtermodirlle lovoJ (Fig, 8Ar),
\VI) have "Il't,ad)' seen (1\l"t. 2.1 llmI3.1) thnt framed 'll.I"lU~llll'l'S
(orll\Nl hy (hldil'lg ('Otl~~l."II.i\'(.dy any Ilumher of joilll.~ t.n a llillge
c,olllwdcrt tl'illtl~lu (Hao:h joinl, hoiD!! (:(It1Uel'lN\ hy lllt'(lIlS ()( two
conellrrerll I"\l~) ,H'C !;talio:ally detcl'flliu31A\ arid form all lInyield
ing ,'orubinalion. TwodilllCllsiunal fralncd st.r'UClUfI'S !orlned ill
this way are \l~ually clllled simple lrusses,
.Tn Artide 3.1 it has hf'ell ~hown I_hut 2K equutions or
~Lal.io:lS
can bl) wril.lell for /lny :<hltkullr dUUlI'rniullLc trll~S (K lmillg the
number 01" itl> joints), with the lliJ of which botll tilt' f\l!Utllt~llt
l'ellc~ions Ilnd ~t.,csscs (intern"l r(jl"l~t~~) ill flll 1.11(' rni~rnbcl's o:nn b(
dt)l(Jrminc<!, IL is lIsu1l1 lO Slill"l with lhe rlelel"lIliuaLiou or tile :d"ll
munt rtHw(.iollS for' whil;h plll'pose thrfllJ eqUilibrium iNlJ<lLiolls lIn'
writl(>1I fOI" thtl LI'Us's as II whol(l,
The slr(!~se~ ill tllll Sl'(laral.l' memhers of t.lw Iru.,*, can he deter
mined J,y c,ollsiderirrg tho equiLihrium of ~parat.u parls or joilttl>
+
*The trllS.~ in fiR. ~,1d i~ 1I~\lall}' CUIlI'11 11'1' d(wble lI"arren Ir'IIn fur il~ w~_h
ll"'~' 1... u!llll.iw.d by lhi.' SUJX'T\IOsition of tw<> ~ill\Jlle triangular wt.h~ while till'
ItU~S in Fig. 5."~ llJlly hI' l'l~gUrt ('<I ~l~ ~I m",1 iiicatioI' 01 th.. 1'0.1 or fI[ the \fhipl'le
tru~~ tTr, 'lotL'l.
(0)
(0'
PI,.Ii.l Fi,.7.4
(c) r
Fig. 8.'
1:;5
()f the stfUC.tufo, t1lt'SU par~ ()f joints boing acled upon hoth by
the l'xternal forces 11lld the stresses in the i'tlctiolled bars. The total
number of int!'pendenl oquilibrium equation!> amounts to 2Ka.
it is very important to find such imaginary sec,lions which will
nllow direct determination of stresses in the separate hars, without
nl!c{'ssitating tho simultll.lUJQWI solution of i'ievera( eqnations with
:le\"eral unknowns. This simplifies very considerably all ~he compu
tatiOlls and at the same time enlu\JIcl's their accuracy.
Tho following two methods will usually permit the dcllmnilla
tion o[ the stl'Cl'ses in all tho members of a simple tnl.~S h~' so(Ying
in each casc one oquation with a single unknown.
Fig. 9.'1
the strl'SSOS lll't.' diJ"(\c:!.I)rl aWIlY from the Jomts. Therefore, wh01l 11
II~'J!/ltivn !<lrt'~~ is olltlliH~ld tJli!< iIldkiltcs t.blll Iho lllcluher is COm
t1rl:.'l"ed. lJm :lrtJ,s,<;; acting towards the joint..
Wc ,~h1lll now i[lu~trati.' the mcthod of IllOlllcnls ius~ desnibcrl
hy S('vE'rnl exnmple~.
III tlw.<:c i'XHtnplc,~ wc shaH dcnolc by tho lett.er U the sll'esse~
ill tile. lIJlJll'r dlOrd, by the lotwl' L [he strtsws ill the lowet' Ollt'.
)lllll by tho l()[tt'~ lJ ~llld V the strc!'lSCS in the diagonals And YNU
(:IlL~. n:;pcctively. Tlle~l' lott.ol'l< will be f\c('ompanied hy cipllNS
illdkaliujZ ilt I.'fll:h Cl!,'It' the numhers 01 the joillts to which till' b.u
ill qlltlsl ion is ('onllccl"d,
Lpt 1I~ HOW d(~l(\l"fnin(\ the stress in the ml.\lllher ;]5 (of ti'e tl'llSS
in Fig. 10Al~. For thi ... plIrpose wo shall pass sectiun TT (~lJLting
thl' memllOr ullder l'onsidMatioll lIull two ot.hor ml:>muct's. OHe bdollg
in/{ 10 th,~ llpper llml the other to t.he 10w{>(' rhOI'd!!. H is nlwn)'s
mOl"l\ wlivtmicllt t.o consider that part or tIl(' t.russ ac.\.ccl I1POII by
a sm:IHel' tlllmbcr of 1"1I1'I'CS, IInd t.ht,I'i'.[ow Wt' sllall di~'lIl;s here the
Idl.h'llld portion or (lU'I' trllSI< which must hi' ill l'qllililtl'illlll mlller
the action of the eXlN'n:tI forcps A alld P J ami (,f thl' intm'llal
str('sscs (/2'" JJ3~ 11iI(1 1: 35 , tJU.'Sll I<tres."es roplllcillg" the right.h:lIHI
[I<)rtioll or tIlt' trlll'''l (Fig. WAb),
[11 (lnk,r tu tll'll\rminc the 1I11knowJl stres.~ La~ lli'ill;' n i'ingll'
elluation wc ~halJ pl11t'(} th<: origin or m(1ml'Jlt..~ al point 4 whem
IIlt'nrll('~ 24 all\[ 34 COIlCur.
Tllt1 llum of momcnt.s of all tIle rOrt~C,~ HclinJ,: olll,he IBftllll!ld pHl'
tion of t.ho trus~ about. point 4 is
ZJU, ,Aa,..LPIPILa;,h.",O
whcrofrom
lIt're h is t.llc l('vcr IlTln or stn'ss L3~ about the origin of mllrncnts
(in t.his parliclllar CIl,*, it is cqual to t.he llCight of t.!IC tflJ.~S), and
.111: is tllc I1lUIlW]tt of all the external forC1:s (illdnding' tile reac
tion) applie,t1 lfl llw lefLhand portion of t11l1 trllS!l al")lIt joint 4.
lhi,~ momt'Jlt heing l'qual to t.110 hending moment acting uvor l\ i;Cc__
tiOllll[ a sirnph' beam situawu at. the samo distll!\("(' frOIH the sUJlport
ali Iho origin of moments ill thl} truss,
I{ indeed the trus~ were rcplaet1d by a simple bealll having thc
same s\)an autL suhjected to the same loads (Fig, 11,11). the lIe1l.1
in!? m"mt'flt IH:ting over a section of this bcam situated lit tlte slime
Ili,~lallce from t1ll1 lefthand support M tl1(\ vl'i~in of lI[llments
would bo l'xadly cquj\'llllll1l to the moment or all rorrl)~ lIppliBd
10 thu ldl~halld portioll or the truss ahout thi>; origin or In(Hlltmls.
ThIU, the .\'tress tn allY mf'mba of l!tt' lower dwrd of a tru,'l8 ""ay
be flJ/tnd Il~ a quol/rnt Ilf the beam bending moment by thl' l~vt':r arm
oJ lh~' sl"~ss fLb/Jul the origlu of nwments.
Thl) bendill~ momont in a simple IJuflm ret/wining III ways positive
undor any sy~tIHl\ of verticllI IO<ld8, the ~tro!;.~ r'J~ will nl~o remain
always posilivll, whiell means that tho elCflll'uts or Ilw lowt!r chord
will hI) exLeudod as IOllg as tho loads []c.\ downwards
Let us lIOI\" deterlllille the stre!lS in mornbt~r 24 of the upper
c_hoed. In this casu the Migin of moment.'l should he ll1ken nl joinl
3 ane! the moments of all forces acting on tlw Il'fthallrl [lOrtinn or
15' rh, TrullU
frool which
U' = _ AdP1dl2 = _ A/~
n , ,
Tho nUlIIerator of the fraction which we have donolOO by Jf:
is aallill equal 1.11 tll(' beam bending mflnlClll acting on'r a Sl.lction
tho aLscilt..a of which is equal to d. As the beam moment .11; is
II1w3Yll IX'sHi\'e under lite gil'en S)'!llelll of loads 1\IId as the fr<le
lion .&;; is preceded by a 1J("~lItiv~ sign, th(> stress lJ Z4 is negative.
which monns lhat Illl'IilLcr 24 i!\ cOlllpl'C~d.
It muy lK> oasily shown, using the same I\':tsoning. t1H1t. all the
/ltcmliCf':'I of the up('lt'r ('hot,l 3S w~1t as the 1'Ild post.s of n lru!l.'i will
1I1\\,IIY5 remain COlllIJrcs."Cd llllder any system or vertical load~.
III orocr 10 Jctcrmillo the !:Itross D3~ iuJ.uecd in the dilllZlHlal
8(/. let lIS l'qllaW Lo ZNO ,.hl:' slim of moments of aH thl"' forn:s
Hetiug on Lilt! lctlhrHltl port or
the truss Ilhuut point. I. nt whit'''
1,110 dircrtion of lIars 21 and 35 inlNsed well bt'yomL IhlJ ]ll'rillll:
l,,:r (If tllo truss (I;oe Fig. tOAb).
ZM~=An+PI (a+4)O.Hr~(J
wllcrclrOlll
PI(G+~)'1a M1
Da4 ~ r"
=
;:;;
It \\ill be lhu!l oo:;urved UnIt in tk m~lhud "j mom,t>lIts the malllli
Iluk oj th~ fireS!! is aiuXl1JS ~xpr~~d by the quotit'nt (Jj the nwmr.lIl
of (,.l'~rliCIl jorc('s a.clLlIg Oil tltc kjt}umd parium (Jj W trtlM M by
11" klXT arm 0/ thr sJr.'S'J r ObOlU lhc lame p(Jillt
N=!!.... , (1.4)
whercCrom
Un=_~=_.M~
Ir i\ is desired to find the in\erna} force acting ill mcmoor (j!i
of the lower chord \Ill' origin of moments should ~ shifted
to point /, then
1:.ftf,=AdL.,h=O
whtnce
L Ad Ill:
~.T
Stresses in the llllper anJ the (o....'Cr chords o( tho truss shown
in~Fig. 14.4 can also be delcrnlincd by tho method of moments.
P,
""
1
" v.,
~
z
" , '15
J zo
Lu
1 A
Fig. /2.1 Fit. /3.1
Thus, in order to find the stress ill bar 79, section II should he
pas..."Cd, cuUing in lIIddition tu thp member considnn.'<l live mnro
J
p p p p p p p p P
J 3 7
~ .::::. I ~~ ~
Z
"I.I~
G
I
ID
fL ",iI"
I'fr. 16.4
bars, all converging at point 10. If this point is taken as tile origill
of IIlOlllOllLs (Fig. 15.4), the equilibriulll equation becnmes
~Mlo=A4d4P X 2.5+U ,Dh =0
fl'HlI1 whir.h
, 7
p
,
.J",j~.  ....
, ...."''''"
2 ,
'd
lIoWt;\'C'r, the ;'SN~!ioll r~t wllich t:.uL!; hars .12, 34 nllll 5(; 011('0
and hars 14 I\lld .15 twicc pcrmil05 I,ho dl'.Ll'rmilliltioll of strl'!;StJS
udiug in halOS 12, 34 find 5(j,
As 'will (}c scen frorn Fig. 17.!i, the Stl'('S.~'$ in harli l4 and 15
will bnlanl;t), the~ r>lress\)s onlering" Lhe Clluilibriulll eC(lJatiuJ} twice
with an oppusite sign, Therefore in thi~ sccLion ooly llll'!:o 1I1lkllOWIl
strc~;ses will rCJtlllill U 21 ' UJ;, Il.ud Uu which muy lJ", 'Ja",ily det,lH'
millcd by the muthod of lllomellLs.
Thus, ill order to lilld the sLrcss ill Lar 12 we '!hllll lllac.o the
origin of mOlllents ut till! point. of inLcl'iloetioll of bllr.s :i1 alltl 56
(point k l in ''''i~, 17.4). Thon
1:.111/,/"'" U:1r,,PpBb,,O
Wlrl'rdrom
I. ,Je,,~.,:,:!,J"'f ,
J21' r"
+
"This buss cnrllloL !J(l COllJlldl;l"od (IS IHll"nging to the SillllJ11' f"IOS hili lll'\'l'r
tlreles.~ nil tit. stre.';.,'es ill it" lllclIllwrs IIwy 1)0 determine! h:V 111<.\ method of
mO<LIonts.
2.1. Dluet Mtlfl!)ds !)J Slrtst Dttcrmlnllll!)fl j(jl
,
,
Fig. 17.1
vided tllat the stresses. remain Ullknown in not more tllan three of
Lhem.
The examples just considered lead to the following conclusions:
The method 0/ moments is very expedient when a section may be
takm ctdling any number oj bars converging at a, single point, pro
lJidtd thi.~ ]XJint does not ta./l on the direction 0/ r.JuJ member
tnL'e,~ttgatcd.
This mdhod can also be used in case." when a. section cuu more ,hlln
three 1101ll"OnCUrrent bars, prodded the Slresses 111 all the bars except
threl' are already known.
The same method may be utilized when the section crosses al.y num
bt'r 0/ bars, provtd(d each bar with the e.r:ct'ption 0/ three is sectivm:d
twice.
'Ille metbod of moments is frcC[UlJntly considered as {orllling a
partil~lllar case of tbe more general method of sections. Indeed when
two of ~he sectioned members are parallll1 it becomes impossibln
to tllkQ the origin of moments at the point of their intersection
and therefore the method of moments can no longer be applied.
But pas,<;ing a section through !'he truss will still pl.1rmit the detc'_r_
Illillatioll of the stresses required as wc may in that case use tbo
eqUilibrium equation of the vertical components of the intermll
linO. oxlcrnal forces (it is assumed that the chord.~ are horizontal).
As all example, let us consider the truss represented in Fig. t9.Li.
Sections II and 1111 wilt permit the computation of stres..~s
11853
'"
fro... which
Tilt T~u ..,.
, . ,
llowlwCf. tlw !!CCtiOIl rsl which ('uls bars '2, 34 uUII 51.1 once
."1nl! har! 14 and 15 twice ptir/lli{.s UIll deLormilllll,j(lll of stresses
uding ill hlll~ .f2, 94 lllld 5(;,
1\5 will llll Sel'1l frorll Fig. li,ll. the strCSIIt.'::l ill IJIll's 14 and 1,';
will hnlllrlCe, thc:sc ~LrcSSL'S cnterinjt lhe equilibrium oquation LWico
with arr uppo.'liltl sign. Thero!orc in I,his section ullly three llllknowlI
.oslrti!l:;l\s will rem/lin U~I> [/3' u"d Ut' whid. m/lY IXl cO!lily detel'
milieu by Lilo method of momontJ<.
Thus. ill (Jr\It>f ~o fmd the !>In's., in Imr 12 wt: sllHlI plal't! thl'
origin o! mOOltlll\.'s nL the point !I[ illtef.!lcctioll uf bnfll ,'14 and 56
(point 1>1 ill Fig. 17.4). Then
IM. , = Uur.PpBb.. =O
whcrefrom
This tl'U~ l'Il\lwt lit' c{ln~idr~eol a.~ bl'Jo"iill11 to tlte SIUlpl(\ on(l.~ bUl ne"'!!.....
theJeSll [Ill tht ~1reS!l('_~ ill its I!Iprlli...~ moy he detl'nnined Jor th(' method "f
lIlQmenlS.
06'
Simi!arly, point k: whore the bars 12 and 56 intersect will
be lakcll as the origin of Inoments for the determinatiou of the
stre~s U u and point k a will form the origin of moments for sLress
U6~ {Fig. 18.4). Tbus, stresses U!!o Vat ami U 65 are dclorminod
independently using tIlI'et:\ oquatiollS, caeh cOlllaiotJlK only onc
unknown.
The stresses in all the other members will JlOW be casily ob
tained by passiug straig)'L sectiOJlS aero."6 any Humber of bars, pro
p!"Pj
,
,
Fig. 17.,1
vided that the stresses remain unknown in not more than three of
them.
The examples just considered lead to the following conclusions:
The method of moments t.~ very expedient when a section may be
taken CItWllg any number oj bars converging at a single point. pro
ui.!kd this point dfles Iwt fall Ofl the directiOn oj the member
inve.~tigaf.<,d.
Thi.'s nwlhud can also be used in ca.yrs when a section Cllts more than
thre!! II'HlCoflcurrent bars, provided the stresses in all the bGr~ except
thret are already known.
rhe s(lmc method may be utili~,!.'d when the section crosses any num
ber OJ vllrs, provided each bar with the exception Dj three Is .';ect/.lmed
twice.
The method of moments is frequently considered IlS forminl{ 8
parLkll!Hr case of the more geiJeral method of secLions. Indeed ......hen
two of the sectioned members arn parallel it becomes impossibJu
to take' the origin of mOrncnts at the point of their intersection
and t.herefore the method of moments can no longer be applicrl.
But passing a section througll the truss will still permit the rleLcr
mination of tho stresses required as we may in that case use tho
equilibrium equation or the vertical components of the interllnl
and external fOrces (it is assumed that the chords are horizontal).
,\.0; an example, let us con~idcr the truss represented in Fig. 19.4.
Sections II and l/I! will permit the computation of stresSt)$
11853
in IJlIrs ,)6 and 67, respectivel)'. III eff<:ct projectillg' 011 llu;)
vurtie(l] all the forcl.1s (both external l111d internnl) acting 011 the
I 11
p p p P
, G
" 10 12 14
IJ
l'!i(J9
"
I If
Fig. }fJ"J
whorcfrum
p
p
, p
Z
, ,
v~
~"
D"
'n ,
J L"
A
A
~iK. 20.'1 Fig, 21.1
Pig, 22.4
Iy
I
I
l<JZ
Fig. 24.4
In sign and the third bar will remaitt idle as long a.~ IW external force
is applied to this joint.
The eq1lilibrium of joint 2 will now permit tlle_ doterrllination
o( t.hl} stres."es in bars 24 and 25 which will be expressed in !.Crms
of tho st~sscs U 21 and Vu already known.
rt ~hOlJld bfl Hotel! however that in tho method of joints the
strossrs in <l.1L the mcmbl'r:s nIe dewrmincd cons('_cutively, ihoSll found
al a Inlet stage beillj;t expre!>5ed in terms or those found at a pre
vious onc. Therefore, any accidenlal error <:ommitled in determin
ing /lilY pllrl,ieular stress will he carried IIlong 1I11d will render
,a
J LLue
:'
:~;ll ,:,._
Fig. 2,').4 Fig. 26.'1
P.Iot /,./Ot
~
:~.=>Jr~'ft::::;;j
L 11 .1

?
Fit!. 2~.4
p.'Ot P.I(J/
F.fJt
Jlt,. :19.1
IVRJ I
Pf(li
PUJt
YI PI t
,.,
"
"
v i ill 11
YI I)"JtJl p'"JOt
A /CCl I l//fX}e
.
j
I
,
~I~~l~
<.
~HI"
,,  , 11 li
,,
I
~
,
c I
!
~
+ .=
o.
I
~
I
'ol'+ n~
~I
,..'
" ~
..
0
i
7.
'."I ~
+ "'. ~
""I" .... ..l.. ,.....+ f..'
I  
!;; ~ ~
~ I I
+ +
IfI+I
1 0
,.,I! I
~
,.1
H
"
:i'~l\
le ~
';';> "'l.
~
~
~ ~
~ ~
11;;;=;,':;;[
~ ~
~ ~
I~I;c
I~
,
 ,.'....
.;: o
=~ =

5"
~
,
<: ~I:
i
oS ,
I
"
i'
~

~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
I ~
~
~
~
I I ~
~ ~
P=!Ol P.fOI P.IOt
'"
, , d d
FiG 81.4
Fig. 32./.
Fig. a,~.4
Fig. 95.1
Tlu Tru$~$
lN.lbl~m I. Compute the stre9.SCS in momber.'l 46,!J8 and 18 of the tru~~
Sholl'n in Fig. 27.4
Salulton. Pas;; h,'O sections as indicated in PJg. 27.4 and consider the equi
IibrJ(Jm of the It>fthand portions of the truss. All the ca(culatiolls al'e given
in 'raM... 1.<\; column 3 contains sketehl1.'l of the portion of the t,uss under con
sideration, the other Cl)lumns contolnJug the corresponding equilibrium eqwltions
and t1".. jr solutioD_
Probl....m 2. C(.'npute the stresses in aU the mem bers of the trusses reprt'SC/ltt'd
ill Figs. 28..4, 29'/', 30.4 and 31.4 and draw the corresllonding diagrams. A(I
tho four trtIS.';QS carry the &1mB loads and hno idenlical spaM.
Solution. Tile resulLs III all the calculatlons art' reprreontf'd In the form 01
graphs iu Figs. ::12.4, 33.1\, ~I\.I, and 35.1" the width of the Iland along each truS/!
p/or p./O{ p.ru/. 1':/01 P~'Ot
,
_m
m
.' , ~
~
<
d d d d
m v ~'~ D
rnembet" beinll: ill direct proptlrtiOll t() the mugnitude of the stress. Comp('e~5Ions
(rl'l;koncd l,elativo) are batched "'hill' tensions (reckoned positive) Hr/! lelL
1IIlilmded. (T ,e valullS 01 all the stresses arc giVl.'D In Ions.)
Computations pllrtainlng La the truss in .ig. 30.4 are (Uttered into '1'1.l>lc 2.4
froln wllith the ffctlUenco of ail the eporatlons is quit(l clear.
Tho compHison of stre..<s diagrams fOE' t,hrce trusses of equal span, carrying
tho sallle loads 1Llld having the same woh pattern shows (sec Figll. 32.4. 33.4
llnd 31\.4) that Ihe triangular trUM in Fig. 29.4 ill [~~economit,alIlS the combined
nrea of the grllrh...~ i!; the largest and therefore this truss will he the lleaviest of
the thrt~.
Problem 3. Determine tho stre~S(ls in the Ktrus.s with parallel chord'; repre
.'Ielllorl in .'iR". 3li.I,Il.
Solutio'" Examining anyone of Iha joint.ll at midheigbt of the truSl'; wher(t
two inclined bars meet with the verticel, we find from the prOjectloll of all
foo'c_es all tho horizontal that
!X _Dcos a+D' COli a'_O
wherofrom
Dcosa __ D'CQsa'
2.4. Vired Methods 0/ Stress J)tlerm;nollon 173
Ft/[. ,17./
(CJ
p
p
Id!
If)
Ftg. 38 l
Th~
'" Trl<UU
D __ O'
whiclt ilUlllU:, lhat the Slr~e5 in the Indlllcd hlll'! of OOl!' Alld tht> !!amo IJ, ..O'I t1~
equIII ill magnllud6 but opposite in ~gn.
The dNenuin.tion or the st~SU! in all the members of the IrUM is OtlUuf'd.
l1HllCl1ll,hs of thlJi.O strf'S.."05 arc shQ"'n in Fig. 37.4
The rri'ltlcr i." invited to prove on hit! OWII that tIle 8trcS~'S in
all Lrll,.;! mombers marked witll a tll\sh in Fig. 38.4 arc nil.
,
I"
a
[Ott
,
L,
if
A S'aile of 1/)(l{J:J A
,
Q QSP ,p 'SP
,
Ib)
", lOP, , L,
re;
a
F;g_ 40.4
P p
V,
U"
Qu Qu if"
""
101 Ib)
Fig_ 41.4
176
J
la) Ih)
Fig. 42.'1
a given force applied to the adjacent joint where two othor unknown
stresses are ~ought. All of these polygons may be merged together
t.o Iorm Il single diagram called the ltIaxwell..cremona or stres!
diagram in which each stress will be met with only once.
Such a merger is represented in Fig. 43.4. This operation is made
possible by the fact that in the force polygons tne forces appear in
the sequence tlley are JIlot with when each joint is passed around
in the clockwise direction. (The opposite direction could be adopted
as well, but following the tradition we shall always use the one
mentioned nrst.) Thus, in joint 1 in Fig. 40.4(1. we meet flr!t the
Un
u,
I'lt. 43.4
o c
~=13;~4o""'::::""5
,
'~7~ ",
[~ternoL oreo~8
1lI
Pig. 1.4.4 Pig. 43.1
aUI, the fIrst beiog directed from I towards a, and tIle second
from a towllrds I If. Marking these directions on the sketch of the
truss (soe Fig. 44/i) we fincl immediately that the stress Ja is di
rectorl towards joint 1 and is theroforc compressivc. while the stress
aIIf 3C.U; away from this joint antl accordin!{ly bar 13 is exttmdcd.
We may now pass to joint 3 of tho lower chord Il.c_Uld upon by
the stress IJIa just found and by two unknown stresses ab and
bIII. These stresses will b<:> obtained by tracing through points
III and a two linos parallol to the bars bIII ami a.b. the pOint
of int.crsec.tioTl of which shall be marked b. The sign of tIleso stresses
will lit! Jl'rived as berotorore from the direct.ion of tIle stress Illa
previously fOHnd (seH Pig. 45.4). Marking these dhcc~iollS all the
sketch of the truss (see Fi~. 44.4) we note thl:lt all lhC' bars mooting"
at joint 3 are oxtonded.
The next joint to be considered is joint 2 acted UJlon by the load
IIf, two stresses already founeI ba and aI. and lwo unknown
'.1. Gnpltfr/lt Jldhod /11 $treu Anlll,.,. iH $f1llpu Tr"..~. 119
s:trcsses Hoe and tb. Returning to Fig. 45.4 we find that the dia
gram Intains the two stresses ba and aJ. Addini to these the
load IIf (Hne /.II) we may readily find the resultant bI1 oC lh~
three fon::~ marked in dash line in Fig. 45,4. Hesolving this force
along two diret.;liorul parallul to the hars 25 and 24 we shall tlnd
the stresses in t1U:'50 bars given by the length of sogmentll (foe and
cb. The forco polygon b.aJI1cb indicates that bar IIJc is corn
pressed while bor cb is extender!.
Passing t.o the last joint4 wo fllld Lhut out of tlte L1tN.'c. bors meot
ing at this joint the stress in one bar ollly rcllloins unkllown. If tILe
diagram has heen constructed accurately, Iiue cJll giving this
stress must. be parallel to bar 45 and must pass through point Ill.
in other words, the diagram shall Id be dosed.
The force polygon {or point 5 will 00 represented by 1JIIIclI.
In the stress diagram tbe external Corees were laid 0(( in Lhe
samc order as they were encountered when passing around the
perimeter of the truss in a clo<:kwise direelion_ The force polygon
of externlll 10ll.ds and N.actions must also be closed. the whole truSR
being ill equilibrium. 'fhe closure of the external COl'ee polygon
find of the strlls.~ diagram constitutes a ready eh<'ck on the Mcuracy
of all the operations.
The construction oC the !ltress dillgrtlm is usually commenced
by tracillg tile closed polygou of loads ancl reactions which must
00 laid 011 in the same order as they are met when passing around
the truss in a clockwise dit"l.'Ction. This being done, the stresses
in the btlrs intctsCcting at each joint. are determined grapbic.ally
com ID{'ncing with the joint where only two bars meet. These stresses
will also be laid off in the sequence they are encolllltered when
paS8.ing around each joint in a clo<:kwise dircctic)O.
The construction of the foroo polygon for each joint should he
cDrried out in such a way that the two unknown stres<>es should come
la!'\. Thus in the example given in Fig. 46.4a force PI should comu
fir!;t in order that the unknown stresses Y and X should cOllie last
{Fig. 4.G.4b).
111 the stress diagram each line denoting all internal force he
10l1gs to two force polygons correspol1ding to two adjaMnl joints,
and tlterefore it is not recommended to show the directions of the
!;t!'eSS{S in the diagram, these directions being different in the two
cases just luentioned. Moreover, it is easy to determine the dircc
lion (sign) of eaeh stress without. going aroul1d the whole of the
force polygon corresponding to the joint under consideration. In
deed, each stress in the diagram is denoted by two indice! following
l'ACh other in the !'equence they were met when passing around the
joint in a clockwise direction. This sequence will therefore be differ
ent for two adjacent joilll.8, for instance, the stress in bar 23 (.'ICC
12"
180
Fig. 44.4) should bt! denoted by ab if referred to the lower chord.
joint 3 Mud by ba when rnferred to the up()er chord joint 2.
y
x x
fJ
Ib}
la}
Fig.le.t
Points b. 0, d. ete., of the ~trel;.~ diagram will 00 found liS follo\\'!l; point b
hy tracing through point a a parallel to tlio vQrtiealab and througll POint III
a parallcl to th(' I.mr IJ lb; point ~ bv drawlllg through point b a parallel to the
diagonal b( ~Ild a horiwnl;ll througi, point IXi point ,I wiIJ he lormad by tho
p
I
III
," III
,
J JX
I'
b
S.YJle of IXds VI
q f 'If JP
(b)
Yff
VII
Fig. 17..]
inl{'rileclion (.r 3 verticd passing through point ~ nnd o[ a Hnl,'. J'1lrallel to the
upper chord lllclIllJllr IYd pa~ing thrnugh point IV. I'oints~, ,. g. h, t Md k
will be found in tho ~~me way. (t will he "otod Ih~t pollOts rand; COIIlCid~, indi
." I StT~"
"," I Str~os
""' I Slr~"
""' ! Stre".
eatiug Lhat thfll;l!'e!!<i iu the vl!'tlie.I,t Is nil. Tb., construction of tho lost dia
gnllll pertaining to tho righthllnd half "r lh., truss could he omitted u the
stre1eeS in tll@' lWo hal\'"os of a Sl'mmelrieal lnJs:! !lUbjeeLed LO' symmetrical
system of loads ,.jll be eJ:A~tl)' the $llo.ue,
In tllo stress diagril.lD of ~ig. 47,4 duh 1iDl'~ indica.te tensions ;lnd solid
linK cutnpril55ions. It will be seen that aU tho mi'mben or the 10"'I'T ~hord and
thi' dUlil\mals .re oxtended, while tbe up~r ~bord memwr; IlIld the vO!"tICals
are eOOlp~.
The m,gmtnoo of tJII' stn...."Se!: !Calf'd ofF the diagr.m aN lahulatl'd allovl'.
,"~H?~:f1
la' (b)
Fit. 48.4
direction and ha\ing the same magnitude .!IS the stress in tbis bar,
and when th.e stress is zero this means that the bar IRa)' be omitted
without disturhinl: the system.
The principle of super position enables us to express the strt'ss
in Any memhl!r j of thl) transformed system (and accordingly of
the origiual one, too) by
N1=NIP+NbX (2.4)
where N,P = stn;ss in the transformed system induced b)' the load P
N,~ = salll!) stress induced by a unit load X = 1.
The !llm6 formula aPlllying to the substitute bar. we may write
thMt the streS.'!l l\'. in th.is bar equals
N.=N.p+NuX,O
w!lerefrom
X~
N., (3.4)
i/
Substituting the \'aluc of X thus obtained in the expression (2.4)
we shall rUld the stresses in all the mllrnbers of tbe system.
In more complicawd case~ it becomes sometimes necessary to
replace two or more bars. I'n such cases the method just (lascribed
'84
will not dispense completely with the solution or 5e\"eral equation!!
with several unkno.....ns. The total stresses in the substitute ban
will still reduce to zero, and their expre!!Sions ",ill take the for/O
Nt =N,p+NlI X,+N"X,+Nu x,+ 0
N,=Nzp+NI,X,+NuX.+NnX.+ 0 (4.4)
Ng=Ngp+N3IX, + NszX z + N 33 X,:  0
wht'rc N,. NI' iVg _total streS.M'g ill HI(' slllY.otituLe l){Ir"
1, 2, 3, elc.
X" XI. XI' ... _unknown Stress68 iD the bars whicll
h.llxe heeD Nlpla~cd
NI" Nit. NI', ... = stresses induced in substitute bar
1 by unit loads X,= l. X 1 =1, X,=
=1, ... , respectively
li'l> Nu. Nu... = same strtl!SCs in suhstitul(l bar 2, et~.
The values or the unknown stresses XI' X 2, X 3. ('le., will be
tll this case obtllined by solVing the system of equaLions (4.4).
In complicated structures the correct position of the substitute
bar is nut always clellr. However, it may be found in the following
way: baving eliminated one bar reject. OIID by one all t.he_ joint:s
connected t.o LhQ remaining structure by t.wo distinct. bars unt.il
a joint is found whose connect.ions are insufficient.. The additional
har net'ded to fix this joint wit.h respe<:t. t.o the remainder of t.he
strucl.ure will const.it.ute the fOquired substitute bar. If the struc
ture so obtnincd still does not belong to the category of simple
(r'omed structures, another of its bars should be eliminnted and
further joints should be rejected until aDO more joint. iDad~quately
connected to the rest of the structure is found. indicating the po.~i
Lion of the second substitute bar.
Thi5 procedure may be repeated as Dlany times as necessary to
transform the structure inta a simple system.
Problem. Usinli: 'he replaeement method delermioe the stre!.Se5 ill aIL the
meroOOr' of framltll structure in Fig. ~9.4;G for sin a _ O.G and sin ts = 0..8.
S"I..H,,,,,. Repl.cing bar 88 by bar 15 LU Mlown In Fig. 49.U we obtain
simple ."y,stem pennitting the dljterminatioo of the !llres!l .'( in the replacfd bar
by equaling 10 tero Ilto st~ in ttwl !lubstitute bar 15
N u  Nup+NIUXO
wIl('flee
185
N':r llnd NI'" being th,~ stresses induced in lbo llubstltute b.u 14 by
loo P and lb'~ unit ror~ X_I. rcspl>(:livc!v.
The stro'SSt's in aH tbo (lther illcmhers of truBlI will be found u~ing th...
fClrlTluln
NtNlp+N/xX
",h('re NIJ, and Ntx arc the ~lrcs~s in the corJ't'sponding meID~r of thp Irans
forml'd S)'SU!lll imluced by tho load P and the unit fOTee X = 1, resp~livl!l~.
.' J
z ,
5
(;l)
P ,
Fig. 119.4
ill tbis eX,",lIlpln the n1c>lllOd or joillL~ should be reLainod as Its r.onseeullVe
app1ic~lion to joint. 9. 2, 1, G and 5 will ~how ilillllediately that only bars 16,
Tabl~ 4 I
TOUI Urns
Stre81 lndue!'ll Siren Induced SlrclS tnd"ced In membo!ra
Bar No. by unit foree by load l' by toroe X 01 tb. orIgInal
',
.
I","tem
, +~p
23 or 43 0
"
TU P
,
14
9
12 54 I 0 T P 'fp
" , ~p ~p
2'
"' '1 +tr 0
,, " 14
Id 54 +~p +45 P +~p
" 8 56 7
1'
7 _lp +.!p
" 8 8
0
,~6 ;lnd 15 ()f the transfonned system are stressed by the lood P, alllhc otfu>r
mem bPrs ~lIlai(Jlng idle.
All the computations ore listed In Table 4.':. E:nlriH into thH !'th and lhe
5\1. columns bave been made only after finding the stre~ X in Iho replaced bar
36. \'aIUt>s appeadng in oolumn 4 bavo been obtained by multIplying tllo9'
of column 2 by lhe magnitude of the stre.'llil X (!!Ile below), while tJle entries of
column 5 result ft'Om the summatioD of ftgures containpd in coJumn~ 3 on,1 !'.
,a)
(6,
'"
I
la) ~l ill j
I I I If! I
I
'"
(f)
~, Q gra/)h
Fig. .50.4
188 TIu TrUlI<t.I
I~ n~
".
" ".
Fit. 52.4
"~", 
r.'"
;::~
f'lllTIlliffillllllll!lm;"" 'i'O'" f
IIIII~IIIIIIIIY
FI,.53.4
,,
N graph
(~)~
"
(C)~
o~p
_
FIg_ 54.4
Fir_ SS.4
The ordiutlte of Ul8 bending moment diagram a dislalle;e...:z: from
th~left.lulnd abutment will be
PI,. 56.4
I.SJ:MPLE STRUCTURES
the members of this structure will also reduce to zero, this structure
constHutes an unyielding combioation. The metltod of investigating
the rigidity of framed structures based on this property may thcrefom
be termed the zero load method.
I Lshould bll noted howover that before applying this method care
should be taken to ascertain that the number 01 bars in each part 01
tlU' strllctur" is sufficient to ensure its ~tabili.ty. Otherwise erroneous
condusiolls may be arrh'ed at as will he seen from the example of
II hinged quadrangle repr'sClltcd in Fig. 5i.4. Indeed the mcthou
o Fig. S7.4
(a,
Fig. 58.1
(b)
to :tI:'.J'U the slim of all the momellls of \lx[.C'rnal Ion.'cs auoul P(,iJll
o we (.bl1dn the identity
!Mo=RAT A +HnT1J+RCTc =0
fol' TA = r /; = re = O. Accordingly, ltit' val\te!> of lho reactioll~
tl'Hl3in l1ocletermint'd, 'l'he olhl'r [,WO C'quilibri\ull eqlwtiollS ([or
ill~tanc,(>, the equfltiolHl or thc rorce Ilfojllc.tions 011 [he x and ynxesl
will not hell) ill flllding a defillill.l ~ohllion 101' they will conta;u
lhrce ullktlowus. Thus. til.. stTessl'S in an instantaneously un/,table
.,y,~lfrn IIwy have no welt defined value e/JI.'n when 110 load i,~ applit:d,
The same rondll1iiOIl will he rNlf.hed if some arbitrary vnlllc Wl'rl.'
nltdl)llted 10 filly onc oS tlle l'earMons. It could tlH!1l he rc~olvL'r!
nlong llle directiolls of thl' other two ha I'.':, tho whole S~'SI.CIlI IwiJlg
i"ig.59.1
thus ill l'qllilihfium. Thflt mcam' that wC' call Ihld allY 1I11I11hcr of
fCllction v:dll<!.!l SllUsfyillg till' t>qllilihrinm conditions. which illdi
c<\los lhnt tlw I'ly~tem is instontnneo\1l'lly lUlstHble.
If. Lhe same sy:;tem is subjected 10 l'iomc flllito load P not passing
through ]loiat O. tiLe sum of IlWmCrlt.'s of all ~xtl'fllal Iurrl's IIhout
this point ]lecOlrleS
r.M o=R A O+ll Ll O+ RcO+ Pr =/: 0
as llcitllCr P nor r Mt' 7.1:1"0. That means that t11(' system is IIOL in
equilihrium and the plate will Tol(LLe about POilll, O. I'Jowc\,('L' 118
I"oon as an illfiuitpsillllll roLation will havll o(',('urrcd. the ttlJ't)e sup
pOlLillg hars will no lungcl' remain COIlCU1'l'llnt flnd the TtlacliollS
indllred therein by the load P will be able to bHlnllco this loan.
Al this pat'1 iculnT moment UI(1 cquilihrillln erllHlt,joll al)()ul the same
point 0 hlleOllH!S
~Mo=R_1rA + RnTn+R('rc+Pr=O
il1dic,IIUllg lltatlhu 1<!:lclioll in at leHst line of tllo bars l1lu81 he illfi
nit.e. 1(,1' tlw lover fltlllS rA, rn Iltlr! re MC illlinitely:;ruull. Henc('.
13_1,"
'"
lM inkrnal forces deL'Y'wped in un tllst.antaneously unstablny.st.eut actro
upon by 4 fi,mte load m.ay surPQ$!I any givrR valf~ and therefore such
systems CAnnot ho u~d.
Another example may be furnished by the geomet.rically staLl\:!
stnlclure in Fig. 60.44 consisting of a plate adequately COIlOPeted
to the ground and supporting joint C III tached to it by two roncurrent
halOS lie nnd hr. If i\ lnlld P werCl ilPIJlied 10 this joil\t (Fi~. tiO.4b).
the <;lrl.'S'$e~ .Yr" aod ,V'b in these bllts will be ginn hy
It rouOIws that when tile angll."s a formed by thtl 1wo bars wllll
the hl)fi7,OIlIIlI <lpprotlch zero, llle ~tre.sses in thc&' b;,rs will illcf'{'(l5{'
lndefioilt'll' pro\jng that the syslem hn:o be<:ome illsLllnl3"eoll~ly
unslaLlc. Indeed. in that. CIIo!'lP joint r will be conDPCte(i to the r~t
of the !'ltrllctll~ hy lwo bnI1l lying on one and the SAme horiwllhll
and wc know thill su('h sysLems are un!'table.
Onc more t.\'l:amplc of instantaneously unstable s.lruc:tures is pC('
sonl('d in Fig. 61.4. Allhougb the numlx>r o( bars ill tlai! system
IMluals 2K3, tlte (''7.l1ninll.tion of equilibrium coIllIitions at joints
t: nod d leads l.o f'ontrJ:ldictory COllclullions. Indeed the equilibrium
of joint r requiros that the stre5:l ill bar cd should be nil. while tht:
equilibrium of joint d requires !.hat it should equal ;P. This cont.,o
versit.y lndiClltt.'S clearly that the system is instantaneously ullsl<lhle.
Thus, 1} a sys~ln is prollidf>d with a f1um/Mr (I} bars .uffit:lrnt to ensure
Us rigidity U will be instafltaneollslll umtable, if
(I) finite forcl'S Induce in Me or more members infinite stresses or
(2) the stress('s cannot be d"termlfll!d or C()ntrover~'ial stre" valllt'~
result from the consideration of different fJart,~ or joints of the strudure,
Pi~, 62.4 repre.'<ents K number of frnmed structures UII~ !ll.llllilily
of which the rl':ader i!' in\'iLcd to iowslig:ale lISill" the 7.ero land
mclhod, fie should kN'11 III mind Ihat Lbi5 method tJt.oconw$ inBpph.
('<tLlc if till' numbor o( baT'" IS inferior to (2K3).
laJ~'dl~
("_~V
IIJ
PI::. 62.4
2. CO~PIIC""'1~:I.I ~,.n1JC'Ull[S
First, 1('t uS (>xnmine tllt'. nl.l;f' \d1l'11 Lllc Ir:ulsforIlHlli(ln Cif tilt>
complicfllcll ~ystl'm into a simplo ono requitffi tll(' T('plnr.('IIl(,1l1
of llllt onc bar,
The transformed system \\;11 rOllsi!L of an elemfl1tAty trlanglf
10 which ::I certain number of joints has ll(!('ll lidded, c(lch C(lnnectcd
by t.wo COD(urrpnl bars and accordingly thl.5 s}'Slcm will {orm all
unyielding combination; hellcc. lho stre&' N .,. indm'l'd in the substi
tute bar by n loacl P will have a ,",'ell defilll'd 8IId finite 'ahm, H
a unit st~.,. X = J dirt"CLl'd along lhf\ bar that has ht't'n r('pl~n:ed
induces in the substilute bar n stl't'5.S N'1 al!'O di!'Unet IroOl :tero,
Ihon, in nccordnllre wit.h formula (3.4), the inm~r lorn' X in the
replaced memh{'r of thf' original sysl{'m will (>I]ual
X=_'!....CfJ
N"
111f;
Sine!:' Ihis stress is linite and well rlrIinor!' the Sl;\m1;' will tlPI>ly
to all the other stresses induced by a load'" in the original system
which, as wo know, proves that the ilystem is geometrically stable.
On the other 11I1Ild, if Nu = 0 then
N~p I)
X..::"oo or X=o
No<
In lJtho!" w(Jrd.~, the stre8~ in the replaced brH becomes ~itht'r inli
lIite or indelerminale indicating that the whole sy:stem is inslaTl
tancoll!!Iy unstllhLc.
N
Acc.ordingly, the e:.::pression X =  _~p COllSUtlltes a means
Nn:
of investig:lting the stability of complic:lted systems. Whcn ]V.'" '*' 0
Lhe systcm fotms an unyielding combinlltion, and wheu N"x = 0
it is instanllllleollsly unstable.
'fhl! abnve elln be formulatod as follows: w}u'n the stress induced
In thi' $1.tbIJHtlltll bar 0/ the transformed ,~Yl'!li!m by a unit !orcI' X = 1
II.dillg along the replaced bar of the ortginal system diQer.\ from zero.
tfU' system is geometrically slable. but whm this strClJ.,i be.comes nil.
the '~!J$tem b insfantaTwously unstable and unfit for pracUcal use.
Figs. 63.1t and 64..11 ropresent a certain number of original and
tl'tl.I1.~forml1d Sy1i;tC1l1S for which the reader is inviled ~o chock tilt'
m::eurncoy of tho value of Nu indicated, and to decide accordingly
whclher Lhe sy~tom is !'!taMo 01' not. The slIh;llitll.tl" bars arc showll
;11 .la.!'h lines.
The plus /lul! minus signs pLaced agaillst certain bars indicatt:'
the direction (.'Sign) of the stre.'Ss induced ill I.he transformed sy;;tellJ
l;y .. unit furco X = 1 ncting along' the rep13ccd b3r of the original
0Ilt'. Knowing the directioll of these stresses (the reader is invited
10 verify them) and considering the equilibrium of joint K or usiug
thl' method of shcars or that of tho mOlnelltf<. tllll readtlr will find
ill mu:h Ctl.1'O whether Ne'" is nil or possesS('S sorue defUlite valul'.
Ld 113 irr\'lls~i:zat.(', (or instanc.e, the syslem ill Fig. 63.4a. TIlt'
lqnilibrium nr joint 1 of the transformed sYlltem show!!' imml:!dillt@Ly
l,hllt bar 12 is I'xll'JIIll'd /lnd thalthe strl'~ in bar 16 is niL Passing
to joint 2 we sco that bar 23.is extended and bar 24 is cOOljJre."Sf.'d.
1\1orl'o\"er, the projection Oil the y()rticul or all the st.rt'~~es actillg
on joint 4 will show that bar 4K mu;,;t be extended in order to baJanc.l'
l_he push oxerted by bar 24, Hence the substitute bar [((i will
he wmprl'sscd, (or otherwise tho projccliolJs of all tl~e fmccs applied
to joi.nt K on the horizorll.al willllo\. balance anill,hcrefOl"o the system
i~ stable. The Ilame result could hllve been arrived Ht hy p:lSlling
ft'OIll ioint 2 to joint 3 llncl thon to joiu! 6'.
It is sllgg~~ted thnt the reader should prc\'c that the structure
1'('!II'csentcd in Fig. Ua,4c wilt hceome "lIslable W/INI Cl. = ~.
Fvr the I<lructurc in Fit:. G3.4d he will /hld that. N~ is lC.I'O hy
tllkilll{ in :illcn,...."i(1ll 1'(.'Ctioll!; n't dnd mm. For the Sy.!!ll1lI in
Qnginal Iyst~ml
'"
,<!
,,"
P.g, f!.Y.,1
Fig. IHAb it he ':lIsiel' 10 projc'Cl 011 the hurizontal all tlte Curn'g
lIctillg ablwc st'Cl.iOll nII.
U!ing tile same methods the rcadtr IIhould U'eJl inl'{still'll.t(' the
stability o( tbe structure ill Fig. 65.4.
When the transformation oC a complicated system into :l simple
olle l'l;'quil't"ll tile l'e!l!nc.elllflnt of more thAn onc bar, the ''4uAlions
198
~
'bI
"
.'.'
I
FI,. 64.4
when
'1I_tt"'i:U
D= N~linNS3 "10
N:uNuNu
On the con~rary......11<:'0 D =0 the Ylllues l)f strcsst'1J Xl. X 2 etc.,
become ur\l:.~rtain. whidl indicatl'S that the systelll is iustalltll,n~ously
uOl'llllJle.
Ib! le)
"
(g)
'it. 6$.4
7.4. INHlIE\"CE LI'"ES FOR STRESSES IN SUII'LE FI\AMED
STRUCTUHrS
A'I,the loads arc gOIlBfQll)' applied to a truss;l~ panel poinl:! tlYCty
thio!t that has be~n said in Art. 5.2 about the CQllstruction of
inOII('lIce lines for girders with floor beams and stringl'r5 rcmajll~
true for thuS(' ptlrtaining to truss~.
The TrU,k,
In olher words. the Slrt'S3 in bar 79 equal,' ill this t'as{' Lhe riJ!;ht.
Ilnud reaction B Illultiplied by ~. ~\'oLc that once again ;IBd is Ihe
cquiyu(tml of thc simple beam beudilla moment AI: "din!:,' o\'el"
7./. /n/fl<s"cs LilU' J..r SlrCl~r In St"'l'L. f'rtimPd SIr>/rI"ru 201
d IJ III
la,
3
A , 8
I, 9
II , OflI I ,,' It
~
46:u. :
Ibl
t A
u! n
Do
:
I
l ~
IllS 17
L
I 71
I
t
1 1 I I I I
I I 1 1 1C8~f;";'F;i' "
1
I
I :
J I
i~
OQ
,
le)
I" 8
1 I
1
" ,a
' ,,",,fr~~ I
I I I L 19 19 1
I t I I 1 I
Id} o II
I
Infllle4celi"f!
,
_...1_
"
e
for
1_...
u I" __ .... _r
I
_}b'f'
ljf I  1".
b
QI I: tinglirie I
le,
1
:
{L'
I I nf{lo't'J1tlj line/or ~n
"
! !
I
01
1
~/~/~M~,~,,:;,,~,~,;;r~~~ID:F:t:F=ii'
I I
I I
"j_L I I
, J

I 'y~ : I I ~4__ sma
(I' I"L I~" I Cmned.0g line rb,
,tS
og, !
'H1'11,
I
IjJ

17
,",11'
I/lIfll/en?
1 I
~ror VIS
I r
I
(.9' ~{~III1,jll'/l!I!I!i!"'1
~~ L \
Cf1IU.'C(ing une
PI,. fiGA
202 The Tru,u<
D =_A_
sin IX
t1l
li
Du =   
Sin a
:lIld thi~ is 'alid for any po"itiull or Ihe lond tllollg the lru~ as it
call lIever be applied directly to joint 7, the bridge beillg of the dock
lype. Hence the infiuence Iiuo for the stre.'<# Va ('oulll be dl'riycd
from that of lIlt: stress L u uy rnllltiplyill~ its orrlillatcs U)' (sill ~).
As ror !llress L H it cnn be obtailloo by equating to zcro the 511111
of hori7.0nL:.tl projections of all tho forces IIdillg on thc joint IIIlller
j:oll~idurll Lioll
l 1"/9
~n= cnp
Tl1cl'cfllrtl
"'r. = Lr~~ill ~  L r8 lt'lll ~
Tho SlIlIle result can he achiC"tld direcLlr projeding nil lht" foro't!!\
npplitld to joint 7 rill a norrntll to bar 75.
Till' illfluence lillc ror stress Vu oblaiued by 1IllltlilJlying the
ONJiIlUlul' of tho innllonco lille fol' L u by (hllI~) j!l n.'jl11lS011Ul,1
in Pi/{, tj().4g,
The irlnueltc_6 HnQ fM the \'t:rtkal S!J (Fig. 67.4a) should ~lso
be ctJII!ltrllcted using the method of joilll::l for a~:lill arlY sectioll
through the trUS! cutting this bllf will cross at least th~ more bars.
Cvnsidering the equilibrium of joint 8 .....e find immooialely that
(I) whell the luad is appli.ed to Mny joilltel:wpt joint SWig. 07.411)
l:Y=Vs ,=O
(2) whclI the load is applitod lo joint R (Fig. /.i7.4c)
1:Y= V8~PO
7.4. JII/I,,('nrt J,lnt. 'or/)trtMtl III .'illlll!ft Pr'lIlItd Slrud"rt~ 20:;
V.. =P~l
Consequently when the \Ioil load is applied to lllly of the joints
J. :.t, 4. 6 or JO, H, 14 3nd J6, Iht' vertical 8~9 remains idle,
bul when lhi!.' load shifts to joiut. S the slre.<:.s V" bceomes cqmll
to 1.
Knowing the Ordillllteli lo the i'lnUlloce line 1I.t. 'he releYant (1llnd
pili 11 l.$ :UHt COllnccting thl'.'I(! by straight lines we obll1ill thlJ illnUCIICC
,
! / 10
"
Iinc f'lHlllill'd. This Iin~ rcpre~lIlccJ ill r'ig. 6i.o'Jd hI'S llto ...halk' of
a trillll~lo with a mo:dmufrt ordinate eq1l1l.1 10 1 on,r joilll 8. Tht,
~igl1 of the ordin.'l\A. indicII 'es tha.' tlu> "crth'al can 111' only 1'0'11111'<:.'$St.'(1
~nd thcl'('[ore eonstitull'S a strut.
l'rnhltm I. Dr"'" tlw innuenu lino lor llll' !lre_ ill I>~ri! ~B .nd ''I uf
tll" Pr.U Im"S ..ho.'T1 in Fil:. 1>1:\.'...
,,'01"11011._ Tt." i"II"I'II<'" (illt' I"r J'7~ ""i11 be olJl"illt'tl l>~ till, "1I'lhod "f m,,
mcnl.1. ad..pliuJ: joillL 8 as tit!! origin of motnl'nl~. The t'tlllilih~,u'n 01 Ih"t l>(Ir
l,,,n <If tilt' tl"""'~ tn Il,e Ivft or I'.LiOD "k (FIg. US.oil!) ""'ll~" th., 1011'\ is tu ilK:
r,~ht of thJ~ sertion r"'llIil"l"~
~Ma ... .A::ld /'1.)1.  0
A3d .lx3
l'1~""'h A ,_2.2$/1
Tlm.... tI'll requir1ld infiucoc... lint will be obwocd by laywi oft IlII ordinate
e'I,,:!1 IJJ 2:.25 ,weT the lohbaollllbvLm<.lIl. by conD$(:ling this ordinate ..lth tho
I,'r" "rdmllll' point III the opp,,ltt end of th9 lruSll. by marking the poHtion M
tloo tlrh,:ill or Illoments (joint 8) on this hnc and finally by drawing I linl! through.
, ,
? /, (j 6' 10 f2 #I /6 .w
la)
'J~ I H
: '}>4'1l1
1_ I I I
~
l? It;, ll) la ~8t7: l
IDJ
, ' ,
, ,I :
DJ1
I
t<01,
...
"~I I
I
'l!J
I
I
I
I
A I I I,'..r""y.ce I: ne ((11' !.... 7P
__ I I I I 1 '
T_I_ I I I I
I ' '
I , ~~'~.at!~~~
,, ,, ,,
t;onnei:((fI!J Ime
I t I I I
(dJ Vjl)' I I I I I
I I I I
~"l,,+''f.r ~i,l,I ~ r I I
(e)
A
I
If
iIKnc;'fJ/tne for V79 (rJeCll "hdge IftISo)
I I J __ +I __ j_"" __ ....I ~ f
; 7' 8;toJiiC ;1[>;1 :I i
~ __ 1..+r, I I I
(~lInt''Y f i r I I I I I
I I I I _ I ,
['lI/t/rrn'l/fie forJ/78(lllroug!IIY7d.qeII"IJ,)S)
I I , , __ 1111'
(,
1
' :
I
.. ,l.i1"
i
,r:k.....lT
/:. sJ,il1'IIi1,.iIii'"
! ! jJ'
'
/< _,_ L /
(;{;'1ncr.llIJ(j Ime
Fit. 6~.4
Ih~ II'm point at the lefthand abut",,,nt and the point iu..... mcntionGCI. Th.
eompklc<1 iunuenet: line will be of lrhmgubr shllpe with Ibt apex d.i1'~ly
[Hlder }mnt 8 (loig. G8Ar).
Thj, method of sbGllra is "'eH adapted for the construction of the Influeneo line
for tho ~Ire~ in liar 111. IJsinR seal0n nn (FIg. 68.<Id) and equating 10 Iero the
pl'oiecllon or .Htht' ror('u ~cting on the !pJtllllnd portion or the !rUM wo obtoin.
7.1. 'nil/una f.'tu!1 /pr St~tun /01 Simple F~IImtd Sfr,utu~(I 207
v7l = A
Simll:lfly whell tllf lo,)ad 1I11it) it to the left of ~tion /I .... tllo rqullil..
rium "f tlw ri~hth,llId pvrt"lII ,)( thl' trll!o!l nquirn
!t=BJ'jJ_O
\\ 1",,,frul1l
l'18_ fi
It shouhl 1)(' 1I,)lerl tlH'lt, whcn the lond~ IH"~ lrUllsmiLtcO IIHOUgh
lhu 1I111ll'r chort! (as ill ,I('rk bridges) thl.' fIT.,t joint to lh", right of
~rlilln n ..n roJall\"C lH the slr{'ss V r is joint S, Lut when the loac....
arc nppliod to the lo\\'I'T chord (through bridgt>s) it will hI.' joillt 9.
The SlUno wil1 8pply to joints G and 7, the rust being lI'll1ncdilllcly
10 the Idt ufSt."Ction It"lt in thc ('llSt' of deck Lrilll:'l'S and the Sl:Cl'Jlt.!
in thl: CAse of through hridgcs, As the equations of equilibrium QC
tho lelL alldior the rightbaud portiolls of the tru&< art' indl.'pcudcl'll
of thl.' Ic\'cl at which 1110 loads are transmitted. the IIlfiuencC' liucs
for both cn.~s will be strictly parallBI. but the posilioll of tht.\ plllld
through which soction nn passes will \'MY, leading to a dlsplaC4'~
Jntml o[ the ponl'l points correspollcling to thl'l ~picE's of tllO hilI:'.
Thc influencl:' lil,cs ill Fig, MAt' llnd J corn>!'pond 10 th(> two J,lVsltioll"
o"tI thp floor ~aln.'s, th .... rl~t p(>rtainlng to Iltrk bridg('s and tILe ~colld
1I1lU to through brillB'e~.
J'roblem 2. Hcquil'o(!th,' llInuonce IiJl~ fol' $tro....~ D~! (>f Ih~ tl'1I51l ropnl!'t'lltod
III ~'jg. 1i!1.4~.
SaluJl<m, T~kjng I;(ocliou .... r! 1\0,1 US!uB' the method of mOlllont.s (pOillL Ji.
loCIIl!/" t."ken (I" 1.11,' origHlI \\0 hllll llwL when the IQlll1 unity is tu tho right of QUI
el'clltln
'tI'llO'"rl'OllI
.I"
D ~ ,
I/.,rl' , i.~ ~h" II'Vf'( 3(111 III t"l' stre5.~ ~ n;h,hl{t> III point K. 'Dd .. tbat
"f 11n; ~ion A /l00t11 the 5l'lme point. Tb, dlslolnee .. mlly blo fwlltl fr"m
ll,~' tri:anl::le K:i4
a+2d_...!L..
'"."
",III.'r" h2 i... th... height of th~ vtrtitlll 4J r>qu.,1 m.'tn.'s .nd t.::m a ...
ft
___, T " 0.1108\.
,'"
Ht'"lIco
,,_18 m
:""hSIlLn1ing Ilt\' II!KPVl,l in the formula Kivlnll' li~ ill tllrlllS 1 " lllld r we
"bI"in
"A
D~""2'0.6 (1.8710.1
Th(> constmdin" ", till' iunuellrc line fM LJ". wi\llJEol.!in wiUt tu riltllthand
p"rll(\1\ which will be for"",d by the Hilt' C"III\CClilll: the ~Lg;4 or"inah' UY(Of" the
'.
,,
"
d,
,,
"
",,
, ,
1.hlmllllllhtJtlll~nl ... ill, tlL" 'lr.l'O <ltdlllal.. looiul:ll LJte olhrr ,'nd "r tl,e truss.
1'1,,' 1(>Ilb~II.1 roortioll will he obl"lued N1l1Cll,b,mllll that 'he dlrt>etiou, of tbe
.. 'l'hl' S.11ll1l filCurtl could llC ohtainoo. wing tloe formula
sinp_ 1111\6
Vl +\all l ~
two I'"rl.~ 1I1",,,ys illlcr~t \I1H1(', tht' odg;n u[ mOlllcnt~. Wilhin tI", plllld (on
tnilliug sec~ion nlI:J, IlIil'(\ lin,' wIll ,:unn"cl1hc v~l'lin'~ lying unokr' t!le [Ollllel
!,llints on butl. :o..i(I(',~ of S(,~~tiol1 nIl. 'fll<' cnmpllllod inn"..,,,,",o ['m. is .~ '''wn
in fig. IlO. 'ob.
Prohlt,llI ,I. I\t'(luired [.h~ infiu('Jlce JillC'~ ror ~~re.l;S('~ ('~~" J),;Ij :J.lld ~'7G
m'i~jn!: in " tri""l;:ulllr roof II'u,,~ in Fig. 70.;'" wlll'tl th(' l<lIlfls:H'<.' Ujll'!i,,(] to till'
lower chord.
SQlulton. lnf1u~na lint for snus UI~' l'~I",~jng ';(ICtin!l !II! and 1'I,,,~i(I('ritlg
lIt<' '~Illilil,l'iultl of the lelt~hand part 0 the tru.~~ wlll'tl ["n,1 1IIlil)' J} i" 10 Itw
{Ill
Flg.70A
D~_O
2" Th~ Trfl.n~,
'i,_ 71."
/,
, " ' _ I , , ,,
"l '/"([um,:e llllr. for I
~ '1I'{'rffifuii"".~.r~5:i""'=~:"""'~
~lel:lulli,.!i!!'
I I
: r,tL~ r ,
.: ,t;"f.....
L.  .. :: ..J. __ ,
' :
In"lJf .....l'14~f""DI I
Hence tile llrtlinatN! of Ihe InnllPnco Iille will I"('duc<' 10 n>ro as long .~ the
uni~ load Is In tllo right of the pll"oll:ontaining hllr 56.
The leflhand portion of the hlnuence line Illlty be constructed using II\e
clJlIlItion of the equilibri.um ol mUUlenl~ pcrtnilllng to till' rillht.huntl part of lhe
dtlQ'tf
:
,/lIli_V! /<he (fir v,..
I ". ' " . 
tf~tri4~ t
,II'~
,: ,~  fl
'/nfl!l1lMr' If."Jf!f.'''I:(~ ,
:'c'lrl v,. lr,;ss't ;
~),
, I , I , Fig. 74.1
I I. ,
'''([!lint'i! UI'I1 ft}('
, , v,,,, ,,
,_+_..,1=' , 2 , ! ,
I"
:,, ,,I'
.
:/nf~nt:'e U{I8lor', :
I D,H' , , A ,,
~
::I""'I' t_: Inflll~ !.np/11r0nl
" , I
"
, 'I I j ~
ftIU . ,'
p'G. 78.4
~tfflll~
'. abutmell~ 'eaetit.n n lIlultiplied hy
,:
I.e., the D$8 h &quallo the rlgMhond
( )
'" TIt~ rot'll'~polldillg illOlK'nCt' line /Ippcns in Fil' 7.1.4e.
iIIfluenn lint for ItrfU \ .... Using tlilllJll'lh04 uf juinB ud prujl.'fting all
tile 1Ot'tt'.~ :oc:ting On Jolul7.m " I,or;:wulal Wf' obuin
,.
1
rL_I!"'+_~ :<; '~ ~
~A't+_'_:c:1'
10
Fi,. 16.4
wl\CrCfrom
111,,,<,.4', IJ,,: illnu('nco lin(' fI,,' 1',. nu.}' 110 "lilall1("<1 by multipl)iu\: ~1I Ill('
"rdlnjll,.('~ of thl' innUC'lICQ lln~ I,.r {}~.', by. con,tanl ["rIOf" {2I"in (1). '111l' ma~,
mum ordin~t(' of tlli.~ illnu('l"M;(' !1nl' ShOWll in Pia. 7(.1.'1 ......111 ho, equ;lll" I.
Tht' "('.'IJ!::r i~ i",ite<.1 t<l solve lilt' rnllo"'ing I"..n prnblt'l'~ on hi~ 1''''".
I'rubh'm l. Pruvo t,hl' :,rCflr:M:r u[ the innueoceli,,<.>s in fj~. ';"1.1.
I'rebh:m 2. {al Prove H.E' Iccuracy (,f Ih(' innn('nce J,"C" ill I'il. 12.0\ Ihrough
7li.'\ ;'lId
tI'lllr"", the Illnueoce liol's for 110(, ~trl\SS('S in .dditi"m,1 h;v~ l1l11rk(d llY
11 rlm,bk (!Iosh.
l/ilib. la) 11 i~ reWmUll'IlUNllo \lHl the method of joints fur thl! lllnllcncc liul)
r()r ~tross V! of Ihl' tru~. rqll'l'51'Il\.l'u in Filj. 72.4. Whl'1l 110(' I"at! uulty l' l~
IIJ'l'li,',j I" nuy juilll willo Ihlt eXCl)pti'lll of l!1o Ju.n1 O\"~f 1lle rll1:1i1hlllUI ah"l
'ueul" 1'2  ~B. When \he load i., u,'er lhl' rightlllltld IlllulJnl.'l1t. V~ _ Ll.
Ib) As rcg~rds lhe lru~s in Fill". 7.).'1 il i~ r"ron"nl'mled 1.0 C,j,n. hler tl'e o.:quililo
r'Unl "f t119t. porlil'll ,,( Ihe 1."tJ~ 10 llll' right "f 'hI' !'t'eUhn, ",hl'n till' Jo~d unily
ill 1.0 th(' I('ft thefi'Qf. It i, (ll,vi""s tlllll in lhi!' (:8~1' the hllf untlt'f ~jlllSid"r.lHiu
will r"m~ill i.lI,.
wht'rl'Crolll
!Ien.' A'i'G i!'O t.he 5tf('~ in b<'lf 6"6 of llle trus.':! .!!howl1 ill !'ig. ii.lib
when (he lotld unity lr;n'cls along tIle llpp...r chord and A'~'B is lhc
st.ress ill the Stlllll' bar induced hy tllo force X~ = I.
lIenn' the illnll<'lI{~e lino Cor thl abutment reat.tion X t may he
CJ!,laintld by rlivitlillA:" Ill... ordillaLes ~o th... illfiucllCo lilJu ror stro~~
Nd'~ by (Nfo'~)'
Ipo/
"
", IPoT
I
to, "
PfK77.(
"
)/
, , W
5 7
"
fO'
"
S 1a,f
{Cl
'",,,,.J..
[[,;i~=!IlJiO!01IITI ft[AAL..!l:
I
I" r ,
!fjCI!lill~!II:II!lljl
In"~ I~ I~ "
'
; I
J
Ptg.7$.1
8.4. 11l/lllffJce LifUS ill Compllcltl,d Framed S'nu:lure, 215
TlIe inftuence line IGr the stress Ni. m3}' be eonstrucled using
the eqllilibrium equations regarding joint 6' (Fig. 78.4a and b).
ZX = Ni...cosa+N,.lcosa=O
};y""" Ni . . sina+Ni1sina+Ni, =0
whorl;l[rom
therefore
' 2N;'.~, V2x2
siDa
X,,= 2N A'~'__ 'Vi
  3  N" c'S'
N.
c ~x<!
216
. IIt'.lIce, tlac innuQ.IlCc line for reaction X~ will btl o!ltaincd hy 1lI1l1.
tlplYIrIg' allllll' orcll.~3t.l'S to tho illnuellco line for 'YQ'~' by a couslant
faelor O(I~laJ to 2l<: ,
.Thu COlTeSJ)()lldillg il1nmmco line is rt..'pre&>flle(/ ill Fi .. 784<"
with it~ aid Ih u influence liul':! for ~tro.~.s in all tht' (Jllle;bn.~ or
tIle truss can be ca~ily obtained.
IV
it : JI,
wllCre ill = mO'lIent of tho fon'c:! to Ihc right or to lhu left of tIll,
section about the origill of moments
r = lever Ill'm of tho ~tl'l:lfl:l IV IlhOll~ ,hf) salOl' point.
The nho\'e formula sho ...."::; thlll other ronditions rcmllinillg UIl
changed, the ~tr('SS LV decrease~ proporlionn\1y to tho incrt..'3"O in
the lo\'er arm r. Accordingly, the iDcrea~ in too height of tlll'
lrll;<S .....hich n.lways Jtl.'\ds to the increase of tht\ lcver arm r wilt entail
a reduction ill tile stresses induced in ilS elcmcnt.o(.
Strnctllr<llly it b muru conv('nicllt whon thc diag<Hlals forrll all
augle c10stl to 115" ....ith the horizontal anti therdUN an incrtlllse
ill the hoight of the truss will load to lengthtming of Ihe palLcl~,
'['hug ill a tWit" with !HlraJ(1.I1 dwrrls the length nf a Illlllol will ui:lulllly
ho vory close t.u Lhe lr~ hcigllt (li'ig. 79Aff.). HOWOVN, pallols of
incfCtlSud I~llglh requil"C! the U~ of heavier noor bc"ms aml stringcr.s
whirh mllY outweigbt Ihe O('olloJUY oht~'lillod through the relltK"tinn
of !dresse." in tbe lnlll:l 11Iemlx>rll.
A rational lVIllItion of Lhe proMe,n n.<$ide~ in the :mhdid",ioll of
111U p,'lnels wiLh tho inlroduction of StlCOntJary IMlI,bcr.:S, rorlltin~
.1tuiliafY killg.po~tt'rl btlnm~, which will trnm;miL the load~ allplied
withill tllo panel Lo tllll join's of llw main Lru~~.
Thesc.' auxilillry systoms will jJcrnlit tile instllllnLlOIl of c,ros.~
OOlllnS :at i"ttJrmcdiaw poillls wlticlt provides for iI. eunr;:idernlll\,
f'(,l<llldion ill the wcight of till:' floor elements, TLLe.!!u SyStCll18 wiH
remain idle 3S lung 35 tllU load is outside the pancl which they rt'ill
fOrt'e, und will bc<:omo stre....<;O(I only while the load ill within the
limits of that panel. I" Fig, 79Ab Wtl hnve represolllcd a dec.kbrillge
trllS.", the uppor chord of which is reinfOrced liS Jt!sc,i!Jerl ulJove.
'rite bur ab i... always idle, it:! only purpost! being to ensure the sta
bility of tlw combirwd system,
117
Id)
71'<.171'<.171'1::
,
Ig)
F.g. '19.4
with the upper chord members or lhl! maill t.russ. Jf we now turl.
the kingl'0sle( beams upsifle dowJI wo will oblain tho trlls., SllOWIl
ill Fig. m/if', nud ir i.D the latter the lerlgth of ks becomes nil. we
will linally obtain a dcckIJridgc truss with suOdiyided pallt'(ll repre
sented ill Pig. 79.41 which in the ";nglish speaking countrius is oS\lal~
Iy ("alled it .~ubdil.tdtJ Warr.n lruu.
+
"I'
ln nu ...~ill. tl'\l~"''5 or 11l:1( Iypl' ","Cro lifflt Il!led Ih,' f"mi,,('II( Ilussiall
('ll~ill('er and l'("iE'nti.~t, rmrC5.'!or J,. Proskuryakov or '11' Mo~ow JIlstlLulE' of
Railway En.ll"'"eeriuJf' A bri~il"~ of lhi.~ lYIH! !"as dcsiRned by "ion in 18~;j
ami hiUIt lien,...' ! tho river Ylllll:'el. alllhe slrllSS~ In lhlslrui'\S haYOl11i heen ,luler
minoiJ with th" nlrl of innut'nce lines, 'I'hl) rigid it} lInd thE' I'('d\lCllO wcillht or
this brillgo have I,lllccd it among the topranking r.ngineNing achievement!
or lllat tim(,'.
218 The TrU$~J
Problem t. Draw tho innulInco lines for tllO stresses in membllr~ 29, 54'
and #'7 of the throURIl bridge truss with lIubdivJdud pa.nels rl!jlrE'OOlltod in
Fig. 81.(\(1.
SOlu/lflll. Start wi~h the construction of tllO Influence line for stress Vz:j. 1'110
member 23 bolongs to the firsl group and thl.'refore the corresllondillg influene"
9.<1. Tru.,(H u,ith Subdil'ided Panels 2i~'
,. '
D ~'7
 '
2sina I) !r
(~.I >""'::.J>'::'l!~F+::.J.',,,
.' 10 12 I '
.... l,
!i
I~J ".,
" I g~.! , '
, ,
I , I'
I , "
: '
rt'
,,
'" :
..",
."
'"
'"
I,,~n
'"
and whon the load !hifls to tho sU[Jporb, thp slre!s D 4'1 becOU><:5 nil. The r,orre
sponding illnUl1llCI! line is rcpruS()uted in Fig. 81.4c.
As f(lr the ~tre~s in bar 54' wllic.h belonll"s to the third grO\lp wo 5hnll paSS
a section II IInd aSl3umLng tha~ tho load unity is to the right of lhi5 soctiOll,
w{> shall obtain
.....berefrom
A
D~~, 7iiia
'l'hisllquation indicates that n~ long 811 thl! load i~ to the right n[ llCction 11
the influence Uno for V". may!\(l ohtlllnod by muUiplying tll~ ofllinates to lhe
:all
Problem 2. Ilequired the infiuene" line for th0 str"ss r 3, t.of tlte throlllo:l,
hdtllo:e t'IIS.~ ~hown in ~ig. 82.fJ'I.
Sob, lion. The verLic,a1l.1110er con5ideratitJ!! heloHging to tllO) fourth gn'"Jl ,,[
Utel1lhcr~, wc m\l~t bE'gin wit,h the construcli,)fl of llw infl\l.~nce lines relative to
this lU('[nher for loads travelling along the lIPPll!" and IOWN chords of tit" Utai"
"y,'lt,,'n, rellrC\.'\Ilnteil i" Fig. 82.4b.
For lids PlLrJ~OSl) llll liS jlaSS section II and wriU.' Ihat IM ob.,ut point k
for tlw lerthand purl uf tlw lr,,~ (,qul,ls 7('fII when tilt' load IIn(ty Is to th" right
of Ihis ."Celion
wlwnce
M
V~.=O  a+2d
Ct'""OOlillg tlu. ordinate "~21/ at thelehhand abutment witb I.h.. T.lm, ordin
aLo lit lhe rilhthantl une we shaH obtain the I'ilJhlhallu p<lrtion of Lho innUonell
lTlle roquln.". Ih II.l{l.hnn,1 portion will be deL'I\'ed from the rule lllnt tho two
hut's ;llways i"tor~~t und'r the origin of 1lI01ll('nt~ (point k). hI CUSl' Lhe load
t'avt'ltt'.:! ulo"g IllO lower chord tho ~.ompleted infiuonc{' tilll' isohlltirred tradllg
tht' o.:ollu('cting !in.., through the I/Vints ellrr('spontlill~ to jnirrt~ Sand ."i
((o';g, tl2.4r) and, i[ tho loads Wl'rt) "11I'lie<1 tt, thEl uPI"'. chord. thrtmRll the LWo
lloini~ oorrt'6ponoling to jomts 2 aud 1. (I"ig, H2Ad).
TlIC~' two ;nfllLl'nCe Hill'S ~how Ihat whell the load i!l to tile left of jf,ints
J ~Ild 2 or tu IILI> rilIht of jOillt~:; nllt] G, Lhe ~'t,ress in the vertiClll 9~4 [6 iml"1"'ud
ent of t,ho level of load al'll!kll[ion. But whl'lI tho (oad stands Qve,' jhint$ 3'
"I' S' of thl' lower ehord Ihe sceondnry mt~l1lbers will tralJ~mit it entirely to tIll'
Joint6 of the t1pperoue, which III Ilff,~ct Is L'l:lulvalont to the tran~fcr of the lon<l
!hl'll. Ar.cordingly onlinatNl mm and nn will pll'voil at thew ,,,Ollli'll\S,
Nllvt'rtholl'S!l wlwn the lom! moves to joint S all tile !;Iecondary mt~mbor.'l II"eolUl'!'
id I... and it will loo t.he urdinllh~ tIU in Fig. 82Ac that will give tilt! value of the
slr('S/j V'4'
'rhe;;(' "nlinilte6 will suffice fot' Ihe construction of the infi"",nc,e line flU' till"
IL'USS with ~"h.h\'idlld Jllln\.'I~. The reQuil'od innuI'nc(' lino IW'LI\d~ thll shadtd area
ill Jo'jg. 82.J,e.
Tlou follo"i"ll' l'rohlolll s]lOujd be solvl'd hy thll fl'ad"r Oll IJi~ own.
Pr<>htt!lll. (n) Chock the influence lines pt'rtaining to tI,n through hridgE'
trU5.."t!:l in Jo'igs. 83.4 and 84.1\,
"
IJIJ
,~
Fig. 881
Fig. 81.#
The Tru'so
(b) Draw the i"nuoneo llnes lor strosS05 in the members 01 tb.e same trusses
marked 11)' A "nuble dash.
Hinh. Prinr to the construetion of the influence line for StreSli Vf>9 of the trllsS
In Fig. 81,.4. eliminate all tbe 5E'eondar)' members, thuslinding the Inain system
'"
~ 11}
i ~ i
'" ~""':
~
,
Fig .lJ5.1
r",prelll'Jlll'll in Fig. 8~.'ia. Thon uaing the mdhod of joints find the stress VI,
relative to this s)'s\'<'m
ry _  Vl~:W~i sin Cl: ""'0
whl1rl'from
v:...
2U~. sin Cl:
The 5tre.~5 in bar 89 of the main 5)'stem is 'llUS equal t.o that in bar 79~or
the Mme system multiplied hy B constant factor (_2sin 0:). The influence lino
/0.4. Thn'$1 Dl';vtloptng Framed Str~cturcl
for the ~tl't'l;.~ U~. i., givl.'n in Fig. 85..1.1>. [t has the shape olan iroscoles triangle
and its ol'din~t.c at 1he llpax 'lqUllls
I i8 V~ 31/37
4TX=3'.5d""~"O"~ 4X3.5 x 3 = ,,
Thl' influence lino for V~. will havo tho snmo ehap<! and, provIded the !()/ld
travl'js alollll
~lll~ low",r chord, its maximum ordinate wiLl 1.'(IUal (fig. &''l.1c)
31/37 2x1 3
,,' V37 <%;7
Oil the othec hand, \\'hl.'n the unit 1000d travdling Illong thu upIX'r chord
It>achl's joint 9 tile equilihrlum of this joint rcqllil'l's that
I;Y_  Vi.2U:. sin 0:1_0
and
,
Vf.= _2C;. sin a.1f
Thi.~ influence tiue is shown in Fig. S5.M.
Th(' compariOOIl of the influence lines 01 Fig. 85.4c and d ind(cat.es tlut1 when
the load is eithor to the left or joint 6 or to lhe right of joint 10 the stress is
indeplllldl.'llt of the level of load application.
At the saHIe time any load appliod to tho sccondnry joints of pllnlll~ 68
or 810 is VanslDltted to the upper chord and may be regllrdod liS acting directly
at the joints 7.9 or 11,
The corre~ponding innuence liue for tho truss with suhdivided pnncls i~
.~hown III FIg. 85 ..'\.""
VA =, 1",
and VB=T
'"
The two latter equations are exactly th.e same as for an ordinary
simply supported truss or beam and the, corr<'sponding infiuenct'
Lines are represented in Fig. 86.4c and d.
r\~ f'l:'l{ards the innllonoo line for ~he lhrust If i1. 111 ay he rltlrh'cd
lL~ing the relalion cxisling ootwl'cn If alld 1'1/ (Fi:;:. 86.4b)
HVnl"OLex
The innlll'ncc line tOl' {( obtaiucd by lllulli[Jlyilll,! nil the oroillales
IU lIw il1nIJCIll"~ lino [Ut V IJ by col, a is relltl~Sulll('d ill FiK, 80.41'.
19
la'
, ~
H A
,
___I..fS.._
,
I,; :::
__ :':: (b)~:
Vs Il.._a i
8
"4 , , ~
,,,, I I , HrHA"'H
ICI J~ce ll~for ~
'~!III!!Iiljjl'I"i.
~
Id!
, ,line for
,: Influence ,
, , I !
I InflllflflCl? line for If
I I ,
,
: ' , I
Let 118 now draw the innuenco line for thl' stress in !'OlllC lruS!t
IIlcml!or, t'll)" ill har 57..For this purpose Il.'t 111; pa:s 11 :>eclioli JI
:md placing t.he load llllity to the right of this sed.ien, let us equate
to T.cro the mOIl)CIIl.! (flbout point k coinciding with joint 6) of all
lhl' extern,,1 furt'f'!'! acling un Ihe Icft~hllnd IlIIrtion of the trllSIl
IAfIt = V.1xltllYIt +U~1hlt =0
wherefrom
10.1. Thrill' Or"tcw"i"f[ PrllI,"rd Strurll1r~
When the unit load is tlpplicd at point p. lying ill the same "erti
cal with tbe point of intor.it!Ction of lint's A K and BF (point F).
the stress in bar 57 becomes niL for the resultant of all the (Ofel'>j
applied to the ldt of ~Iiol\ {1 pa5.'!"OS througb poinL k nnd thc
momcul. uquatioll bocomes
'f,i\1J. =US1 /J" = 0
.\ccnrdingly point F. is a neutral point [or the :;Irc~~ U~1' At the
::ll:llIlC lime Lhe torm (1111 fly,,) cntering tho uxprcs.'liolL for L'~1
is equal to the bcntlillg moment in !'OCtion k of a tbrf't'Itingl'd lln:ll.
'Hen,,!, the c.(ln!<lructlon of the innulJllcO Hnc Ior stress UH Itlny he
clIl'rit'll out in the ~nn1t wny Ill' Lhnt for tho bunding momllnL acUllg
ul'cr SCl't[Oll k of tllC said [lrch. provided nil the ordinatus of I his
latter:lre multipliud by (~). CO/lscquently, havillg Ini.l off
the ordinate (  ii) O\'cr the lefthand llbulmenl we must COlIIlCct
this nrdinatc \\;th the ncutrcll point f and tlUHl utend this lille until
liS illterscction with tbe vert.ical passing through joint H. Tile leH
part. of the influence line will be obtained bearing in mind that it
must pass through the zero ordinate at the leftha lid abutment and
must intersect with the rightband part. in a vertical passing through
t.he origin of moments. The two lines being dra .....n. the positions
of joint 5 should be ma.rked Oil the left. ont: and that of joint; on
the right one, these two points being linally connected to form lite
completed line represented in r~ig. ~6.4/.
l...ct us now cOllsidcr a truss with supports at ditfcreot levels
(Fig. 87,1ia). We shall commcm~c by constructing the innuence
lines for the reactions. For this purpose we may resolve the right.
hOlld reaction n iutll its vertic.al Ilud hori1,ontlll compOllcnt., V1,
and IllJ:lt II point b' situated at the same level as. point A. Dcnot
ing I\S usual the horiwutal and verlical components of roaction A
Ly l' A and If.... and plllcing the unit load 11 distance.l: fcom Lho IjJ(t
hand support, wo may then write the equilibrium cf.juatiolls o( the
11l0IllCIll.::Ilirst about point b' and then nbout the centre of thc hillgtl A
IM b = V A (1., + If)l (1, +l:x) = 0
IM A = VB(l1 +If )+ 1x=0
whrllf'e
" 'fhe in8uenu line for I'll will pcrllli~ the determination (or reatUoll n tor
(Ill}" po.!ition of a vertical load using the fOMula B = .VB 'rhe s:.me
lllnt<
"",ul~
mal' Ill.' achieved with ~he aid o( the influence line for H 11 !illt~' D _ 11" .
CO! Cl.
1~8Ii3
The Tr,u,..,
'"These two expressions are represonkld graphically in Fi~. Si.4c
nnd d whic.h show t.h.at the ver~ical reactions of the truss \':try cSllctly
in lhe AAmc way as dIOse of
'" r a silllply supported beam with
a spa n of I = 11 ;. 1: (Fig. 87 Ab).
iJ'
The horiwllLal projection of
all the force! ading on the truss
snuws that
i 'I'
I ' , :
,
,
0
0
0
0
"'.
,,, ,,
,
,0
, ,,, o
o
, (8' :"\'
'"
" ._~' .!!..
~\:
o
,~~"",
, ,
~
~1.~/,1:"':'.... : ILi ,cl",: "
:"'.f~I'"
1', : ,r, '.
if) !~b;~11:; 0"
all tlle ontinntcs of the line for VB hy ; will coincide witl. lbllt
for t.he thrust. of an arch 8110WII ill Fig. 87.4/.
The influence line for the stroS,<; in har 24 of t.htl Slime 1.rll5."1 may
ht olJlained pll$.'!ing a. section II (Pig. 88.44) and writ.ing that.
T.M ",b011 I. 110illt 3 cqual~ l,()I'O when load P = 1 ill tu tilt! right, \,!r
lids S<'cliun
where[rofll
l~ shollld 1'0 TClflcml'crcd that J/.\ = If" 0:::. J! "nl\ that slr(l..'!.'oes in Ihe hod
7.nnul <leek lIlembers re1{laln nil M long as tIll) IOlld8 mmnin vel'Ucnl.
228
.~',
(en
5
\ 'f,
~71 ,, ",, ,
" , ,
,
,
,
,
,, ,
,,
v, "
: In{u/('(1(:f' t.ne (or I
,
, 1 'D." I
j..., I "", '
'._,.". I ,
,, '
COllfll/Cling lineI
,, r
,'.,
Fig. 89 Ij

Fig. 90.1
whil", tht! thrllst J( will c11llal ?o~~ where All) is the bendinglllolllent
,., TIu rruu~.
r Z 'j
8 , "
~====l7'
v.
(b) '.
le)
I I
(eI;~'
11 I I
r ~f y,,I'
If)
0,10/
I I J,,!lflt!fla lw for Lt_ !
7 Q!lotll!J~r;..r; I
="
Fi,. 9/.d
10.4. Thr"" Dt~klpUtK FnulU:d S/rllrluru
1 11 ,I ,
r"ii1r : ~/
"'" If7/lW~ Un,e "{)fl:"
1,1 .
,,
,
: I,
, '
I I
, I t I
I fn(lIimcl [jPt for Gp
I .
,, ,,
I I
''
f,
,
,~
It /
, " '
'bI
"
" ,
,<! 1
'+"'i>\""~~
 , ~Q I
,,,
" ,,,
,
," "
"
,,
l... _.!!L..:....! '
I I :
; I! I
:,,,rw~,l"nr fIN" : : I
~
~t/ f,
Fig. 92.4
233
z
r \~ 8 ,
Gl)_
,
V'
1,
Fig. 99.4
'"J
FIg. 9J...4
,.
L:M c = v..1, [11/ = u
whcrC'frlJnJ
I" I MllC
J1 ... '~
"'I !
Whcll till! load is applied to the left uf the section the Clluatiol)
bcc(JnH'~
H'= Vnl = MS
2} I
Al'cMdingly, loh., influence line for the force H may be obtained
by muLtiplying tlle urdinates of th(j bellding moment M~ acting
(lvl'rseClion C o( a simply suppOt'Lcd beam by a constant factor
Thi:; influence line is rcpre."'l'ntcd in ~'ig. 96.4.d.
+.
'I'he influence line for stre:>.s L~ (Fig. 96.11a) may be obtained
IHI~in!(' SUction f.{If and writing that I:M about point k or all
rorce~ to the l('rL of this section equals zero
Ifl f
" ,
Ill:!
1 :1
I :
Il
~ :1
V~ I
,I "
" 118
(/J) Ilt'[[llImmII]nrU:~"~,ni~~,~'~in~,~rO~;~v.~=_Ji
, , ,
: !! : :
(,) f~fl~ll
_=m="'CIOIII~(IDIJ!IJJIj]JJJJJJljJJ
1
Id1. 1 , 11 i
Fiff. 96'A
The Trusses
("
Fig. 97./
sUJlPorts (Fig. 98.4& and c). It is ea~y to prove that tho horizontal
components of stresses acting ill all thl! memlwrs of tJle Dlultihinged
anll ASB remain constant th~)llghoUl tJle system fur any givet).set
of vertical loads applied to the trusses AC and CB. For this purpose
consider tho equilibrium of any joint (>:ay. joint n  1 ill Fig. 98.4d).
Projecting all the forws 011 the horizontal we get
where
and
N"cosa:,,=llll
I"
'"
'" I
ICI .~, r
(,, ""
If I
i , i
JI.c:: I
/ z
,/
/
",.
I.M c = VA {+llf =0
lJ= V.II =_ Mb
21 f
Tlll' Ill'A"l'lLi\'o v{l[uC) of f{ imliealef; lhllt all tlte liJJk~ of t1[O arch
ar(' compre,'l.'le(L The influence line for H if; a trianglo wilh its apex
turned downwards rlod situated cLirectly under tJJ() crown hingo
C Wig. 9RAe).
Lot U~ flOW ('OJ1:;truct the influenco ljn~ for slros.", U .... For this
pllrpo."ll \\'(' sholl pass seetioll JIIJ CClllllting to 1,lll"O t.he momcuts
or all tho InrCIl!l aLout point In WltCIl tlu; load unity llet.'! to the right
of this ~('di(J[1
wlll'refrolll
{I" 7_
< Il{/",,l! (Ym +hlj= 1'
/itl' < .
[Ar,',,ff (y",h)]
Il will bll ob~rv('l1 tbat the term ill IJra(;kel.'ll'(!llrc:;(mts till' !Jt'Il(lillg
IllorlH!J1t acling ovel' sec.liolt K of a IktitiOllS lhl"eehingl'd HIx;h or
till: ,"111110 l'pnll whose cruWr) hinge e(JQrdinal>s llOO equal to f 11IId
i while Ilto~l' of the l'cntroid of section K equal (I,m. am! (Ym. + h).
11.1. VllrlQ:IlU 0/ rr,,~..,d ;lrc!.,s
This wiU enable us to find the IIOSitioll of the neutral point pertaill
ing to the inRllellcu line for U~. For 'hi.' purpose we shall tirst local~'
the centroid of section K along tho vertical pnssing through the oti
"ill of moments m Wig. ~.4a) after which the lincs A K And BS
may be drawn, t.heir intcn'CCtion determining tbe ab~i.ssa ()( tile
neutral point required. The completed influence line for U" is shown
in Fig. 98.4f.
In order 1.0 COIll'trucl the inRuenoo line for dress D~ in OIXl or
the diagQoals let us equate to tero the sum of verLical projeetiOll~
of RIl the foras to the left of !'ection TlJI (soo Fig. 98.4a) when
the ullit load is to the right of tltis section
~y = V AH tiln a"D,,sin ~=O
",hellc~
If 1ll11ItiJllierl hy (  ~;~~,,) .
Thc lIcutral Jloint method call hll u!'>tltl for the eonslructiOIl of
D" innuoncc HlIe too. For this pllrpol;ll we mUllt !irst find the pusitioll
of the unit load for which thl! expl'\.'lsiulI (V.\  l/ tan an) rUdUCl'$
to 1.cru. III this expression V'l /l1'lL1 If call Uc regardl'd as UIO "crLicat
reacUoll and thrust flf:l rlc_titinu~ arch of the sa 1110 span as the nctunl
structure nnd having for coordinateCl of the crown llingo f llntl I
(F;. 08.41).
The pollition oC the neutral point will be derh'ed from
D. =~(V
SIll t'
"'Ht.llna,,) .... O
5110""il1l{ that
v.
7l = tan a"
The Inller eonditioll may be flllrLilod only if tho lofthnnd 8hlll.
ment rellCt.jOll A of tIll' thfl,'Chinged Arch rorlllA with the hori1.01l11I1
nil allg1u tL,. TIll' 1I0\ltral point will btJ ~i1uated at the intefSlNtiull
of this ronction witb rc<lction B or the fictitious arch. thu lat,ler Ilctill!r
1l1'c.esMrily along n line pos.",illg through tho crown nnrt tho ril(ht:
hand abutment hinges. The complekd il1[Jllence Iille for fllrclls D n
is represelllcll ill ri!t. 98.4h.
Th~ Truuf"
Let ItS now examine a structure in which tho two tnt~s surmouut
tllo 1JI1111ihingoo arch AS shown in Fig, 99.44. This :I)'stem is geomet
rICICIl}, ~HaLl\J and stalically detcrmiOl1IU, it."! main PtlcuJiarity resid~
lrl!t io lhe flu:t that it takClS support Ilt four distinct points A', B',
A' anti 8,
The following prO'dure lJlay be recOlllmelldt.'d for the determina
tion (If thl' ahu(lRtHH renctiollJl;: the dircction!': of tht> extreme links
<If the IllUltihingod arch should be e:<tcnrlocl uutil their intersection
wHit till' 'Nli<:als dr~,,'n through lhl' c,cnlrcs of tho abutment hing4:S
A' allll il' M the trusse!!, Hero till! 1't,\llCtions arisinl:!' in thl! l\xtreme
liuk.s IlInr he rosolvod along n I'llrtiCIlI and a horiWlltnl direction
illl\l Lwu c;olllJJOMnts 1':1, H,\, flllcll'ij. Jf n. Iospccllvt'ly (Fig. !J9.4a),
A.'3 alrl.\ady shown in t.he bcginuing (If this artich~ If 11 = Ill! = If.
ll:willg denoted by V:.. nnd Vj, tho rt,nctions at the supporls A'
fUlIt /J' 1\11..1 by VII llnd V 1) t,he lolal \...l I'tical reactions of tllll WllOle
"'ySll'1l1 Wt' IHI"\'
whC'I"Frotll
,. _ V.
1"11 Jt
+ y, .41#1><:'
1",\==,
where .lIc>:1 is thc moment of all the external loads acting 011 the
slnl(~tllre about Lhe same point.
r t follows that the .~um 01 the l.It:'rltcal components Of reactions V A
(Jmt V~'" is equal to the reacti(i/O of a simply supportl.'d beam.
Tho thrust JI will be cOIl"cnitwtJy determined Ly equating to zero
IILo sum of momenls "hauL th(' cl:!lltrlll hjnge S of all the forces acting
011 Iht, It!ft (or righl) half of thp structure when Ihe (flad unity is
10 the right lnen.'Of
, L
I;Ms = l'11 ~lff Ms =0
wllcr{'From
,,~
lJ~,
reae.Hons v:\ and Vii can be also expressed in terms of the thrust II
V:t=Htantp and V;=Htanlp
It follows that the influence lines for these two reactions will
take the shape of the triangle shown in Fig. 99.4c. TILe reaction
V~ will be deducted from
SILUwillg that the ratio ;1 must be equal to tan lp. The latter condi
tion will be fulfIlled when the resultant of V A and If (e.g. the lefL
hand reaction of the fictitious threehinged arch represented in
Fi.!:'. 99.4d) will be 3t an angle of lp to the Ilorizontal. Thus, the
11osition of tl1e nelltral point relative to the reaction V.A will be
del,ormined hy the intersection oC the abutment reactions A and 8
of the said fictitious arch. It follows that in order to draw the influ
011('.(l lillo for V~ by the neutral point method, on ordinate equal to
unity should be laid off along the vertical passing through the loft
abutment; this ordinate 3hould be then connected with the neutral
point and extended until the int(lrsection with the vertical passing
through the crown hinge, the ordinate so obtained being flOallr
coullected to a point of zero ordinate at the right.hand support
(Fig. g9.4e).
I( it were required to construct the influonce line for t.ho stress
acting in some chord member of tbe truss, say, member (11 _ 1) n
wc should procood as follows. Having passed section [w} and equating
to l.{'_ro the moment about hinge k of all the forces acting on the l~rt
part or the trusll we obtain
IMk= (V.A + VA) QIIH'y,,Lnh =0
whcreFrom
ln this exprcssioll M~ is tho bendillg momelltllctillg oyer ~'clioll
k of II thrcchillgcd arrh who:ic span I equals that of the i;trnctllr('
invulvcd, whil~ tbo l;{lntroid coonlinatc5 oqual ah. and Yif.. TIlt' (0111
11[(,I(,t! influence line ohtained by thb method is roPt1.l$t'lltcd in
Fig:, H9.4j,
Let us considcr flOW the CIJlI~tructioll o[ the illnuenc.e linl' for tlK'
~lrc.o.,'l ari,~ing in 0110 or tho web tucmtmrs. say, ill lIll' dillJ!OIWI lm
uf I,'il!. nflAa. As long as the load unity J'I..'mains to tlln  rigIll or
!iN'liou II, the slrt'SS J)" will bo dctl'ftllincd by Lhl} cquntioll
~y = V'l~D" sin "~If tan If" =0
wlJCrdJ'om
J)" =.
, (V A~H tan 1',,)
Sill a
indicating Llllit. the neutral ]Joint will be locIlLed in Lhe lino r>i ndion
of a load rtllldcl'illg ~l = tll!t Ip",
As Ilas alreadr beell melltioned, Lhis hOl:Ollles pos~ib'o wlJllll lh~
I'CS1Jllnnt A ot V A and If, ill othnr worrl$, the lefthmul rc:\('lwll
of a l1ctitious thfLt(t.hiClged arch in Fig. 9tl.4d, i~ illdined tltJ'ouJ,th
an angle!p" 1,0 the horiwntal. Hence the neutral point \yilllHJ dl)ler
milled by tho intersection of a line plissing through the ItJl'thaml
abutment at nn auglo ql" with the horiwlIl<'l1 anrl 11 line cOlln~)ctillg
the righLlland abutment with '.he CI'Own hingn. 'Jlw innlllHll'C Iillll
fOl' "tress D" will he obwincd by laying 01T the ol'dinalfJ ~In .'
r::t
over
the left aLutmcllt and by connecting this ordinate with the projectioll
or the neutl'al point on the xaxis.
To fll)t! that part of the inlluence Hlle nlo.Hve to the Illft pOt'liolt
of the sentistructul't', a Hne parallcl to th.e iirst should ht' (IrawlI
through the 7.1)1'0 point at tlte left ahllLmeut wlleroaftel' the posilioll
of tile joinl::>k 11 lid It shall be marketl l)tl these LWo lines and cOlllleel.ed
Logcthor, That portion of Llle influence lino rorro~ponding to Ihe
dght half of tlu~ ~lrllcllll'll will be ob!.ainccL by ronnC'r[ing Ihe III'dill
ate at Ihe CI~!Wn hinge with the zel'O point ovel' the ri~htItnlld Hhlll
ml;'llt. Tho t,:,olllplclecl lille is rt.11lrt.'SCldeu ill .Fi~, \J0,4R'.
Illfluollce line~ ft\[, any other web l1\c.mher 01' veltil'.al CVlllI('clilljo[
Lho ltlultihillgct!ardl wilh tlle truss can llll obtained in a similarwa)'.
5. SPACE FRAMEWORK
1.5. GENERAl.
Itl <1 1II05t general way oC spcaking tho lerlll .qpru:e jrameWllrk ilHli
calcs lhreedimensional through strllctures capable. of resisting
loads ill different Illancs.
Certain of such structures mtly be l'C"dIH.'L'<l, for a given nrrang(:
moul ol loads. to a combination of plant' slruclures (trllsses). Wllic.b
simplifios greatly tlleir design.
Thus, the llridge truss ~hOWH in I"ig. Lfil1 can be ",durod to two
wrtic.al plll.no trusses AIJCD nnll JlfNFE WhOll the loads P nre
l'!)"lJIJ1lelrical abO\lt Lhe IOllgitudinAI I\xii'i of the strlletlltt'. l:loWl'vor.
jf lilt.! Sllmll trus.q Wl.'rc IOlldcrl unilatClrlllly, it should bo cOIl~idol'ciJ
n~ l\ space struct\lre, the ltoriwllllll trusses AA/NB and DEFC
tl'nll~llliltiTlg part or the lon.d from OIlC \'crUcal trus.~ to the "ther.
Tile threedimensional structure of Fig. 1.5b supporting I1 wotQr
lank is ShukJlO"'S hyperlloloid which cannot be reduced to lllly
llumbor of plane struc.tures ond rnu!';~ he designed as n single ullit.
The same applies to ..he Schwotdll'f dome illustrated in Fig. 1.5c.
Tho dHforent menlhers of spoct> frarllcworks are usualJy conll(',c.k'd
together by riveted or welded joints. providing a certain degree
of rigidily. However, computation!! taking into consideratioll this
rigidity become Hcet'dillgly cumbc~mo. and thereforo in acl.lll'll
dl~ign work such strncture.s art alWAys regarded IlS articulation
cClllnCCtE'd (differing thereby frOm threedimensional rrnmcd beut.,
ill which nit the joinl.s are IIQ<le and re.garded rigid).
Th> articulations of spaco framed stntcLUl'l'$ mllst allow rotation
8ttlUnd tbl'' mutually perpcllclicular ans thus providing three
dt'J;IfCCS of freedom as compared to tho singlt> one of the pin joinLS
of plane trusses. Aec;ordingly, all the 1n1.'IlIbers of a space struclu('9
nlLctillg at ono joint call rotate 800ut lIlIy line passim; thrt)ugh the
point of intefSC'ction of their axt's, ....hil~t those of a plane Irus,"l /JIlIY
do ,.." only about an axis perpNlIlicular to the plane of tllu trus.....
On the other 11ll.Jul, the anO,llgement of the individual nwmhufS
of a S]lnct\ framework must be such thllt lhey sllould form an Ul1yi(>lcl
i/lg combinntion just "'s in the c,ase of a pla/IC' onc.
10'
Consequently. a space framework is a geometrically stable
structure. consisting of a number of bars situaLcd in diffel'('nt planes
r
p
/,' ,
(e)
A
I '
"
,,
,
,,
"
,,
,
,,,
, ,
la) Cb)
Pig. 9.~
'0'
Fi;. 4.$
Fi;:. S,S
lO'
Fill G.:; '"
Splice Framework
(",
Fig. 7.(,
all unyielding combination, a third bar not lying in the plall~ IIf
ADC shouLd be introduced. say bar BD (Fig. 7.5c).
Tho pyramid so obtained is the simplest threedimensional framod
structure; additional joints, each connectcd to the alrea((y existing
system by thrco separate ooncoplanar bars, may he introduced
to form now structulCs, which will remain stRtically (leterminato
allfl unyielding.
Let us now examine the relation existing in a space nlloework
<18 described above between thc number of joints, the number of Lars
311d the numbllr of eonstraint.~ at the support.s. Let S be the numbL'r
of bars, SQ tIle number of constraints and K the number of articulat
ed joints. The total number of tno unknown stresses and reactions
will then equal (8 + So) and the total numher of equllibriuffi equa
tions which may be used to fmd these unknowns is 3K, for at each
joint we may equate to zero th.e x. y and:: projections of all forces
(internal and external) applied to this joint.
3.5. The FQrmoWm 01 St<llically Del~rmi"alc Space Frameu'ork 249
, t,"m""~/2le'_..,(1V
fI I /Y; 'IJI
aSSIlIllt' tha~ the central triangle of this trusfi i!o' rigidly ctmntlctod
to tht' !:found by means CJ( 6 .!Iupport constraints we tillVC
S=l1; So=6; [(=7; i:= 1l"'763X 7=4
Th\l!J thu .~)slclTl is Ilnstabll' lInd has (our dogrci's of freedom;
ind{'ed, it. may fold along lines II, l/ll, IIflll and IVIV.
III the !irst (I( these thnle methods the equilibrium equations are
(lbtaincd by expre..'<Sing that. the sum of moments of all ext~rnal
forces acting on a oody in equilibrium about some pre~I~lt'd
axis is always nil. As its name implies, this method is "ery similar
to t.he met.hod of moments described in Art. 2.4 for plane structllN'~.
."" an illustration of this method, let us determine streMeS N,
and N: acting in the legs of an elevated tank appearing in Fig. 12.5.
Having passed the section m.m W~
may equat.e to zero IJl{ o( all t.he
w forces acting OD. t.he upper pottion or
the st.ructure about the axis 1/. The
stresses NI nnd N: arc rogarded ilS
applied at point A, where their I'osul
m"7'_I+'\\I_m lant is resolved into a vertical amI
, a hori1.Ontal component. This leads
to tho following equation
f
IM, = WlfQa(N) +N,) c sin a=O
where thc angle a is gi\'Cll hy
tan a=T
Owing to the sylnll\etry of th{'
loading, Nj=N, and therefore
, ,V N _lVll_Q4
1 '2csina.
F", 12,5 The second method is 8nalogolls
to the mcth.od of shears used ill tlw
I.lnnJYl;is of piano struct.ut'Cs, In this case the equilibriulU cqua
tiolls express that tho sum of projections of an external forces 011
~U1ll0 conveniently chosen axis is nil. TJlis method will be mod"
quite clear if wc consider the cantilever truss represellted in
Fig. 13.5. 10inLs A, 8 and C of this truss are rigidly fixed by mean:"
of si.x lluppor~ constraints (not shown in the drawing). Using expres
sion (1.5) we find that
t=S+S.3K=15+63 X i=O
and since under l.{'ro load all the bars will remain idle, which lK>
come!! immediately apparent if joints 1. 2, 9 and 4 are isolated ill
succel:l5ion, the system is statically det.crminate and forms au un
yielding combination.
In ordcr to det.ermine tho stresses NI and N 2 acting in tbe diago
md~ let us pass section Rand assumc that the projection Oil the
zoxis of all forces applied to the righthand portion of tbo t.russ
253
is nil
~z = P+(N I +i.V 2)sin ~"""O
Taking the moments of NI and N 2 ahout the xfods we ohtain
~M" = N la sin (J. N!ll.sin Cl: =U
811d therefol ()
NI=N:
111 this cnse th~ solution of ~Z=O yield~
NIN. =2
2sma
When tile section passed separat~s only ono joint wo obtlliu the
method of joints. The equilibrium equations uscd in thill case do
not differ in principllJ from those u.'!ed in the previous olle.
p
y
FIg. 13.$
(2.5)
p J J X I P
~.$L ~B ':!l"?C;< ~B
ra)
Fig_ 14..';
.and accordingly
Nx=2N~
As will he readily observed from Fig. 14.5b, the stress N~ is oppo
site in sign to the stress N p and P times smaller than the latter.
Hence
_ _ 2N
p
Nx=2N~=p
Nk=Nlll'+XN/>.x
reduce to zero indicating that the I'y~tem Iorms an unyielding com
bination.
(e) The method of reducing the ,~pace structure to a series of plane
ones. This method becomes applicable when the structure is com
posed of distinct groups of coplanar members. In such cases all
the external loads should be resolved along planes coinciding with
those of the groups of bars just mentioned, whereafter each oI these
(',ophTlar groups may be analY1,Od separately.
ii.5. "ram,/fez DJ Slr~z~ AII'Ilyzilr in Space rrl>mt>lIork 257
P
.9
Fig. 1:;'(;
Itlt 111' [(sohc this 10MI into three componcnLc; N,. N':. llUtl :\'~ as in
dicaled ill Fig. 15.5.
Isolating thcreafter joints 7, <'i, 2 and 3 we find tlWl hars IS, 2.J
;wd :1B 3 remain idle. Similarl)', isolating joi.nts 9. 10, 6 alld ~
Wo slwll pro\'c Lhat t.he. same_ applies tobani .')10, 104. 4.5 and
58 5 , Alone two pli4l1o trusses B~4i7B3 and 8 1]068 2 wHJ lake
up the entire load. Thf'sc trusses lllay he designed ill tho usu~1 way,
compOllent NI bcing applied to the first one. componCHt N 3 to the
.!'c('.oud, and component N':. being divided between lhc two in ,lny
arbilrllr~r proporl.ion.
thisjoillt but thr~e (19. 2Yand lOII) lio in lilt' s..1Ule pl3no. and tlS no e:xtt>rUlIl
loud Is <I"lllil,,'<Ito the joint the stross in har SY 111115\ he nil. For tht> Sllme rea;;HD
hars !/10. lOn 611, 117 and 712 will rmnalli idle.
Thi" being known. PlI!lS SI.>etiOII n cllttinp: all ~h(! JJlcmhf'fl! of LIle pand ulldt'r
consideration.
'iA,
~17L,Lr\>""
R
~~;~l __J
Fig. 16.5
Oewrmine ::trl.'SS U2,.1 by equating Lt> tOI"(. Ihe slim of mumt'lI(.S of 811 foref'S
ac,ling On Ihe I('(t part of the truss ab"ut ~he xaxis coinciding with the diroc1ion
of bur 610
whcr('from
rX=2P+(D\D:) e(l~a=O
"
cns 0 ;  S:o=O.li8
s.,'). E~nmpln ol S'rt:f~ A ntl[,Jllr in SI'~t Frnm('Nmrk i5t1
Therefore
2.')
n=
j 12 P
p 25
D! ..... OA8 O+12 P
III or,l,'r to JHllrmint' slft'SS(':; L. pml c',. of 1he lower churd elcment~
6_7 lI.nd 10/1 WTlle rAJ~, =0 about :In axis 71 ;IJarallcl to the ",,pxis but
passing through the rfulfll of joint 3
This heillg known, wt'itt, IM1_O abollt the zaxis pllsslng thr~}ugh the
same IJoIlillt
whtlrefrom
9P t5
1='. a p,
.,.
!b) Mtlhnd nf rtduclion IQ plllnt Iru~_\'rs.
::,tart by resnldng the loads along llll) planes of the two inclilll'ol laLeral
trusses. Tho corrE'sponding compnnellts (l"ill. t7.:i) will c1lunl
~ow rOllSil1er th(' lfUJ;S 14/211 shown in Fig. 18.5 oml detA:!rmwe stre$
Vi lO Ihe upper chord m('rrtber 23. A!I thl'" SlIllle member h.'longs I\I~, 10 tf'US:S
S.l18 \~(l Fig. WoO'i), HTllltlter stress U't wdllw. induCl'i1 in it at tho ~nme Urnl1
OwiILg 1(1 lhe fact that till' \'"rtical pTojl;ctions ul loads P j lin(\ 1'2 are of
f\ppo~itf' )l.igll
Ui=U~
"= 25 P
wlt"rdrolll
6. KINEMATIC METHOO
OF INFLUENCE LINE
CONSTRUCTION
t .H. GENEHAL
\
J
I
, , ,/ /
 /
a
1
(a)
X 0=  . 0" (1.6)
Ak:::..LJ,~, ,
Fig. 9.6 Fig. 4.6
r"' P=J
FiK' ;),r;
x~~~
bxt
01J ,_0
P
In order to obtain the influence line for readion B all that ,'ellwius
tu be done is to change the sign of all the ordinalel:l to the displaeL>
lllent graph as shown in Fig. 5.6c.
lu the following nrtieles wo shall consider moT"O cOTllplicated
case.",
2(\6 Kinematic :Method of Influence Lin~ Constrndion
le) It)
Fig. 8. 6
0
M/ C ..... 1.1 M/ (l J ....... M
IN
N
l N N , ,.
, \
c 10' (c)
"0 1:'
Fig. 96
plies tbat t.hesc three (Jars may never have a common l)oint of
intnrscl'tion.
In the arrangement appearing in Fig. 9.Gb the force acting in tho
\'~rtical bar is ~~qunl to the shear. which follows from t.he equili~
brillm of vertical components o( all forces acLing to the 1L,f[ (01' to
the ri~ht) of section I~I
whence
X_Q
COIl&'_quently, the construt"tion of the influence Iille [or the ~llI'ar
acting over .sCt~tion CC reduces to the construction of that Tor the
stress X ip the vcrlica I ha r.
Upon removal of the vertical bnr the two parts of the beam will
have a mobile connection represented schematicolly in Fig. 9.6c.
(c) EliminaliOlt of the conslraint co,'m;pondinK U> it normal force.
Adopting for till) t',onnection bars a pattern roprcsl.mted ill Fig. to,Ha
and projecting l.lll the forces acting to the left (or to the right) ()f
section IIon n horizontal we obtflill
where(rom
X=N
[(im?malir Afl'llwd "/ InfluI!IlCI! fA,/.(' ('on.<lrucliorl
0
__ q I "~ ! "U
" V ~M N I~
 +
""
r"" 'If!
!/
N (01
"I " X
! Q
" I 1
,/
whcrcfmItl
X=~
,
If r~1. the force X In Uw connecting I'od will he Ilumerically
equal to thl' momcnl:
X=~=M
. I
lllld thllS, inslnad of constrllcting tho influence line for the ]wJlding
moment acting o Vet' till' cros:,; sedion Wl' may construct the iJlfJuenc('
line for till' strcss X in(l\leed in the lower bar of Fig. 1LI). Upon
elimillatioll o[ Lhis har the COIIll(wtion between the Lwo parts of t1w
member will ronHi.~t of two bars intor,<;eding in its neutral axi,,,
which is eqllivalcnt to a hingl' . Sdwrnatically this eonrlecLion i:o>
I'opresl'llted in Fig. l1.f\lJ, '
All the abovc shows that tlw COllHtrnction o[ inl1l1ence lillf'H for
the usual stl'C<!S functions mav he reduced to the COl\stl'llctiOH of
thOSl\ for a normal force acting in a hal',
/j.6. CON~TRUCTlON OF THE DISPLACE,\mNT GHAPHS
Fig. 12.fJ
Till' :lbove expression show~ dearly that in the case under C.(),l
fiidcralioll the clisplnct!mcl\t graph will form a straight (ille inter
s('ct.ing the xa:..:is at point 0' whcro ;r reduces 10 zero.
To th(\ right of point 0' the ordinates of tho ~raph are positive.
as tho direction of the di!lp(Acement 6p coincides with the direction
Fig. 13.6
of lilt' forr.e P, whilo to thE' left or t,rus same point the ordinateS
will be llegative. for this portion or the plate will mo\'e in an 0Ppo
sile I]in.'cliofl.
The scale fne!,or \yill be obtninl:'d rCIlll'mbering I.hl1t
o:<= rd'l1
It fllllows (hat for x= r
t\t .,.{),..
In other words. tIll' scalt: factor is equal to the clispla....clIlent. graph
ortJillnto ffl('a~nrcrl a distonc.c r from I)oint 0' (Fig. 12.Gb antl c).
(b) Displacement graph for tu:o pinconnected plates. Let, llS {'(In
st.ruct lllll displllcemcnt graph for two plat('~ .r and 11 flxcd at.
points at and O2 And COllncc.ted to onc anot.her by mean!'! of hinge .l
loc.fllt~d ill lillc \... nh poinl'l 0, and O2 (Fig. lB. H). AR. we kno\y, :5uch
11 syslelll will be instnnt:lneollsly unstable, hinge 1 heing able tu
sUSl::lin inlinilt'!l;illl:ll di~placeJllents along a normal to line 0,0 2 ,
its motion involving inflTlitcl.r small rotatiolls of plate I aLouL
1.,R. Cons/rllciill/! of thl! Di6plfU:emctlt Grapht 1H
point Oj and of plntt' 11 about point Oz. HnvinR' choscn the xaxis.
oC thc displaccJn(,llt graph :md having fOlmd lohe projection~ o(
0 1 O2 and hinge J on this axis we may procecd with the construcLiOll
of the graph iU;ctr. which will COIl!'list of HntlS Oil' and Oi)' inter
secting at point l' (Fig. B.Gb).
'fhe scnle fncl.or can be found nssnming either that the displun'
ml!llt of point 1. ,=Olnlllon to both plates. i~ (.8used by the rotation
of plat.e I about point Dj, or by the rotation of plate If about pojnl
0=, In the first cn:w the scale factor will be given by the length of'
the illSel'l bet.ween the line bounding the grnph a.nd the xaxi.c;,
meAsured along 11 parallel to the rlirccHoll or [or(.(\ P a distonee ,"'
from point Oi, allll in the sueond by thc length of a similar inSf't't
but measured a disl.ll11ce r2, from point Oz. J[ Hlcasurcd correctly,
both ~ca.lc faCtOl:li will bc cxactly the some.
Thus far we have admiU.ed thAI. plates / 'lnd f[ llrc lhed to lhc
ground at. points 0, and 0,. which rcmain immobile. thcreby impli
c.1ting t.he presence of a third unmoved platc eon~tiLutcd by the
ground itself,
(n this respect it is quite important to note that from the view
point of theoretie.11 meclJanics all o( these three plate!': ;If(' pcr[ect
Iy equivalent. Tltl!refore. it is ab~lllt('ly immaterial which or th('
tl,rce will be rel'koned immovable and }la chango whatsoever will
occur in the outlhw of the disp!ncclllclll graph wherl the Jab",1
"imlllobilc" is shHtl\d from one plale 1,0 Hrlolher.
Indeed, if it were assumed thHt phlle 11 is tlte immovable one,
line 7'0 2 shoulrl be adopted as t.ho axis of the disJllac.erncnl graph
nnn. nothing except l:he hatching of the graph arca weuld alter as
ShOWll ill Fig. 13.6c.
'fhc importanl'e of the abo\"c remark resides in the filet that. in
Il numher oE C;lSes thc construction of I.he virtualllisplacemcnt grapl,
may In: l'.ollsiderobly simplilied by an appropriate choice of that
pnrt or the structurc which will be rec.tolled immovilble.
(c) Displacemfflt graph {or a system IIf four plates. Let us consider
a system of plates 1. IT , III and J V connected by means of hingl's
1. Z. 3 and 4 (Fi~. 14.6a). such systems being frequently encouotl....
red in practice. If we assume thnt plato I is the imltlOvable, poinls 1
and 4 will lie on the axis of t.he graph (points l' and 4' in Fig. 14.fib).
Imparting to platc 1I an inflOitcsimal rotat.ion about point 1 ill
Il clockwise dircc,tion we shall obt~in a disploc.cmcnt graph repn....
st!nleo by the line .1'2'.
In order to complete the displacemcllt graph for plate III the
displacement of (lllly one extra point. is required as t.he displac.e~'
ment of point 2 is fl.lrcady known (point 2'). It is very convenil'nl
to adopt as such the instant3neOlls centre of rotation (ot.herwise
called the instantancous centre of 1.e,"o velocity) of th.is plate with
KI~m(lIic Atrl1wd of Inllucl'lt'<" I~inr COIllJlruG//(m
rcferctlce to plale I, [or Oil lite graph this point will necessllrily
lie Oil the axis uf zero displacc.mclIt.s. In ordel' to lind this centre
Itlt us eXU>_lld thl) lille 12 until iLs inltlrsectioll with the lille :J4
at point 01'
I t is t'asy to provo that point 0, constilules tilt' required ccntrtl
of rotalioll. Indeed. licLiLiou:sly enlnrgillg' pLalE' /If until indu
:'lion o[ point al' aud lixing this poillt we oLlllin two lllstantnne
.'Il.':lly unstable systems [ormed: the lirsL, by plnLl\.; 11 and 111,
...
....... ..., ,
0, \
,, ,
'
\
,, ,,,
I ,
to!
J'
Src h
0/
"
Ftg 1<1.6
e:lclt ha\cillg ulle lb:cd puiuL (poilll."l .1 and all respcctively) Klltl
hiJlj{l'COllllccLcd lit point 2. and the second by platf:!..'l HI amI 1\"
)1\l\(1 at POillls 0J and 4 and hilt{;ecollllcclerl at. point 3, I~adl or
tll('."ll' two Sy:'!tClilS is in every rcS)lCr,t similar to the Sy~tl'lH o(
Fig. 13.60..
,\S thiug thc point 0 1 doe:'! Ilot prcvent, inflllite.'1imal disrlac,e~
UI/'ul.'l of plale.<t fJ, III and IV with respect to pJalC ' reckoned
illJlllOYahlc, it is clear that this POillL is in eiloct the instantancous
t't'lltrl' o[ t'oLat.ioll of pia Le 11.1, It follows llull: t.he projecLioll o[
point 0 1 on the lIxis of the gt'aph will provide tlte oxtra poin!' re
quircd and thereforo line 2'0'3' will c.onstilule the displac.omcl1t
l!l'nph for the "late IJI. Hepoaling' the same reasoning for plate IV
Wt' [oOhalllilld thnt lino 4'3'0' fOl'llls the displacemont graph (01' the
laLler,
Thus the broken line 1'~2'3'4' constitutes the entire displaeewcnt
gtaph o[ the systl'm forml'd by four hingeconnected plates.
If, IOI' instance, plate IY were regarded as the rofererwe one, line
3'4' wOHld eotlstitnte the axis of the g'1'aph from which all the
dispJacollwnts should be measured, The instantaneons celltl'e of
rot,lI,ion o[ plnle If would be located a.t point 02 formed by the
inLersef'tioll of lines .14 and 23. 011 the displaeement graph the
corresponding point should lie on tlw axis of the graph (line /1'4'),
its disp];wcnwnt being nil. POilll.S ]'. 2' and O2 JIlust also lie Oil
onc and tltl' same straight line, for all the three helonl{ to plate /1.
I 100u
I
I la
I I"
(c' I I 8;~
> I
8"
,
I I
"
18Jx aj. +8,;;
FIg. 15.1J
uhou! point 0 is {'qual to 1. The value of scale fador Ox will be given by the ordi
uat,e to the displac.emellt graph at point 1. If tlH' latter is adopted fol' unity the
influence lino will merge with the displacem{'nt grajlh.
(",
A
0
;::;;
I I
B
, r J 11
C
, III 5
D
5
'bI 0'
Fig_ 16.6
The ordinates at points 2,1 and (j will be fOlmd from the similitllde of tri
angles
Po~iti\'(' hrdinates ar{' abovo the xaxis. nogative oneslJclow. The ~amo infJn
enco liue was obtained previously using statics (s(j() Fig. 57.2r).
l'rolllem 2. Hequired the illfluence lhw for the shear in c.ross wetion mn
of tile hOHn! represented in Fig. 17,6a.
Solution, Introduce a movable connection as shown in Fig. 17.lib hetwoen the
two Piu'ts of tho beam separated by section mn and two force,s X = Om1\ replac
ing tho vertical constraint at this cross section. Select a graph axis, ,say, line
1'.J.l' and mark on it all tho fIxed points of tho lJCum (points 1,3, 9 and 11).
Impnl't it dodtwise rotation to plate I about point A and a similar rotation to
piaLI' 11 Il.hOllt point B. The two displacement~ will he represented in the graph
h~' the lines 2'trm' and n'9'10', respectively, theS!! two lines being parallel
a~ hoth llill't!l of the ileam am l'otaterl tlmlllgh the same infmHesimal angle dq;.
!\tal'k points {j' uTHlf,' on tho eoncsponding lint'_s of t.he grallh,
Line }'2' will c,onst.itute the graph fo!' plate Ill, line 5'~1I' [or v1ate IV
and liTle 10'11' that for plate V, the wholo graph consisting of the bl'okenline
l' 2'5' 11' 1 0' 11' .
In ol'lIer to detol'[oine tlw ~:,ale faeto]' il%Tlffie that pllite T is fixed. Then
6" will IX' equal to m'n' whic,h will be regarded il~ Imity
ox=m'n' ~"" 1
It is madiLy seen that b x is the SlIm of ('~ Ilnd b:. The 5anw influence lin{' lwtl
heen ohtained jlrevioTls]y using statics (.~we Fig. 55.2CJ.
7.6. Examples of rnllll""r~ Line CrJl/strllcfio/l '1.77
1 , , ;'
(C)
fi! {If I
c
t
"
I
{
If" I I
8
I I I" "!1lJ.
,
A
" 11 B
'"
}
%
" (bJ
""
,' .T ~ i' x;Q"",
 ~
,  ~,
,
I1T'h 7'
2' V I~I
, IIlnTn Hl
le,
J'
,
~I
" ,'D' n'
" ,,,,,,"
, . ,,1.
S m'
Fig, 17.6
Solniion. I10place llJlpel' chord memher 4(j by the stress X = U.a, It should
he noted that the elimination of bat' 46 does not entail that of the c,orrespomlillg
stringer.
Stringers
cJ.1
I"
l' 12'
0' n'
IS)
s'
"
Fig.lS.(j
IillO.~ 1'5' and 5'12' (Fig. is.Ob). ProJocting on lhe5e lines Iloints 4' and 6'
we nhtaifl the dbplaccment of joints 4. lI.nd (j 01 the upper chonl.
The scale factor is found assuming that plate f is rendered iuunobill:!. plate / /
"otatiog aoout point S. Tho lever arm r of stress X llbout this point oquals
h"", '" DJ and. accordingly, tho 5c.lIle 'lldor will be given b)' tile insert between
IiJle~J'5' and .5'J2' Illllasured \'ortic<lLlyadistanoo of 4mfrom point S' lassum
ill plate, 1 lixod, line 1'5' lKc.omes tbe j:traph axis). I{nowing the value of
tills inSl'rt and reckoning it equal to unity, It is easy to determine tho inDuence
line "rdi1tate Yo at tho abutment A. Ind~d, from the similitude of triangles.
110:.>1 3. Tho same illl1u~!U:e line had been obtained provlousl}' (sefl..iFig. 71.4).
Prublem/1. fil)l(l/il'O,j the inl1ueucu lino rOl' the stress in diagunal 56 of a
[,!trough bridge truss ~hOWIl in .Fig.19.t'.
Soluliun. Eliminate the dingonal unbar consideration and replace it 1ly two
lorcos X =D~8' The system will be thllS hllllslormed into two plah':s I IIll;) 1/
"il\>!..;l'"'
(b.l
".
Fig. 19.6
(hat.ehed on thtl dJ'awing) COllIlcc,ttld loll une another by two bars 57 nnd 4a the
uirecLiolls ()[ wldeh Illlll['sect at point K.
Let plate If he fixed. Hs displac,Qwents llOingin thatco~ nil, the corrospond~
illg displaceilll;nt graph 6'12' will morge with the xaxis (fo'ig. 19.Gb) alld the
Instantaneous 1:IHltl'l! 01 rotation of plate I will be at point K. The fOl'r.(' X
will ilJlpurt a rlockwi:;e I'Otalion to pInto / about tlliscentl"e, line K'4' rep~senL
ing its displa~ment grnph while tho IinQs 4'6' <lnd S'7' will reprl'Sl'nt that o(
hars 'Ni and 57.
7.6 examples 01 Iltflutncf: Liru Conslruetion 279
.'\ctlwlly it is lIoL the plALe / I but the ground. i .1' . poinLs 1 alld 12. thaL ~hOlllcl
lie 1'C'garded AS fixed. Tberdore trafe line 1'12' and adopt it a~ Lhe fUl~1 81is of
th(' t:r&ph.
The l'nf.iro displaccm(,nt graph will Lhl'll he reprcsonlod by tbe broken line
"4'G'1;:'. thc sign cOIl\'ention stipulahm in the provious sKtien remaining
ill force,
TherenhN' pwCt'cd with the rlctermin.otion of the scale factor. A.!Suming that
pinto TT i~ imlUobile_ and that fO('co X acts on plate I, the lever Ilrm T of this
101'('1' n11(,"t point K will equal 20.6 mptrcs (see Problem 2 in Art, 7 A), The ill5l'rt
hl!twOO'1l Lhe Itraph axis 6'12' and the line representing tho dlsplllcemt'nt o(
plllL<> I Cline l ' I') mcasnrod at a di!!tance of 20.6 ID from point K' will provide
tI,O valll!' ..., ~x = t.
lJl'illg Ltlll l'illlililudc of Lri~l1glcs obtain ordinllt.e tl untieI' tho lefthand
Almllllont
W/U:rl,rrOtll
Prohlem J. H....quued the 1I1f1uence lino for the bendiult lIloml'nt lifting ovor
cro;;,~.<:()Ctlllll f( of a parabohc tJlloohlng<ld spalldrel arch of Fig. :W.Ca .
, .1 , .< 7
m
I
IJ
(a)
)J)
!O
1/
11
.' ~I
~
15
)V
IG
(b) ,
z'
"
" /J'
"
8' 7
Ftg, 20.6
Solr~ll()n. flltrmluce all extra llinge ut cross sootion [( which l&Ods to the
formal inn of fUlH' phHes T, Jr, III !\lId TV connected together h)' mellus of four
hinges 9. K, 1J and 17.
280 [(inmwtic klethod oj influ.ence Line COllstruc/ion
Cllllstruct tho displaeemfHlt gl'aph of this syS[.eIIl of plates using the imlilJll.a
noous ecnt,r(' of rotation of plato 1 If with reference to plate [ (point m) wlliclt will
be l'epn'slJuted by the brokoll lille 9'K'13'17' (Fig. :W.tib).
Poinls l' and 8' are plotted on tho graph u'Lis. Points 2' and 3' arc l,hen
marked on Lho displacement graph for Plate I1, Jloint 4' on that for plalp 111,
and points 5',6' and 7' 011 that fo/' plate J V. COlllllWUng all thcSl)!lOints togl'lh('l"
the displacement graph of all thl) panel points of the deck will he oblaiupd.
Itl urder to dotcHmillo tho scale factor lIx 1)lato If lllld let fOI'(;(1 X act Oil
plate I JI causing it to rota to with reference to v1ate J I about till) hinge K.
Thl' lever Mm of fone X may be taken equal to 1 metl't'.
The ~al(l factor Ox will be given by the length or the seglll(lll. hetweeu l.Iw
graph llxis 9'K' and the line representing Uw ilisplal'('ment of plllte i i l (!in('o
i('~].'J') measured one metre away from point J(',
Knowing the vaLuo of this SC'gmolll the Ol'diua!,{' to HI(' influence line fOJ'
the IHJrlding moment lit the ahutmellt hinge !i will 110 found hum
wlwrofrom
Yo"",oxX/<= 1Xk 7
All the other ordinates to the illl1uenc.e line will hl' rO;H!ily found t.l,onalll'l'.
7. RETAINING WALLS AND EARTH
PRESSURE CDMPUTATIDN
1.7. CENERAL
, A ,,",'
,, ,
A
, ,
,
0
E, ''
,
,
c
"
",,Q,
'
,
,
",
D'
E ,
, !a!,, E,
, 1;',
t,
G ,
:
E,
f,
,,
E, f,
, E,
t ,D
It B
'j I
 b
(" (8)
Fig. 1.7
a, PlU17m
(c)
type al'e usually huilt of ruhble or flIass concrete. They are sllujf'ctcd'
to their dead weight Q, the aetive and passive pressure of the ('al,th
El lll1d E 2 developed over the roar and front faces AB and CD and
the reaction CB voting over the foundation. Retaining walls of
H1ueh lighLer construction showlI in Fig. 1.7b arc usually built of
reillforced conereLe and consist of a foundaLion slab CD Ilnd a ver
tieal wall AB. The forees acting on a wall of this type consist of'
the dead weight Qb Qz, ... , etc., of the weight G of thl] column
of earth resting on the foundation slab, the active and passive
preflsure of Lhe earLh Eh E z , _ _, Ilnd the reactive forces distri
buted over the lower surface of Lhe fOllndation slab. The reduced
...'{eight of thefle walls renders it possible to make use of prc[ahl'iea
tion tl]chniquefl.
:J!'l;! Rejalnlng Wall" alllI Earth PU$$url" Ca/TlfltdatiDn
CVllscquen tly
Yo=YYw (1t~) (1.7)
4. The ~Ilgll' of repose cp which is the steepest nngla to the Iwri
'Zolltnl ut wWe.h 3 heap of this material will stand 011 its own
(Fig. 2.i). This angle is c.harllclcristic of the fric.Hon developed
fa)
Fig. 2.7
whCl'efrom
T=otan p
'rlw U.S.S.R. Building Codes usually stipulate the follovl'ing
values fo!' the angle of the internal friction:
for fino sHnd p = 2030 0
for modiulll sund />= 30!iO
fo[' ['0111'80 sand, gravel
Hnt! rounded pebb1e3 p = IrO_'J:l
U
,
(0) I
''~
re)
Fig. S.7
SUn'S EandR. When the surface AB moves ~way, the wClige ADC
~tnrts sliding down and the forces of friction which develop alollg
the surfaces AB and BC within the mnterial will he also directed
downwards. H t.he limit. equilibrium is rcachE'd l'IimuHaneollsly at
every point. nlong tho surfnce A8 the resultant stress will be deviat
ed everywhere from the normal to this surfflCO by flU anglC! cqUfll
to the nogic of friction l) and therefore the rcsultl'lnt pressurt will
also make an angle () with the normal U. Similarly the pressure R
will be deviateu from tILe normal V by an angle equal to tlte angle
or internal friction p.
Let us determine the pressure E q developed against the surface
AB (Fig. 3.7b) when an arbitmry surcharge is applied to the sur
(nee (I[ the earth.
As!'lIlne that G = dead weight of the wedge ABC (G = Mea,
A BCy)
Q = resultant of the sure.harge acting on t.he wedge
GIJ = resultant of the forces G tlnd Q; G'I = G+Q.
Knowing the magnitude of Gq and the dirl'C.tion!l or the prt'$.,>un.'s
EL and R wo may construct the triangle of forceJ'l abc.
The angles of this triangle are
Labc~llp; Lcab~90o.b=,/>
L acb~ 18O"(1lp +'1
From this triangle we ohtain
wherefrom
EG sin (i}pl (2)
q 0 Sih(O+'t p) .
Let liS no\Vcoustruct the Lriauglo of forces abc ill which the my
(I.b = Gn = BF.. alld the 1<lY tU; = E n  Comparin~ tile lrianglt"'s
obr llnd F"flK n we remark immcdillLely thut they 11I"t' idenlical
.lIld t1wrerore
E n = KnFn
Thus. in order to determine the prp..5Sure dO"clopr.d by (I granu
hll' Jntltcrial againsL the face AB for allY given direclion of lhtl den,,
:Il.{C Jlhlllc BC.. we must lily off along the axis BD tilt' dead wt'ight
or the wl'dge ABCIl {represented by Lhe length BF..} and then traee
l!trough L1lc point F.. a line p.\rallel to the olher axis BII unt.il its
C C, c., 0
Cn ~".,
C,
.,
a
c
en
H
a, ,I 2, 3, n, 5 'm b
Scole fVr 6 and E
Pig. 4. 7
S, 10
:
IS
: .
20 Ut
H Scale {or G ond E
3. CompuU>. the dead weight. of the wedges. For the wedgf' ABCI Ulis weight
61I UlIls
Cl""" ~ X 5.3Sx I X 1.6=:4.28 tons
Tho wClghLo; of the other wedgl"! abulling to the line AC li will he ellllctl)' the
~lIme.
The weight fir till' wedge C~Ct. and of all the olhor wedg('~ ahulling to the
h,wholltal CliC jO will be equal to
I
Ga Gli =;rX7.SX I XL6=6.24 tons
4: Sel out to scale along the axi~ BD the dead wl'lghls of the wCldB"{)~
Gl G2, . , GIO "'hich are 8.9 foil OWl!
lIF j =C j =4.28 tons BF e ... Ce =27.6!i tons
BF 2=G2=8.56 tons DF7 =G7 ,,33.88 hms
BF a=G 3=t2.B4 tons 1]F8 = G8 =40.12 tons
nF4=C~;<ot7,12 tons 8F II =G o46.36 tllOS
BF !>Gli  21.40 tons 8F lo =G IO =52.60 tons
290 RetairtiTlg ~V,db /ll/ll Earth I'reSSllrf' CDtttpulllti/l1l
5. Through the points F I , F.., .., F,o trace tbe lines FIK" PtK! . .
" ., F,oK ID pilrallel to tha uis iJlI.
6, Cunnect the points B, K I , . . " KID by 8 smooth CllP'~' lhu~ oblaiDing
the graph !!howing the variation of till.' pr~sure E developer! against the sur
faee AB.
7. Trace the lino TT tangent tll the graph and parallel to the UIS HD.
8. Conn~l. the point of tangency K and the foot of the wall B b~' a ~trlllght
lino BKe which will constitute the c1ea\'age lino.
!). Through tho same point of tangency trace a line Kf parallel to the axis
B H lInd mellSure to se.ale the length of thb fine which will repr('f'{'nt thil DJu:im!lnl
active prel;'5Ure developed against the surface AB
eKF=13 luns
III all C;lses when the !jurfuce uf the granular !ll~lCrial and the
surfMt'c AB are jllane, tho dt1tcrminalioll of the TrlaXitnllffi aclive
prc:'J!:itll'(1 may be carried out by a graphical method <1cvi~ed by
hlllColet.
Withoul l'lItering into tho theoretical dernon.<;l.ration of this
nw~hod (based equally on Coulomb's wedge theory) Wt' shrill describf'
he!'l'Ullllcr the proGcdure to be followed when a 1I1liforrnly dist.l'ib
uLeb surcharge q acts 011 th~ surface of the earth.
Start with rerlac.in~ this surcharge hy all equhlllent. layer of
ea"Lh, the Ihickness of .....hich is given by
ho =.!!....
y
This being done, the positiou of the cleavage plane corresponding
lo the maximum of the acti\'C pressure E q is dcLermiucd as follows.
The line AB is eontinllerl until its intersection at point Al with
~hc uppcr surface of the cqui,'alent layer (Fig, 6.7). 'fhE'rl'afler:
(1) thruugh the point n
trace a line BL I making an angle fl with
tho horizonlal and meeting the upper surL'l.ce of the equivalent
layer at L,;
(2) through the point Al trace the line AI''11 making an aogII:'
(p,.6) with the surface AIB nntil its intersection with the line
8!~, lit point M;
(:~) using Oil' line BL I a:'J a diameter, trace a scmicirc.le;
(4) at point ~\f erect n pel'pendicular lo the line BL I unlit it~
inLel'section at point N with the semicircle just mentioned;
(5) from point B swing an arc with a radius equal to.8N (',ut.ting
the line B /.." at point 0 (BN = BO);
(G) from point 0 traco tille GCI parallel to Atl'!'! Hlllil its in~er
section at point Cl with AIL l :
(7) the line BC I connecting the foot of the wall with poilll C t
constitutes ~he projection OH the paper of the cleavago plalle.
This being done, procl'ed witb the determination of the magni
tude of the preMllre E q developed against the surface AB;
(/:) from point 0 trl'l.ce an are using GCI as radius until its inler
section wiLh line BL I at point P;
Hvlt()ll(.a{ line
  
  N
FI,. &.1
Fig. 7.7
The anglE'. of the cleavage ]Jlane and the hOl'i~ontal will be deter
millt'd using the equation
~; = 0 or ddll!CI (fr)J
=c [ sln~tJotall(\tp)+cot\}CQS!("
I 1 p) ] = 0
Reducing both tC['IIlS in brackets to the same denomiuator and
dividing the equutiun by
c
we obtain
Sill tlcos {} = sill ("61') cos ("p)
K 0 V/~';~"~"~''J'~'=~~I'~.'
fOS(trO)lln(p 0.) J
K [ COlI (p E)]' ,
 (I+KoJ(l)c(lU cos(e+6)
The posiLioll or the cleavage plane .....ouldjbe det.enuil1oo IJ}'
. r,=Kohl (7.7)
where hi = cus. ~ (sec Fi~. 9.7)
The determillalion of the point of application of the active pres
sure requin!s that the distrihutiOI1 or the unit pressures along the
surfllce of the wall be known.
In order to obtain this distri
but ion let us first consider tile
\"l"lriation o( the acLive pressure E q
in terms of the depthy (Fig. to. 7a). q
FM this purpose we may use
expression (5.7) replacing in the
b,tter h by the ordinate y, thus a
obtaining
Eq,=+yy(y+2~'l)K
This el:pression permits us to
oonstruct the lll'll.plt just mentioned
(shown in Fig. 10.7b) which
represents the increase of the 8
pressure Eq~ with the increase FIg. 9.7
of the depth of the foot of the
w",ll. It is eastly 50011 that this graph is n conic psrabola.
Wllen tile depth. y is increased by dy the active pressure E qV is
increased by dEq/l' This increment dE qv is distributed over nn
eleJllllIltary area, the vertical projeclioll of which is equal to dg
multiplied by 1 {as the depth ()f the structure in the direction nor
loal to the surface nf the drawing i~ considered equal to nnity) .
fawl pr~lSUre
'"' '7't
Fl6. 10.'1
(Fig. 10.7a). The direction along which the pressure E'1 acts will
forln with the normal to the surface AB an angle equal to the angle
of iriction 6.
Tbufl. t}u; magnitude oj the active pressure developed by a gramtlllr
mattrial against some surface may be raleulated using expression
(5.7); Us point of application wLll be situated at the same level a~~ the
rmtrold of the nntt preullre graph, the position of the point may be
cakulo.ted using expnssion (9.7), fInd the direction of the active pres
Slat will forJn an angle 6 with the normal to the surface IIndt~r ('ollw,d
tration.
The lUngnil,ude of the ll(',f,i'ic pressure mny also be detl:.'rulilllld
with the aid of the unit pressure graph. Indeed, from P", = dJ/I'LI! f!J
it followl! that dEq~ = Pqvdy. Upon integration of both pill'\." of
this ctjlul\.ion we ohtnin
. [ (1+I.B5xO.
Ii. '""
00,25' ]' 1 (0.906)"
2B3)coS1(l' C()!I1So= 1.431lXO.984 ll.95t
ll. ,
34
This being done, determillO Ihl! vlllu" of the unit Pf~U~ at points D
lu,,1 C using lormuttl (8.7)
PB_L6l2.11+0.5XO.IM)O.4;{4..2.u6 ton~ pllr sq m
Pc""t.6(6.5+0.5xO.94)O.434_'.84 tong PIll 811 m
Theroafler comrUle the In'ea of the graph corraponding to the lower
porlilm 0{ tbe "si face BC, this ....,8. representing thf. In.golhuln "I the
rsi<:lnThe19.7)ordlllate:of
l tbo contraill of tho grnllb will be giv~n by the expres
4. 2X2.06+4.84
:CT X 2.06+4..8' I. 73imetrl!S
8 P,
F'K. 12.1 Fig. lJ.7
PB=l(h+ho)tanl(45~) J
h h+311 0
:O3'~ (14.1)
3lXl R"<lllItnt 1V<lIl6 gild Earth Pruw.rt Cl1mpUfll.tl,1I
Pig_H.7 Ftr15.7
z,'""3'
The position of the cleavage plane remains the same as in CilStl'
(b) when a uniform load was acting on the surface of the earth.
i. c.,
.A
,'o .... 'tv
,..
+2'P
30'
(d) Prasun d~ww~ 4gaHlst a polllgcmally shapJ ;ur/act'
(Fig. 15.7).
The pressure E q de\'cloped again!!\. the upper partion AB 01 the
polygonal sluface ABS, will he determined as heretofore using for
"1Ilbs (5.7) tbrOllgh (10.7).
'fhe Ilre5Sule developM ngainst t.he lower portion BB. lhll)' be
colI\putt"d approximately assuming that this pressure will he the
SSlIllC DS that acting on an equivalent portion of il phlne s\lrfacc
A:8fJ l III order lo comllut.e this pressure. lrate lhrou'lll point. B
111(' lille BD lHll'/llIel to the surface 01 the earth and cOlIsider the
\\'ciglll of the oVforlnying !lortioll of the muterial as a ulliformly
flilll,ributt'd surcharge of intensity q = oyhiJ. The derlh 01 this tRYot'
h" will btl laket. equlll to the sum of the thickness of the lnyor h~,
till' \'crl.it'al projection of AA' equal to h" and the vertical l)rojcr~
tiOIl (Jf A IJ cqnal to h. Computing as usual the {arLonl of the K
group sl1ld slIbstituting them in the usual rormulas in which 1"(.\
h1\llcr of the wall is taken equal to 1 we obLain
E; f yh' (h' +2h;K.l K
+
P;l'=jI (y h~K.) K
P'a=jlh;KqK
PR, .,. 'I (h' + h;K.) K
, Jr.' h' +3h:'K q
%,="3 h'+2Jl;;k"
The unit pressure araph (or tho Ca&' under consideration ill repre
sented in Fig. 15.7b.
Fig. 16.7a represents a more complicated case which mny ho met
with in the design of reinforced concrete retaining walls provided
with n spur.
The pressure developed against a wllll of this type will be deter
mined separately for each of the plane surfaces constituting its rear
face. Thus, the I)ressures exerted ag3.inst the portions AB and CO
will be compuU>d using expressions (12.7) In which the ordinAtes
.IIs AlId Ye (corresponding to points Band C, respectively) will be
takcn equ.al to h and the ordinll.w Ht> of the point 0 equal to (h+
+ hi)' The factors of the K group will be computed using formu
las (6.7) in whkh a = ~ = 0; the unit pressure graph for both Pllft...
will be .ghcn by one common straight line ab (Fig. 16.7b).
Tbe magnitude of the pressures de\'eloped against AB And CD
will be provided by the corresponding areas ef the above graph
t
E1=ZhP"
t
E2 ="2 h\(Pc +P,,)
31>:.! Re/at"t", WaU. and E~rlh Pr~~,ure CampulaJ.lo"
Fig. 16.7
the: face of the woll of l\ line parellel to the cleRvage plane Ilnd
pll~illg through point D. The position of the cleavage Jllan~ ill deler
milll'd llsing' formula (7.7)
zo=FK=CFKo
The fac:tor K. tlIlteriog this expression will be computed usiug
formulag (6.7) putting IX = 0 and t =a  ~h p. 8. The portion PO
will he subjeeLed to the pressure developed by t.he Layer hI (Fig. 16.7)
alone. lhi!'l pressure being independent of the weight of the overlay
ing InllteriaJ. Tho eorrespondinq uflit pressure graph will be rellre
SOllte<! hy a straill'ht line cd. the slope of which is stcepar than that
of lifle ob. At point G the uuit pressure will be computed uIOing
formula (12.'i) for YG = k z The pre.'l.'Jure Rcting on tbe portion
of the wull considC'red will equal
t
E3 =T h t PO
7,1. Pt"l/r~l"r CUt', 01 /'rr"urr r.omp~llltio..
E.={hs(pa+p n )
(e) Preuurl' th,;eloPfil by waler IJQturaUd earth (Fig. I j. 7). III the
case under r..ousideration the rear fnee or the wall AB IIIl1y be rt'gard
Pig. 17.7
Flf. 18,7
P~=YoyK
PB1=O
PB=yrfiK
Zo=T
The total pressure sustained by tllll wall will be thus composed
by the hydrostatic pressure Wand the earth prl:'~ure E computed
wult due l'tlgard to the alteratioll of its weight per cubic mcl.re
e!lul>e(] by the water.
(f) Pressure aerted by a layer of impervious SQil surmounted by
water (Fig. 18.7).
Pressure computations are very approximate in this case and arc
carried out asst1rning that the water acts on the upper part of the
wall siLull.ted llbove the surface of the soil alone. whilo the lower
part of the wall is subjected to the pressllre of t.he earth on which
the water act'! llS a !':urcharge.
The hydrostatic pressure W will be computed AS heretofore and
will a mount to
,
lV=Z'VB(Hh)' cose
,
8,7, PaJ$i!'~ Preuurr 0/ Granular Malerials JU5
E'l~+Yh(h+2ho)K
P'l~=Y(Y+}IfJ)K
Pr' yhoK
PI! y (h + hu)](
_ h 21'111+1'/1
"l)'''':r' PIh+P lt
n,
la) (0)
Fig. 19.7
P~q=l'(y+Jt.)talll(4!',<>+~) 1
Jl~=Yhetllnl(45)+n ) (23.7)
Pil=y(h+ho)tltllt
h
(45~+t)
hHih~
! 7
J~ = 3"' h+~ho (24. )
20'
In the above expross;olls h. is liS lIslIal tlle Uucknt!SS of tIIO layer
of earth llQuivall:'l1L to the surcharge of inlellsity 1].
The currcsponding position (If th\l cleavage plane will ho ob
tailled l)y tr:10ing Lhrougll Lho lop of
o I.ho wl\lI A n'ig. 20.7) LllO I\xis
x' making nn angle fl wilil tIlt'
IwrizoOLlll am!. by laying off ,,!(Hl:::
lid!" line '" length AD' =.r~ =
... KDh=h. The line HO' will rUl'
resent the projection of tlm 1:1(,3vage
t,lf slip I,lane on the plane of the
drawing. Por the s.lkc nf COmlJarisoll
if' Wtl gh'c again in till! samo rtguttl
I,htl positillll of the clcl\vl'lge plallcBD
B eorrcsponding 10 tho CUSts o( artjve
presl'ure.
The lritlugle .4BD' IlCtmilll Um
dl'turminalioll or Ihe allJrlc it'
fl1CIllLod by tht! c1e.. va~e plall" BD' with the horizon
..
v =4"0
:lTP <," ')
~.
",
<
o
Rpplieahlo to t1lt~ case of the' pall."iVll pressure, Ilrovidl..,(\ the allgl~
p and cS nre repb.ced e'vcrywhcre by (f.) lInt! (6).
Problem. It. i~ required t,o dclenoloo R:nl'hM~lIy lhe pa~iv(\ l'1l'!>!Ilre devl:o!
Ofl('(! .gain5l. t.he surbceAP orFilt. 21.7, Hit.  ,; en, p " ~OG.lI  r.,, f;  2(1,
Cl  lo,y  LG 10n'5 ppr ~.ubie melrt>.
S...tllll4... I. St.art. whh determining the putitioll or poinl.1l A, M, N, 0, D,
C and Pin 11. 'l\"ay ouc:tl}> ~i[llil.r to Ih. onc 1151."' d ....\'c l_ Fig. (;.7) but. re
plachl$t fc'fe,.,.....hcre Ihe aJlRl~ 1I and ,. by lIlnd po
2. Doh;nl1inc the po.;ition ,,r tlltl r.)(!IV'Jl: plloe HDC.
3. M('~sur. tAl :;cal.. the b/lsc .nd l!to bel~hl of thollriangle OPC, .... hich Ire
equlll, re:!p('ethely. to Il.O IU and 10.7 m.
4. Compute Uw ~rca of triauil:le OPC
1
1"TII.OxtO.7=511.H5 Sll m
6. CoDlfllrD tIll' \'1I.lull of the ))SMive pn'Slluro t1lUS uhlllinoo wIth thllt
of llu! act \'01 pr~ssllrc computed [or an identlc.,1 ealo in Art. 5.7.
E' IM.2 112
7f':a.3l:I .
8. STRAIN ENERGY THEORY
AND BENERAL METHODS
OF DISPLACEMENT COMPUTATION
1.8. GENERAL
The stress analysis or redundant structures l'tquires that use
should be made of displacement equat.ions in adlliLion to the usual
equilibrium oquations. It Lecomes therefore nCccS&lry to delermiue
the deforrnlltioll~ and strains in differont parts of the structure.
Moroover, the deflections or stalicdly determinate structures must
he also frequently determined, such SLrucLufllS having to fulfil ccr~
tain requiremllllts concerning both their strength and thoir rigid
ity, in order to avoill excessh'c dcformatiolLs under service loads.
For this reason the study of val'iulls methods of strain ~nd deflection
eompullltiou for clastic systems acquit!!! the greatest irnporlnnce
in the tht'Ory of structures.
This chllpter will be devoted to the study of general mothod~
permitting the detcrmil1ation of tilt! strains aud deflections of
"lItious framed structures. arches, rigid frames, otc. \\'e shall start
with rcdcwing certain questions concerning the work accomplished
by the exll"mal f(U'{:es and the potential or strain 6nl"rgy nccumu
lated in various elastic systems during their deformation.
During tile loading of any system its elements aro put into mo
tiOll, :acquiring certain velocities and accelef"3.tions. 11. is clcllr that
the rate of growth of the deformations will increase proportionally
to the rate of loading. alld if the latter becomes "ery small, tlie
momentum acquired by the system when passing from one state to
another will become quite negligihLl!. Hereafter th~ latter type
of IOllding will be referroo to FlS ltaticalloadiTlg.
In order to d.elcrmine the work of any eJ:ternal load P Il(lplied
gradually tu any elastic systom (Fig. 1.8) we shall mnke use of
MaxweU's lldnciple of superpositioll. provided. the material fol
lows Hooktls law. Consequently, the dispLacements suffered by
differenL poinls o( an elM lie. syslcm will be ill direct proportion
2.8. Work of R:J;/~r"d Foroes 'H
to the loads which have caused them. In its most general form this
may be expressed by the following equation
6~u.P (1.8)
In this cxpres.'iion II is the doformation sustoined by the system
along the line of Rction of force P, and a. is a factor depending on
the ml\terial itself. on the pattern and the dimensions of the struc
tItre and orl the point of application of the load P.
Let force P increase by dP; this will immediately cause a cor
responding increase of 6 by d6. The work performed by the load
Ptg. 1.8
~==I 0,
Fir. 2.8
~m ,.
"
Fi:.1.8
Tlw nt'gativll sigil of the last term of litis equlltion inJir.n.tos that
the fLlLgu[flr rolalion of till' CfOSS section to whidl IllUlIll'llt ml~
.r
m
r
(l ,., _6=~
, t
./ ..!
rn,
""l'
I N
H
Q
f1
a
N
S'6 j
d'
%~r' ,,
'N
,,
1;"
,
aId'"",+."l
Fig. C.8 FIg. 'l.S
mHy remains fixed in which case the angular rotation of tno right
hand one will bo given by
.. Mdx
U&= El
.EI being the nexnral rigidity of tue b.'lr section under cODsidora
lion. During its statical application the hending moment will
therefore accomplish tho work given hy
f 1 M dJ:
dAM =TM6o=TM"""""ET
of that part. of thc cross secLion above (or below) this strip about
the sam!! axis (Fig. 8.Bc). The magnitude of the mutual displace
ment of two identical strips, one belonging to the left ond face
and tile other to the right one, will be equal to the displacement
y.
,.
 frdF
~Q
Q I
f_.
d< di
(a) (bl (C)
FfK8.8
.... dz of the right end (the leCt ona lJeing assumed fixed) and will
therefore be given by tbe expression
,
1'dz=7Jd:r
where l' is tbe angle of shear.
AClnce, the work of Dn elementary trl'msvcrsal stress '[ dF along
the displacement y d% will be given by
,
..!..dP"dx
'
Integrating this expression over the whole area of the cross
sec.lion F we obtain tbe work of all tbtl shearing stresses acting
across this section
~ I , ( " Tld~ r QI 8 1 dz
dA q = J 2: Tyd:r df = ,) """iG dF = J J1bl"2GdF=
p p p
Qldz(" S I , Q1dz
= 2IJ)'J J bY dF = 11 2GF
p
drcular SCGlion the !aIDe procedure will yield 1') = ~ whilst for
whicb
A '("~"f~
1111\)'
2 ~ J El + ...
, j'
00 writlen as follows
.
.~N!!.!!!.+"'QQdZ)
,} F.F ... j GF 'I ,
(3,8)
In the expression (3.8) tllO IOtlers Af, N. and Q represent tIle inter
nal forces 3.cting ovar n cross section situated a distance z froUl
., "
,.Jl6 (mglO 0' dcoor'mates, Wu. ..,rros ,\Idol
"U a th e . Ndz llll d Odz
El' EF BC 11
are tho etJm'sp<onding displllcomelllS of t110 clement d;,; of the bar.
The aoovo two expressions permit the computation of the work
8l;complishtld by the Joad~ in terms of the internal stresses devtll
oped under the Hction of these londs. Expression (4.8) wows that
tho work or the exterllal 101\d~ will be always po.~itivll.
3.8. Slrat" I~"crgy
W P:l W
1=2FF;
.!l'. 1ZEF
F"
TTIW (cl
I
P,
(bl (cl
., (.,
P,
P,
Fie. 9.8
1.11 tho straiu (lnergy due to the simultaneous action of the same
forco.'I. Indeed
w W
3 t
+W +P1Pzl
'er
For It beUer understanding of the above equation lot us imagine
that ot first load PI is increased gradually from zero to its linal
valuo aud then remains constant while load P a slowly reaches its
full value in the same way. It is clear that tlte application of load
P'l will eause the end of the bar to move downwards an amount
~~ , and that during that time the load PI (assumed consLanl) will
PIPil
perform the work equal to"'"JJF'
Thll!l, tbe last term of the expreslsion for W 3 gh1(l!l the value of
tho work performed by the load PI when its point of application is
shiIled by force P,: (or vico versa, if the sequence of lORding is in
verted).
Tho above example shows clearly thnt the principle of superpo
sitioll does nol, apply to the COnlJlutation of the strain energy nccu
8.8. Slr4;'" ElW'trll ~t9
mulated ill all elas~ie body for otherwise the terms of the oquatiol1.
taking cart! of the work accomplished by one part of ti,e loads along
the displacement caused by tile other part of the loads, would be
conlplotely lost.
Prroblem l. Required to dett!rrnlne Ibe str.in energy IICCwnulaled bYolllllnd
!IUpporled btam of reet.angulu &I'OM SlCtlou (Its width aud lkpth equalling:
m:\
(a) f~:,t
,
I !'f ymp" I
~m
IbI
: Q graph I
icJ
ffiIIIIlIIillIl ':'
b .ntl A. respectiv@ly). tho beam being IGllded by. couplo Wl aeting al its de"t
band ll3:lremily(Fig. 10.&).
$01,,11011. Draw the bl!nding moment ,nd the shearing force dl.~.ms as
..
M""'T~ and Qs,
.
shown in Fi,. 1O.8b and, (norroal slre!MS in this particul.r ease hamg nil).
The magllltude or these stNl5..oes in any ero!loS !eIltion will be given by
Introducing 11,. vallJe!I iD the u:presslon for tho strain flM'rgy (5.11) Yo'to
obtaIn
"
l;"Jr1tl:s: I,"Qltl:s: gt (' I,
Wj~+J2GJP~=~j:s:h+
,
... TI r.) tlz:. ""{"
+2lfGF 21t "') ""21
m+ GF ""("SE; + (ff
")
Let us oompuo MW the magnltudes of lho .trdn energies due. on '.he one
hsnd. la IlIe she.rlng fol't('s and, on the Olher. to the bending mOlllont._. For
this purpo'll let us replaco G. F, J and I] by their v.lues correllpOndlng to emS/!:
section or reetangular !hapc
F_bh, J_I,,.s and 1]1.2
"
.320 Strain Energy Thf'Ol'Y and MrtllOrf, 01 TJ"plac"",rut Computatlo"
'rltls leads to
OR' ( / , 1.2 ) ")/'/ [ 3 (" )']
LV=2T iJE:t +(i;/'jEbh = e/;"~ l+:r T
TIlt' :!ot'\.'ur,,1 tt'rru in hrackHs !'t'I'I1.'8('utj! till' 11.ll,tivt' \'01 Ir".' M tllo sbain l'Ul'l'gy
,ltll' Lu the shoarillll f"r""s. This turm is dir~l'tly IIl'ul'urLlo1l8L 10 the rat,,, .!f
wJU!rc h is tllll depth ~r the l'I'OSS ~CtlOll and I is I,Lte Spllll of tho btam.
I[lmcu, lhl'lnfltwnce of Lilo sboMing forces will lIN[1 rapldi~' with till) <1,)l'n~",;c
..f tllis ratio. When tlll' ratio
m"t l
i.~ I'qmll to +
, (beams with n llrenlel" raU" ~re !'CIlium
H fll1l0W~ thnt in th" CU>;l' 'mder cun~irlluatj"!l th{' str'"in ''Ilorgr r1rL(\ to the
.,.h"arin~ forc('.. . cvnstil,ull''; aa"ut 3 Jler ('('lit uf tlll' tut"l un"'lO' aocum,t!alerl.
111 1111' cm,(! "f h<'llm! lIlot wltl, ill actllal prllc1.iclI for which the ral ill T i~ lI'.'lI"lly
much ~mull(',', 1,1,0 i,,01l<'lIcu ul tilt, slu'M'ing fO:<.'5 1011oom''5 quite Mgligihle.
1 6
~;b*c_*_"iB,~.l
J ~ 7
1.._'''"""'_1._"''"""'_+_"''00.+"'""'~
0
SQI,di~n. A~ tllo honding fIlnUl'l'HI~ 1111'1 shC'aring fOrl:l'S I'lJJllain nil ill all tho
b.11'S of tho trlJ~ aroll as lhe norm,l! s~r('.<~_~ N (,nu tll(\ l"igidjlJ('~ EF l"l'main con
st;mt O\,'r lhe whole length of I'ac.h hl,r, cxprl1ssion (5.8\ ll"h'ing till) oUluurrL 01
tho Slrain <:IlCfl\'Y aCl'uffi'llatc,l he<;olll'~
,
."N2~ ;\'21 t6.8)
II ="U~/" J (/:r=~ 'lEF
,
In this UIJreSSlOn N l"tnl dirl'd str'ns in each vf lire barE cau~d hj' lhe
S~'Sto'lU of 10llds llPI'IiE"l1
1 _ l"nl\'th of the b",.
:.s. Tlitonm 0/ /IN:il'lHdl IVDrh (ThtDrem 0/ Belfll) 32t
Tho silrn l: SltoWll that the summation of the energieJ! ,\Just be (,a1fil'd ov!:r
all thl) I~f'!! of tlto tnl~. Of course. tbO!ll btIrs ....bich rllmain idle may be neglect.
~. llt~ product NSI rPIDnining .Iwafs ull ~ben N  O.
III th(' GI!Ie nl tn'....~ .and aimilar strueturu strain ~ergy cornputation.
bould lit! carried oul in to>bular fOIlD till indicated hereunder.
Tllf/I, 1.8
Oar No. ,. m
JZ; CR ,
~p ~pt
4
5 125 pt
4
The Ja~t column or the Tabl" c,mtains l,he Vllluf'.! of N 1 l for ellch bllr "I lhe
lru@~. Summing U\' all these Hllul.s "nt! di\'iding the result by 'J.EFJE bllinl!
*;;
exprc~ in tons)lCl" ~q m and F in sq m) wo Mall ol,taln the valu(! ,)f Icstr"ilt
l'iK"fIlY ~CfUDlllllllt'd in th.e ",hole of the truu
21_8~3
822 Slral" EauKII TMtiry ami Mttlt....b of Displaununt Conl1,wlat/(1fI
(aJ~
,,
J,,<
I ~"
Staft! 1
f<4 u
,,
I '+
,, ,, ,,
,, ,, ,,
,, ,,
, , , P,
,
Stau"
'" ,
4" '"
Fir. n.s
state I). Lulalso A zz be the work performed by the load P2 along the
dcfluctions com~sponding to slate ll.
J~x:pl'\'ssiofl (2.8) leads to the following values of the worl, oor
respolldin~ la each of these !ltates, provided the loads are applied
il'9dually
 P~~::;
A =~,
Il
I I I ,
1 _ .... ~Midz+I:(' ,Vfdz+~~ (?,dz
rl!_~~ 21U ~"""2RF ~2CFt)
I I I (7.8)
r1=. ~ ~ J~i.~" T! ~ ,~~.~r + Z S~~~., 11
u 0 0 I
Let us assume that the .same sy.slem is ]Olltled in tho following
sequence: firitl, lond PI (t'ig, '13.8) is i'lcroa~d gradually froln zero
lo its fillol vldue; the IlencctiollS sustained by t.he_ syswm ond the
stres...c;es devdoped in that. calla will 00 eXllctly the &'I1I1e as t!lose
corresponding La state I of Fig. J2.8a, In particular. lILo Ilcncclioll
Ull{h~r load PI will equnl.<..\u and the work performed by this load
during its applicllLion will I\ffiount lo A u = P1i'U, Afltr (Ito.l let
ItI:HL P2 increASI;l in lht.' samo Wlly. This win cll~ail Lilo dc\'clolllllCllt
()( adctitioJUtI slrrSSl:lS and dcflcI'tinns, lhese 5tn'sscs autl tleneclions
bf,illg cquol to lhose susll\illed by the g)'slem in 1l1ate II of Fig. t2}~b;
p.
P,
,.."_"_::1:.,
_, 
.>::::
flITJ'U: ('.JIYe due
.
~a=~=~ t *
.Ju
El aN le eurvf
~,
to P, 'md P2 dut to P,
1'12z= (8.8)
;\1 thD Sllme time the work pc..rMl1Ied by 10;)d5 PI tlnd P, may
be expl'essed (SeA Eq, 2.8) by half Lhe product of ~ach of Lho.~ loads
hy the lotal dllfiectioll alon!" the dirootion of this load (Fig. VI.S).
A= PI(.lI}+~d + P:(J.212....L..\~1
".
324 S/rtt/" f;.urglj TlIt!J/JrrJ Ilnd Mtthods of nlsplltufl'lNd C""I/ll.IlaJ'Oll
Ftt. 11.R
Fig, 12.8/1). In lh~ :samu Wtly P Z.1 21 rcpn'50nt" th(' work A ZI per
formt.'fll.y load p! or state IJ along thudcflcctioll foHowing' thl' Iille
or actif'n of this lond ca\l~d by loael 1', of sLaw I.
Collscquonliy
The 511111S (.1'. :M,,). (NI + N:.) and (Q.+Q~) rupresent the
tOlal t'Csl.l1tant sl~s.ses ill cro~ sections due to the CClmbioed Rclion
of both load!l PI ond Pt.
Illtrodu('ing the value of.4 give.n by oxprcs:sion (11.8) inlo exp~s
S\l)1l (10.8) alld u!:Iing the \'a1ues of /1 11 lIod A ~2 deri..ed fro to equa
tiOn (7.8) we obtain
,
1 _ ",{'{.lI 1+,u:)2 Mj NJ d:r+
111~J
, '1.l'.'J
, , ,
~~. &1 ,tl,dx "'\' V Ntdz "'\'Q Q:dz
I
"I:=~,}J> I EJ +~jl IU+~,} lcr'l (12.8)
, " ,
In this expression ('I\ch of t.be terms pre<;ecloo by the inltlgral llign
may be ron~idcrt'd as the product of a total stress (say. the bendillg
lIlomont At l ) due to t.he actions of stale 1 and the total st.rnins of
thu elclllcllt dJ. !lay, .,~)z. due to the AcUons of ::ILatc [I.
Let us take up 011~ again two diffel'ellt 8Lntcs of 011(' 1lI1l1 the
!!aTlH) sysl.em, Lhe first Iltate corresponding to the npplicntiotl of 11
uuit load PI and the second to that or a ullit lUrid P~ (fig. 15)S).
Hortlltflcr we shall use the sign 6 to indicate tho disp!IIC(lllltlllls
(lStraill1l, fllllj:u]ar rotatiulIs or dencctlons) cau~d by unit IOtld:l
p. 1 or unit mOlnt!llts jV} = 1, in ord!!r to distinguish them from
lho<:tl due to loatl:l or mOments of arbitrnry ma~nitlldcs which shalt
be d('llo1l,d by .1. Thus. 5 2l will indicaLu the displacemollt dHu lo
the unit load PI uloll(( Lho direction of load P: whiht 611 will indi
cale Lhe t1isplacclllt!nt along lobe line of action of load PI due to the
application of 10aLl UI,ity P'l'
Tu the precediujt article Wc have show.l that
P.6 1: = PJ. 21
As PI CC< P,= I t this cXprl!l!SiOll bi.'tome8
= bt l al"
GCllcralizillg we lrlay writo for allY 11nity fictions
o5 mn =6"m (Lt8)
Tho tfxpre"Sion \.htl~ ubt:lined is the algebraic expression of
MartDt"Il'6 thnJrt'm which row as follows: in any dastlc SflsU'm the
~l(fW 1
~="'~p~;J"
, , , ,
Stole II I
I
~)~,
 lfn ~
n,_ 15.S
a

[
(6) SllJtrt /1
~: :  ,~;;f2
Fi,. 16. 8
Let us conf:ider two different. staws of one nnd the Sllme system.
J[J it., first ~Ultc the system is Mtl!d upon by any number of loads
and Illoment.'l who:"e values may be chosen at wiJI (Fig. f 7.8a) and
in the second stato by OIlC single load unity p~ (Fig. 17.Sb).
Let us compute the work A 21 produced by the load unity Pt along
the displacement 621 due to aH the actions of state I
This Slllne work is expr(!!.~ iD terms of the illlcrrlnl strcsst'g
lIsiug formulas (9.8) aud (12.8) bornes
, , ,
j
IIt =1: I.'J M~ ~~=+:EI.'N
EJ
j"ldz+"~Q G'l dr.
~!/'["iT"'" ,) 2 GP 1]
(15.8)
0 0
(The dashes plDc~d over M t , N! llnd Q: inoicIle that thn~ streSSCS
are due to a load unity.)
Thus the displacement caused by any combination of loads 1113.)'
be 6l:prossed in terms of the stresses develolX'd by tho said comLi
nntiolt cllld by those due to a load unit)', The line of action or lids
(0/ Af'tunl :UJU: {SCOW I J
~"III~
,I,
,
I
Fit. 11.8
unity P'" due to the actions applied in relllHy and b~lollgill{; le>
tht;! group n.
Whcn the crO$.'l ~cti(loS of all the members remain CouJltant, the
eXJ)l"'ssion lB.8 may be rewritten as rollows
, , ,
.1"", ,,:E ;, ~ M,..I\,.. dz+ I;1' ~ N...N.. dz+Z G~ ~ QmQII dz (tHI}
The
three 8xpreasiolUl
(15.8), (16.8) and (17.8) are frequelltly
referred to as the Ctn~ral displattment tquaiions or lI!olir's rqualiQIU.
For t.htl c.amputat.ion of displacements wilh t.he help of th~
expressions the following sequence will be adopt.ed:
1. ill the flrst plaoo delermine the stresses M n , N" and Q" due
to the aJlP]i('d load!! for an arhitrary cross section in terms of its
abscissa x.
2. Apply a unity action at the cross section whose dellection or
lIngular rotlltiOIl is required, a COllcentrllwu load c;orl1lsponding
to a dcnectioll or any other translntion <lIld 1i moment to an ongular
rotation.
3. Computo the stresses ft7"" Nm. and (j", due to this ulllt nction
for the same cros.~ section sHual.<!d a distance. from the origin of
coordintl.t('s.
4. Introduce the values of tllo stressell Ill... N.. and Q.. AS well
as thoSt' of ltJ .... N ... and (j,.. in one of the three expression. (15.8),
(l6.S) or (17.8) aud iutegn.le along all tho elements of the t'ntire
structUN!. When the displacemcnt ~ ..... thus obtained is po..itive..
it.! direction coincides with that adopted for the unit actiou and
when it is ncgath'c, it is opposite to th6 onc adopted for the
unit a(:tion.
In the design of the redundant structure it is sometimes required
to nnd the mutuol displacement of two preselectcd points. In that
ca~ /I. system of two unit loacls of opposite direction should be
applied along UIO direction of tlll.l displllc,llment roquirod, tlu,'so
:'130 SIr",,, I:nu!lY 'l'''~r.'l and ,lfelhod& "/ Di'plaumenl Camp"l"ll"n
r c a
l'i
'c
ri5
IT
",'' , " , "
.~,
(m (b) IC)
Fig. 18.8
ll~
O'm" .... 2: 7JI MmM/I dz+I GF .\ Qn.O" d.z:.,.~\~"
It Q
TA",n
,
"
ll.;.",,_1: 1
EJ r
J M",Mlld.z:
is Ill!' d"necLion in puto belldill~ (I. l'. dU(l soll'ly 10 llll) h~ndinll" trlOlt\')I!~)
whll~t
,
Q
lIm",=:I: "
GF r
J Q,nQ" d:r
b the llart of thl' t(,ta] deflection caused 1lOloh' by the siJeadng forces.
rolr all Ilw UOSIJ sections of the b~am to the Jl'rt of point C IILe i)~noJing
moments Mn and ,U", and tho shcmring force!! On lInd Om ltro given loy
P" I  1
M<lQOT Mm~TJ:
P"
Q112 Q 1
I>l~
(0)

,  , ' ...
,, ,
,,, ,
Un,t rIots
, r"/
lbi
J;.. c,
,, +.
,
\
le)
,,
, ,
,,
,I
I ill l!
I '! \ /'f:
i:~:
Id'
,,
l1lll1lllrrrmn::orrrm' p.
,,
,
fUUllOJJ!llllJ~
,
IfI :, ,' .
i 1III1I1W'IIIII~ '. 'COP" 1,
,,,
,
I'! ill e! l~ 2 j
Pig. 19. a
\\"hen the value of this ,ll,nl,<:lio/l is positivI'. its directi"" will cOlIlci'lo w,th
tha~ \>1 the lnarlurlil)' (if 8 llrlr"l i\'o \'allll.' were ohtainrd, it "<l1Ilrt indic'lW that
the h01l1D is dl.'nl,<;l<~d ill the opposite dlroction),
Let liS now ,l('t<:rrni"o the relRUve importance of I..nh pnrt~ of 11".. tulal
donecli"n, 11", ll"'~ dUl' to the bending moml'nt and the other dH" to Ih" 5Iu,ars.
IA't tho cros.~S(!{'tional diUlen~ion~ of the beam be 1J and h with h  0.1 I.
Htplac_lUg ill tll(' aboyo exprl!J!."ioll J, F, 11 ami G l>~' the following ,'sluos
Ith3 bl 3 bt
J=~=12,OOO' F .... bk .... 1ij, '1,,01.2 and G_O.I,E
It is obvious Ihnt in the great majol'ity of cases lhe U:rtO j.~" 101l~' be
...
cnmplelE'ly l1('gll'"t(>ll by p,omparison with t\lQ tllrm c\~: Thus wt' ohtain
Ill.' wellknown cxpn'ssioll
?of P,,{3
"'m" ... "'..... 48EJ
".nhl('m 2. Complll.o tIll' vprliOlll clefle<'lion <\c of point C of n unirormly loa<l
(,11 I>(>"m builtill lIt its ldL ..,nd (Fig. 20.8a).
Solu!lan. The hl'ndin~ m'lmcnt curve r1uo t\l tl,o Ilnlfo'mly distrihutl~l load
i. rrJlr(L~ntcd in Fig. 20 b, Th!.' m"gnitude of th,} bending rnj)mt,n~ <It "11)' C"(lSS
81,,,,lon 8. dish"co:r from Iherighl,hand elld oflhe boalll equals _ '1~ . Tlui.imllgi
Ilary ~tate will c,orre~pOlld tn the application of a conrentrllled 10ao1 utlity al
point C, its rlil'ection coinciding with that of the denl'ction re'111irl',l. i.e., l>I'inlj:
verLienl (Fig. 20.S.l. The diagram of the bending moments M") iluluCl'd h}' 1,11("
I""d unity p ... B l'npN:lS!lAtl'd ill tOig. 20.8d. It is .lear that till, moment will
dilTer f"om zero onl)' III the CI"O~S sec,lioos of tho bc~m ~jtu~ted to tIlt' tdt IJf
p"int C (at ~ ~ '" <, whcI'C its Ilmounl, will he givpn hl' Mm  _ (~_{)
I)
Nej{lecting the ~heafs and int.egrating thl' term depending on ~hc hl'lIdiug
1I\Olllent..~ from Ttc l (.4T",remaininl:: constant I)' Hil L.O IIIl' righl, or ~i'climl Ci
Q
"
.
f
raj
~~
x~ grJph
,
Ill%
Ihl
I'm"
~
/
(,;0)
1ffillIDIDnnm..._ _
Id)
Pig. 20. ,~
__,J'__ ;\
((i I I"
,~.
(({I I
Fig. 21. 8
6.8. Jlclhoas of {}Is/ll"cf'menl COIll/lIlI<lllc71
.
~ MpMjds (' pnsin'l'RsilllfRdrp
~'1' j El  J El 
' n
e.
pn 3 PH'
 El jS11l2~I'JfJ'_ Rl
(!f..2'
sin Z,,')1t rrPIf~
D't.Er
Tho value of tho di~pl>1,,(>ml!nt thus obtained being po~itIVC, Its direelioll will
coincide ~'ilh that odopted for the Ivad Itnity in FIg. 2\.811.
Let us compult no\\' the nrticul di~)llac,l'lD('nt 1~j:I (If thiS ~llmo point A.
For this pllrJl<l'lO ...e l!hall upply 11 v{'rlic,,1 hlad \lnitr as iT"llra.tl><1 in t'ig. 21.8c.
In that C""l' tl'e bending momOllts induced by r.tm 100ld unity hc<:ofTIl'
J12~ 1.H (1 cos 'l')  a (tCOsqol
USI"g OllCll again exprcssion (1(;.8) Wll oblain
, C
,
, C ,.M
,
<0 El
,, fa) (tJ}
Fig. 2.1.8
Draw the t\\'o bending momenl e,"r\"('.~. Ont' for the distl'ibllted loa(l~ q effec
lively apI'Jie'! and one for the imaginarv unilmonu'lIt M. 1'loe_<e two r.un'e~ nN'
Il"i\'cn In ~ig. 1..'\.8,. and b. l'csl'ertive!>': Analytlcal!y tI,, \',II""s or till' lxonding
m"m"tlL' for I"llh C:I;:es will he gin" hy:
lur Iht' upright
q1l2 _
llf
n_ T Md M,,, __ l
7.$. T~",pcrll.tu,.t! $,,.,,Ins
(f6",.. 
J~ 7
I 'l.1 1 q41 *
2q.1
EJ dz+ "2' Itl dz + 3EJ /,
7.~. TEMPEIlATURE STnAI~S
2~_853
As the rise of temperature will lead to no vortical displaeemclIl.S
of the element d:e: Lhtl term &~ .. will romain nil.
Introducing the above values into {ormuln (t8.8) wc shall (Jbtai.l
the I'xpression pcrmitLillg direct c.ompntatioll of strains and rill
flocUous arising fWIn lcmpernturo chnngtl!:l"
, ,
( A".1=Iarl~t: SM.. . dx+L%.fSiV... dz J (HL8)
o 0
(.. thi., e.'cpressi(lll tho sign 1: iodicalc5 tbat. the summatiolL must
be carried over all the rnembers of the system.
dx. f4f'dx.
~   / . /.   7
~r"
~
\., z ~
~
, 0"
Z
,,
d, / ~,
, ,
"
,,
~/.
,,
'~ '=.d
a'~dA"
21.8
IIere Oii flud 0;= inc'licate tilt! MellS ooundec'l b~' I.he M nnd N
curn'S. Whell tho truss section is Ilonsymmetrical "bo\ll its neuLntl
1.+'" I _I
axi~ the l\!rlll be replaced b~' t~+y wherey iJ<
lflllSl
u>
Llle
The sign~ of all Lho terms appoaring' ill the :lbovc formula will be
ohtained :IS follows: when the strains of elemcnl d.z; illdtlced both
by the variation in tf'mperatllre aud by the load unity arc of tIte
s..1mo di~tion the forre.o;:jlOoding k'tm or t114~ cqultnoll will be
posiLh'o; if it were oLhl'rwi:!e, tbe L.ctm would be rll~gilLi\~.
In thu wOlputlltion of thermal di~ptaCt'nH'nls lJ~ !o1rouu and
dP/lt.dIQ/U produCf!d by the warinj! force'S may no longer Ix 'k'gkcttd
for their rdQliue /.."Qlul! nw.1I k 'lwle Qpprillbk.
~
1 ~1

, +i '0
IO C
T ,al
a
0
f~
(6) , ,
Fie. 2~.S
Svl"tlun. Apply 11 IUIIIl ullit} along tbe llirceUnu (If tlw displact'nlenl requi
red And drllw the eorn,lSI)OlllHnJ,: M 81ld N cu,vu (Fig. 25'~/.I ~nd r). Tlou Il~a~
bounded h~' ~h('!lIJ ClJrvc~ will amount lo
.."
n_=l./J_a
g~+jl(jI.s..1
M _
6",lSaa 15cx
.
If!ad5 10 811 utension of 1.he upright ....hile the load unit" adol'te,] enUil, iU
eonll'~ctlon. Gon5l:quently
T'
SzdQ" = Qn Z..
" TIlt ~tJIf> 'l"C_hnlqu~ ,\"ill
, ,
appl)' tA 'imilar inl.C(l:rl'b
~he ~Illroid.
,
%e representing abscissa of the graJlIl It follows that
I ".
~
0'
, 'd.<
Mm graph ,,, ,,
,,
Y, M~
 ii[ __
,  _=:: .. 0
,
"
Fig. 26.8
graph mea.~ured along tJu urrtical panlng Jhrough Ute rrmlroid of the
Ift:ofld olle. This produd will he reckoned positive when the grnph
of arbitrary outline Bud the ordinate to tho rNtiliupnr grnph are
both of the same sigil lInd negative when the two aro or opposite
sign. This proct"duro has been suggested ill 1925 by Pror. A. Vere
shchtljl'ill wben Ill' wos still 11 8tuden~ of the ;\{()S("ow Raihvny Trons
port Insti~ute and lherefore in tho U.S.S.R. this method is known
lllso as Vtrt'Shchngin'. method.
It should bo lIoted that the left part of expression (21.8) diRE'rs
from Mohr's integral by tho ab!>ellce of the f",cwr ~J' Hence the
result of the graph multiplication c.nrried out by Vel'e'<hchagin's
method mllst be later divided by EJ.
It should be always kept in mind that the ordinat/! Y~ must be
measured on the graph bounded by a straight tiTW. If both of tile
grnl,hs were bounded by straight lines the ordinate y, <:ould be
m~a~ured on any olle of the two. Thus, if it were rcquir'(1d lo rind
the product of t!le grnphs for .\1, and M" of Fig. 27.& one could
tlitlll~r muhiply the area Cb boulldcd by thc lIf j ~ur"'l!, by the urili
!late y" measun'd all)llg the \'crtical ptl!'8ing lhrQugh lhe cclllroid
O
 , ,
Q;J ,
T ~I ....
(b)
,
:
,
\
'~d
7
 .... _~. 1
1 '""_
Fir. 27.8
o( I_his llrea to the /If" curvt', or else Olll:l could multiply the area
a", bounilt'd by the /If, curve, by the urdinate Ni measured lo lhe
lift Cllr\'C along the vertical passing through the!h t(:ntroid.
When R lrapezoidal graph has to be nlUltiplied by another graph
(If Ihe g.'Hlli' shape, it is collyenient. lQ suhdivide olle of the two
into Iwn lrilttlgIos as indiClllod in Fig. 27.8b Md to multiply there~
After ~ht :trl!ll of ench of lhese lrinngh.s hy the urdinat.c to tht'
otht'r gl1lph lnE'asllred along thll vertical pllsRing through the c,cu
troid or l,!adl or these trillngle.'l.
TIIIIS, in Ihe CII.!1C just llll;'ntioned wc would ohtaill
8.8. Dhplfltl"unt COntPlllldllH! TtcllnlqJl~S
(O)~t /CJ~J
~~t:
,,
,
,,' I : I
, " ,
IQ) ~z /d}~J
Q,
T4bl~ 28
""m
.Area
No. Shal'" M the graph
"
..,l I, r
hi .,, .,,
L .
, ,
~
hi 21
,
{~
T
, ., ,
;~
hi 31
~
4" T
" '.
T'~ laiW5/Klroldll
...
hi
T ,I .",
lll~
~ ...
lJ
5 ppg<ro:kOft"k
{
...
rttk i
~~
In(/ldepm!
:
i
'
6
'T
t l'
""Cl'mc
,
,
2h1
"
8"
<] III!~"'"
fi
1nl>
=1:N,,,N,,~ .J~_~
Er' ~ <= ~
NmN n I
El'
(22.8)
.\1"1 lI't~Ph
J.f gr~ph
h ..'"':}, ".,g=J
.... 7
11
0'
~h,  ,
1I'1},2 IIl l
U (2h o+f'bl
h,e..... Ihi
+"'2(2h 5 +11 0)
"
' 0t 1
::j
h * h:d2h l +"3)
I
6 12 (I,:;,;, + h,h o)+
+ 11 3h o+ h~h~J
,~"
I I
{fhz (2c z c l) G 12 (clh~+ '2 ho1
, clho+'z1I~l
==Jr, ,
If ll
zz I" 3h
1"2'" \ o +h~)
.r" '~t"l,1
rtl .

O~4 I~'
G;n'c pnro/dl1 ~~~~~
f'b=.
I~ "hP\'
 .,
Ih,
T(1r,e,) I 'ft"J
..."
Wit,
3 I~l l2hij ,1..')
I
,
~~(tc,+cd ~ , ,
Wilt
b "': (,I,;' ;:lh,l
if' .
+,12lcl('!+r~, 12
Il,
(3r l + <'2) 3(('1+('11 .!..{r,k'
r, f.
r
OYsclcdl f ' .. ,h.+rtJ.')
lf,
T:T( :x.. +e,1 ,
1M2
,
Iltl'
~ la(3k'+
+'')1 12:'\
li~ ll~
12 (:k,tt)
w
1121'
, ~ f!i (3;" +k')..l.
+12'1
If
3{c3+ c,1 ,
lff:
!11J' :~ I!ll/r' +;.')+
" .J.&"
a
(a'
~a5Pl @....;111azpl
QJPr(llPP
1'1
~
.. I
.; , I
:
QS!
(c)
@
~I
(c' Id'
Fill. 29.~
~dulJl I~ding h}' tho onlioltlt"s to the V_ph due 10 the f1rliti<>".q load unity.
Using Vllff'Shebagin's muthod ud taking into account the d ill\'r('nt rigttlili.,! or
thr c:ohlllln ~ntl or the r!'M.'\ heam we find
The dlsplaucment Lhus found will be negative for the Mp and M g,'Aphs are
situAted on dilTerellL sides of each memher of the fl'RIlW thus iudicJltiug lhal
the lJen,ling moments},f~ luu1 M M'l' of opposite signs. Ill'nee lho ad.. :,l di~l'lllCl"
ml'ut, uf ]loinl C will IIGClJr in a direction opposit(l to th(l uUI) ild(>l't(~(\ for tho
loud unilr, I.e., towards the right.
,
J{ !:'rablem 3. Requir",1 tll" dl,nection .1l., and tb" l\llgular rot<>U,," l!.~ ur the
Jlf.'am with a huiltin end 1l1'I'9aring in }'ig. 30.8a. theSl' two displacem"nl...~ I'l'ing
due rllSpec.tivdy tu lhe nppIJclIion of a concentrated load P and of a UlOHll.'lIl
9Jl. The bending moment grapJls corresponding to thl' actual loading are illdic,at
,~d iu Fig. ilO.!!/>.
Solution.. AJlply alollg tho dire<:::tiong 01 the displacemi!uts tequirl.'d a uuiL
load (~'ig. 30.8~) nnd 11 unit momont (Flg. 30.Bd) lIud trace the c<lrr",~polldillg
bending mOlllcul dillwam~ (t'ig. 30.& and dj. Thl' dent>etions Hud angular ,'oLa
lions will be cOUlput~d using Mvhr's lormula tOgl."thl.'r with Verl'sbchagin's
m'1thud. Thn.up graph will be fi~t multiplied by thl.' liT,Il"I'Ollh 8:11111hen h)' till'
M2 grllph.
tl2J
'( O..'lPIXO,5IX2"X
, t O.2PlxO.5lXT')1'/:
x1 "Of.'J
 gra\lh {'(jURis
C (500 Table 2.8). I'Tencu the correspondlng ordinato to the M '"T'
o
8
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.