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STRUCTURAL MECHANICS

A. DARKOV and V. KUZNETSOV


Mill
PUllUSllERS
A. n, J\APKOG, B. n. IOf3UEuon

CTPOIlTE,TIbHAA MEXAHlfKA

na;nATElIbCTBO .UblCllliUl uu<on....

JolOCI1DA.
A. DARKDV and V. KUZNETSDV

STRUCTURAL
MECHANICS

MlR PUBLISHERS MOSCOW

1119
VDC G2~.U4(U7~.8)_2U

First Publlihtod 1!J64j


Seeund Edltlun
OOtiTEN'TS

rlllro,lllcti,jl'1 11

Chi'I''''r 1. KINEMATIC ANAL VS IS OF STRUCtUIlES


1.1. Sllllrl(lrl~ "
21. G<'Olllclricp\ SltlhiJity hr F,~"u'd :itrllctuu""
3.1. Stali<-~Il}" Determimlte Fr/lIl.t"l1 !\lr'M;UII',S ,."
17

Cb.pwr 2. BEAMS
1.2. GC1I(>r1l1
"
2.2, ltl'lIel '(In I"n""ncc L.n.." I~,r 5illlv1r SIIJllll"'!lC(1 n"l""a ... itIL
0<" Wlll"'1111 O"I-rho,," .....
"
3.2. 1;('lIdinl:: M'~l1l'''1 /lad Shl'M )110"('1)"" UtiCO' ror Sm1t.l)' Sur'
J",rl.l~l lJeam!; wi1h (lr "1t.hOlll ('v"rhllll&
4.2, lortlll'lIcC LJHe~ 101' ~i"'Jlll- ('"ulile"er 1\eam~
5.2, {"nneu"" Lines III ClI.<C" nflllClir"el LQIl,1 Apl,llca1.wu
8.2. D"INlllillOlwlI <of Fon~e~ \'1),1 .\r"II";,,l" \\ill, llll' ,\,,1 "I Ill'
fh,,,u"I; I.in" . . . .
7.2. Uf'h'l'tulUlItinn "I Ihl' J',lo~1 u"rllv\,u,,,I,h, P,,~ili,," "f ~ L"p,1
8.2. J)('\.{'''llinnlillll of Matim"m Mlirncnr lint! F"rtl" "'1II~
E:quh'pl('nl Uniform 1.'1/111:0-
9.2. MlIlIl"'I'/lll Sl.lirally Oot"nmnalc ~(,;'I1i~
10.2. o...l.cmli",.!lon of M'lml)'llt." 31,,1 t'v....f!S Inlturrd hr a ~)'",l,(',u
of lIi'lH Loads in Mulli"I"'" Sl::llit;aU)' O..tcnninatf JW!""~
11,2. Inn,",,1('1" I.i"". for Mllrll~I>oIn Shtio.l.lly OClI!'rUlln.k' 1.\(0.1.11'1"
12..2. Il~utlinl:: M'~nl'lLt!l and 5b{'{lfllog POt~f';'I iI"I.,w:N! by Fu'l'd
Ll...Il.S in :::tlltkally Oell'nnh".le O,,"l", KnCi' Pra",..~ altd
~alo ... 1 t'ol}1:t1n:o.l OMigll . . . . .

Chllpter 3. THREE-HINGED ARCHES AND FRAMES .


1.3. Throe-Illngcd Sysloms .
2.3. Support no,";tion~ of 11 Thrl"(l-Illngod .\reh
3.3. Dt'll'rmillation of StrlO;;~~ in Thtct~TJ inj,\"c,1 "rc\,c,
voe 6Vi.04 (015.81_ 2G

"'irst PubllsllH 1966


5ODd F..dill ..n
CONTENTS

/ntro,l,,,'lloll It

Ch/ll'l~r 1. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS Of STRUCTURES . l~

1.1. Sl1j'llOrts 15
2..1. G('QIllcVklll Stllbility '11 Flllllltd Slrochlrc.' li
3.1. $laUCIlII)' Dcotl>nni",.le FHll1lC"l ~hurtuf(,!! . ;"'\5

ChllJlLr1' 2.. BEAMS :11


1.2. Gt'I...... t :u
2.2. 1I1.'/lf'linn lunuf'f\oCo Lilk~ lor :;IIllIII)' !'ul'l""!"" n"all'~ Mlh
01 Wlll'h"~ O~crhllllg aIi
3.2. fkmlilllr jl,I'Jml'n~ ~HlIl 1'111.'11, lun"<'uce l.1I11.'- I".S'"'I"l' !:tu.,...
1)01...11'11 Rllllrn~ with o. Wilh..,ut Ow.h:.ng <\1)
4.2. InOIl"I!tt' Li,,('~ f"r Siml'I., LllhUII.'I'(" TlI'lIm~ 4R
5.2. IUnHIl"(11 Lilies io Ca;>o.'~ 'If Ilidln!et LOllo.l Al'pllcllli,," ~l}
6.2. Dl.-l,l.'I"'HII~lion (If F(>.'(<,s n,,,I hlolUollls '~ltl! tlte ,\,,1 "f 1,,-
n'!l'lle<' 1.1111'$ . . 52
7.2. Dl)t.\'rtHlu~ti"n uf lhe ~Iost l!IIIIl\l,n';lhll' l'".-.(i"u ul a ,.,1111,1 ~~')
8.2. I)l'tf'l',ullllll;(>n "I MuxilltlUlI .\I(lItll'l1l- ~nd r"rrl''' 1'~i1lR
EquiYl1lt'nl I'ulfor," L(O:ul~ . . . . . 711
9.2. \l1l1t-i-P311 SIIILi...lllly Dl't.t'1\unatll L~,tl" ..... ,r,
10.2. Dl'h'tmilll1lil'n of M"lllenL~ IInd P.... rel.~ In,lul:,-,'l hy :lI Sycll.'lll
01 Fi_"ed LOlld~ in \luhi!I".n sl.t~311y O",l<;nlllllall' ~lImC 11'0
11.2. !nO,u,,,tO l.il"",~ for \1,,11;5'1"'11' StllllUH)' Dl'~rmit<ate Iw;"n~ !II
12.2. l:ll'!l<!iniil toIolU .. n~ and Shl,llOoing ""one.... luduccd h)' f',~(tl
L6:ld" in 51.. Ucall) O... t .."nin;oh Ikllt. KIK"" F,aUIl.!S IIltd
BN'O" "I Polntonal n .....igu !~')

Ch.l'~t 3. THREE-HIMBEO ARCHES AND fRAMES . . If)"


1.3. Thteo-liingedSyst.l'lns . tilt,
2.3. !:illpptorl nelactions "Ill '1'hrcll.lllngcd Areh 11"17
3.3. D"knninat.ion of Sll'('$.'Ie~ in Tltl'l:(\-llillged ,\t'c,llV~ 114
6

4,3. \r:nJloum ECOlHllllY Arrh~~ 128


5.3. J)(>~ll;n hf Thl'OO-Hillged <\l'chos Subj,'c,\el! to :\1l1"inll LOil,Ia 12':1
&.3. CfIr.' Mnnwnl.s. and Nlwmal :::tr(lSS<~S in Thrl'()-Ilingnd Ard,('a 142
1.3. "\II:dy~is "f 'flir('c-~ling('il Tiel! Arches Hod U('lll,s j4<1

Cb~pt{>r 4. THE TRUSSES 1:--,0


1.... DidiJlJtl(lo~ Rul! CIas-~iftCfl.U(\fl of Trussl's 150
2A. DII'l'cl, )lcllwds or i".l"(!sS J)elel'lnin~lion in \1"'JlItlPr~ ur
Sltnlll" 'rrH~."Cs . 1;;3
3.4. Grill,ldeal "'1,tlJ(Jd.,f Slr,s.s AUilly~is in Si",ple 'frlJs",-'s 1i4
4.4. I);n'd\\['llwd of Slro"~ Ol'tel'lllj,,~tiQn ill CompJiralcd Slnl-
jeull}' D"l(,rmlllllle Frauu,,<l Structures HI2
5.4. ~Lr(''''~ Di~Lrlblllj('n ill Dilfel'llllt TYPI)S of Tr\l~es 186
8.4. \II~Jy_i~ of (:(,(~Mlrical StllhiJity or \lramI'd Structures 191
7.4. IlOnlle1l- Lines fnr ~It"s~~ III Simple f'l'''m('d Structll"~'~ fro
8.4. 1111111('1":1' r.IJ",s for Slr('~ws in Cmnpliealed rr~med
Slrlld',,~s . 213
8,4. TnJ~>('~ \\;lh Subdivided Pmltls . 216
10.4. 'I'hru'\. Dtw(lJupinll' Fr","e.1 Sh'~Jet"r(,5 U~
11.4. V.. ri",l1.~ ur Tn,~,*d Archl'S 231,

Chapter 5. SPACE FRAMEWORk 21,:~

1.6. C"JJNal . 21o;{


2,5. Rr~Cl' l'ram{)work SUllI'Juil.s 245
3.5. '1'11,' f"rlna~i'Jn or SIHin\lIy DN{!rl1li)lat~ Sp.'c'! rrnm('\\'ot'k 2!'i:I
4.5. Sln'~ An~lpJ~ In Split.!! Fr:llUl'wm'k 251
5.6. Ih,\Iuplos of Sfrl!S.' ;\nl\lysi~ in Spllcn Ihmnework 257

Chaplur 8. KINEMATIC METHOD OF INFLUENCE LINE CONSTRUCTION 1t'i1


1.6. (,;l'lI"nll 261
2.6. H&sic Prmciples of the Kin('lnatic ~{{lt"(>d 2tl2
3.8. 1l1'1'!aC('\lwnl <lr CUflstralllts by Corre~)lolldj\1g Forces 266
4.6. Conslruct;"" of Ib" Di~lljllrcmcnl Graphs 269
5.6. l)ell'I'mi"aIIOIl or thl.' Sc.a]., Fuc,tor 273
6.6. The Sigil CUll\'l,,\UOn 2,:)
1.6. 1~~Mlll!les of illfiuC'llrl!- Liu{\ Connruelion 27f'

CbapLrr 7. RETAIIlINB WALLS AltO EARTH PRESSURE COMPUTATION 2~1

1.'1, G('lwr"l 2$\1


2.'1. Phy~ica] p!'<,pC'rtiC'$ 01 GrauulM :\Iuterials 2.'12
3.7. ,\c_l.i\'C' Pr('~sure of Grnl1ulal' MUIC'rials 2'14
C~lIlrlljJ 7

4.7. Gtllphi"lll Oetennlnation oC Maximum .\Gti,-.. 1'''''.'lSUr.. 2lI7


5.7. Ponc:ell'l's Metbod . . . . . . . . . . 2!lO
6.7. Ml'thod 01 Direcl Comput.tion of .the E~rtl. I'rl!:'!~lre 2!.l2
7.7. PNl"\i~lltBr Ca~ 01 P~Il'" Compultliun 298
8.7. l'aSl!i,,1' l'I'!'."lre o[ Gr:anubr Materials 3(}.'1

0131'4>" a. STRAIN ENERBY THEORY AND :GENERAL METHODS Of DIS-


PLACEMENT COMPUTA.TlDH 310
1.8. OmIPnlt 310
2..8. Wurk '1[ EXll'I'nol Fnrn's 31(l
3.6. Sirloin Eneri;)' 3J7
4.6. l'I",ot'C'1ll of H,-eipn1ul WO,.kK ('I'h"OR111 01 B"lly) 321
5.6. l'hl'o'('lIl "r Ilt'C-il'roc.a1 Dil\lllllceln"ll~ (Th('ort'lll 'If Muwelll 325
6.6. Mlltl,o,l~ of Di~plll~(,llll'"t Comput.alion :'127
'1.B. "l'mp!'I'alurl' Sll1lill~ . . . . . . . . 3..17
8.8. Ui!pIIWlnen\ c'0Il11I1,loali,,,, 1'.... hnillut5 ~
9.8. E:(tltnpl,'$ "f Di!'pIMHnf'nt Comp"tation U!lllllt \"'I'l'-
sItfI1l1Ii:i,,'1l )1('I!tod 31.<;
10.8. Str:oin En<.'<'1ty MNhoo or Di~pl:lt'l'fl'l6nl (:"'111"'\31''''', :\:'".5
11.8. TI.1' EI'II\;r Loads ~Iclhod 357
12.8. Si.Jlpli~1 It"Vre."i"'iOll "1 EI/t.~llc lPad.'\ rOt &-llM lInl! It ill;II
Ftllllle.~ . . . . . . . . . .. 31'>3
13.8. Simplirll!il f.lIl'l'('s;l,on of Elastic LOlItI,. I(\r 1-li,IIo...C"ulll'(.lJ!'d
SlrllClurell . . . . . . . .. ;I!;t;
14.8. Il,rol"l'llnli()n~ of Sllllically D"'Le'T11inll\e Strllo:_l"r... ~ C~u'td
b~' lh(' :\11'l\'~!IIo!llt or SUJlpOl'l-l! . . 3;2
15.8. Def""IIllllill"e \,[ a Killemlllic Chain (:lIu'NI I.)' lh\, )[utual
nulatiull of Two Nelghbourilllj: LIJlk~ 316
16.8. D... notli(>n~ of Threc-Diml'o~llInIJ F'rllnu)d !ihn~t"I1!S . . . 37~

Chllrtor 8. A"ALYSIS OF THE SIMPLER STATIClLlY [NDETERMIIlATE


STRUCTURES BY THE METHOD OF FORCES 38.1
Ut Gooetltl . ;llI3
2.9. (""1I001cal EqttatiuMo Ded\l1I by Ihe MKh<>d ot fore.... ::ltl!l
3.8. Analyoi". "f \h,' Simpler Ill'llundlnt Strllctu~ 3\\-1
4.8, Slres"l.'JI In 1l ...I"nllllnt Struclurl/!S due to Temper:lture
r.hallll'('s .............. 408
5.9. Sln'~"'C" in Iledund:lnl Slru~t""'5 Cau!('il by Ihe J\lO\'~
lI,enl uf SllPPort.~ . . . . . . 410
8.8. Diayr.. m~ ll,ll Shollriny IJId Direct S\l'('.."l.'S. Checklnlt of
Dil'grlllU8 <lIS

'1.9. SItIl'nS Du,l D"ncetimul uf :>lll\lcnlly Ind~lenninllle Struc-
~m Q3
8.9. The Ehl~~it_ (;f'1l1,ro Muthod . i2~i
9.9. II1[hlcllf,.' Lint" fur tJu~ Siml!Jl!f Ill'Llllndllll1 Strlldur('l' 1,31

CIIIII'!u 10. CONTINUOUS BEAMS <\<\1


1.10. Th('('n'm (;/. TllrOO "'''"Ulr.nl.~ 3i1
2:.10. Till;' f'Ot'd I'owl.. MHI,I)(I <\~3
3 '10, LI"nrli"g Mo'm!!,,! 1::"",,1,,1'1': Cut\'('" <\61
.10. l"nm'IIeu Ulll'~ r~'r (".roIJll\Il"'~ /1"10, 411(,

CJ'~I'I,'r 11. REDUNDANT ARCHES ',71,


1.11. I}dillit,nn~. Ch"i("ll "I tlu:. N"Ulrnl Lint' . . ,-;.)
2.11. Arcl,,-. with '-ari,l.Ie CI'Os......."fcl'"nal DlmC)lsivlU! 4.'\11
3.11. l;onj"R3to SI'ltieall)' D"to.'rmiJ'lllt' Slrudures U5Cd for Stnt~.
AuaJysl~ of nu..1 End Arehes ~bl
4.lT. ~\pl'r<>lImllll' lI(_thlXl~ of DE'gl!:Jlllwl An.l)-~i~ of Fix,~ En,!
Arth(,-" "i8',
5.11. !;;ff'l'l'L or Shrltlk~"1! lmd 'l'ClIl/ICI'ollll'O Chllnge~ On ,",ul',1 En,l
IIdn'.....l!d C..-.no:",t(' Aro:,hl'3 :,11'1
6,11. I)itt.... ~ C.'~lLl'"t~1 i,," or l'ulubnlk Ylx,~l ["d Arches 521
7.11. '1 "" .. tll"ll'.-d Al'l:hc!' .:.~

Chapt.l!r 12. ANAL YSIS OF HIOHl Y REDUNDANT STRUCTURfS 32!1


1.12. 1I~ "I :::}'I1lIl'l('tr)" 52':1
2.12. C,"l'I'I"II1: "r tho UllknQWll~ ~
3.12. ~Ylllmulri'<1I1 '11,,1 Anti~rrnfll()lriCll.l Lo~djnl; &');.;
".12. Lt>.UII Trlln~rVnJlllti"n 538
5.12. A(C:'IfIl"~' c.."uu,,\..,1 All thi! 't\'rm,.: Ent('ring the Simultllnoous
I::tl'''''''''l~ :>42-
6.12. .\hiolllC'd 1'dl"tlllu (lr C... noniral l':quillioll!l M~
7.12. ~""r" I "r..h\"m" ill Strc:>.'! J\l1l1l)~i~ or Illlduodllllt Frames ~'\I-.
8.12.Shlinll)' In<!('tf!/'t,,inal.c "l'rll"lI(lS . . . . . :'7,;)
9.12. C:"lllpHll,~i.,u "f !lotlltlcully Ind('ll'.'mlllllle ~t;uelurl'lI with
the "id 01 1'uul'lcr StrucLure,!! lil'ilundll1ll' tu a 1.O\\er Oegreo .=.t>r
10.12. 11lIluNlc. LlIle Modd~ 101' Gonlir,,'Ou~ U,~~m.. :il:s:;

Chapter Ta. SlOPE AND OEFLECTlONS. COMBINED AND MIXED METHODS 5B8

1.13. Cl'uiol:e of l:"kllown>' 58lt


2.13. O('wm,;u.ti,.n of the Xumlll'r 01 Unkll<l\\'11'" 5\,.-,
3.13. Thl' CUlljUl:lltll F.y"It'1n of lletlUlldilllL r.l.'lItro~ :)03
4.13. Canonical Eqllalinn~ }<.'Culiar tQ lill' Sll'loe ""d D....necli.. n'
Method 001
5.1', SllIticlll /II.'lhod hi Dl'll'rminiug tlit> C"f'ffICll'lI~S III ~hll
Unkn"wlIs and the frCI} 'l'l'rmll r~11
6.13. Dcll'l'mim,lion or th~,(:oemdcllllllo tl1l' Ulll;lIoWlIlIa.n,1 of tllll
F1'('tl Tl'mlS by the ''l'11101l Qf Grllpll .Mu1tilllieation 612
7.13. Ch('cklllj: Iht' f;oofIOeil'''~ to Lhe l"kllu..... n~ and th~ F~
Tet'nJ" I""'lailllng to tl.... Simultanl;4>U'" j:;'lualions of tile
Slupe an,1 lJl'neeli"nll Ml'lh,wl t~1"
B.13. C.on~ruelllJn of 1I,0;lf. fri and Q Diagram" filii
9.13. CUllllh,lulioJ' or lho TI'l,nhlll Strllill~ [')' tlwSlopoJlluID,.nl'C-
tion~ M"thrH\ Ut~
10.13. AlllI\~'!i! of Symllll.'lrie.lI\ Slrlle.tun~ 624
11.13. ,\n KJ:lllfll,l.. of Fr""I1' AlIlIl~'~i", hy till' SIt'I'" am1 01.'0,,<,110115
""l'lIlod . Il~
1~.13. 11,, Mhed Moth.,,) 641
13.13. TIl.. C<Ilnbinr.\l ;\I"thooJ ~l;
14,13. C""l1lnlelioll Of!lln""llel' LUll' Ity Ihe ~I"\le al,,1 DenCCUOlIS
~1~11",,1 f-4'1

Chllpter 14. APPROXIMATE METHODS OF STRESS ANAL VS IS FOR REDUN-


DANT FRAMES 65,
1.14. c.:11l'itiflCJl.l;nn of A\ll'rn:dlllllte MelhO(ls (,,~
2.14. The M"th<lC1 of Momt'nl Dill\ribuli..,u 6."i5

Chapter 15. MODERN DESIGN METHODS rm


us. ll"lIle Princ.itJlt'II I1ti7
2.15. DO"IGn (.If Sll,tJ(llll)' Oetermillllt' H('lllllS . fj71
1.15. DO!'liO uf Slatic"Uy Indcle'1n;n:lt" Delllo!' 6.5
4.15. Df'~iRn of Itl'thuuJllnt rnlln~ :md AlT.he.~ ~
5.15. D(><oil;n of nllltll\llI:ITl~ 'l'rUJl'''t''' 693
6.15. II'<J"ntlan\ S\.lllclurt"! Suhjtetl'd 10 Hl'f'rol ..d L'la,\ing 69<1
Ind~.'( G97
INTRODUCTION

Structural mochanics is a science which sLudillS the strength.


the rigidity and the stahility of engineering slruet.llrc~ find P1Hts
thereof. The strcngth of mAterials dealing with the strength.
rigidity and stability of isolated member!!; the t.heory of Hl3stici-
ty. which is cooceroed with tlte same problems but gives more
strict solutions; the theory of plasticity which invcstigtltes the
stresse-c; and strAin!! of plastic and elasto-pl:lstic rnatf)rinls. and
rmally the theory of structluc!:l which studios the strength. riA'id-
ity and stability of whole structures-all form pMI.s of this
discipline.
It was Lellllnr<:!o da Vind 04:J2~1:119), th~ gl''l)at llalintl sden-
tist aJld artllit, who was Ute first to formutale a number of valuable
idea!! on the strell~th of malerials. These ideas nover ht-flume widely
known And remained confIned to his manu~criJllS un Ulechanical
research. In those days, large-scale studies of prohlems which form
the subject of contemporary stf1lclural mechanics wert;> "tlorty
impo&'lible. Oldy partial 8Ohltions of isotatod problems rclatNI to
l.he strength of certain structural members could 00 obtained.
The emin~llt physicist, mathematician and astrollonu".r Galileo
Galilei (1564.-Hi42) is generally considered to be the father of scien-
tilic studies in tho strength of enginu("rin~ malerinls ami structures.
11' thoso days the expansion of maritime trade called for large
increases in the tonnage of cargo vessels and for improvements
in their desiRJ1. Dealing' with thesa questiolls Galilei discovered
that the ship's overall strength and sea-worthiness could not be
satisfactorily fHlsured silnply increasiug' the dimensions of hel'
Ulember~ ill direct proportion to her si7.e. He also proved that the
dead weight to ultimate load ratio may dmer for geometrically
similar bodies.
Galilci's .~tudies of beams subjected to bcnding led him to a num-
bcr ()f valuable conclusions which have Mt lost interest up to dale,
JlUt he was unable to develop a true naxural theory, as he procee1led
from a false conc.eption that the whole cross s.cction of lhe beam is
uniformly extended. Neither had Galilei allY knowledge of the rcla-
lion existing between stresse~ alld strains. The simplest form o(
12

(hi!! relalion Will' di!<o\'cnJ1 ill 1G78 by H()Lt'rt Hooke ,,'hu e~pl'l!~d
it as "uL tC-tlsiu sic vis" (""Ihl' t'xtellsion is liS lt~IIL as Lhe forcc")_
The facl that l'(lmpN'-$'<i\'~ slrcs."CS;l, '\Oitdl as the tendle Odes l'XiSl
in the ao~ Sl'cliun of It ht'am suhjcclcorl to J'f'lltling was discoven:d
in lh(' s(lc(lllll half of l'!to HHh coni ur)' as tho OUI.C.OIllC or It S(.ri,'s "f
tl:8lS condudl'll with grl'nl thorolJglml;.,~, At that /.iuto tilt' rapid
dt\v'llopmcnl. of t.rncle.s lIrl(1 indm:lriC'H. was c(lll~tanl.ly (',ailing FIJI'
neW :"'illlllifw acllic\'l'ItIClll~'1 Among whkh was thl' COn'~ct soluLlul1
nr ~he I"rolJlcm of bendin![' pnt. by Glllilei,
SiglJirlcltut atll'ltnct'~ ill lIigllN In:llhttnHitks and mt'chllIlics
achieved ill th~ 18th Ct'otury l'ontributC'd greatly Lo lilt, t/(lyclop-
merIt of sludil's in till) strellRth uf cHllt'riMI! I\lld slrllClllro~, Works
by J. I~agrrlll'lo 1I1lt! L. Euler wtlre of IJOrtkular inl)KlrlallCC in Ihis
ro5lk'Cl.
Vigorous gftl",lh of iudllslry in thco HHh cell(UfY. thl' illtroduc~
tiOll or. the .. tl!llIll l'Il!!;illl', thc cOlljjlrut,tiOll of railways, bridges.
dams. CMlltds, 11\'l."1' su'amships and lln..IlL Luihlil)g!'I lIccclt'ratpd
thl.l sLudit's ill lilt' stn'llgth of 1'1lgi11C{!r11l1(' Illllwrial~ und alrut:lurcs,
The cvorgrowin~ comrJluKilr 01 strudural forms lInd tho pre.~sill.r,r
dornalHI fC/r 11 l'('llurliOIJ ill IJllildil1g' co"ts resulted ill lilt' develop,
1110111 of new lIIolbo.l:; of .\Ilr<'Htl'th cOlllputrllion :lnd in the forlllali(ill
of a lIew ulIgincoring- scioJlcc-strudllfl\l mcdll\lIirs (tll"o rlllloll
Lho tht'ory of 1IIr'll:t<l"-OS).
Trtl:;5e:;, al'\'lu::d Sy>ltCIIIS, rclninillg wnlb and ri,l.!id rrames form
the nll\iJl c1aS'<cs (If structures d~all. with 11)' 1II(l(Il::1'11 :<Irllclnral
ll1('chanics,
III thl.ir simplest form Jnltn~' of thost' strlWtllteS h:id lIi..-en all"l'adY
1I~'(1 by Lho 11IIcit'lIls, bUl the methods or their cOlnl'ullI.tioll l't'lllailll'ld
ulllwoWII.
A L prU,'ll.'nl. trllSSI.'>l Ilud Irian.!tuJaled S)'!llcms Rl'C widol)' u:;CII
irl hrirlge lllld rllof t~oll:;t.lIcLi()1J (hridge IIUrl roof Irus,S!.'s) liS well
liS ill lra\'c.llirtJC 1;,1'.1 lit':>. toWt'r Cl'UIH.'i'S. Ilowerlinc lowcr.':\, R('fi~d
:'llppol'l.s ,uHt in a largo 1l11UdJ('.1' uf othl'r slnlfl,l'lres.
Arched ,~YSlI'IIIS JnflUl' their IIppl'arll.nr", ill allcil~lIl, ROJllc. wh('f(l
thoy WOfIJ iltlCCC....c;rulJy used rur the cOlISlrllclion of nl3S1lnrr brid~1'1!
Ilnrl aqut'lhll'l..'!, In tile i'K'COIlt! hnlf or Lhe 19Lh ('entury thc!'l6 sJsl.ems
becnmo useu ill Sllocl-brid'lt.l construction Mid in the 20Lh ("","ltlty
reinforce.<! cOII('rolt' Ill'.,.'omes tile ffi::lill Itlnterinl USL'li for Illat Lype
of 51 rucll.res. ,\ I prcSl}nl arthcd sy"'lcrns nr.' widely u.;cd in ninny
killd;'l or Iltrgt'-sI13n construction work.
llttainillg .....alls have h{'('n used to prevent. tllo ~Iiding down (\{
steep !ollopt's in varj.ltls hfUllchos of engineering activi I,it's sinCC' ti III~-S
inlnJelllorial. Higid frAllleS became \\'i,!e.spn'ad ill mudern tinll'S,
reinforced cOllcrelc (llld litcel frames uciuK' ,'urren!!y ulled for tllC
COl1strucLion or si IlgJe llnd mlllti~toricd i nil usl ri3 I Anrl other bui1dinW!.
As a rcsu II., mulhoos of compuLllLioll of COllLllhcllk,J rcduuoullL
strudllre." tHin.! bt.-ell furLllC_r pcrIcc\.iollcrl and simlllifJcll lu such
an ('.:ttclll that today tJll'Y nrc lIscd in everyday lh:.<:i/oCll prartice.
IlllporLllnt IHlvanc('s hll\"e 1I1so hl'tln mndc ill lhu stud ius lIf thin-
walled tuhular 8()clioll~ which MU rrcqul'ntly lltiliZl~d ill uircrnfl
constl"llctioll as well as in otber brnnches flr cng:illcerillll'_ Vuriolls
probltlUlS N"11\tud 1.0 tile stability of structure."l Iwvl;J bl.'ell sUl~ct'$rtllly
soh'cd. or hiLa t.he nYtlami,,. of IHlginl.-'lJring iltrucLures hu\'& bciln
acqllirillg all eVllr illcrell~illg impurtnncu. 11. forms 1l0W a scparntc
brr\llc]l or 1111.1 f;tl'llctllral Ulccbar1ic."l, Slllllll os Lhl' l,heory or 1I1l\'ul
alld neronautical an:hite<.:turo.
I\[nung t.he Soviet scienlists and I't.!SllArch workers the folltl\\'ing
hH\'C made Lhe great.eSl.l,lontributinlls to the dev~lopmcllt of strnctur-
allllcdlnnics: A. Krylov, U. GaJl.'rkin, A. Gvoldo\', H. Zttemochkirl.
1. RnLinovkh, N. SLrcllll~ky, I. Prokofytlv, N. BCluktwv, N. Bclya-
cV, V. Bototin. K. Zavriev, A. Smirnov, S. PunOmllrtW, V. Vlasov
M. Filonellko-Borodkh, P. Papkovich and 1\. SniLko.
1. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS
OF STRUCTURES

Lt. SUPPORTS

Struct.ural mechanics deals wilh u'lyidding systems Hr st.l'llctun:.....


in other words, wilh sucb slruct.llrlll systems no point. or which
can be displaced without a deformation ()f tbcirelcmenlS. The immu-
lahility of such syslems (their It"t'ometrical Rlability) .....ith rul3liuIl
to the ground - is ensured by m~alls of !lupports. ReactiofllS ftrisinl:
at these supports together with the- applied loads [orlll n balanet'<!
system of outer or external force.. which mAintain the ~tructuru ill
equilibrium.
Let 115 first l'>.l'lminQ the diIferent types of supporls which may
be encountered in plane slruclun'!i.
The I1rst lYllt! as represented ill Fig. 1.1 con..~i.sts of two rockor.o<
(the upper and t.he lower GUll) with 8 !lin in betwi.'en pcrmiltillg
the rotation of tho upper roc.kef with respect to lhe lowor Orll'.
At the same timl.l both lockers
CUll move to"ether 1111 rollt'rg along
the bearing plate.
'1'hu~, the system has t ....o dtlgret'!1 of frt'(l.dom, "he friction deve]opt,d
in the bc-arinl: boiR!: usually neglootcd. The rcnctiou or thi.... type
of support pa~s through. the centre or the pill and is perpcndicubr
to the bearing plate surface, Le.. lo the surface along which lh~
roBets may traveL Thus, only olle parameter of the r('llction, Le ..
its magnitude, has to be known in order to determine this l"C<aCliOll
complctt'iy.
Supporls of this type s.re known SlS jre#' ~nd or movable rolkr
support.!. Schematicall)' they are represented by ono bar with hinged
onds" (Fig. 2.1).
The bar is convtlnUonally considered lo be of inflnite length;
its upper extremit.y may mov~ only <alu/lg n straight Hnc, DorD1<a1


The word ,rOllml wiU hen'alter refer to any rigid invnriable body .
.. In ,,;ome ca!e5 lIlovllbla supports aclualh' cOIl:!lsl or a v('rtienl e!l.'D1NLl
with hingo! al both extremltjell, in whieh ease t)ley nrr rofl'l"l'I)tl 10 ll'" l)~rHlulu",
fllppurlf. .
I" Kill~"'lI/IC AIlIlIII~I. of Slrl<clurCI

~::'1=~t:_~-:r
.__ liingo

~-
,,-
rf)Cker

Fig. J.1. Fig. 2.1 Fir; ..~J

F: : -.:' '.'.

FI,. 1.1 Fig..';.1

,
,
--------+--- -
,
,

Fig G.I
17

t.o its axis, a straight line being a circumference of infinite radiw.


The bar is also regarded as infinitely rigid so that its strains can
be completely disregarded. These two conventions fat very do..~ly
into the actual \\"Orking conditions of supports ()f the type just
described.
Tile second type of supports differs from the first one by the fact
tbat t.he lower rocker is fixed and cannot move (Fig. 3.1). This type
of bearing possesses only one degree of freedom. It. is u~lllally termed
hi/teed imMOl)tJble or flUdo end support.
The reactioll will still pass through the centre of the pin, but
its direction may be arbitrary, and accordingly to determino it
c,ompletely two para,meters have to he found-its mo.gnitudc and
direction (or, which'\.; the same, the magnitude of two of its compow
nents, say. the vertical and the horizontal one).
Sehematically the second type of support may be represented
by two bars with hinge.!! at their ends, the top hinge being COmmon
to both bars (Fig. 4.1). That fixes the point of application of the
reaction which coincides with the top hinge. hut in thi.!! case the
r1irection of this force remains unknown.
The directions of the bars themselves may be chosen at will as
allY force may he resolved into two compo0t:nts of any direction.
Tbe lbird type of support is the bulltin end (Fig. 5.1) whose
degree of freedom is nil. The determination of the reactions devel-
oped by this support requires the knowledge of three paramet.crs-
the direction and magnitude of a force passing through tiny point
chosen at will SlId the magnitudl! of tbe nloment about tho same
point. Actually this forms a combinotion of the reaction of a hinged
imillo\'abl~ support with the reactive moment.
This type o[ support may be represented by three bars ns in
Fig. tu. To atlain perfect rigidity or the support the distance lo
must be rt'garded as extremely small or tho builtin end of the beam
as absolut.ely rigid.
It is worth noting that tilt: nlUltbn' of bars t, theu $C'~m4lic repre
$tntallons 0/ S/lpplJrtl il alwaYI ~qu.Ql to tM numbu Of parameters
thtn-mintng compklely the r~tUUvn at thi! ~UPPOTt.

:2.1. GEOMETlIlCAt. STA.B1Ll'fY OF FflAMED STRUCTUllES


FrfUlU'd or through str~turt'$ ('onsist of a series of separate, u!lually
straight, membllrs connected together by welded, ri\'etctl, bolted
or other t}pcs of joints. Oue of the simplest t\Vo-dimcnsioual forms
of framed structures is tho plane truss.
In most MSOS tilll joints of framed structure!! are not hiugtd and
possess a certain dlJU'retl of rigidity. The exact computatioll of trusse.'l
wHh rigid joint!! is oxtremely eomplic8tcd fl5 the system becomes
Z-U3
"
many times staticaHy indeterminate. On the other band, when rigid
joints are conventionally replaced by hinged ones, the analysis
becomes greatly simplified and under certain conditions equations
provided by statics alone will suffice.
Tests carried out as well as the results of theoretical analysis
indicate that in general the conventional introduction of hinges
does not lead to any substantial errors in stress computations per-
taining to through structures loaded with a system of forces acting
at the joints. Therefore, for design purposes ordinary trusses are
always regarded as being hinge-jointed.
Let us now examine a system consisting of three rigidly con-
nected straight bars as represented in Fig. 7.1a.. lf the rigid joints
are replaced by hinges. the system will continue to be Uftylelding
(Fig. 7.1b), i.e., it will he uDcapable of undergoing auy distortion
without the deformation of at least one of the bars.
Should, ho.....ever, the quadrilateral system, shown in Fig. 8.1a,
undergo the same treatment, we shall obtain a system whose shape
can be alured (Fig. 8.1b) without any deformation of its
members.
The simplat unyielding system consisting of a number of separate
pin-jointed bars is a triangle with hinges at all tbe three vertices
(Pig. 7.1b).
Let us establish the rules governing the formation of geomelri.
cally stable systems comprising more than three pinjoillted bars.
In tbe first instance let us examine a system consisting of two
bars (Fig. 9.1) placed along a straight line and connecting joint
C with two fixed points A and B. If the bars AC and BC were
disconnected at point C, the extremity C of bar AC would become
free to move along the circular arc m-m, while the extremity C
of bar BC-along the arc n-n, the two fll'CS ha'l.'ing a common tangent
at point C. It follows that if the extremity C of one of the two bars
moves over a very short stretch along a perpendicular to AB, the
other bar will offer no resistance. Thus, the system is geometrically
unstable, as its shape can be altered without any change occurring
in the length of its members or, in other words. without any defor-
mation of the bars.
Hereunder we shall refer to systems consisting of two bars placed
along a straight line (see Fig. 9.1) as imtanta.neoudy umtable.
these systems becoming rigid as soon as a small shift of point C
along the perpendicular to AB has been completed.
The situation would change entirely if the two bars AC and BC
were not in alignment (Fig. 10.1). In this case the circumferences
m-m and n-n have uo common tangent, and, therefore, even the
slightest displacement. of joint C is impossible without a correspond-
ing deformation of the bars.
2.1. GeometrIcal Stablllly pt F,anud StnUIII'" 19

"" ".
AA
".;.-
.

(oj -

fI,t. 7.1
... {tJ}

,
:
.
' . - .-~-~-~-~-~_._._'--"
:
,
,
,, ,, ,
A'----4'
(.1
FIt:. ~.I

m ,n
,
,.
ie 8/:
.
,"
'm 'n
r
,m
,,
, -n
~,,~c-_
A?-.--------n-",:~

F'K. 10.1

,.
20

It follows that each addilional joint forming part of a geomet-


rically stabJ~ systom must be attached thereto by means of two sepa-
rate bors the axes of which do not lie
6 1 S S l i S l l ) on the same line.
Comequently. any system fhvel

~, aped from a hinged tri-angk by suc-


cessive addition of joints, each flew
;oint being connt'cted la two existing
onrs by two bars not in alignment,
wtll be geomnrically stable (invar-
iable). Systems so formed will be
called hereafter simple fra med struc-
tures in order to distinguish them
, , z It 5 7 !I from the complicated ones. usually
(lcrived from the former by replace-
ment of a number of bars or hy
97SJlu 6 superposition.

~
All the plane tru5..'<tJs represented
in Fig. 11.1 belong to the simple
8 {i S b frames, each having beon obtained
successively by adding hinged joint.~
7~ to a basic pin-connected triangle
abc. in the sequence indicated. Any
9 S 2 I
triangular combination of three
70742 pin-jointed bars may serve as a basis
for verifying the gcometrical stahil-
9 J ity of simple framcd structures.
Thns, any system consisting solely
11 8 s , 1)/ triangles l.~ obvtously unyieldi'lg
7 s , (geometrically stable). This property
may be checked with etplal SUC('es~
in a reverse order, viz., by rejectill.lC
onc by one all the hinged joints
together with the two bars abutting
to each of them. If in the outcome
, a pin-jointed triangle is obtairu'd the
system is glJometrtcally stable.
Fig. 11.1
.Let 115 now establish the rclo-
tion between the number of bars
ond joilltll forming a simple truss. As stated IlllOve, such a truss
consist~ of. onc basic. pin-jointed triangle, to which a number of
additional joints have bllen successively attached, each by means
of two separate bars not in alignment. Let S be the number of hars
and K the number of joints. The hasie triangle consists of three hars
and thrl'o joints; all the othor joints, numbering (K - 3) are
2.1 Gtamdrlctd Sfal>"/t/l af Framtd Structure!

attached by means of two bars each. Therefore, the total number


of bars in :\ simple truss will be
S~3+2(K-R)~2K-3 (1.1)
If the number o( bars S < 2K - 3, the tmss does not contain
a number of hars suffleielJt to ensure its geornetrical stability and

D[z]~
(a) (b) (c)

Pig. 12.1

the system will evidently be unstable. All example of such a system


is furnished by a quarlranglo (Fig. 12:la) characterized by S = 4.
3ud K = 4. Consequently
S=4<2K-3=2x4-3=5
This quadrangle may be couverted into all unyielding system
by adding a IHth diagollral brar, as shown in Fig. i2.1b. Should

IIJ ,,,". ,.' "

Fig. 13.1

we introduce a second diagonal bar which would give a total of


sb: bars as against four joints (Fig. 12.1c), this sixth. bar would
be redundant from the view-point of geometrical .'llability. This
example shows that we may encounter geometrically stable systems
for which S > 2K _ 3.
It should be noted that the condition S ~ 2K - 3. tl/imgh neces-
sary, is not sufficient to e.nsure. the geometrical stability of a hinge-
connected system. Thns, the truss rep~esented in l~ig. 13.ia is
unstable although the number of its bars totals exactly 2K - 3.
The truss shown in Fig. t3.1b has an even greater number of bars
but still remaill5unstable.Tnis is due to tho fact that the right-
hond panels of both these trosscs consist of hingejointed rectangles.
'"
'Furthermore. in certain cases Iramed sLr\.c\ures for which tho COII~
dition S = 2K - a is fulfrlled may he instantaocollSl}' ullsl.1ible.
Let us now con"ider the problem of connecting gevJnctricAlly
stllble syslem.s to the ground hy IlleallS of support:!.

structure (plate) Structure (plate)

Iq) Ib)

In the majority of cases a plane structure (which nlay he rogarrled


as n rigid disk or pInta) will rest on two hillge SUPPOfU-Ollti lUovllble
and the olher riXt!d (Fig. 14. tal. This t}'pe of connectiOIl betWCl'D
ComfflOO
__----~_ hiflge

/'
," -o
~',
I \
(Plate)
,

Iq)
(b)
Fig. /5.1

structu.re and ground is geomotrically stable (unyielding). It is nOl


essential that two of the three !!Ilpporting bllrs should have a common
hillg9; indeed thoy may have nOlle (Fig. t4.1b).
However, should the directions of ~II tlie !lupporting bars inLersect
at one and the same point (Fig. 15.1/1',). this point will constitut~
an instanlanto/U centrt of rotation abollt which the whole system
will be able to accomplish an infinitely small rotary movement.
(Practically such a displacement lllAy become quite appreciahln.)
Once this mo\'ement accomplished, the supporting bars will no long-
er concur at the same point and llll fut,ther displacement.!! will
23

!x'rOOlC impo.'lsiblc wilhout a corrc!lpollding dcfurmnliulI of these


bars.
.'\ system connliGlcd to the ground in the way lust de:-<'ribed will
be hlslaulnneously ullsl"blc and. therefore, such an arran~mcJlt
of supports C31l1l0t be tolerated.'
On 'he contrary. tb~ nonconcurring end DOlqlnralJel" bars
..... ilI lllways provide 1\ geometrically stable SuppOrt.

fIr. 16.J Fit. 17.1

All the above 8[)plie~ equally to t.he cOllocclion of any two g('o-
Illctrtcally s . . ,. ble slruclun-s (or rigid pla~) between thomselves
thus pcrnliUing to formulate the following rule: two rigid plate~ will
form a geometrically ,Iable (unyldding) sYltem 11 /My art connected
together by ml'llllS 01 thru bars which are not p01'alIel and do 1/ot con-
verge at a common pOint of intersectton.
If a hinge is placed at the point of intersection of nny two of the
three bllts and is connected to the plote, the system will remain
unyielding and may be regarded as consisting of two separate plates
cOnJll'ded by means of onl.\ r,ommon hinge and one bor (Fig. 1fl.1b).
It follows that two di$ks may be rigidly connected together u&ing Om!
hing(' olld one bar provided the direction 0/ this bar d~1 not pou through
the ce"tre 0/ thu htnge.
Three plates Inlly Le connected to form one single unyielding
~yslcm with the aid of tbrea hinges placed at the ,-erUces of a trinn-
i:le, ('nch of these hinges c.ounectingone pair of plates O'~ig, 16.1).
r\lterllatively the sall1e result will be obtained by placing six inde
pt'lldent bars (Fig. 17.1), as each hinge Dlay be replaced by two bars
illtcrst'Ctingt at the cenlre of this hinge.
However.! the sy~tcm represented in Fig. 18.1 is instantaneously
unstable, the intersectiolJs of the bars connoot.ing each pair of plates
+
As wHl bo shc;>wn in Art. 6.1" e\'01'I very small ull~rnal IOll.lls .nay streSS
tl.& installtaneousl)' IJn!toble systE'ms very hellylly.
"P~rlllIellinl'a hllying 9 )Joint of inter&l'Cttou in the infInity,
Ftf. 19.1

Fig. 20.1
2.1. GeometrIcal Stabllltll 01 F"am~d Structure'

being in alignment. This system is similar to the one shown in


Fig. 9.1.
Thus. three rigid plates connected together with six bars, pro/lickd
each pair 01 plate$ is connected by two ban and pro/lided also the Inter-
sections of these two bars do not Ue along one stratght line, will always
lorm an unyielding combinatton.
Fig. 19.1 shows a number of systems constituted as jusL described.
A plausible arrangement of a statically determinate multispan
(clllltilever) beam is illustrated in Fig. 20.1 (such systems being

Fill. 21.1

dcscrihed in grcoler detail in Art. 9,2). Let us check the geometricAl


stability of this beam. For this purpose. let us first select SUUIC
unylcldinA' portiOll of the structure rigidly connected to the ground
end thon let us see whether all the other geometrically stable pal'lS
of the struNure are connected to the former by mMllS of a sllmcienl
numb!'r of bars. It should be kept in mind that the ground and any
portion of the structure connected to it with the required minimllm
of three bars constitute an unyielding combination uod thereforo
it is quite immaterial on which of the two the connecting bars will
take support.
In the system under consideration bar [ is rigidly connected
to the ground with the aid of three bars which have no commou
point of intersection and which are not parallel. Bar lJ rests on two
uprights standing directly on the ground and is attached to bar
I by means of the insert ab, Bur III is connected to har l/ in
a similar way. Finally, the hinge e nnd an upright connect the last
member el to har III and to the ground, respectively. Consequently
the system as a whole will he geometrically stable.
Another illustration is arIorded by the structure of Fig. 21.1.
The lateral parts I and III may be regarded as simple stays AD
and CP, and then it becomes apparent that plate II is connected
to the ground by means of three bars (one vertical B and two iuclioed
ones AD and CP) all of which intersect at one and the same point E.
This system is, therefore, instuotaneously unstable.
2H K/ntmaf/r Alla/ys/s of S/ruclllrts

3.t. STATlCAr.. r;'i D~:TElnHl\ATg }'[\M1E:1) STRUCTUr-lgS


As has been stated, an unyielding connection of a structure with
the ground may be schematically represented by th.ree nonconcurrcnt
bars. This type of connection is staticalIy determinate as the number
of reactive forces in these bars is equal to the number of equations
furnished by statics for coplansr forces io equitibrium (for inslancc,
EX_O. EY~O. ~M~O).
Any plane ~'tructure will be externally statically determinate (i.e.,
.~talically determinate with re/creme to the supports) i/ the. number

/
. ,,

(b)

P"g. 22.1

0/ parameters determining the rew:.tions at these supports is equal to


three. The supports in the following examples fulfil this condition:
(t) A combination of olle fixed and onB roller support for two-
dimensional structures supported at two points (Fig. 22.ta).
(2) A combination of three roller supports for the same type
of structures resting on threo fulcra, provided the directions of
the three reactions are neither concurrent not" parallel (Fig. 22.1 b).
H (I geometrically stable system. rests on four or more supporting
bars. three of which have no common point of intersection and are
not parallel, the structure as a whole is statically indeterminate
or redundant (Fig. 23.1). Equations provided by statics become
insufficient for the analysis of such structures, additional equations
hased Oil tho study of deformations or strai ns becoming indispensable.
HaVing formulated the cOllditio[}s under which a stmcture is
externally statically determina,tc, let us now examine those which
render a framed structure internlllly statically doterminate, i.e.,
27

I ;J;:
Fig.
;J;:
28.1
1
f
~
P
-r

I,)
rig. 24.1
\ ~ 1'1
Fig. 2!U

~
' D',

I--..l-";':~+..l--"l'--<l--"l'--<l--"'l" " "


,
(b)

Fig. 20.1

Fig. 27.1
28 KIMmatit Analyd, 01 Struclurt.

such wbere the forces acting in all of its ban may be wmputed using
equations of equUibrium alone.
It. may btl sasily shown that stresses in the bars of a hinged truss
subjected to concentrated loads acting at the joints will be always
normal to the cross seetiODS of these bars. Indeed, having 58paralt>.d
one of the bars. say, bar ab, let U.!l llIoalyte the conditions of its
equilibrium (Fig. 24.14, b).
If no extern:11 load is applied directly to this bar, it.! equilibrium
will be ensured only in the case when the forces N acting on the
bBr through the hinges a and b are equal in amount but opposite
ill direction. TJlese forces will always pass through the contres of
the hinges since in our analysis theso are assumed to be frictlonles.'l.
It follows that forcas N will act along a Iiue connecting tho hinge
cenl.res and, therefore. the cross sections of bar ab will lie subjcetlJd
eith('r to direct t8nsion or to direct compression.
Should \.he ~rus.s contain curved bars, these will be suhjected to
bendillg 1Il0menls in addition to the normal forces just mentioned,
tile maximum value of these moments equalling M.,.u, = A'j
(Fi,lt. 25.1).
\\-"hell the truss as a whole i.! in equilibrium under the :!lction
of e:tLcrnal loads and reactions (Fig. 26.1a), each of it.! joints is
also in equilibrium (fig. 26.lb). Accordingly, the external load
applit-rl 10 any jnint And the internal forces in the bars conveI'l:ing
lit lids joint must be balllnced.
Statics will furnish each joint subjected to a system of concurrenL
cOpb.lIllf forces .....ith two eqnilibrium equllLions
zx_o aod !y=o
If the truss contains K joints, we mllY form 2K equations or
equilillrium wb.ich must provide for the determinotion of all the
inlernal forces in the members and of the three unknown param-
eters of the reactions. Any otber equilibrium equations which
may be formed for the truss as a whole or for any part thereof can
be derived from the above and consequently will contain no addi-
tional information.
Hence the truss will be statically determinate. if the number
of its ba.rs S ill equal to double the number of joints K less 3
S_2K_3 (2.1)
As will be readily ob~rved, this is tbe snme relation as the one
sivinl,{ the minimum number of bar.l of a geometrically stable system
lexpression (1.1 )1.
Consequently, any limpk truss obtaintd by the Sltccessiue addJ.tton
of foints to a htnged triallgle, each Joint being connected by means
u

0/ two baN IWl tn. alignment. is both geometrically slablt and SUltically
ddermi1U1te.
If. when rOlloting the Ilumber of bars of a truss, those forming
its supporls were also laken into consideration, expression (2.1) will
becomo
S,o/=2K (:~.1)

This rOrmUhl becCllnes particularly U!cful when the sll'uCI-ure


though being geometrically un1'!tnble (lblJ llumlJer of its bars totdlillg
I~~ tlUlll 2K - 3) is Innected to the ground in such a WilY that
I,ogothl:lr tlley form a single u.nyieldillg nnd stlllicaUy dctermiultte
5y81('III, A. structuro of that typtl is fl'Pl'oselltcd in Fig. 2;.1. Hero
Ko:::: 8 ""llile tho number of bars (suPllorting bars arc omiHed)
tolnls12. Thus the strudure is Ilustnlll", for
s= 12 while 2K-3=n
However. S/I>I (including (he supporting bus) is equal tu 16 "'hich
sRlislies equation (3:1) l\nd thcrefort! the whole system /Ilay he (and
in this c.'lse actually is) Loth Be<lmetricnlIy stable and Sl.lltically
dotertniulltc.
In a uatually tkt~rmJno.~ syslt:m all ~ bars art: absolutely illdi~pm
SQbk to t:nsurt: its gtomtlrlcal sl4bility. in otht:r UJords. i.n such 0. struc-
tuu lhrTl' U not a singlt: w/Hr/luoUJ (rrdundant) mt:mb~r.
When a geometrically stable system contains more hal'S th"n is
strictly ne>ssary it bceomes sto.ticalLlI indeterminate or rt'dundant.
The theory of strtlctures 8.llalyzfs only geometricallr 5Lahle
systems both statlcally detl'rminate aull ,~lattcldly illdetermillflte or
redundant.
The I'Hldl'l' i~ invHed to find out on his I,WIl to which of these two
culegnrirs UIC slruclllte,.o; rcprescrltt'd ill Fi~. 28.1 belong.


'"The ~llall'~js of su(\I, syUt'ms is co"si,l~rd in drlail )a1er (see Art, 6.4).
2. BEAMS

1.2. GI>N~I\AL

'l'hf' rC'lldt'r hnvillg ulready studied the slrmglh of mattrials must


be fAmiliar whit methods pcrmittill{t the determinAtion of sLresscs
llctiu8' over the cross lIectioJls of .sl.alicoUy determinate simply $UP-
porled beallls. as well as with the eOIlSlruetiol1 of diagrams showing
the distribution of these stresses along Q beam subje<:ted to a system
of fixed loads. 'I'he sa me methods are used in structural mechanics.
'fhe following sigil convention ....ill be adopted hereunder: TIu:
waring force 0 (or 'imply the sll~ar) will be considerN positlw wkn
U tmtU to uplIft tht' left utremUII of flu rlght--hanJJ portion of Cl beam
wilh rc!erenu to tlu: right ezlremity of the left-hand portion, T~ bend-
lflg mommt At will bt: reckoMd positive when Lt tends to rotalt the kIt
atremity of the right-hand portion. Dj 4 lam. clockwik alld the right
rztremity of the kit-hand portion counte.rclockwise.
When tbe IURds an: not at right angles with the l\Xis (J[ n bea III ,
the Illller will also be subjected to forces N nOt'lllol to its erO$)
Jlt!ctions. These wW bll regarded as positive wltm they catlSC tensile
stresses and llegati/lt' when these stresses are compreulL't.
Positive directions o[ bending moments. sheariug nnd normal
forC(,ll are shown in Fig. 1.2. It will be seell that a posilivtl hendillg
or
1ll0tllCllt causes compression of the top Jibrl!S a bel1l1lllnd all exlen-
sion of the lower ones, while a positive sbollr will tend 1.0 roll\tc eAch
portion of the beam clockwise with reSIJect to its otllCr !;!IId.
When ploUing thl' diograms of shearing and normnl forces their
positive values should be scaled orr aoo\'e the %-n.xis and UlC negatin.
ones below. It is i:QOd pracLice to illdicnte prominently 011 the SIrl"SS
dillgn)DlS the SigM of tile corresponding stresses. As for bending
mom~lIts, their positive values shall be scaled off lJelnw the x-Ilxis
and the negative oncs above it; thus, bendillg moment diagrallll:l
\\111 always appear 011 thc side of the extellded fibres of the bC!am.


In cerLpln trelltiN.'s Oil th(' S~fellRth ul m~teriab. po.!!iti\'t' Il(lnoJing 1lJ()IIICnIS
lilT(' plolhHl flU thlll!ide of COlDllrcs..-ro Min'"
32

The sign of the shearing force ean be also ascertained with the aid
of the bending moment diagram. using the following rulo: T~ shear
($ positive in anTI cross eectian where tJu nlperpo!ition of the azi.t of the
elemt!nt with tk tangent to the bending moment diagram r~uires
a clbckwUe rotation of the former, provided the angle of rotation does
nol ex.ceed 00".
lAft. f_ at'
H M right WtiM

RIgllt-tl'/d" 0(
l,rt portlDrt
Q

PIt. 1.~
Fit. 2.2

Assume, for example, Lhat it is required to find the sigil of the


shearing force at cross section .J: of 8 beam, whose bending moment
diairam is represented in Fig. 2.2. In this case. the axis of the beam
should be rotated clockwise in order to bring it in coincidence with
the tangent to the bending moment diagram (the direction of rotation
is indicated by a dott&d arrow), hence, the shearing forte is positive.
However, in CtOSS sections close to the right.hand extremity or the
beam the shear will be negative. ror the tmperposition of the axis
with the tangent would require eounterclockwise rot"tiOll (see
fig, 2.2).
The shear Q tn any cross sedion Is eqWJ.l in amount and !1tgn to the
$urn of projections of all the e:dernallorces acting to the kft 01 this cross
~ctton on a normal to the beam axis pt1.S$ing through this cr().~ section,
or to the sum 01 projections of all tlu external forces w the right of the
cross &t'ction on the same normal bllt taken with an opposite sigrL
Q~~Y=-~Y (1.2)
L n
the projeclions being reckoned posilh'e when they are directed
Up'o'llllrd!<.
The bending morMnt ltf In any crors section is nfllal in tuno/mt
and $Ign to tJu tum of morMnts about the z-axis (this a.ri& passing
through tM centraia of the cross $tion IWrmally to the plane 0/ tk
beam) of all the uternal forces arting to the left of tilt' cro.u sultan
or to IM sum of moments of all the tJ:ter/Ull forc('$ acting to tJu rtght
of thllf lrection bllt takM with an opposiU sign
M="2.M,=-IM a- (2.2)
L n
+
-The index ~ nlay be lIDiiLtcd.
J.t. Genual 33

the moment,s being fc('.kOlll'd 1JOsil.iv8 when they tClld 10 rolalo


the cross section clo('.kwisc.
Thr. nurmal force LV is equal in amaunf and sign ta the sum uj pro-
jections of a.ll the external fllrCI:5 to the left of the cro.<;$ seclion limier
crJl/sldRratian un the beam a:ci,~, or to the sum of projectIOns (un the
SIl/1l1! a;e/s) of all fhl! exlefllallorc'.'i ta the right 0111lis Sr.!Ctillll but taken
with an apposite sign
.Y=!:,'( -~X
, R

t11t'-"C projections being rl<\;koltud positive whe1l llley arc dirccted


from right to l('ft.
Thl'H! is a set of fclD.liollS between tlte III and Q diilgJ"illl1:l ;lud lIw
loadiuM of tlllJ bell Ill, these relatiol\ll facilitatiuIo( tbe plotting of
thtlso C\lrves ulId permitting their voriJicD.~ion. These relnLiOllS afC
of great importance for they apply not onty to beams but equally
lo bents and frames of Vl\I'iOllil types.
Thl' ha!iic relal.iulI can be n'/lre..'5Cnted as follows

Q=~
<I,
(4.2)

in other words, the shellr is equllt 1.0 the ftrst derivative of the bend-
iug moment in terms of dx (thl'oTt'1ll of Zhuravsky), tile liign COllVCU-
lion;)s set out above rOmaill.-; in ftm:ll for M' alLd Q, while thc positivo
diJ'ccliorl of the :r-nxi:-; is fr'om left to right.
MUl"c'O\'t'l', there is equally lilt, rl'l,ltil1!l
dQ
fj .=--
d,
(5.2)

whit;h meilns tllat the iutensity of t-ho distributed load applied nor
mall.v l(1 tho boam axis is e(IWII tn the lirst deri\'nlive of thc shear,
the distributed toad being I'eckollcd 1lositivc whclI it is directed
llpwllrns.
The following can he easily deducted frorn those two reLations,
-t, ~~(';:,ati\'e she!u's l:UI'rospond Lo dcc.rcasing bending moment
Vil I IIC'$, indicatr.d hy all inrTCasl'l of the bonding moment diagrllm
11(.diIlOlles from left tll l'igllt. Silllilnl'ly decreasing hendiltg moment
ding-fillll or'oinntcs will :-;ig-Ilify that tho cllr'respouding shear,s aro
'positive.


11 ." r!eemerl IlnUllCeSS311' tu dwell ill dl'taH 'lit tho eorr..spolldillll demollstra-
lions.
2-, The sLeeper the slope of the ltlrlgcml ~o the hending mOulCllt
diagram, the greatel in Clbsolllte villut' is the slLear, for the l(ltlet
is IlUllIeriealJy equal to the JHllUrlll tangellt of the angle flllIll(.!I1
by the tangeul to the diagralll and the llMm axis.
::l. The bending moment will pa~ through II maximum or a lIlilll-
mum at thoso cross seclions whore the sheul" is niL
4, The hending momeut diagram l)(~lwcell two (:ollcelltl'l,tcl~
loads (110 distrihuted loads intervening) forms a straight linc,
g-enerally inclined, while that of the shear rcdllCCS to a hori-
zonLal.
f). ,J\ conic parabola for bl'mling moment diagram wiU correspond
to n Illlifnrlllly clistrihutod load, Uw sheal' diagram becoming ill
that CUMl an inclinecl straight line,
Ii. The convexity or the bending momellt diagram i~ n,lways llll'lwd
in the direction of the distributed 10<1ds.
7, Concent.rated J():HJ~ cause hrellks in t.he oirection of tile bendinlt
momllnt diagram aTld jumps in the shellf diug:rum, 'fhe rises and falls
in the laHer case are equal in amount and direction to the magnitude
of tile COllcelltratod loads us met wllen moving from left to right
along the beum.
8. The change in the Illagnitude of tile lWllding ffilHnont occurJ'ing
over a certain portion of tile heam length is equal to the area of
the shear diagram over Lhe same h('um length provided no external
momllllts are npplioll thol'eto.
9. The change in the mugnitucle of \,ho shear occurriilg o\'er a l\et~
tllin porlion or the be<111l length is equnl to the area of the distriblllod
10:1<1 !liagrllm over the same beam lengl:h.
In the present chapter we shall $tudy tht! methods of stress comp\l~
tation in cro~ sections of SilHply supported beams carrying moving
louds alld in t,hose of IIlUltilipilll c<Hltilevor beams subjected hotll
to lixed Hlld moving loads . .Moving loads are frequently enwt1nlcl"cd
in the r,omplltatioll of Lriclges, overltea.d cranes and other el1!;inccring"
stl'ucturas. An example of a moving load to; furnished by a f,l'uin
trl\vellin~ along a railway bridge, or an overhead crane modng
along nune trllck~, etc.
Stnwi01; /lud strains in tile Jiffm'enl- etemQllts of 8. slructure depond
On the p05ilioll o( the moving load. In order to determine the maxi-
mum design stt"csses, it is always nOSS3ry to know the mo~t Ull[tl~
voura!Jlo position of the load or loads for tlle element concerMd.
Thus, when designing the cruss section of any truss momber, the
rnOVilll! load must be so plncod liS to (luuse the grca~cst possible stress
in this particular member. This loading IlOsitioll is usually l'l!ferred
to as the most uri!mlOurable or dangerous. A distinct most unfavoura-
ble load position ean be alw~ys found for each truss member, every
cross seetion of a beam, etc.
It should be 110tl'd t1lilt thill remain!'; tnle not only for sl,resse.<;
bllt also for rraclious at thl;' l'lIIPllorts, for deflectioll!! and so forth.
Tlle rlesi,ltn of structures subjertod 10 moving loads is grcllLly
hcilitated by the possibilily of applying the principle of Snprtposi-
lioll. This mc-ans lhat. t.hl! inh.Wll31 forces, fihre stresses 3ud strains

__t'
A
Fig. 3,2

caused in ::I structure by different loads wiU adrJ. tu uue auol1H,r,


It follows that if some pnrticulor load increases a certain number
of times, t.he stressel! and str3ins sct up by this load will increase
in the same ratio.
It nlS(} follows thnt if two different groups of loath! are aPIJlied
to tl 5tructure, the totRl stress in each memllCr will be equal to tne
~um of stff'~'>SCS caused separately by each of t.he two groups,'"
Vh shall start with our nnalysis of lhe effect of moving loads
with the simplest case possiblc~thnt of a single verticnl unit load
P moving along a r,:imply supported henm (Fig. 3.2), LClt us investi
gat.e the changes !':ustained by each of the parameters under consid-
eC:l.tion (rellct.ion at the support, interml1 force in a lru"S member,
bending moment ill a particular cross seetion of a beam, the beam's
deOection at a Gel'tain point, etc.) when the load P = t travels
1lloJlg the structure. We shall represent graphically tho olterations
or tilt' parameter choscn in terms o[ tbe load position.
The di(lgram which depicts tM 11uctuation of some partlclllar pram-
eta (say, the bending mommt in a cross section of a beam) when
the ,,,ad P = 1 travel!> awng the structure is termed the influence line
for thr said parameter."
Infiuenec lines should Ile\'or be confounded with the stress
dingrll ms. In fact, the ordinates to thu laHO(' represent thcvaria-
tiol) of the pammctcr undel' considcrntioll (say, of tho hending

The 'JriIlCipl" of ~upcrpll~itjoll applies lIr.t only 1.11 the ell.!I(! of cOllcenlratell
l"arls lint equally 10 di~trib\lte,llo31Is, IJcllding moments, temperatllre ~t.re~<;e~,
etc,. It dor.s lJot Ilpplr in lhe ense or buckling witb bending, In all cases when
!.hI) material drM not follow Hoolw's Jaw and in some otlier cue.~.
'* lnflue.tlce Iinl1J< rep,'o.."1.'llting the variations of ",ithl'r stresses <or ~Lrail\S "'/In
:llso be plotted for unit benrling JllOmonLS, (lxLernal for~ normal tu the crO;;lJ
se<:tiOll ani! other type~ of l"lIds. moving aLong t!JL" ~truetllrl'.
;:Jj; Ileum:

Olomelll) ill all cross sections of the beam for one definite j)ositiulI
of Llu~ lcwd, wherC!lls lhose of tho illnueoce line indicate Lhe variation
of a !'(.lI'arnc.lU;!r (Sll:Y, of lhe Sllllle belllling mOlllt~ILL) in one particular
ero."!; ,<:cctlQII- whorl l,he load IUti Ly Ira/!el.~ i.l Loug the I{)hole ll1nglh of
lhe beam.

2.2. l\Ili\CTJON [NFLUENCE I,L~'ES FOIl ':;JMPJ.Y SUPPOJl n.:D


Ile,.\\IS WITlI OH \\TI'I-IOUT OYEIIHANG
Let liS IISSIlHll' thi'lt a unit load P = 1 lllOVl'.'i along a f'llllply
supporu.'d hea11l AB (Fi~. 4,2a.) and 1ut os designale by r the di~
llllln' from the I(Hll] t(1 the righL-h:Ultl sllJIIJOrt. This (ihlanee will

, p., ,
loJ 8

(fJ) .... ,
-r

1II!t<lMCI! ltne for 8

le!

F,/(. :/,2

vary trolll 1,(}1'0, when Lhe load is direc-Liy o\-'er this sl1l'porl, 10 1
when it is over lhe lefL-hand OI1l'. In order to determilltJ the roacLiOl)
A in Ll,r/ll~ of x, we Clln write tho cqllaliolL of Njllilibrium of moments
of all the eXLernal force.,; aholll tlle l"igltl,-hand fillpport.
ZM,,=Al-I'.t=(J
wlumce
p<
..-1=-,-
Howevl!r. !iillOO P = 1, lIum
1< <
A=-Y-:":"t

This eqllaLiOH ~iv~ \I.'; the 11Iw go~erl\illg the vAriatiorl of the l'eacLioD
A as the load I) = 1 ~Itirt.s from onc point to another.
PlotLing out the l-elllliorl j\lsl e.!ltahlishetl we obtllin the illnUon('l'
line for I'he reactioll A al I-he Idt-lllllrd support. Sinc-e this cquatioll
is of lite fir.::t dt'gr'CC ill terms (If or. lite influCIlCC lille will he rec.li-
Iiuear (Fig. 1i.2b) ltlld
for.r=O A" 0
for r = l ,
:1=1.= t

The ordinates to tb~ inllut'Jlce IIlte for the reaction nrt.! dimen-
sion'e:'\S. for both ;r. lllld tare expresscd in units of Jength.
Some senll' JIlust be solec.ted in order tu ]JIOI the influetlc,t.! line.
If. fur irl.~lanc{'. we adopL a !'.l'IlllJ of 1 ill I cm. WI' shull Iny flr!' I cm
OVUI' Lilt' loft.-hlllul Sllllport. WllOl'll A = I. The ordinato to the innll-
I'flee Iin{\ for tbe n'llcLion at A ffit'USllrcd H (]istaneo x frOIll Lhu tjl.thL-
ltlt110 SUjljlurL will equal -T' Thi!' ordinale wjIJ be lluffierir,lIJly cqu[l1
1.0 tllo r<.>:lctiOII it wht'll lhe disLanet> (.() the lond l' = t liS lU<'MIUrcd
from th~ ri~ht-hand sulljlort equal.'c .t. f n other words. tht urdinalr
UI t~ infllf~1U'1' hue lor tlK rroctton A at Q. given crO$! stlon repreSitmu
to !fUJ1. tJ~ value 01 tM mid rtoctiOlI af tlU' tnrtant whm tl..t wut load
Pis plaud dirf"Clly tWtr this rrO# scrlion. Accordingly, till' nllll{llitud<,
of the t\.'.actioll A corresponding Lo 11 gi"an positioll of thu 10lld J1 = 1
fAlll ht oht.ainC'd by simply sc.....linl: oft Lhe ordinate to thc innUlmc.c
Jillt' at tht! )mint o( I(lad applic.ItLiulI.
WI,en the load actually appli<,d 1(/ tho IJeam umulIlll.s to PI' the
reliction A will lIe ObLltilJoo by mllltiplyiug the ordinate LO tha influ-
ent'~ lil\l' at lhe POillL of loarling (tllis ordiltuLe. [15 olread)' 1Ilcntiullcd,
rel'l't':'iclllillg Lbe feacHol1 A COl'rll.\ljlflllding to a unit Joltd) hy lIHJ
III1IgniL1H!c of FIIIcc J),. SltOllld n Jl\1IJ11H'" of conconlr"tcc! vartic;t1
loads ad 011 lite beum i'lirnuhllll(,otl.~ly. lhe totlll rCl\cLioll A will
bc fl'ltnd a:s the :sum of scpiltat<, rOflclion~ tlue to enclt of Ihose tlif-
fl.'ft'IIL fMC.eJ;.
I..el u.~ tlOW I'rtll:.ei."d with tb.e consLrllction or Ihe iUnllCIlCC HUI'
for l'Caction B. For this purpose wc mflY e(IUa~ to :ero tho sum o[
Ill 1Ile 1Il0m(lllts of t.!xlcrnal furC(!s ahuut the hinge ('clllre at .4;
IoM.1 = -Hl+P(l-:t)-O
leadillg to

This equation ri:'llr<'Scnts the varhtli<tll of reaction JJ ill terms


of th.e po!'ition of load unily P. III ol'ller Lo trace the iUnUellell
lillO, let us put

I,hell
,,
Bn .. - = 1
38

:md
~heD B -- l-t
I
-0
-

Fig. 4.a represcnls the influellCt' line for tile real.'Han B. The
ordinales to Ibis line am again dimensiOlllcss and th(' !leale should
'* Ihe same as for rellctiull A. These ordinates roprt"scnl tile amount
of reaction B W!lOll tlllllil load is applied nt the (.ross section COrrl\-
;';Iwnding to tlH." given urdinate. Hence weenn delermillc this rellctioll
for n l(Hld unity by simply measuring tho ordillatcs 1.0 I!tO influence
line.

I' ,
,.--,1 -'"r=t

(0

P,g. j.t

The significance of influence Hnes ftlpt'cSenled in .Fig. 4..2& and


c is greatly enhanced lly the fact that they IJermit imlllctliatll deler-
lOinaLioll of the load position causing the greatest reactions. 'rhu:>,
it is readily seen that the reaction A ..... ilI rell.ch its maximum wlwlI
load PI will stand direclly over the lelt-hand support. The Slime is
true for reaction B when the load Pt is applied to the right.lland
suppc>rt, Le., wh('o it coincides with llw maximum ordiultte to Ille
innllCIICO lint'.
It ~hould he kept in miud. howe"lr. thllt each influeNce; /jilt' lctll
deptd sclelg CM oorEatloTlS t1f EM paramrtef for whU:h it has 1Jc'm plt1ltrd.
'fhus tll(' illlluellce lill~ for rel:lcLiollS A and B will COIl"'tl)' in[orIlHJ-
lioll 0\. these reactions ft.'spcclhl:!y.
Let us consider now the inlluencc lilll's for Lhe reactions (If;. hlJ;lht
~anlilc\'erillg over OIlO of its supporl.!s as shown ill fig. 5.Ztl. The
illnUCIICC line for fl!lIclioll A will be tlt>ri\'ecJ rrom eql1Hlion

'i.M tJ - Al- Pr - 0
whence (with P-=1)
pJ: h: J:
A=-,-=T""'T

This equation is identical with t.hat obtained before far a simply


supported beam, with the sole difference that. in the latter equatioll
:x (all vary from 0 to 1 while in the present case it can do so from
o +
t.o (1 k) where k is tile le-JIg-lit of the overhanl.(. The ordinatt."l
t(l t.he influt'"JlCC line at pertinent points arc
(orx=O
fllrx=l
A "",,0
,
A- T "", 1

ror,1;_l~k A=.lik-.1++

Wt.' can now procet'<l with the conatructioll of tho ionuenct'


line for readioll .1 by Simply laying off lhl'o ordinates obtained
(Fig. 5.2b). It should be noted that there is no real ILcecs.sit.y to
dtltC'rmine all the three ordinate!!, as the influence linc is rectilinear
and in this CII!lC the knowledge of only two ordintlte valu~ (saY,
,al x = 0 and at :l = l) i.'l sufficient.
A comparison of 1111 influence linc for a beam with overhallg with
Ult' infiuenec lille rellrcscntE'd in Fi2'_ 4.2b shows t.hnt the lirst. ani.'
~an he easily obttlined by a simple extension or the latter until ill;
inter~ction with the vertical passing through the eud of the over-
hang.
'fhe rollowillg equnLion. wiH I>e uSlld fOr thc construcUon of the
in[Juence line for reactiolL n
!.M... = -Bl+Jl(l-x)=O
whence
B_ P(I;-.l) = l(l;:t) = l-;:t

Comparing this equation with the 000 rchlting to a sinlply supported


bel;llll we fiod that they tire exactly the "aml'_, the OJlly diffcr<'llC{'
residing in the limit:! between which % may vary.
Ld us oow determine the ordinate \'alues of t.his innuC'nco line
,
B=T=I

fOr %_l '_I


B --,--0
B=l-(l+kj k
l =-T
'0
Plotting IJI('Sl~ orl!innles as ill Pig. ~.2c we obtahl the j"nUt>ntc
lint' fot I"O:l.ctioll B . .'\5 in the (la~ of rc/tt'lion A. the computation
of Ihe ordinate for .:t -.1 +
k pro\'t.'i' sUPl'rnIlOUs.
The illnllencc line Ior tlu:> readiOIl LJ tor It llt!am with overhang rAn
!lISQ I,e derived from tilt! oJle pertnitlillg to a simph. beam by cx1tud
ing the line until ic.s intersection with the vertical drawn throug-It
the ~.~t.rCDlily uf the o\'crhnng.

I I
l/l(lutn:o!' linP f.:w- :
I 8
I
I

Frg. 6 i

The flirt that some of the ordinates 1.0 tlll\ influenc.. . lillt's art, this
tllllC ll:'gnlive indiClll.CS that wllen the load point coincidoSl WitJI
these Jl('~atiVl' or(ljllltlc~. Lho rl,1actiotl JJ ilselF is al~o IIegnLi\'(! or,
ill ol.Jll~r W(II'dS. direel.C1d dOWIIW'lrU.'i.
TIle SIlOll' pro(.cl)U['(l liS dcS(:ribcll "ho\'o should be followl'J for
LIlO ('_orlstI'Uc.LiOIl of tnrlucnce lines fOl' thc l'cncUOnS of 11 hO/HO c:lllti-
lc\'crhl!& UVCr il.<: righlhand sUJ)I10I'1.
fig. (;.2 represents the influence /ill(\S 101,' Ihe reacliuns (If It hefllll
whh two 0\,crhall,,5. The reader is irl\:ill'fl 10 write l.ht'o c,Mrcsp1llldillq:
equnliolls on his own.

3,2. (lENDING MmlEN'r AND SlIliAll J:i'FUJENCE: LINES rOIl


SIMPLY SlIPI>()JlTED BEAft.S Innl OH WI'I'JIOUT
OVEHHANG
Lel liS now an"lyzc tho cullslruc.tion or illnllenre line.c; ror bending
momenl... find sheMing rorces illducro Ill' II movi1lg 10:ld in :I siulIlly
supporled beam. We shall lJl'gill our ill\'cstigation by examining
the infl/ll'nc~ line for fJ~ blondlng mom/'IIt in crn~ scctioll r Inl''lled
a llislllrlcC a from lhe lcft.-hand SUPllOl'l nud (J dislance b lfi)1Il l.lw
right-haml. onc (Pi~. i.2a). The oelldilll{ UlUlll(!llt in lhi~ scelio/)
3.~. Ift'ld//tf Atumtfll "lid S/v"r Inilrj~"u L/ru,
"
is equal to tlltl algebraic slim of mOlllellts of lhe outer forces lo the
lefl ut this ~lioll Ilbout its ccnlroid or lo the Slim or
momellL" of
forc~ l.o its right but tllken
wHh:l1l opposilesignlSl.'t! e~pres
siun (2.2)1.
All long liS the IMd is si Lualed
lo thtl ti~ht. of .54!clion 1 (Fig. 7.20.),
__2'~: 1__'__
I
_'_01
b ...
1
i,t'", Il!I 10llg liS Z.(:: b, t.he only
t'xlernol force to the left i:o< the
rcnct.itm A :tut! thtlft>[orc the (0)
hCllding momenl..M! ill ~ll(;l,ion.l
L~ oqual lo Aa,
Ac('ordingly Lho innllCUCC line
for this bt'luling moment IIllly (c)
he dcrj\"I'(1 from the ;lInllenre
)iutl (.n re<lclion A by mulli-
plying its ordi"nl.cs by a. (d)
Substit.uting for A it:. \"nlue
found ill Art. 2.2 Wti (lllwin
M1 =T a
The ~laphical rcprt"~entll.tion t>f
t.his t'qualion rtqllire:;; thtl knowl-
edge of two distiOlt Vl\lul'S of M J Ce)
for x=O Aft-O
,b
fOl'X"""b ftf1 =T
If)
U:o<illg thelio valuo.'i wo CArl
IIOW traGe the right-hand portion
of Lilo illOucuce line [or Af,
Wig. 7.2c). h!C ordiuHll'S will
furnish the values of lhe beud- (g}
tng lllOmtml in secLion f when
the unit load is 5iLuaLcd 10 t.he
right uf this section, i.e.. whell
-- -"

z..(: b. Ftt. 7.2


When the load paSleS to the
It'fl f1[ sed ion J, Le., when J, >
b (Pil(. i .2b) it hecomes lIlon:
connmieut to lIse the equations pertaining tu the rigltt.h'llld pur-
lion of the bt!:UIl.
III that case the bllllding momellt M, = - Db rOf, nlthough
lhtl momellt or reaction n ilhout the controid of seo.;tioll I al,;t.!I COIIII-
tcrc.1oc.,kwisc anu is therefore oegnLive. tho "ending momonl I,;llu~cd
by it in tilE' beam romains positive [sce cxpre.'i~ion (2.2)1.
Substituling the value of 8 Isee Art. (2.2)1 we obtain
I-z
Mt=-,-b

FOI' a gr.tlpbical representation of this expression, wc Sllldl once


..!Igain find two valucs ot lIf l
for x=b /lf l = 1/1, b=~

fOf;1:=1 M/= l~l b_O

These dal.tl permit the construction ot th.o kJt-hand porliuo of


tilt' inRuenco line for M, (Fig-. i.U). Its ordinll.WS will furnish
the bending moment values fllr sectiun I v.ilen load unity P is to
the kit oC the section. Le. when % varies from b to l..
H tile lllf"" .tlnd the right-hand portions of the inOu{'nce lint'
(fig. 7.2c .tlnd d) Are flOW brought together (Fig. i.~) they loill
mterJ;<>ct unbr cross sec:tion I. Should these Hlle.~ be extend~ until
they meet with the \"crticnls passing t.hrough tho SUjlporL" they would
illLOreopt Lhcreoll tho following ordinatos: over t.he II'fI.-hanO olle
all rmlinllle. equal to a. t1nd ovcr llie right-halld o/le an ordinal.!;' equl\1
IQ b (Fig. 7.2e). This can he eDsily prove,1 J)y sub1<litutillg 0 and
I (or z in tite e.tpressioDs of tllo dght- Hnd leh-hand portilllls of the
influence line respectiv('ly. Th('refore, in practice the M 1 inllUl"IICe
lin!' is frequently constructed in the following way: ordinate a i.I
plutltd ~r IM 1~/t-hand support and ordinau b OVfr tlu right-hand
(l1l~. a and b /Ning rnpediwly the dW,ances fram section [ to tnue
two supports. This being done two straight linn connecUng r.Q('h 01
tJ~ ordifUlttt teUk ~ ~TO ordinak point at the OO$e of lhe otntT are
fraud, the two lines intersecting e:tacLly under cross secliOll T.
The above procedure may be simplified us (allows: first draw the
Hilt correspolWJng to any of the tUl(J portions 01 Ou in/lu~,u:e line (say,
to the rlght-ho.nd one). alul then connect Us point 01 intersection with
the vertical p(lSSing through the section concerned with the zero pol/lt
(It Vu. oth~r I>upport (ill our c.ase at the left-hallO one).
rbe orilinnt ....:s to the bending moment ill[luence line Ql'U ('xprcssed
ill tlllits of lellgtll. This for example m3}' be sceli froro the fact. ~b:rt
the tJrdil1i1.te over the left support. is taken equal 10 the length a.
Hence the same scalo may be adopted for both the beam length
and the building momellt influence lille.

-Onlin;,tu or posith'c oo<l(ling mO!U(-'IIl!! are direct.ed \lJlward~. Aceordiugly,


.....1,(11 the bl.mdill/l: 1i'l(lmellt iHl1\len~e line i~ aboyu Iha btollnl a;I:i~ tho lowur nbre!1
<Ill ,.tll' bl'am 81'\' e.tlellded.
A,lY ordinati' w tM influmce lf~ lor /If, willlurnL<JI. tJu tJalM 0/
.tIle bmdLng moment in ~ti01t I when the unit load is situated over
.thi, particular ordinate. AC('oroLngly tht' ddumtna.tion 0/ tJu bending
momen.t in St'Ction J for a tl~n position o/loud P = 1 rtf/Ilir..., svuly
the 1/Uasurcmt'llt 0/ the influern:e l&ne ordt1tl.1U at tlte laad potnt.
It should bE' borne in milld that the innuence lille for lit, c:cpresses
the variation of the bendihl:" moment only in section J. If it were
r+><tuired to find the low goverlling the variation of the bending
moment in SOlnc uthQr sce.tion. a new influellce line corr~ponding
to that parlie.l1lar sl;lction should be ('-<Instructed.
r~cL tl!< now examine !,he construction oC the shear influence line
fOl' .section I. As alreody stated. the shellr ill any soction is equal
to the algebraic sum of vet'tical proj~clions Hf all oxternol forl;Cs
8C'tillg 1,0 tile left (If Ille section concerned. or to the same sum takl;:u
with the opposite ,o,;igu and pertainillR' to thc e:<.ternal forces to the
rirlht of this section [sce expression (t .2)1.
J<;xominlng ~wo unit load posilions, one wllen the load is tQ I,lae
right of seclioll I and the Olher when it is to lhc left of i~. we
fmd:
(1) In the flfjOl case. I.e., when z ~ b (see Fig. 7.212) the equi-
librium equ3tioll relativc to the leH-hand PQrUon of the heam fur-
nishC!l

GmplLical repre!!entalion of tllig r('latioll requires tllU CU1llpu


tltlioll of two dislinct values of Q,
fOI'x=O Q,=O
b
fOI'J"=b Q/"", T

l:sillg thesc "alUm:! wc can construct the right-hand porllu/t oj


tltr Q, tnjlllellce Line (Fig. i.2j). its ordinatps giving H.I' values
of tile I"hcilt in section J when the unit 10l1d Us t.o Lhe righL of this
~.Lion. i.e. when x ~ b.
(2) In lbe st'Cond case. I.e.. when,2;::':> b (Fig. 1.2b) the Mme e-Oll-
sideratiolls as abO"e give Q, = - n ItlItbouglL reaetioll B i~ directed
upwards aud L'! therefore posili,-e. it. must bc taken with tbe nlinu~
tolign. in accordance wit.h cJ"pl'cssion (1.2)1.
SilllX'
8 =J.=..=..
I
1-.
Qr l>ecoillL'$ -- r
IJMm!J

Complllinq t .....o distinct v..lu('S l,f 0,


for z-= b Q,-'- -..!.:y!-,::",-7-
I-I
forz=l Q1=--Y--O
Itlld ploUiug' lheln fI$ ill 1"i~.7.21 WI! obLI)in the '()f1~hlllld pOI'liol)
of (Ill' !ll'l!llr illnllerrCe Hlle (as the ordimHl!s IlfC' llC'l-:"ltUVU llll'f are
IllulWd downwards).
Ilut! Wl' j'xtCtlded the illfluCHce Iille" olJlllinod until tllllir intl'r-
st'Ctioll witl, th{' verlit'lll", (lltSSillg through the support., the I.:urr{'s-
IwrulillK iuLl'rl'opLs w{)lIld ('qual: Ill. die left Ilupport ;-1, and aL the
ril(hl oue -J. This call bo easily proved by substitlJtint: r = 0
;tIld.r = I in the equatioos relnlivo to the right-hand and to the ICft4
h:Hld porLiolls uf the inOuence I;n~. respectively,
11. follow:.; lllar llle shoor innllcnc.(' Ij,lle NIlI be couslrutled as illdi-
Co'll(!(! ill "'iq. 7.2g ))y plotting lh~ ordinat~$ +1 (upwards) and -J
(dmnlll-Ytrds) (/Im~g the ~rtlc(l,u pa$.~inK through tl~ lelt-Mud and
tht' rlKhr.-ltulld .~ul'ports resptc.tilJt:ly and by joiui'lf( each 01 lht.' IWI1
paints ,W ob/a/m'd with tkr ba.vr. paint uf. th~ olh/if" support. I t is oJ)\'iOIl,'i
that Ih('.!i~ ~wo Iin<.'s wil! be Pllrallcl. This Ltling nOllll, R verlkal
i'< l.ncell through tho !'!ecl,ion 1l1\((l'r con.:;iderntioll liS in Fig. 7.2g.
The ordinat!!.!! or the .:;IUJar inRllenoo lines are dimlln..,ionll'S!. h('Il(,~
their scale lI1ay be t.hc sallle a!l in th" CMH.' of tllmtmcn, readioll
innllClIce lillos.
Ordiuat~, 10 the th~ur lnflUI!11t:r! lill~ ~pf"l!St!ld lll .J~or vaL/I.('! in
31;'1/ I Qr~lng Iroln ludt load P acti"g in eN 1IIron corrnpo"dtng
10 thl! .yo,id ordinal/". TJur~/ore. the amvunl 01 l1t~ ..J~rin~ lorc('$ ill
Jf{!l!tion I lor (1 J(illi'n position 01 tM unit Wad P calt ~ obtained by !/IItlllg
mro.~urlnc rM ordinau 01 the war infl.IJ,(Onl!~ line at Ihe load poi,tl.
I r UJl~ ordillato at loml point, is Ilcgath'(', Lho shear ill tho Sl.,t:l.ioll
will ldsu he IlcgSlLivc for this JlosiLion Qf the load. TlIB on!in;lll'S
10 tho Qf illfluQnc(llint\ l'opl'OStlnt tiLe .:;hcu \'al'iatioH only in <;(If:lion
f. Should iL he fi.~qllire(( to find tbe sh.ear \'urintiQn ill !jnml' olhl'f
"(ll'lion, n IJ<'~W illnllOllCC line would hllY..' to bt:. cQll.!ilrllcl<,'d.
!...t'1. liS IIOW illYt::slignte bending mom~nl. and shcllr innucu{"f' linE'S
for a J),Ja1ll c~'UHilcvcringov~r the left support, as sllOwn ill Fig. ~.2a.
Conslructiull or the inOuoncc Hill'S for a cross 5ei'lion loc-nlml 1,...-
t""i.'(ln tht, supports A aud n remains e,;:a,ctly the Sllme a~ in t!lo pl't>-
violls (a~, Le .. as in Lhc Cl\SO of a lIimply supporlod Ixolllll \\'ith
110 lI\'l'rIJ:l.llg. TW(l load poiot.l-ont> 10 tllll riJl'ht of the ~IiOl1 and
(HI!) 1,0 iLs ,~rt should hI! rOllsid{'l'ed, thr. 1X't1ding tllomf'nts 3nrl the
slll'nrs l,cing cxpressl'd in !lolh {".J\St!s lhrough the react,ions A Ilnd 0.
Sillce Lho ('.qllntions or the alHltmcnt re8.l\tion innlJ{lIIC<.\ lirtes arc
tllo ,~llllltl for 11 ~irrtrly sllllllortod beam with or without O\'Crhi1llg
(sce Art. 2.2), it is ob\'iolls that lhc correspolldilll{ oq1lntiuus for
t.he I...nding momenl nnd sheo.r will .. Iso Ikl the :;sallle for boil. lyf'Cs
of bl.JalllS, wiLh t.bo solo diffcrence that x, ..... hich vlUk..'d ill lilt: lil"1'l
CAs..' fr'HlIl 0 to 1. will now Hlry from 0 to (l -:- k).
TI.is wilt Il[ft'('t. the ,:,ollstruclivll uf shoaf Stud h('lldil'K 1lI0lllcnt
innllenc.., lines in Ihe ~".o w<ty as lbo~ fj,r the fCllctiulIS. in other
, ,
,
'0' 11
A

,
'",
1
i..-t-
I ...
I
;"1
'" ,I IP.,
A

,
I
,
I /
,
I/"fluMC'l' lu~
... far /1/1
~

,<I

word::!, those linlls will simply h..'1.\'U to bo extcnded 10 the left cxLronl
it)' o{ \hc o"erhal\f (Fig. 8.2l: and d). 'I'he reader is oncc again
ill\'ited lO check himself analytically thn illnuellce lines so obtained.
i\"ow lot U:i ~ whAt happens in St,.'CLioll TT siLllaled II distance
c (trllll tile left tllld of the overhang (Fig. 8.2a). Once agnin wc must
l'ollsi.lcr two posltion~ of the unit lond P.
(l) 1'11" loud point t.f ta the right of sectlcm Il (Fig. 8.2a). '11 this
casu 1I1erc arc no external fon'Cs to the left of IlCctioll ({ and thoreforl!
"the B~'''H'

1x!llding moment. in this sc-ctiOI1 is nU. The appropriate portiOI}


of tile i'lnucrtcc lino is represented in Fig. B.a by a horhontal line-
coinciding wilh the x-uis, as a1l the ordinal.cs are nil along t..h&
whole stre1.Ch fronl soolioD 11 to the support at B.
(2) TM /.oQd t~ to tht It!! Of SfCtion Jl (Fig. S.2bl. In this 1,asc-
t.here is only on6 force to the left of thc section, henl"o the bending
mOIll('n\.. in set:tion I1 will Le

whore Xl is the cH!llnncu from the I01lt.! point to ~clion 11. 'rIds
distance may vllry from 0 (when Lho lOAd point coiuciocs wHh tllCo
.~cction COllc,cl'ued) to c (when the 10l1d reaclies the (!lid of the over-
hallg) .
For tileS{! two c.... tro.Il{'. values or XI wc have. respccl.i,ely. 111'1 =- ()
IIl1rl M,r = -ie. This portj(w of tht! influence line is roprescllttld
in rig. 8.:2, nogative ordinates bolng ploUed downwtlrcls. Thus,
Fig. 8.21' reprtl!l4!nLs the bending moment innuence. line for ~tiOrt
f} for tlllY posiHon of the load.
Let us proceed wilJI tho eonstroctioll of the shear QII influence
line for section fJ.
(f) A" long as tM load ren/.Uill./r to thl- rtght of till' ~ction ~ll('ro are
no fol'('cs whlttsoe\'or lo its left Itud therefore QII = O. The corre-
sponding part of the i"nuc.nce !ille (frona IlCcl.ioil If to the support
at E) is represl'lIted in Pig. 8.2{ by a horizontal stretch coineitling
with tho x-axis.
(2) Whrft t!lf! Ilnit load [.~ to the kfl of mlum If, tho sllenr OIl =
= _ 1 Which moans thot tho sheDr rOmains constant irresp('.cti\'(~
of tho position of 1,.110 load point, provided it lies to tho left of the
seclif'll. This port.iOll of t.ho iufluunoo line is reprcselltf'd ill Fig. 8.2{
hy It Hill.'_ parallel to the .r-ln:is. opgative t:;h('ars bnill~ plOlll.'d down-
wards. Fig. 8.2f gives the shoar infhlencc line for ~ctir"l J I in its
e11 tiruty .
'\5 will be noticed, tho bending moment and shear illnu~nee Iin~s
for .!'t'c1i(lIls st'lcetcd within 1.he' o,erhang dHTer very SlIhsttllltiaIly
ff()lI\ th~ rolatif1l;: to soctions situated between the supports.
In Pig. 9.2 we have represented the bending mOIll",nt innupn(:l'
Iillos far 11 number of scetians of a fxo.am eantilevcring over bolt"
sllppart.s. sections /I and vr. coinciding with tho IClH.-hnnd nntl
right-hand support!, respcctinly. The sbear inDuencu lil'll:!! for t,h.e
same sections are presented in Fig. 10.2. Two soctions eorre.'l:polJ~1
to each suppurt. s~ctions Jla and VIa being inunedialely to the-
left thereof, and soctions lIb and Vlb immediat.t>ly to the tight.
Il will bo notod that she.. r innuence lines for sections Ha Rnd Jl~
liS well as for SCe,Hons V/a aud Vlb are quito different..
I If m Irv~rp I IIQ lib III IY Y "1" "1l> ~11

, ltofWf!1oellJ>t
, I ,
frr N"
,
r I I , 1 1

---J
I
"
:
I
I I I ,'
1 f -_ '''f~
Q I I
UMI flJr "'1/1
I '

Fi/:. 9.2 Fig. 10.2

Pig. 11.t
I'rublem. H j~ rl"Quircd la l;vllstruet the l'l'noJlng 1ll0Ul('nlltlld sllt'ar wnu('flct'
11Ile,. (or ~_Liull'" of 1I beam ffl'fl"5(!nted in 1'1".1 t .:la. till.' \.lJlillo..... r lru\'elllng
lromrLO
",11"111111. t'iTl!1 eoustruct Iht.' illnueD\".(> Hllo fur I'e.rlion A. H"IIIn r. ~ing
rIgidly CAITU,e<:lA...1 to """"" All by lIIeall;; of the S1.allCliillU 11'1. tllu JVitCliol\ A
will l'qllal (.!ef1 "'jg. Il.Zb)

Till] I'l'lldinll mUfflN,t, in soo(llon III for "11)' l'U.'itiull of I!II' unit lo~d 0"
li('.~Jl) ,. will l'l.JOIlll

"IIl-AII
AC'<l:urdingly, t/,o bellrliug UlOtlWnt inlluunc(' JlIll.' fm' hl.octJUII III will Ill) i,-><JUlUL-
...calll' ~iluiJl\r to Ihnt "f Illu Jell-lllulIl ",uclwlI. thl) latter'.. ordirUHc. ,,,I,,,,s
being lLlulllplil',j by 11 COIl~lllllL fnCl.at ('llllal
)MA to a. Tbl~ illfltHlnCC Iillc Is rep.-{'!'(>llll.'d ill
Pig. H.2c.
The slll"" innl,lllll<'O Hnl.' will he (lb-
101
c [/liut"! tluvugb Lho !!1Il1' procelluro l.nu
will
diiltr in llU rt'~lll'<:l frnm Ihlll f"r I-rDC_

iiiiB
tinu A.

4.2. lNFLUEXCt: I.IN~ FOH


I Snll'l.E CAKTllEVEtl llt:!\l\lS
LN os fifflt filld the innm"lcc Ijlle
for J'C/!,ctioll A ut the SlIpport
Wig. 12,2n). Tho eqlliJibrilllll l'{)U8-
tiOr< for lite verl.ic3! projl,cLioll~ of
I tho t'slt!rlllll J'1J((:-t>S givcs
I
I l;Y=-l+A=()
I hellO!,)
I
I
/tIfllltflCe line : l\l.'l.'Mclillgll'. rUl I\IlY position of
I for /If" I
IJw ItOilll. u( applicnLioll of the 1I1Ii.1

m
~
"1Jlll1lfllilli
103d P the readiou remains equal
to 1. Adopling nn nppropriatl' scale
as e:l:plailLcd in_Art. 2.2, we call trace
PIll. 12.2 lhe illnllCIlCt' lin' sbuwn ill "'ig. i2.2b.
In orJor to lilld lhu bclldillg rnOlncllL
innllCIlI:e lillc for scclion I IOt'al-cd II distalltc c frolll th~ I,rt-h;tllfl
l'::r.ln'llIity of t!lll LcalO. wc shall proc:Clul in the ~lI.lI11: way a!< ill II'e
case of a l,cal1l wilh U\'tJrhllll!{ rcproSClIlld ill Pig. 8.2. Lo..
(t) wlh.'1I tho load is lo lhe dlSht or StJclion / (,~lid Iille in
Fig. 112.2a)
(2) when the load is to the ldt of S(lCtiOll 1 (dash line in
Fig. 12.2a)
ft.f/ = - i ' x l = -XI
where Xl is tile distancc from load point tu 5('t:linn I;
forx,_O Mr=O
(orxl=c 1\1/=-c
The correspondillg infiuence lioo is ",presented in Fig. 12.2c.
It is quite similnr to Lbo bendillg moment i'lnucnce lin(: for n section
within th.e cantilcvcring portion of a beam with an o\'crhang (sce
Fig. 8.2e).
J[ section I is chosen directly lit the !Support ~1 (c being equal
to I), we sh.aH obtAin th.o influencc lillO ef the rixl.-d-end moment
AlA' This line is shown in Fig. 12.2d.
For 0 btainillg th(j shOAr inilucuoo line we shall proceed as desc.riholl
in the previous article.
(1) When the unit load is to the right of section I the shear i~ nil,
JlO fo)'(es existing to the left 01 this section.
(2) When the unit load is to the left of section J the shear 0, -
= - 1. which means that the ordinates to the influence line will
remain constant and equal to - t over the whole slrtltch from section
1 to the left extrenlity of the beam.
The shear influence line 0, is rcp['(':renled in Fig. 12.2.... It has
exactly thll same sho. pe as the one for suction 11 in the conlilovoring
part of the beam wit.h o\'!'rhong shown in Fig. 8.2f.

5.2. INFLUENCt; LINES IN C.\SIiS OF INDlRl!CT LO.\D


APPLICATION
Thus far we have been eonsidering cases when the external loads
were applied directly to the beams. In practice, especially in bridge
construction. the loads are 1l~lIany tranSlniUcd to the mnin beam
or girdu by seconllary or floor beoms, which in their turn support
auzfUary beams or ~rfnger$ (fig. 13.24). The strinl:ers are siug'le-
span simply supported beams, each stringer span being called a panel
Dud each point where (l floor beam bears on a girder-a. panel point.
When the load is applied t<l the stringer somewhere betwt"ell pan!;!1
points III and n, it will be transmitted to the girder only at tht'sc two
points. Tbis mode I1f transmission will have no effcct on tlte gird!'f
abutment reactic)Os llS will be r&adily seen from the equilibrium eqna-
tion of Inoments about any OIlC of the supports. Hl'ncc the influence
lines for t11e reactions will be exactly the same as if the load were
applied directly to the girder (l"~ig. 13.2b and c).
The innuence line for tho bfnding moment will also remain unal-
tered for any cross section I lying within the panol mn, as long !IS
'-8~3
the load point is either to the left 01 111. or to the rigM of n. In utllcr
words, os lone- as the load is situated oulside the panel containing
the section undf'r consideraUon, tbe bending momcnt inQuencc line
lQay he drawn in the same way as in the c.:a!e of direct load applica-
tion. This is euily connrmed by the cor/'("sponding cxprc$ions vf
the oonding momenLs. Thus. in ~tion J situated a distance a frum
the left support AI I = Aa whcn the load point is between It IHld
B and M, = B (I - a) whcll
the load point is hdwCtln m
and A. These two f'xpressions
"1 coincide exaclly with those
obtained in Art. 3.2 for ordi-
nary beams. and therefore
having constructed the bend-
ing moment influencc line
(t)}-
for section J as explained
nbove. we may shade thtl ClrcBS
bounded by portions Am and
Bn of this Hne indicating thus

n, .
, ,, , that these portIons ore dofinile
(Fig. 13.2d).
~~ I' :lI1!I<le17'e lme
, for M, However, when tho load is
I

1::', I
C,
.... I I
CotIIlflCt,ng IUlf' within the panel mn, it... dract
will be transmitted to the gird-
((/)
, ,, er at panel points m ami /I.,
its (",omponents R", and Rn'
!hown in dash lines in Fig.
14.2a. being equal to the cor-
"1 responding reactions of Lbe
stringer beam.
--- In order to find the shape
of the innuence line when the
'11. 13.2 load is within the panel coo
\aining tho sect.ion. let us fmd
the value of any function S, set up in section. J by a unit load
(P = 1) situated as st-at.ed aoo"e. Assuming that y", and y" arc
the ordinates to the influence line at the correspooding panel
poin~ (Fig. 14.2b) and using the method of superposition we C30
wriU! tho following equation

s, = T.Py = R...v", + R~y,.


where
R m =.!..:.!..._...!..:.!..="":'"
d d d
1>.2. f1l/I'H1Ice Li"~ 111 C"6e~ ~f 11Id!recl LMJ ilppllcaU01I 51

and
_ P (d-I) 'I (d-t) 11-:
/1 n - cl cl -.--
where d = panel length
z = distanctl from the load point lo the right-hand panel
point.
Substituting the values of R m and Rn in the llrst cquatioll, we
obtain
" d_:
8 1 =7 YlII+-.-Y'

Accordingly, when the lond is situated belwceu the panel poillt..s


lit'alld n, the function S r varies linearly with z from S/ = 'Y n for
z = 0 to S r = Ym for z = d.
P~I

,':J=j'"
, IR"
r-~~~' ':--,]
+
'" [ I I
m: . d
I
~n ~

I1IITITIITI~ru~n i
(bl t=.====~
Fig. 14.2

Henco the influence line for such a function is a straight line


connecting the panel point ordinates Ym and Yr>' 1t follows that
in tho caso of thp, influence line for bending moment At 1 wc must
simply connect by a straight line the ordinates at panel points
m and n determined previously, obtaining thu" the influence line
represented in Fig. 13.2d.
The construction of the shear inOuence line for section 1 is quite
similar. From A to m and from n to B the ordinates to this line will
he exactly the same as if the load were applied directly to the girder.
Within the panel Inn which contains the cross section 1 the influence
line will be represcnted by a straight line connecting the ordinates
at panel points (Fig. 13.2e).
Thus, when the load is applied through an intermediate beam
the influence linc may be constnlcted in the following sequence:
(1) first draw the line as though the load were applied directly
to the main beam or girder;
,.
" (2) this being dono. flDd tbe illle~se(,tioll of the line with tho ordi-
nates passing through the panel j)Qints pertaining to the V:\l\el which
contaiJlS the cross scc:tioll under cOll.sidlrtItion and conllccl. tlll.'se
in\eracetiflD points by a straight lino.
r-~I t-C-i:-i"""")
, 11/11 Y 11/1 A
~ , 7lQ... q I. j t '1/7i'B;
I I l I I I I
1 I I 1 ........... I I I/nflulllC't line I/
I I I J -"I I I frr "'1 I
I 1 I I t;) I
I I: I :

'I
I I I I I -'--_

~
l I: I 1/f1f'[~ lilleforMU----
I I
I

nor-'
I
<.> I I I I
1 I I I
_.:"l"n"fl"""-:="line"",-"f~"-'O'"'_--J

Fig. 15.2

Fig. 15.2 represents the influence line ror 111 llnd Q corrl'~pundillg'
to .$Octions I and I1 of a beam witll Ull overhang.
lnilucnce lines for the reactions havo boon omitted all thoy flo J101
dmer in any respect from those of a bum subjected to direct loading.

.2. DETEIUlINATION OF FOnCt::S AND M01llEXTS WITH THE


AID OF INFLUENCE LINES
nle colntru.ctlon of influence lines having been discuS!!ed in dplait
in the previou!l lUtkl~ of this chAptt'r. (pt liS 'IOW examine thl'
deUrminlllion offurce! and moments with the use of thc"6liTlI,lS (lhty
can also be lIscd for t1l0 determinatioll of stra.ins, dcnediolls, (\nd
other deformatioll!).
1'''''0 ca.'ie.'l will be considered:
(a) concentrated load~ and
(b) uniform IOAdfi.
CO$~ of concentrated loads. As already explnined in Art. 2.2, tIw
c1111crmiu(ltion of nny function cau~c1 hy a IOll.d PI requires the
(;.2. Dele,."''''"lIon o} F"rCC$ and Momenll

Illcml\H'Cmenl of the ordinate to tho influenc,e line for this function


and its lJIultiplication by the magnitude of load. If the structure
carries .soveral loads at a time (Fig. t6.2a), tIle full value of the
function in a section will be obtained by measuring the ordinate
under each load, these ut'dinaw.'l being thl!J1 multiplied by the rnflg-
llitllde of tllO ~~orm8porlding loads and thll products summed lip.

la) J'
I
(' r
:' "*;a! :--.....
.. ---.,. I I
I

I I I~~-... Influence llfl[, I


I I I I -- I far N I
I I "" I I I I I I
:1 1 171 1 hJ I
Ib)
e
h i '
I I
, I I
I I: I/flflue'nct: l"ne
I I 1!or al
I ~ - - 1_ I h'
I h, _ t I I J
o ,
(t)
h;C "~------,"B
F"~. 1G.2

'rho!!, in order to obtain the bending moment ill soction J (the


influcncu !jno for M I is representerl in Fig. 16.2b) Wt! must multiply
the 1(lfld Pt by the or~lintltu h l (sinc<1 this ordiJHltc is n<1gativc, the
product Ptll! will al!'-o be negative), the load Pt by the ordinate h!
aJld t.1ll' Inlld p) by the orrlinate 1t 3 Tho hending momenL ;res\JltiJlg
frolll l}1O combiuP,d actioll of 10al18 PLO P: and P3 will equal
/If, = r,Ph= -Pth j +Pth t + P 3h,
Tho ordinates to the bending moment influellcc lino being mC<ls,
lIrod in length Imit.:;, say, mottoes, if t.he londs arc measured in tons,
the product Ph representing the bending moment will he expressed
i.n Lon.~ multipLied by metres.
A similar procedure may be used for tho determination of the
slwaring forco Qr in section J (tllo infiueocc line for Qt is reprcsenl.cd
in Fig. 16.2c)
QI = P1h;- P,h~ -+- P3~
whore h;. h~ und hi arc the ordinates to the shear influence line
under the loads PI' P,: and P,.
54 Beams

The ordinates to the shear influence line are dimensionless and


therefore the product Ph' giving the shear value will be expressed
in the same units as the load P.
The support reactions can be found in a similar way, using the
relevant influence lines.
Thus, in ordu to compute any function (abutment reaction, bending
moment, shear, internal/orce in any truss member, etc.) arising under
the action of several concentrated loads the ordinates to the corresponding

Fig. 17.2

influence line must be measured at all the load points, they must be
then nmltiplied by the respective loads, the products so obtained being
finally summed up.
Problem. Using the influence line for the bending moment JIff represented
in Fi.g. 17 .2b determine the value of this moment in section I of the beam shown
in, FIg. 17.2... This beam carries three concentrated loads the amounts of which
are also indicated in the same figure. Ordinate values at load points are shown
on the infiuence Hne, but they can also be scaled off the drawing orcaleulated.
Solution. Tbe bending moment in section I equals
M 1 = -P,h,+P2h2+P3h3- -4XO.5+8 X 1.0+10x 1.0-=16.0 ton-metres
'rhe 6rst term of tbe right-hand part o[ the equation is preceded by a minus
sign, the ordinate hI being negative. .

Case Of uniform loads. The sequence of operations is illustrated


by thefollowing example: a uniform load of intensity q is distributed
along a certain length of a beam represented in Fig. 18.2a and it
is required to determine the bending mOlllent 1n section I (the influ-
ence line for M 1 is shown in Fig. 18.2b). Let us replace the uniform
load acting along an infinitely small length dx by a concentrated
load qdx (Fig. 18.2a). The moment in section I due to this-load will
amount to q dxh:< where h", is the influence line ordinate ,under the
load. Proceeding in the same way we can replace the whole load
distributed along the beam by an infinitely great number o( concen-
6.2. DeterMt1l/JJio1l of FortU lI11d !tfOrM1IU 55

trated loads qd% and the bending moment in section I due to all
of these loads will be then obtained hy a summation of all the prod-
ucts qd:xh" or

Mt=~qd%~=q~h,.d%
the load intensity q remaining constant,
The integration limits c and d indicate that the summation must
be carried over the whole length of the beam section, along which
the load is di~tributed.
The term ~ h" dx represents the area bounded by the influence
line, the ordi~atcs corresponding to the limits of loading and the
x-axis (this area being shaded vertically in Fig. 18.2b) for h" dx

(a) ~
~
~_x~' w !lll;Wofflce'une :
(h) l ri, ' I ,h. :fa'M1 :

Fif. 18.2

is an elementary area shaded with slanting lines in the .!ame figure.


If we denote the whole area by w the bending moment in section
I will be
M,=qw
Thus, in order to deurrnw the amount of any function arising in
4 given section aJ' 11 result 0/ the applUatum of a uniform load, the
inunsity 0/ thts load must be multiplWl by the area bounded by W
in/lrunce line, the x-axis and the ordinates passing through the load
limits.
When the inOuence line within the load limits changes sign the
areas will be taken with their signs. Thus, the total shear~in section
56 Beams

I (the corresponding influence line is drawn in Fig. 18.&) will be


obtained by summing up the areas Cll l and 002
Q/=Q(WI+W2)
WI being reckoned negative.
Problem I. ASSUUlIl that a simply supported beam is uniformly loaded over
~~~di~~I~~f~:~:e::~hth~t~h:~/i~e~~~t>:n1d\t~~g~l;;:)beI~S ::1u:;;:dr~~c~i:nt~~
thelch support using the influenclllines represented in Fig. 19.2b, c and d.

(c'
w,

(d)~~1
rr------
, I{nfluem:e line
I (or Q,
I
I

o -~ __ ~'--_IJ
Fig, 19.2

Sol"ti"n. AS this load is spread over the whole length of the beam the areas
bounded by the influence !inllsmust be calculated for the entire span.
Detcrmlnalion 01 rtaction A. The area bounded by the influence line being

the abutment reaction equals


OOI_+.l.1 ... +
A=qWI=*
Ddcrmination 0/ I.he bmdlng momtnl Mj. The area bounded by tho influ-
encelinobeing
1 I /z
wZ""'7/T-T
the bending moment will equal
MI-qW2=~
6.2. De/trminlllllln III Forte, IInd Mom~nt, 51

Dettrml""tilln III t}u ,hqr Q,. The inDuence line consists 01 two portions
bounding areall equal in size but opposite in sign

&ls=-i-++--+; &li-+i-
Therefore
(-+++)=0
Q,=q(WS+W,)-q

Problem 2. Determine with the aid of inftuenee lines the bending momenl
and the abear in section 1 of a simply supported beml with an overhang loaded.
n indicated In Fig.20.2G.

Fit. 20.2

$1I1"'/toll. Start by drawing the inDuenee lines for tbe bending momenl and'
shear in section 1 (Fig. 20.2b and c).
m~:~:r~,,::= li~:~~~:b: ~~:~:r:{~d r:.~ ~dl:~u:i t~ ~~.6~d;~N
the area IIlot under the inDuenee liDe of the uniformly loaded stretch tot.1,

w,,=+X8X 1.6_6.4m1
Therefore the required hending moment will amount to
M t - -Pll j +'1Wj--3X 1.6+2X6.0f0_8.0 ton-metres

Q, U~dt:;":~":fl~:dll~ t~u:~:lIo.f'~h~rll~ ~~in:::. ~~n~~ ib~ll~~;e i~iD:e~~~.


line over the uniformly loaded portion of the beam ill

~_+X8XO.8=3.2 In

Accordingly
Brams

We shall now show that the lunction S of any load (whether con-
-centrated or distributed) acting over a straight portion of an influence
line will be eqlUJ.l to the resultallt If 01 this sY$tcm 0/ wads multlpUed
by the ordilLatl' h o curre,~poltdtllg to this resultant. In effect let us eoo-
:!Iid~r the influence line for fUTlction S presented in Fig. 21.2 and

i
1
I
I b
:!*f
cl I

_
I
1 )
I" I
I---
I
1
J
I"'
~,
00
{}J
0/1
,'"' I
..-j
"I
I .I:: ~ ~ I
I -<:; --- I
a et -- 0
In(luefla! lint! for S e
Fig. 21,2

.a set of oonccntraled loads PI> P:, ... , P" with a resultant R


I;iluated over the straight portion cd of this influence line. Then
S= ZPh=P1h j -+- P2hl+P3ha+ ... +l'"hr.
Let us express the ordinates hl. hi' ... , etc.. in terms of their
distances ai' r12, ele., to the point of intersection 0 of the line
cd wi~h thl' .r-axis (Fig. 2J .2)
hl=a,tana:; h l =a 2 taUaj h3=aatana, ... ,
h.. -a" tan IX
Substituting theso values in the formula giving the value of
function S wo obtain
S = (Pla, +- PIU:+- p~J+ ... +PnUn) tana.
As will be readily seen, the expression in parentheses repreStlnts
the mOlllont of the loads Pt, P 2 , P.lo , P n Il.uout point 0, the
moment being l.'qual to the moment of their resultant abnut tho sam()
point, i.o., to f1aQ (Fig. 21.2). Consequently, S -- Rao tan u = Rho.

7.2. DETERMINATJON OF THE MOST UNloAVOUllABLE


POSITION OF A LOAD
We have just seen how Lhe iuEluence lines for various funetious
(abutment reactions, bending momtlnt, shears. etc.) may be used
for the determination of the value of the appropriate function
for any given position of a load.
7.2. Det~rmjrultl6,. 01 IM Mod U"/"lIOur.!>~ Putllen. I1 11 [,oad 059

We shall now endevour to fmd the position of thc load correspond-


ing to the maximum value of the function considered. Such a position
is usually termed the most un/avourabk or dangeroIU positton.
Hereafter the maximum positive va.lu&!J of the function will be
denoted by A mQ~' 111mU' Q.... ,,%, etc" whilst the maximum negativt!
valucs by A ... , iW"'I'I> Qrnl'" etc.
1. Cau: of 4 singk concentraW moving load. In this case the posi.
tion (If the load producing: the maximulll value of function S is
found very easily. (t OOillCidcs with the position of the maximum

Ft:. 22.2

ordinate to the ionueow line. By multiplying the amount of the


load by this Groinale \\-"e shall obtain the maximum value of the
function under consideration. Posit.ive maximums of the fWlction
are furnished by the largest positive ordinal.cs whilst the negative
maximums or minimums-by the largest negative ofilinates.
2. Ca:;e of a St't of concentraledmoving loads. I n this cakl we must rInd
!!uch a position of the given Stlt of loads whio.':h would pro"ide the
maximum "alue of EPh, where h slallds for tile ordinnto to the infJu-
i!lu:.clioe corresponding to the respective load P. Whcn tho number of
loalls is not '"tlry great tbe problem is solved by triol, thc set of
loads being shifted from onc position to another. When the max(-
mum valuo of the function is sought the loads are l1lad~ to coincifle
alteruately with the maximum positive ordinates and wllcll the
minimum onc is required-with the negative ones. It may happen
tbat the loads will be simultaneously situated o'"cr the positive
and negath'c portions of tht! innuence line. Such a case would arise,
for ilLstance, H it. wcre desired to find S",u for an innucoce line
represented in Fig. 22.2 due t.o a.set of loads (say, a locomotive) whose
total length would exc06d the length a corresponding to the positive
part. of the line.
Fi~. 23.2 sllOWS the most unfavourable position of a twin-ule
bogie wHh equal wheel loads for various inOuence lines. Fig. 23.2a
represent!! the loading corresponding to 11[1 ... ,,% .In this caoo the
greatest value of 'i.Ph is obtained wheA the left wheel coincid~"
with the maximum positive ordinate. Should we bring thc right
wheel over this ordinate, the left ono would shift to ordinate mn,
.and. us the latter is smaller lhan mInI the sum 'i.l'h wOl.lld also hi)
00 Hcam6

(a/
7J;a
r"
r
, ,
-'
+ r
,m m,
InflfJWlO:1 (<fie fur Ht
I
(b)
e n n, "
-- I fp!llHfI<.... llM
fIT H,

le)
e , ,
'"
I/n(luence line

Id)
-'rr---"
, for a,

" ,r-
,,r
,
- .--
: Influem:;U!ie-
fur Qr I

I') a " ,
b---- 1-
1 -----L....1.
FIt !! 2

P,
p, r r,
'
P, P, P.

,,
" ",
'
,' , ,"", ~x
" d ,I'," I'
" " ,,
"
"
,
" I,
11
"
11
,
a '. " " '. 9

Flf 24.:
7.2. Deltrmi,wtlo1l "I tll~ Most Unjavoural.ile Po.<it/on (I} at-MId 1)1

small"r 'han in tho first casu. Any othttr position of the.set of 10Clds
~.ollsillertld wOlllrl equally lead to a :!lIwUer value of the bending
mOlllent.
l-~i~. 23.2b shows the po~ition of the same set of loads prQviding
for .1'1 r",in'
Fig. 23.2c and d indil'ates Lhe load positiolls corresponding Lo
thl:' maximllln and minimum values of the shearing force. In Lhe
first ~o.!>El it is a::iSunwd that the left-hand load stands an illfmitesi 4

mal distance to the right of section I and therefore it.s anlount must
be filultipliNL by the ordinate ab (Fig. 23.2c). In the second ease
it. is ussumerl that it is the right-hand load whic.h is infinitely dose
to sertion I from its left and therefore the amount of thiJI load must
bo multipliod by tho ordinaw ab l (Fig. 23.2d).
Let us consider now the innucncc line for a function S cOIl.~isting
of a. Ilumber of straight portions interstlctil1g at points a. b, C, d, c, f.
and g and n set of conccntraled loads (IS indicawd in Fig. 24.2,
the loads b~illg in position I. As will be scen, none of these loalhl
stolid over the verticos mentioned above. As~mming tbat the whole
~t of loads is shifted over l\ distanc.e x to the right (position [/),
tht'_ ordinate hj, c-Orrespon.ding to a load Ph will be increased by
!J,h l = o'x tall <x, *
",hilt\ the i1lcrement of fUllction S will equal
l_,. 1=,. l_n
/:J.S = ~ PI6,h j =
~I
LJ
'_1
Pi,lxttlll<X/=o'X ~ PItana/
~l
(C.2)

Should we shift the set of loads agllin by 6.x to the right (posi.
tion Ill) the new increment of function S would still be given
b~' t.he oxpression (6.2). Assume 1I0W that position 11 corresponds to
the maximum value of the function S (in other words. that this
posiLion is the most unfavourable or the most dangerous one). III
that case the increment AS will be positive when the set of loads
1!'l shifted from position I to position Il and negativo whell the lonns
move from position 11 to position IJ1. Thus, when the ~et of loads
pa~IlS through its most unfavourabltt position, the incroJnent of
;_1>
tlw function S (and accordingly lhe sum
.sigil .
,-,Ll Pi tan (It) mlJ.'~l ChaJlge
As will he easily seen from expression (6.2), a change in :;iftl1
of tho illcrenumt 6.S may occur only when onc or more loads whirh

*11I Fill. 24.2 tht> Bnglrs,,",.,,"~, o;~. ""I' Md al Are pU5ilive wl,ilst Lho llfi!l"l,'s
,~ und 0;" Bre negatlvl'..
"The samo remains true fQr minilll1lm V!,hle$ of the flllH'Llon S.
wore previously sitllaled over one rectilinear portion of the i..IlDuence
line have shifted to an adjacent portion.
1 ~ follows that a d4ngaous posiUo/~ of thL SIn of load$ wtll occ~r
luhen one or more load points coinclck with the ordi.na~s panillg
thrtJugh the apicn 0/ tM influence lint:. This important remark grutly
faeilitaw$ the seareh for the most unfavourable position of the
loads, as it reduces the number of trials to the cases when one or
several load points stand over the soid apices.
Hereafter botb the load and the apex iD the influence line ovor-
which this load mu.st stand to ioduCll a maximum of tho function
undor consideration will be termed critical.
Let us assume now that position fl is the most unfavourable
onc and that it occurs when the r,riticnl load P3 stands over th"
critical apex c of the inOuellcc line (Fig. 24.2). ln that cast: the incre-
ment /is must be positive when the system of loads shifts towards.
tne right from position I t() position II and it must bo negative as

.--
!loon as the load P, passes to the right of point c. For the samll reason .
the sum ~ P1tan OJ must be posilive when the 1000ds sLalld to
i_I
the left of the dangerous position and becomes negative as !loon as
they hQ\'e shifted to the right of the latter (see exp. (6.2)1. \Ve must
also have p,tan u! >P1tan 0, which leads to It: >cx,. Thus,
the slope of that portion of the inBuence line which is lo the left or
the critical apex must be greater tban tlte slope of tho portion !<ituat-
cd immediately to the right of this apex. This condition is satisfied
in Fig. 25.2a only. It follows that ll. critical poinl t" flu IllfluenCi'
line wW always coincide with one 01 Its conlH'X apices or peaks, the
same temainillg true in the case when tho minimum value of II fune.
lion is sought. This again reduces the number of trials necessary-
to fllld a dangerous posiLion for a given sel of loads.
It should be noted that thc intcrsection poillts of an inDuelle@'
line which form peaks when the maximum value 01 a function is
sought cease being such when its minimllm is required, and vil.'.e-
VCJ'!lll. Thus, in Fig. 25.2c points c, e, anl: g of the illflucn~ line form
peoaks when S,."", is sought, while poin\s at b, a, and 1 would become
such were the minimum of S required. In order 1.0 a!C(!rtl:lin the
nature of the extreme points a and g of the influence lino th(' :I:-axis-
lOhould be extc'lded in both directions (as shown by d3.s.h lines in


It may It:l.ppl'.ll that having Jl!aclled it~ mu:imum, th(' function T't'llHlins
constallt during Lhe PISSbgo or certain 10000d.t from ODe of the apices to tJll'! n/'lt
one. In tllaL Clse a maximum ""iIl exist even though liS is nil And no (olld is lit
nn apex:, but the ruJe just ulontioned still hoMs good, for iniLll\lIy this DIuimUl"
nccurred when the uitical load (or loads) stood over an ai~x (or apices) of lho
illnUllllCfl line.
,
n .~


, , ~

I'J 'b)

a
___ 0 """"lliLLCtlll.l>= 9---

d f
ra,
Fig. 25.2

N.' No.S No.i, ~O,J Na.fi Ni~7 /vo,{/, No

J.'
" " J.5 '.0
" ".S ' "
-
"
., -- ~
"~ig. 25.2.:), thl'S8 porlion!o being considered as part of this innuence
lint) with zcro ordillll.lf's.
<
We havcalready stll.l.Cd that when~k.ingS...,,,,thesUln ~ Pj X tan
is posttttlt' Ichtn the ft't of loaJis is slluat,.d to tM kIt 0/ its most
wl/IJJ)OI~r(lble position and negatilN wkm thi$ set }un shlf~ to the
.., "I
right of flu> lnUt'r. It ill clear that whcll 5"'1" is required, the sum
j .....

~
,-, t:ln
PI'will lU'gatlve whm the luads are to flu> ll.'/t
UI hI! their
dangerous posWon alld positive whm they are to its right. Tllis al'iO
0;

sinLllljflCs the (lcttlrlllination of the most ullfavullrablll loading.


,
,

,
Ho'
No' , Nd N0.5 NaG ffo.7
d

J.' ,.,
FIC 28.2

As all example, let us fmu tho most u.nfavourable position uI


~ SYIIWIll of loads shown in Fig. 26.2 pro\'iding for S ..."", when tbe
influence Hlle for S consists of throo rcct.i1inea~ po~tiolls as sho\\T1
ill Fig. 27.2. The tangents of the angles fo~med by these threo por-
li(lllll with tho :c-axis II.~&
1 0.2& t 1
Laoat=+a; tima 2 = - T = - 1 l j ; tanCl3--"'F
W(' know that the mOllt ullfalTou~lIble posHion of t.h~ loading
Ci'llll\lJ~ OCCll~ withou~
at least une of the loads c.oiJlciding with the
Ileak b o~ r of the innllenco linc.
i_ ..

will
Th~ luads being shifled r~om ~ight to left the sum ~ PI lan
~I'main negati\"tl as long as nil Ibe luads are situated over por-
.-, Q l

~ioll.'J Ix and ccl of the innucnce line formin:;- negative an~le."l with
1110 -,-<\XIS. As stated before when the loads pass throngh 11 dangerous
t)O.:liliull, this SUllt mu"t challge sign and become positive. Ac.eord
injtly, we musl contiuue to mo\'c the londs in the same direction,
+
-"llic/!sa alld d do ll,!t [onn peaks fllld lheroforo the pa~Mge of a load O\'l)r
Hnc of the.e 111''' Ilt)inls is of no danger.
(.2. TJf.len"illalioll of fhe },fosl UII/llvourable "uti/ion of 11 Load 65

i.ll., from righ~ to loft UlLtil thissUlll he(comos positivtl. Lot us consid
(.[ till' loading rtlpruscntclL in Fig. 28.2. So long as tho loads remain
tu I.IlC rjgh~ of Lh~ po.~ition
j=n
1
h P" tall a, = pI 5+3.5)+-(3.5+3.5+3.5) 1l j _
i_L
t t1
-(3+3)"F=-m:<O
But a~ soon as they sllift to ~he left tllis slim becomes

~PIt(ll1aj ..H.5+3.5+3.5) ~ -(3.5+3.5) 1~;-


~,

This weans that the pas~age or 1./11) S<!t 01 loads from n position
sliglltly 10 thl: right frOlTl tllO one indicntou in Fig. 28.2 to a posi-
\,ion slighlly to its left C(llISCS a change in tiLo sign o[ the increment
AS fr<l/n negative to positive. Therefo!'e, the position represented
ill Fig. 21Ll i~ ,I dangerOUs onc and load S is a critical load.
Suppooo now that the Il1nds Xos. 8 ami 9 (sce fig. 20.2) which are
still beyond tILe limits of our structure when the fLrst dangerous
loading OCCllr!! nre considernbly greater than all the other 10D.ds and
total1iJ tOil!! oach. ln that case ii the train of IOD.ds is shifted furtller
Il~ tbe loft so tllat load~ 8 IiIld 9 would reach portions be nnd cd or
l~"
the illnUcncc line thtl sum
.-.2l Pitall a j would again become Jlcga-
tive, and at tbe monLcnt onc of these lo;;uls passes thu peak b it will
change sign again. Accordingly there would be a !<econd dangerous
positioll of the set of loads considered, for which the vahw of Srn"",
should he ngnin cnleulatl:ld. The larger o( tbe two maximums should
be adopted lor design purpo&!s.
Let us now consider the cage when tlte innul:!llce line forms n
triangle as represcnted in Fig. 29.2. Let Per denoto the critical load,
: ,
P -the Sl1m of the lOads situated over the left-hand portion of
the influence line. and 2l P-the
R
sum of these loads over the right-
hand one.
.-.._.
"Vc have shown prc.. iou!'I1y that when the set of loads is to tho
left of its dangerolls position, the sum ~ PI' tan , is positive and
when it shift~ to the right the sum becomes negative. In other words,
~-853
;>lj

a .. 1.m 6.Gm
1~8m

Pig. :to.2

3.0m lGm 4.5m lGm

Flit. :;/.2

'_lm
in thc prc~nt case
tll,nat,{ZP+Pu )+ tau all T,P > 0
L R
""d
tan (XL 'iP
L
+ tlln all (T.PR + P cr) <0
Substituting in the noo\'c t'xpl"llS!iuns for tan (h aod-~ A:,,:"
for tan all (st't! Fig. 29.2) a/ld cUfying ont some clenlcntary
trllnsformal ion:'", we ohtain
"lPTr>.. tt>
L >-!L
and

Xf' P.,-II'
-'-' <
(j

!l't-/J"
."dding to hol h llide.'5 of the ir!:!! c:<prc.ssiun c''--~_ 11 lid tQ hoth

sides of the ."el.'und OlH' +
!P
wc get
~P+/)<r+"ll'
P ')~>
('f.P'o C ' "
,- lIb b

!./J J..l'c'T~/'
r.P~< L "
l. aIJ 6
SlIll6titutillg 1 (or (a+b) and delloLing lhe Slim of all the loads
by IP, th!'Se expressions will cllsily rf'duce 10
T.P + 1' > 1:1).-1-- (7.2)
L
and
, < I[J.-j-
!,{l (8,2)

These two inequalities show that !he crilicalload is tM one width


renders the sum. ~ P + Per greater than ~ P
, -T' prOl;fded that ~, P

is smaller than the lotter,


In most cases tho moving lund (say, a locomotive) may cnl.<!r
the structure (say, a bridgo) from bolh :-idcs, and lo each of these
c.oties thero will correspond its own maximum value o[ the [unction S,
,.
,.
In Ord!;!f to obtain the larger of these two values the front wbeels
of the locomotive, which are u.'ill1l.Hy the heaviest, should be pJaced
O\'or the Illflrhand portion of tho Lnflw.lnce line when a < b (scc
Fig. 29.2) aod over its right-band portion when a > b.
"roMI'm. It is rc<\u(roo to flIld tll& mu~t <1nllgeI'OU~ position of a tn.in 01
lmuls sllO ...1] in Fill. ;J1.2 wi~h resllect to the inDuenctl line for function S represent-
ed ill Fig. :JO.:! and charac_terized b~' j ,.. S m, " =- :.: m and /l.m"~ ., L
S"llLlion. Tllo Slim of (ouds which can fllld plnoo 011 a span 8 metres loug
CHIII:ll... 11 = 5 X 3.5"'" 17.5 lons.
Shifting 1he train of loadsfrolll rigllL 10 left and making use of tile inequ~lilics
(7.2) and (8.:.!), wo sbaJl iiml
,
!!:+ P,r >17.5 X 11=10.375 Lo",;
nml
,<
IP ,',,(175 tollS

This shows that \-ho socond load is tho critic"l olle fol' onl)' ill that
cr'!:!C botll of ~l,e hlt'(j\lalitl~'s hccolUn satisfled. Effectively, let l;P=;1.5 tons
~/lll l'("r=3.5 tons, U'C'1l
:I:P+Pcr",,3.:i+3.5- 7.0> I,. 31.'; 10ns
I-
anI!
,
:I:P::03.5<4.3i5 t(ln~

The mo. t unfavounhle position of tIle train of loads lhus (ound is inJlc,1\ed
ilt fill'. 32.2_ 1n order to find tho value of Smllx Ctlrrl.'sIIOlldilll,l 10 this loading
let Ill< find 1110 ordinalo~ h 1, h z, h~, "" and h~

"~, =0,4 tan a=OA...!...=O.2 ,


II-]. ... hm""_t

hJ ={1.6 X 2+1.2) lan ~-(t.6x 2+ 1.2) ~ =0, 73:~


I
h,,,,,, (1.6+1.2) tnn ~_(t.6+ 1.2)"6 _0.461

h~_1.2 t,m ~ .. 1.2 x +_0. 2


wllcN'lnlm
S'lI""'= "l,Ph_ PI:,h_3.5 (0.2+1+0. 73J+O.4lJ1 +0.2) _9.1
If the ordjllQ\es of "he inO'lellce line were measured in metres, thfl [unction
Sm,,'" - 1l.1 wnuld he Hxpres.~d ;n tnl'-m"t..e. On the other hand, if thoso ordi-
nates wpm dimcnsionless tlw I'cslrh obtained would be (\x1lre~sed in \Ol\~.

3. Cas~ 0/ Il moving uniformly distributed load. In Art. B.2 we


have seelL tl1l1t the vaLue o( 1\ fun.ction S induced by a uniformly
dil!lriblll~{L load is equal w the product of the intensity of that
lCk1d q by the area ro bounded by tho infillence line uml the orrlil1uws
pagsing through the limits of the load, Le., S =(IW. The intensity
of the load q being constant, the maxi ilIum value of thll function
will correspond to tho maximum of (0 which in its turn will occur
\I'hcn the loao q will occupy the whole of that portion of the structure,
over which the innuenc.c line dOes not chnnge sign.

~ , .!
-:
I

j"fluef/Ce line
1l far H,

I
--- I
l/nfluence lUTe for
M,
.

I
:Jnfluenc!! LW!! far

I" ~~-:--:--~Cll~~-.
I Q,

-- l - - - - - - __
-- I J"fltJem:e lifle (or
Q,
Id)

--- -- -----
Fig. :JiJ.2

In Fig. 33.2 we have repfCsented the most unfavourable cases


of loading for a beam with overhung carrying a uniform load. Case a
indicates the load position for J\t[lm",..; case b for M lrtHn ; case c
for Q,m"", and case d for Q,m,n' It will be noted that in all the four
cases these portions of the beam which correspond to the positive
or n(!~ative pnrt.~ of the innuence line are fully loaded .


It i~ assumed that tll\' loads 1ll3y 116 distribu'oo (lVer a stretch of (lny length.
70 llrca/lll

8.2. OIi:TmIlNATroN OF MAXL'llml MOMENTS AND FOHCES


USING EQVH'ALEN'l' USlfOIlIlj LO,\ns
\-Vo hllve 8('1'11 that tho dClllrlllinnLion of the mitxirnllUl vnlut!
of a function by the dirt'ct application of a train of cO/l\~ent.r[l!ed
luads to the innuence line jll\'olves a (;ollsil!ernblc llmoullt of cal-
culations dllC (0 the llecc1lo:ity lJf flnrling thl,; mo.~t unfnv(luraLlc
plJsition of the lo:\([s. in the easo of triangulnl' inl"JlIeJle(', line.s, alJ
the operations may be cOllsidllrubly simplilicd through the use of
so-eallod equlvalen.t loads. whose vllhlllS can he tal,ell (rum IlpprO-
priate tablos Iwn glllpIJS.
The equivalent loud may bl' defl lied as II uniformly distributed load
which will indm::e in a ciwn mflnber (ur st.'ctiiJn) 0/ the .I'tructuri' UllIu'r
co{/.~ickratio'l the sanw farce VI' I1UJltlnt as the cvrrt:sparu!iltg sysll.'tn 0/
conrmtrated lvads in thelr mast Im/owl/ruble position.
Denoting by 9~q tho illtOIlSity of the t'quivulcnt lond aI"! !.oy 0
tho area boulldod by the infilwllce line, we may write tho iolluwing
equation

frOIll which it may lie SCClJ that tl1Cl"O will he alll':I)1) all! y ()IW
dcl'illitc vll.!nc of the t'qllivalolLt !oad fol' cacll paltieuJar 10lldlllg
llldt'od, s{,lving the ahov\" equlltioll fol' f)cq we obtain
Zf'fh,
(hq=--,-,-
In ()UI' cXtlllIple of Arl. i.2 we hllVt' fuund that. for the train "r
lond!' eOllsiuol'Ou the maximum value of a certaill fUllctioll S l" -
tulll'd D.1. III l.hi... case
\I.l O. I '275
fJe'1=T)(F=T= . tOllS per metro
--:r-
rt migllt sceUl tbat this h\ads w; c.Ut.tly llowhct't~. far in order
to Hnd an Ilqllh'alclIt load wc IllIlSt rrrst dtll.erluillO the mitxirllUIll
value of the [Ilfl(.'tion IJy trial. In rlJaHty this is Ilot su. I,'or n triaHgu-
lar influence line the intensity of an equivlllcnt I(lad far iJ given .''.et
of f;oncQnlratcd loads is indopendent 01 tho lH!tual valuc or tile
ordinates to the infillQJll'C line IInd will altel' only witlt a ()hang~
in ~he length of thll~ portion llf the .structure which C,HTies UlO load..,
find witll 11 varill.lioll in the position of tho innuenclJ liuo apt'X witll
r~spcct to it:i tlxtrt'mHies. This jlcrmits CUwpllttt.tion and labulllliun
(or rcprcsenltltioll ill the fOl'm of t!raphs) of eqllivaknt. load jnl.en-
Sith)8 pertaining to typical loading schemes and to tile rhoro wnl-
lOom shape:> of triangnlat infilU)llce lines.
Ld //..~ cuU simU.ar tu'" lujluN/(le lints when the ordinal~ 1'/ (mt of
!lti'm mayix' Obtllifl.N1 hy mulUplyLJlg tho~ of lhe other by Il cUIMtlmt
fllcMr. aud lrt liS show thal t1u' inlttuity 0/ tM l"fJuit;lI-knt wml/f fnr tlOO
simL/ar lull'S r('mains Ihi' J(UI~.

la'
I
la

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
tb, 1
I
I
a

Fig. M.~a and b n!pl'fJ"C.nts two such lines; the base longtl,~ of
tho.'" liul'S lire the samo while their ordinalt\s diffe-r by a constant
factor equa 1 \0 u.
The ('qui\"<tlent load for the line in Fig. 33.2b is
. IPllli . .
q..,-~ with 1I;=nJI1
lllid
Q' =U.5nh(u+b)=,lQ
whllro III ll11d Q <Ire tho ordinllt.e aud the area of the innUonCll line
rcp~&lnlcd in I"ig. 34..2a. respectively.
Suhstil\lllug Q' and hi by lhtlir values expresso<!. in terms of Q
and h we fmd

tor linc a.
D~tllI"

\Ve !Iave t.bus proved t.hat. equivaltmt loads for similar inOut'lI<'C
Ijll~ are identical.
The intensity of ..ho equivalent load depends 011 three fllctors ollly:
(1) the llistribution aod magnitude of th" loads; (2) tho Icnglh of
the loadl'li portion; (3) the position of tlll'l :lptl-x of the illflucllce lille
over the span (or over the loaded portion of the structure).
TroUl
~

~~~
~ - _... ---.~ ~~ --
~~
_.............
.... .., .............-- <::<:: ~~ 'ton
", ........ ..; <') <OS ~~
O-S'"' ... .-; ... <-i ... ~~ ~~
"""
I'!,"e

(r(Jtll
H,
..., ....._.........
'-
"'.,~""'
~ ..........
....,
... ~~
,
~~
..............., -
. . ..........
..........
..., ...,
-- -- ,
...," ;o?, cS~ u>r's I~"
...., <-; <"\ ") <":i ~~ "'S <"j "'S-; ...
~" ~~
, "',>1:..'

, , 1 S G7 8 . ID 11 12 13 14 IS16 1718

Train ...,................., ...............


.................
~~.." ...",..",
-
.- ....................
7 ((l/"f'~,.
H. <1'
.... "" ...........
~~'*' .::t!{,"('

/ ! J .. S Ii 7 8 11 10 11/'l/J It.. 15 "b' :'1:11


1 r>oUJ' pt!r gAle orE g. vell;'t (011$

,.It. J!f.2

Inlcllsitil'S o( equivalent loads computed for a stalldanl train


HI (Fig. 35.2) used in 1.he V.S.S.H. for designing railway bridges
are tabulated hereuJldcr.
.'\5 will btJ ob~rvcd. the table (,onl:'lins the ":'1111(';'< of l.:tl'lhalclIt
lands for \'ariou$ Il?llgtbs of the I03dl:'d portion (lip tll M m)
and flit three different. i>O"itionll 01 tJu." in[Juence liut.' alhX. llallll.'ly
whcll the lattt>r is over the edgl?, at quarler Sp:lll ami at fllid-sprlll.
"'hen the tlJX':'\: falls at some intermt!diaLc poillt. 1./1<.' \'llhlC 01 the
l'qui"nlent toad ni3y ho obt3incd by tllttlrpolation.
+
'fhe Ilist.unC~5 between loads ill Fig. 35.2 urc givcn in metre~.
T"f,lt> 1.2
E(Juivl\l~nt LUDds per Running Metre of Trltdo: fur Slandard IT\
Train in 1'nns
TTPe and lLI<elllb nr inllunce line
A~ 1 tbe u.lremitr Apn 11 ql)at'UT ilP"ll "lIn ill th~ '1l10<l1~
LrllCth
~
~~ r-----...
of lIle
r"oWd
\o<onloa
I'lm ~

,,,
I 7.00 7.00 i.l~I
<i. :tu 3.5l' :{.:IO
3..1~ 3.01 2.St
:,. l!j 2.57 2.1~
5 :.UII 2AI 2.41

:L2f1 2.2(,
"8 2.1lQ

,.
7 2.71 2 21; 'J.2H
,. Vi3
2.51
2.:m
2.~
:.:.;(.8
2.2:1
2A2 2.16 2.11t
--- 12 2.2!l :.'..0." U16
1.!'l7
" 2.16 .. 88
1I\

"
211 ....
2.0:1
1.1',,!
1.88
1. ,7
1,(;9
1.82
1.7!1
1. 70\.

<. 1.77 I.Vl 1.51


<' I. 73 I. 51; t.~
tAr.
'"
,~)
71)
I. 7(1
l.H5
I.GI
1.55
1.52
t.46
1.401
1.4~

.SO I. ,:,!j 1.43 1.'i3


I~) t,~! 1.37 1.37
71. l.>l1l 1.33 U,2

'"'" 1.41
.. '"
1.27
t,2!1
1.::11 1.22
I(iU
110
120
'"
..1.32
1..:ro
.."
1.22
J.:!Q
I. IS
1.15
l.l3
J:'lIJ 1.27 I. 18 I. II
tt,v 1.21; l.H; 1.10
I!JrJ
'00
1.2>1
1.:t3
1.15
1. 1>1
.....
.. 07
1.00
,"
liLl

11~J
1.21
I.a
I.W
l. 12
LII
I.lU ..'"
"" 1.18 .. OO .. ""
t.ll5
7\

Uy IIItdliplyillg all till" axle loads of the standaru III lr:till by a


fnelor k which l'hamctcriws thtl Gins., of loading. wc shltll oblain
IOllflillg !l(;bCffiCS for dilfcrent cla8:les of t.rains. Thus. t.he dC'si!{1I
(.If trunk lines is carried (lilt for trains of class 7 Qr 8 (H 7 or H,) whilst
lilH:s oC local importaJlce are designod for H, and 11, train~.
"r"lItem I. '"",ill!: tlM'mClhod of t'(llIivllll!"~ loacls,lot(Ol'miuc tI,O ,Irds IlrodU('t...:J
hy ,I ,,~an,I, ...1 #, tr;,ill i" IRt'lUbcr 1-$ of lIl!iinlc track hridgf' Irrl!lll n'J,re:;enl<-d
III lo'ilt. :)Ii.~," Ul(' cOI"rrSII<'lIdl"g in1luellce Hnll bl.'illg FhoWlI ill Fig. 3G.2b.
"'~I!lII"" lu "nlcr tu ob\.ll[n tIll' maximum \,,,llIe of the tell.!;o" Indur~1<1 the
wll"I(. 1'''1'1 ;im or lhe ~1'ulI cvru'slJOlItliug to tho positivI' ordilWICl1l of Ih" innut'llce

(a) ~
,
<

--- -- , I
I Iltr~,7('it 't,ile r, D'S

~~
1--_ I

tb) { 6:
--- h~
Jm Gm

Ft::. 36.2
---
IHle s1"'1l1J In' 1""I,~I. the ll'1~lh of !JIb tlllt'lion toI.aJs 8.0 Ill. lu e"hllran 3 "I
'l'ahl(! 1.2 .... le' 1,,,,1 Ihllt Ihe ~'<luivaJ..nt 10"'\ fl.H' I""i" III ...." .. hl equal ill that
e.l3(: :l.2X lOllS 1Il-"I' Il,ttru. TI,u muimum I~ll$it'" prodll('~d h)- an 11, train will
th~,<t 1.0 dL'i\"{',j fl'UlII the follOWing e-:o:pn~ion

2D~).,.4q.,U_7X2.28X ~ X ~ _39.90 lOllS"

Du_O.SX39.911_IU.t'S ltlns
TI'(j lUOU;lUIIIll cumrrcs..><ion ...ill 101.' obl"inod by 1000ding Ihl" wltol(> ~Iret.eh
ill'CI'" Iho 1H';:":l.l(vo, I",rlioll of \ht' inllu('net' 1I11l". i'rmn 1'lIlill' 1.2 wu (Illd lnal

"Iw lacl.<lr 2 ill Irnlll uf th, Idl-!lllll,1 tenll or


Ihili l"xr'1'l!Miofl i~ dill'
ll' Ilu~ fact lh~t thQ llqui\.l]cnl l"ads In Tabl.. 1.2 are givl'lI lllr olle tra('.k,
i.Il, ror both truS,S(,>J\ or
11 sill!:!e-Irack brIJc:e.
S.t. Daler.... inolto,. 01 M.uIMu.m MometU. Ami I'O'ru 75

fur 11 IcDglJ> l_ <4 In IlK- IlflUi'l3Ji>"I I"ad i~ 2:.57 tOIlS !Joer moire (!N.' culumn 3).
TI" IllUilllUlll CODlI"l'!i!!WlI will Ih('ll he givcn by
;; oi
;!f).~_ kit..,il _7 X 2';'; X 1ii X "2 - t I. 24 I."UII

"'I","ea D,~ =0.:' x 11.:.14 _:i. (\:.1 Ions


I>Tlll,l~"" 2. t-~lul:! ~hc m"lhod ,.! t'lJu;vnll'ul loo lIs Iin'l M I '!l'l~' Q { ",,,~,
nnd (1/ mi. "d.-ing in ~ln enrl ~UP!""'le\1 plato girdOl' hrl\l![ll (rlj:l, ,'j1,1'lj 'lfrillg
tl1l' I'll~!;l'!-!~. 1,1 nil Jf 7 train, The Illnu~ncc lino.' r"'t' b"l1di"~ wlJIIlt'nl 111ld ~hl'al'

la) ---ip------....
~a ~
Jl,.a-i

'.
Z/11t 118/11
:
, 0

,---- '''''0m
iI
:/
!l ll.n. fir Ir1flu~ Hr
(6)
~l @ I
I

t+-- ~1~ In{luiJ~ I

lint for Qr :

(C)JJ ~ et> - =:
e az-------- E
Fit. 37.$

iUl'\'C.lillll J 01 une Iwlk:r:lf1'. ~pre~nled in Fig. 37,2/) ilnd r. 1'110 I>dltgc is :ljlllin
5ingJt, trat"k "lie, loo r.lils bc'-''il" f,xl'd, to ."ltiDRer'S .ml rro5,5 be.un! t.u,,\M,rll'd lo)'
1\\'0 IlIlTallp) g,rd.....,.. AccOl'dil1gl)'lhn .,quiv~tellt load ror one Rirol... r wi l.be hair
of tloal giVl'/1 III 'rable 1.2.
$of"I,o'l, IJ.,,,,,.m/tWllofl oJ AI! "'U' TI.... J('ngt.h uf Ihe> J(lltdin ~bouM lit)
lukl'Il ~ual lu lite whole ~Il>l" of llC ll:irtlet, 1.0;1" to 10.0 m. As Ihe ~I'''X or lI.e
InDuen((' lIne fnll! 1...'lw('l'Il Ihe llh1l.rtet !pan IM/illt and Ih ... enll of th" !:u'd"r the
cqujva!""L lOAd l!lU~t 1'0 found toy intl,lrpohtLion. to'or all If, twin

<J,,-qu-l-('I, ~-'/o) 1~1 _2.42+{2.11J_2'':'2)~:~_


.....2.42-0.2.tiXO.8_2.2t to", IlOf melrt'
where '10 "',. l'ilui\./tleot. 1".,1 for 10a,I....1 ICllglh or 10,0 III with lht! IlIflUI'I~o
It
Ilot'! Itjl('.'t: o ....r UUI j,ll",x1.n.'1niL) 1,1 Ih... iirdt..-t IrtJulltl in Tabl" 1.2)
'1, I = ""lIIe cqll;vlllent I~d hul f."r Itn i"noolKo line willt lli" Itt~lf
al C1".tter-JlpaD (,,15O fonnd III TaMe t .2.)
9" ....:: equh'all"llt 1000d fOl' IIIll faSl' ....h"n thll i"OueT>W line "flt.'.'t: i~ at +,
of the lrirdt't 511l1n (.~ in Fig. 37.20)
11 ... diit:loctl frolll llou innUI"IlfC line .p... x to tll'" 1ll'3rt'SI cut! of the
irder
l
l = ""lftt. of lmuliug ("Iua! in Ihi! Illlttieubr Cll~ t<J ~ho .... Ioul.., ~Im"
01 tho gir,ier,
For all H, tl"1lin the equivalent load will amount to
94 x 7 _ 2. 21 X 1= 15.<1,7 toilS p('r metre
For 0,)(' gifller it will reduco to one balr. i.e. q, "'" 7.735 tOllS pcr lIlt'tr...
'ri,,, art'il under the loending mOIDeul innueu(e liD~ ror ste:tlou I Nluala
I
6)''''"TX IOx t.G_8 m!
Conse'llltlntly
M 1 m,,>: .. 9'(,)1 .... 7. 735 X 8.0_lil.8& ton-lIlt't.,.!
r)tt~rminllflon 0/ (Jf ",..". In order 10 flml the maximum J>O$itive :'lht'", ;n
~ll()n I the 10(:",1 shQuld (over the ('lltil\1 posiU,'(' llortion (>f tflu Of Influence
liulI (Fig. !17.:k). Thlllcng'Lh of this portion i~ equl,llo 8 metr,,~ and t}u~ influenco
line apex is O\'t'f its Il.'ft extl"l.'mity. Table 1.2 yields the rollowin~ nlu(' for the
equivnlont IOall eerl'('~I)""dini t.o tho stilndard 11, Lr/l.in
qo-2.li3 lam; per metre
For 8'l /11 train thia 108,1 ",.i11 inert'llSC ~e\',mrold :md will lohl 7 X 2.63 ...
18.~ Iton" per meLre, while for ono girder Ihill should bl' haJy~I. I.e., ''1: "" 9.2
tOil! per metre.
Tho arell. bounded b}' tho positive porlion of Ihe shf'ar innuencu line equals
"'2""' ~ x8XO.S .. 3.2 m
ami therdore
01 m.,.- q:(l)~= 9.2 X 3. 2_ 29. 44 to,lS
J)rltttnlnatlOIl 0/0, ml'" The greatc~t Ml'lItivc Shl'.r in ."E'ClIon I will Of'.c;ur
wllen that portion "f tllu girder 'I\'bere the ordinalllS to the .!'hear influence line
atn negativG (t'ig. 37.2.:) is loaded in its entirety. This porti(m is 2 mf'trcs long
and thfl \nfluNlCfl line apex is .t its righthand ('dromity. For tllis Casl) wo
fUld iu T:lble 1.2 all equivalent load corrf'&ponding to a st3.IHlard HI train equal
10 .... 2 tenS per mf'lrc. fllr nn H 7 train this 1Il0~1 lJO [ncre:l1'('d hy 7 0" to
7 X ~.20 - 29A tons per metro, and for ono girder It reduces 10 1], .... 0.;'; X
x z<JA = fIo.7tun! per metro.
The area ulJdl'r thu ltcgath'u pOrLiOll 01 the IllnUCrl~e lino equals
1
(013- -TX 2 xO.Z- -0.2 III

Q'IMI,,-4#]- -0.2 X 14.7 __ 2.91 tons

9.2. MULTISPJ\N STATlCALLY DETHAflNATE BEAMS


By mul'ispan- stfluctllly deurminal~ canliinN'r ~am we lll)dNSlllOd
n geometrically stablo structure consisting of a series of simply
supported heams with or without overhangs connectod to.ltcUx.,.
by means of hinged joints. Such beams might be also call od IImUi-
span. hEngro b~am.s. The multispan cantilever beams also hl'lollg
ta this chls!> of hcmm!l constituting a particular ease thereof.
Single benms constituting these structures might be uith,.r of
plate girder or trussed construction or both. The theory of th(3 multi-
77

span statically determinate beams has been developed in 1871 hy


1110 eminent Russian engineer G. Scmikoleno\'.
Bl:'llmS of this type are USU311y more economical tban a series of
disconnected simply supported beams spanning the game opening.
This mn}' be illustrated by the following example: assume that two
eq"al 8nd 3djaccnt. spans A B and BC 10 metres long each have l.O
=-It/m q:2t1m

ca'

AI--._-"''''---__ ..,'t-__-'c"om'''--__..,c
(0'

"I D
A C
IOm

'dl

,
M,tGtm
Ft,. 18.2

be hridged over, tIle design load being evenly dislriLull.'d and oqllsl
to 2 lOllS per metre. In the fir!!t instance let liS try separate simply
snpporlcd be;JlUs (Fig. ;~.2a). The bending momonts At miuspan
of each beam will amount to
qli 2xl0l _
MO=T%O.--,--.25 tollmctft"$

The diagrams of these bending moments arc r8presenWd in


Fig. 3S.2b.
Now let. us cn"isag~ 8 double-span hinged beam. llnd Jut liS Ilse
R beam with a two-m6tre overhang BD nc,roJ\.~ the spOon HC (Fig. 38.2c),
7'
this ovcrlHlllg wing hiu~'C-(;ollllec~t!d lo the ('od of fill 8 metro benm
AD. The maximum bclltlinl: moments (positive and nt'gll.tive) in
the must dangel"Uus cross sections of these two beams "'ill 00:
at midspiln of JJt>am AD
M,= 2~81 = Hi lUll-metre>
Over the support B of beam CD (b.'nm AD LrallsrniLtinl{ a rOIl-
cC/llrall'd load P_B lons lllWllgh hiJlge D) the b<>udillg mVll1c"t
Mn = - (8x 2 +2~2') = -20 lon-mclrPs

III the middle of the 51'all He tile bending moment will tllllollul Lo
:!:X1Ot :!II) _
Mt=-.---T= I" lOll-llwlres

but this is no longer a dangerous s~ction, for the JIl3Killlll.n momorlt.


Ill1lSL coitl"iilo with lWro shellf Aud lIw latter will ocellr at a di.-r
lilncc x from tile right-ham] lWPI)urt, this dishwee hcifll{ t1l,!'j\'l'd from
the fnllowilll; cqunlillT\
Qx= -C+qx...,.,.O
\\'hCI'l! (: ilj the right-IHllld alllltrncJlt rcac~ioJl equal 10
c= -8X2-2XlX\~2XIfJX5=8 lOllS

Mid thcrcful'C '"


-8+2%=0 x=-4 ml'trcs
Tile I'CIldill'l' mmnt'ut in this sc<:lioll will b..
M,..nr-8x4-2xli x2=16 tOIl-llIe~rL'S

Thu belldin~ monwnL diogmlll fur the dOllble-s~lIl hinged bellm


is rupl'l'SClllt'tl in Fig. ~_2d. H will 00 obsen'ed 111:11 ill o~luto
valul' lilt' iJcnding moml'_nts in I.his beam 111'" smaller th:m in each
of lite scpar:\tc beams cOllsitll!1'\.'4:! in \11.. rlr3~ place anrl tbcreforo
Lho lloubl"'-1IpOIl bt:am is obviously mort' l.oronomictll.
The liSt! of co,,~illnolls beams o1.so k,tlds to a sub)';tallli<tt n:ductioll
or ht'ndilllo: mOfllClIt,.<: as compAred with singl" lx.>arns, hut t.he multi-
~plln sUlticnlly dett'rminate beams presont o'rtain adclil-iOllallldVlIO-
tawes: (ll) their relaLi \'el y shor~ melllbors al'C well suitl!d for prohdnica-
lion. lransport..'1tion and installation, ulliug standard hoistillg I.'quill-
meflt; Cb) nil the forces i"du~d therein arc Slatica1Jy ,letNmillllt.e
a rill will 1I0l be innucllccd by any .'lotlllllllllllt uf the ~ll"IJorls. 'rhe
ahovCl cOlIsiderations havo led La fairly wifle 1150 of mullispl11l <:a.n-
tilever bcnms in engineering structures.
Stntically determinate 1Il1111i:lptln beam:! 1lI11}' always 110 ol}tllinCfl
inlrudlldng n llllml)er or hillges illl.lI a similar conlilHl(JIIS bl'Anl.
A., will be shown Inwr tht. number 01 hingl'lS must be cqual 1(1 ~IJ('
degree of redulIrlallc}' 01 the continuous beam.
r'ig. ~J.2a rcpreseulS a live-span COIlLLI1UOUS !leanl whose const-rnillLs
at Lhe supports may oo:lc.herual.ically replaced by scvcn hillKt'lt h;lr!,.
III ordllr lo dett'rmine Lbe Ivrces act ill!: in these bars wc have l)1I1~
three independent cquilibrium equatiolls :lIId therefore lbe stress:
conlputation for lhis boamcanDolbecarried out with the aid or 51n-
ties BloOtl. This benm has a degree of a redundancy equal 10 four .

.~ J;: "k J; ;b ;t
la,

.~ J,:;<>--<>J,:; J;HJ; ;;l,


'~ J<:
a
:J"
I'}a
J;
0J<: a
k
',0 a
J(;<
,
IcI

J;aI,,'J;
a
J;
,
,
J"
.~ J; J; \Ok J; J,.
.~ :J;
0
;t: J;;
re}
B

(fI
oc-~
~""" -J"
c ~

Fig. .t!J.Z

H we derlot~ hy C the number uf conslraintlS al lhe 1lI1IlIIlIrl.",


tlllJlI the degl'C'C uf redllndancy n of ti,e hu~m will 1,0 Cllllal to It -
= C - ;t Aplllying this formula t.o the beam ill Fig, 3!1,2a wc shnlJ
obtAin n = 7 - 3 = 4,
E:\r11 hinge introduccd either in the spAn or f)\'('r n SIIPllort Hr
n Ct)ntinuOllS beam Jlruvid~ for ono additional oqlJalion of sl<lticl'.
thi~ equation expn.'SSing lhnl the sum of moments of all the ('xtcrn<ll
forc('~ IOpplil.-<1 to the beam either to lhe right or lo 111(' k,n or tlll~
hillj{e I\bout iLs r.enlre equals zero.
He_net'_ when Ilu) lIumber of hi"~~.!l introduced into the henm
t'quAl:< it." degn.'t' (If redundancy, Lilo hcnlll bec.OnlO!l i'ltnlklllly (Iull~r
millllto for all LIJI) IInkllowns mllY he obtained ill Owl ('/ISO wiLh !.Ill'
aid o( tilo eqllntil)ns of stntks nlone.
The hiDg'l!s mllst 00 distributed alollg the beam ill 5uth a war
th:.L t'lIch part v( the 3(rue~ure ShflUld become statically determinate
Ilml remain geometricAlly stable.
So,'eraJ ways of transforming till.' continuous bUtlll1 rcpre~nted
ill I~il:'. 39.~ into n staticaHy determinate one artl iUustrllt.cd in Fig.
:f,1.2b. c, d and e. Fig.::ro. 2/ gives all cnmple of :an unsatisfactory hinge
distribution for although their nlllllht'r in this caSt' algo equals
rOllr and then-fore corresponds to the degree of rodundancy of the
illiUal beam, portion AB of tile transformed benm still rcmtlills
sl.l\tieally illdetcrminate while portion nc has bC<.;OnlC unstable.
('1'110 JloliSible displll.ccrncnt..s of tllnt portion of tlte bll"J11 are shown
in da~h lines.)
" continuouS bell m with oue built-ill cnd is reprusenlcd in Fig. 40.2/1.
II ljllould be rcmemhercd that a builtin cnd is equi"alC'llt lo t.Im'C
:1I111!Xlrl eonstrllints as rcprosentod sehematically in Fig. 4t.~.
,\cctlrJingly Lho total numbor of ('onstraints of the bc/un is C =- 7
atul its degrro I)f redundancy is n = C - 3 = 7 - 3 = 4.
Thus, in order totrllnsform tbis beam inln a staticntly dewrminat.e
Olle, rl)Ur hinges should be introduced (IS illustrated in Pig. 4O.2'J.
..\ ('olltinunuJi beam with two built.-in ondsi!\ represented in Fig. 42.2a:
tlll,l ril:hthand end o( this beam sljlJ retains ('1\0 degreo r.r frf'tld'om
liS it can move horiz.untaHy. Therefohl 3t this end the nUlllher of
rostraiHts is cqllal to two as indicated in Fig. 43.2. Thus, tho loL-\!
lIumber o( cOJl.'.ltrllints of this beam is C _ 8 and its degree of redun-
dalll,\Y equals n = 8 - 3 = !>. In order to make tLtis bellm staticll.lJy
.lelcrmillate it would he neccssary to introduco live hinges. QlIe w3y
of distributing these hinges is shown in Fig. 42.211.
Tltt) Iwst way to rmd (Jut wnethol' a lUlIHisll311 ht'lIm o( lllllt t,yP(~
h stahle or not onc! also to get a cloar l>icLllrc of its work uuUer load
is to represenL schcmll.til'Mlly tllo illlcraction of its scpurato parts.
As.'SlIul(! for iUlltllnce thllt il is required to investij.{llto thti .stability
o( the beRm t'll[lte'lClltcd in Fi.'!. 44.2a. The inlcract,ion of itl:! cll'monts
is ruprescnterl. schemaLically in Fig. 44.2b, wht:ro all the illlcrmediaw
hinl,yUS arc replaced by fixod hinged supports connecting tho appro-
llrinle b~311l members. This schemAtic drawilll: sho\\'~ c10llrly that.
the whole beam i!l ~motrica.lly st.n"'e, for each o[ its constituent
mcml,ICr.l is 11. simple beam 'with (lr without o\'erballjl" connected
tu t11(~ ground or to aMtbcr part of the structure whose stability is
cn~urcd by menns of three nonconcurrent bars.
J~rroctivcly. beam ABE i~ wnnoet.ed to tbe ground by nlCt1IlS
of lhf('C supporting blll's and i~ therefore geoJOctric.l'llly stnble.


-/\ I(ll.'tbod or illYll~Lill'uting Ihl' geomelricul ~Lllbility of a muWSpan hinged
1Jl'~m \\'~~ p",~sl.'nILod In Art. 2.1.
9.2. Mulli'fI~n Stllticalfy Dclcrm.inatr IJcam.

~ o JJ7 r:; 0?l ~


Fir;. 40.:!

Fi/:. ,/1.2

~ ~
,,)
JJ: a
~ JJ7' o~
Ib}
~'
0

~
Pig. 42.2

Fig I.B.2
" S'/MI5

A 8 ; C r D

JIb ?Al.' J; I,!


:k
F D

~ Jm

A 8 .1
JlJ, :Al- l"
Fit. 4;1.2

-;;a; LJ :;;A;;;
Fig. dS.2


;;;;;;;; L.1~

.11
la}
lJ

p 1: la}
I>;; I
I
TIle heam ECl? is SUIlporLeJ hy two bllrs at its end E and rests on
a verlie-al har !<taluling directly 011 the ground at C. The supports
of bl'-arn PD arc exactly similar, LllUS ensuring its stability.
Tho exalllples presented ahove lead to the establishment of the
following rulE1s relative to tho distribution of hillgt'::l in beams which
have no blllJLill enll;;:
(t) there may be no more than J! hinges in each spun;
(2) thl'rI! musl be no hinffes in the spans adjacent /0 tile one provided
with 2 hinges:

r (a)
~

(6)

Fig. dB.:!

(3) spans con/ainlug (I/lt" hinge only may follow each olJli<r~;with
the exceptton "i One 0/ th.. extreme spam where there shOl~ld be no hinge
at all.
Thus far we have cOJlsidered cases whore all tho supports but one
were freo to move in a horizonlal direction. Lel us 1I0W exnmine
ca,o;.es where two or moril- supports MC frxed and will allow 110 hori-
zontal tli:'!placemellt. In this CilSC the introduc.lioll of ordinary hinges
he{~omcs insurrLcicnt for the transformation of the cuntinuous beam
into n stlllically dctcrmillllLe one. This would require the inSLallatIon
of mobile llinges which offer lIO rc~islancLl to horizontAl displace-
ments. QIl{' of the-se hinges is fCptcstmled ~c-hcmalicaLly ill Fig. 1i,').2.
An example of a sLatieAHy dnterminato beam with lhree Iixcd sup-
porls and two JI\(}vfLble hinges is given in Fig. 46.2a, the interaction
of its e-lcments heing schelnlllically indicat<110 in Fig. 46.2b.
'f}le reader h invited to establish 011 his own the rt.\hllion between
the uJlmlwf of li.xl'd supports and of mobile hingllS in n Sl.atically
determinate llIultispan beam.
The 1lI0st commonly used multispnn hinged lX'ams arc represent-
ed in Figs. 47.2a and 48.2a.
'0
" The first one is characterized by alternating double-hinged spans
and spans d"void of allY hinges. It l;on5i~l, thus or 1I. series of beams
wHb two uvorhang,;; supporting su.'lpended' simple beams. Tbe
second beam is characteriud by the presence of 0. hinge in each
of its spans with the oxception ol the last olle; .. b.e i1llerllction of
ils ell!m~nL.'1 is represented ,~bematically in Fig. 48.2b.

It should be noted tlaat lhe favouftlblo effect of the ovurhangs


may hI.'. taken 8th-anlage. of 1101. only in ordinary solid we!> boams
but lllso in trussed syslolll8 such a.'I indicated ill Fig. 49.2. The
reactions of ~ueh a system will be found ill exactly the saUle WilY
as for 1111 nrdiuary statically delllrminatc multispan heam.

10.2. DETERMINATION OF MOMENTS AND FORceS INDUCED


llY A SYSTEM OF FIXGD LOADS IN MULTISPAN
STATICALl.Y DETERMINATE: BEAMS
The design of slntically determinaw multispnn bllarn$l will b~
now iIlustrotcd using as an exnmple the hinged beam represented
in Fig. 50.2a. Fig. 50.2b cont3ins tho .schematic drawing o( the
Interaction o( its separate mtlmbel"!.
The reactions RA, R.I1' Rc. R D will be reckoned po~i.'ive when
direct.ed upwards, wh.i1e the (orces Rh R t , and R J arising in the
hinges from the interaction of the dHttlrel\t elemeuL'I of the beam
wilt be considered such (see Fig. SO.2b) when the upper element
exerts a downward pressure on the lower onc. Fig. 50.2c, d, ~. I
~how5 1111 the separate elcmcnl$ of tho beAm as woll as all the forces
acLing on th.ese elements. All t.he reactions and forces indicatnd
in these drawings are positive.
We shnll st3rt with determining the reactions RI and Ht of the
upper most simply supported element H,flt spanning a length of
i rn. This element is subjected to a uniform load whose intensity
q equals 1.2 tons per metre and also to the reactions at the ltinr:1lS
+
-The u~ual three-span cantilever bridle belong" t<I lhis type of structur05.
Elleh of its outer ~paIl."l i~ lluc!IMCd dOllm at the ~hllre /lnd overhangs into the
eontrlll 5PIIll llbout one third of its length. Tho flUspended span, restlng 011 the
"cantilever arms", oecupl05 the remalnlng third of the central SpUIl.
](I.Z. Df'lt'rtnlltoU"" 01 Mo"ult" ""d Forcu 85

'0'

(f)

I n
(9)
21

(h)

FiK. 50.2
IJ("I111/.<

(.sec Fig. 50.2d) totalling


R 1- -~-
-/1 2- 2 I.Zxl -0 b' to"
---2-'-~' ..

Noxt wc shall detcrmiJle the rcacUonsoftJle element ASH l situat-


ed just bll10w the ehHllCllt II 1H 2 <lnu constituting a simply sUPJlorted
beam with two OVCrb!lIl~. This lwam is .~lIbjectcd to the action
of loads and reactions indicutod in Pig. !i0.2c. From the e(Iuilibdllffi
of moments we obtain
IM.o= -Pllll+qa~ (It+ 22 ) +Rt (ll'!-fl 2 )-Rn l 1 --O
when'from
-PIIlI -+- qa 2 (Lt +--) +R s (1, 1-(2)
UR = /,

--+[ _2 X 1 + 1.2 X 1 (2 + ~) +O.li(2+ 1)J = 1.1i tuns


The eqllililJriulIl of the mOlllt\uts ahout poillt B yil:]ds

The yalllOS of the two reactions just fQllna C-llll he dux,ked using
the cquilihl'illlll equation uf the Vlortlca] cOllrpOJl('lIts
,ry = -Pj-qaz-R,+H",+lljJ=
= -2-"1.2 X t-0.13+2A+ 1.4= -3.8+:~.8"=O

Tillt,';. tho values of reactions RA alld R II arc COl'reet.


Consider now rCllctiuns Rc and n~ or
the simply supported bcam
with overhang 11lCH.1 : the forr.es and the rNlcHollS ading 011 this
beam arc showl! inl'ig. 50.2,. TILe l'quilihrium equation furnishes
again

whl'refrom
IIl.~ II ;'q'4+P 2(I,.
fll+/l~
O.6X 1 Z \.2 x 0r.'.'} x 1.21 +:1 xl = 0.5G6 ton
I l."
10.'1. Del~Tmt""U/o" 0/ MtlI.un" Imd POTU.

The o~h('r cquilibl-iunl cqua~ion gives


~M,= -R~(a,-l a,+4,)-qa, (i +a,+a,)-
- /',a,+ Rc (0, +av = 0
wherdrUill

H,("s-+ "'+"))Tq", (--+"~+1I)) -!-P:r<J,


Rc - II~-t 11') =

".
O.l1 (1.2+ I + 1.5)+ 1.2 x 1.2
1 1.5
C/ + I +1.5) +3 x l.&
= Ii ,1j7/, tOll5

These two rl'llct.ions will l)e check...d :Ill. obo\'o


:ty = -RJ - qas-Pt+ Hc+R,= -0.6- 1.2 X 1.~-3+
+0.5G6+4.474= -5.04+5.04=u

wWcll shows that. RH t.ho computations were carried out correctly.


Next comes the t.urn of the cant.ilever beam 11 ~ loaded at. it.'l
free l'nd by tile vertical pressure Ra (see Fig. 5O.2f). r~l'Om the equi-
librium of tbe moments we obtain

leadillg' tu
MD = - R,l, _ - 0 .5UB X 2 _ - 'I. 1:32 tOIl-lOc:tres
Tht! lll'gativc vnhw of the mOlntmt (lblninoo indicnt.cs lIwl lhis
momC'JLt act8 il) a diroclioll opposit.~ tn the onc indicnted ill
J"ig. 50.21. ~'rOIlI t.hu IJIluilibrillm l"qulltion
~Y= -H,+R.o=O
we get

Having dl'lerminOlI 01111 t.he reactiol\S at tILe supports and all the
pressures l'~t>rlcd by t.hll separate 1l1ements of t.he betlll1 on each
other, WIl may now proc-eed with t.lie determiuat.ion of shears Q and
bending moments Jf act.ing iD t.hu \'ariollS Cl'Ogs sections of t.he beam
aod with Lhe OOIl::l~ruCt.jOIl of the corrci1pnllding dingram,. There
are t.\Vo Wtl.}"S of carrying out these compulat.ions.
l1) The shearing fOrcefol Q and the hcmding mornent~ .11 for the
multi5pall staLicnlly dckrmillat~ l}lJnrll undur rOll~id('ratiolL
(Fig. fJO.2a) may be determined ill thll Sllmt> WllY as for an ordinary
sl8tically dettlrlllillnto beam taking inlo cOllsidurnlioll only the
. Bum.

loads applied and the readiolliJ al the supports but. disrogBrdillg


tile intoractioll pressures at the hinges.-
If carried Ollt correctly, these computation:> must show that tho
bending mOlficllts ot nlL the binge:-; MC nil. The \'oluos or ex-prus-
sions of the shearing forces Q and the momeuts M llIay he then \I~d
for thll constrllc,tion of the cornliol)Xlnding: graphs.
(2) The shearing forces and the bending moments may be f1el~r
mined separately for each of the elements constituting the multi-
span beam Il.llowing tbe Cl,lnstnletion of lhe Q and M grnphs for
each of tbese elemenlS (Fig. 5O.2c. d, ~ and f). Putting t.oecther
these grnphs will givo the corresponding diagrams pertaining to
..ho full length of tbo bt\am.
The flffl.t of tll\l methods just described may be recommended
for beoms with a reduc.cd number of spans whiL'!t the second one
is hettor suited fur tho beam conrsistiflg of n largo number of elements.
In our case the first of the twn methods will be used for t.he. con-
strucUon of the shell.f diagram. Disregarding the intermediate hio!:rl'S,
the beam llIlder consideratioD may he divided iuto five portiOlls
characterhed by diITcrent expres.'iions for the shearing forces. These
portions Are denoted by corresponding ciphers in Fig. SO.2g. Lot %
represent the distance from tho cross section cODsidered to the )1'(1.
extremity of the beam, the (ollowing equations for each nf tht!
portions mentioned wilt then be Gbtaiocd.
Parium I
(0.-< x,1.0m): Ql _ IY = -PI = -2 tons

Portion ./1
(lm <r<3m) :Qll =I,Y """ -Pt+RA,- -2+2.4=0.4 ton
L
Portion III
(3m< z<O.2m): QJll =:EY = - PI +RA,+RB -q(.:r-3)=
L

= -2+2.4+ 1.4-1.2(x-3) ",,5.4-1.2x


Portion IV
(6.2m<:z<;7 .2m) :QIV = - IY = -8.0
n
+ p.=
= -0.566+3=2.434 tons
Portion V
(7 .2.,;:x<: 10. 7m): QV = -IY = - Ro = -0.566 ton
n
+
-These intora.ctions ltI've bt'en I'lreldy tak..n care of in ~he detormina~ion
of rel\ctions a~ tho supports.
~hl!
80

The value..; uf t.he shears "hUll obtained for all tho five portion$
of the ~am will furnish the shear ditlgrlull represented in }'iJ:t. SO.2g.
TbI' ~IHHng momcnt dia~ram will be obtainod by thtl S('(ond
of the two methods desrribed. The corresponding graph for lht)
t1loment ABlft will be derivefl (ruDI tbe momenLs due t.o the actifms
of the force P. = 2 tons. to the l"OActions at the supports R.\ =
= 2.4 tons and R" = 1.4 toilS, to the uniformly distributed IOnd
q = 1.2 lons per metre, and to the intOl'aclion forre R, - 0.6
lon (!lee Fig. 5O.2c). Tbi.'1 graph will he r~tilincar along thu lelt.-
hand overhang at = 1 metro amI O\'('r the span l, "'" 2 moLn'!!, no
distriblltcd load acting along these ports. At Ute luft cxln:Jlllly
or the beam the Ix>ndillg moment will be nil. at the .<;upporl A it
will total -Pia. = -2 tOn-metres Sill! over too support n it .. quIlls
-PI (al + + 11) ll~ll = -2 (1 -:- 2) + 2.4 X 2 = -1.2 101l-1Il1111'es.
Within the portion nll l (right-hand overhang) the oonding
moment dipgram will be concnve, for this portion 0'
t1u~ beam i!l
!uhjected to a distributed load acting in n downward dircclion.
At the right-hand extremit.y nf lhe element ABll 1 the bellding'
moment will again cquaI1.oro. The dntn so obtained yield the ding-ram
represented in Fig. 5O.2h.
Using the same procedure we shall obwin tho bonding loomont
dingrnm IfzCH a Wig. SO.2t-). At both extremities of the boam
(hingeil1l11'1.nd H~j the bendinc: moments will equal 7,ero. Under the
IOll.d P z the moment will aqnal R.,a:, = 0.566 X 1.5 = 0.849 tun-
metres and over the support C it will amount to
R,(o$ + a~) - P~ = 0.566 (1.5+ 1.0) - 3 X 1 = - 1.58!"1 tOil-metre!!
Over the left-hand overhang tlkt graph will be curvilinear while
between the supports it will be represented by a strai.ght line. These
data will be again used for the cOnstruction of the bending moment
graph pertaining to the element H zCI/ J (Fig. 50.211.).
The bending moment diagram rorthc eklrncnt HIH~ will be bnund-
cd by a COnic parabola e.J"actly similu to the one obtllilled for tI uni
formly loaded similarly supported beam (Fig. SO.le). Its maximum
ordill..'\l:e will equalqi= 1
t.2:1 = 0.t5 ton-metre. The (Hag-mm
for the eloment HaD will be bounded by a straight line pas.Cling
throllgh zero at point H 3 and through the top of the ordinate JIf D =
= -t.132 In at the wall afi shown in Fig. SO.2h for the corresponding
element.
Al! these separate Rraphs when placed together will furnish t.he
bending moment diagram for the full length of the bC81n appearing
in Filr. 50.2h.
The reader i!! invited to check the Q and the M diagrams IIsing
the expressions mentioned in Art. 1.2.
", Brll.m.

}o~our dilfcrent continuous bcam<: are shown ill Fig. 51.2. It is


suggested that the reader should find 5ev(',ral alternative srhemes

,,4 J; J;. Jk J1
~ J; J; ;;;; J;
~ J; J;; 71 ~
A ;7k J; 7k A
Fig. SJ.2

of ~ndl!ring each beam staticaHy dctcrmilliJtc by introducing inter-


media.te hillgcs. He is also invited to carry out all the computations
P, .. /ot

lm

Jm Jm s'"
Fi~, .S2.2
leading to the constrllction of the bendillg moment and ShCPf dia-
grains for tile bellm oC Fig. 52.2 and to rmd tlae longth of the overhang


,
Fig. 53.2

II which would cquaJi?:c tbc bonding moments at mid-length of


tho \.Iace central .~raI\S of the beam rejlro!lE'.nl"d in Fig. 53.2.
11.2. lnfl"cnc~ Lines ]"<Jr Multl1pan Stoli~lJlly DdermllllJtt Beam' 9\

11.2. INFLUENCE LINES FOR MULTISPAN STA'fICALLY


DETERM1NA'fE BEAMS

In Art. 5.2 uf. the llrescnt chaptor wo have 51wwn that when tho
load i~ tra\l~mitted throug"h secondary beams (stringers) thtJ influDnce
line for the main cnd-supported beam tcmains rectilinear. We
shall show now that in this respect influence lines for mullisllah
sLalically dctl.rrninale beams are quile similar lo LllOSO just men-
tioned.
i\sgnmc that it is required to draw t.he influence lines for reactions
A, IJ and C of beam A C represented in Fig. 54.2a.
The element CD of this beam is freely supporled at one end, it.s
othor end Leing hioj,<e-cofinected to the end D of the cantilever heam
AD. \Yhcn tho llnit load is appliod to the element CD the reac.tions
aL pointsD and C will be exactly the same as in the case of a simply
supported beam, bllt when the load shirts to beam AD the reactions
at pllinls D and C become niL Accordingly, the influence line ror
rtlllcLioll C will hnvo the shape indicated in Fig . .54.2c.
As legn.rds the reaction at support A its value wilt be the some
as for an ordinary beam wilh ovcrh:l1lg as long as the load unity
is applied botwetm points A (1nl! D. When this load is applied III
point J) the reaction nt A will be diructcd downwards ancl will
roar:.h its maximum negative value. When the load unity moves
"lon~ the clemellt DC the pressure excrted at hinge J) wIll equal
~ > in ot1to1' wurds, it will have the same value as though it were
transmittccl to tho .'!.ante point t.hroll~h a stringer nnd crOSt; bl\llfO.
Accordingly, the (nnuence lino for rtlflclion A of Lhe element DC
will he tllc.tilinCll.r with B. zero Ol'dinale at poinl C. This illnuollce
line i.'J reprc~nted in rig. fi4.2d while that for ~ho rl'aetioll aL poinL
B is shOwn in Fig:. 5!. 2e.
Let us consider now tho cOllslruction tlf Lhe influence lille [(lr
the shears ill sections 1 and Il of the stl'ucturtl scltemlllically ropre~
Slmtcd in :Fig. ~;'.2a.
Section 1 will be subjCf:,ted tfl tho action of lh.e ~hcarin~ [orc.e
only Whl.'[l Lhe unit load P is applied hetwcon abrllmcll~ 1 and
joint 3. Wlllln this load is app1ic{lll.~ joint Z, it is hilly LransrlliH(ld
to the overhung of the llIBin bean. with the shear in sedion { then
becoming ('qllUl to -1. Whell tile load unity shifts to the luft or
to the right of point 2 the pressure at this juint will dtlcren!ffi be-co m i lIg
nil \\'lwlI the load roaches point.l or point 3, the value of the said
prcSSJII.'C diminishing proportionally to the distance of the load
from one. of Lhese two points. Accurdingly, lhc iufLllen,;e line will
he trianguLar ill shape wilh an ordirlatll. at genion I = -1
(Fig . ."I5.2b).
BI!Qm,

A
la,
(
,I. l
,I
I
I I
(~}nA; I
.~
i 1Pf faence line I
I for C I
I j,
10'

(d/\
,:fnflllence Bline
f~

I';
,I

,
Fig. ,;1.2

d -23~SG78910 11
rah"m r-;-I I f;r~ Cr.
~) :I~ ~fl! JlJ, ,
I : tA Infwl1nce line for Q; 8t
(6) ~l : i I
,,
I
\~. I1 \
,,
I I: Influence fine far al( I
f I I r I 1

(c)
1
1
I
1
,a
-__
1
hS
I
--,--_
'0
Z
'
1
I 10
,I
a $
h~
-
c,---6.___ ----
h
be "
Fig. 55.2
11.2. JlIfllUTl~e LIMI far l\1ul/upan Slatlcally l)e1un~jTla[e Roam> 93

In section JI the shearing force will be exactly the same R!; in


the case of a direct applieatioll of the load as long as the lntter
is situated between points 2 and 5 or 6 and ]0. The corresponding
portions of the ianuonce line will therefore be represented by 'the
tine~ lU:\ amI c~b which Cllt thtl verticals passiug through POillts
A and B at +1 and -1, respectively. Between points 5 and G the
innuen~ line must remain sll'night, its ordinates h~ and hi having
already been found and therefore we only lIavo to join points c,
tlod c2' Whon t-ho load unily is applied to the terminal hoams .1-2 or

la)! ~
I Im I

lO;:
1- I'

I
i .
g I.
,e,
I I I I I
I I I III I I , I
'''Ilue,,~e line I I t I I
j
I
(d, I !
I [or MD I
I 1+'
I~I~
I I
[ Q.96m -
ri Z.Gm
Fig. 56.2

10-11 tho value o( the shearing force in section .fJ will vary from
Vl,2 (or h,o) to zero, the latter vl'lluQ corresponding to the Case when
-the load reaches the abutment. The varintion of any function being
linenr when the load shifts along a secondary beam, we may simpLy
'Connect the ordinates at points 2 and _10 with the points or- zero
ordinate 1 and 11 (Fig. 5.'>.2c).
Let us now consider the construction of influence lines for slat-
;calL~t doterminate beams of more tha.n two spans. Tn such cas~s
'it is always recommeuded to begin with tracing the interaction
'scheme.
Fig. 56.2a represents such a bealn, the interaction scheme of
;ls four cIemellls being shown in Fig. 56.2b. Let us fw~t construr.t
the influence line for the reaction at support A (Fig. 56.2c). For
tllat part of tIle beam from its left extremity to the hinge HI the
<otlStruction will be carried out exactly in the same 'Way n~ r'lr
BetJ./fI.

tI ~iml,I)' supported beam with t o overhangs (&"C' Art, 2.2), When


\hu lond unity is Applied AAme hero belwet>lJ poilltll HI nnd H z
tho ",action A will be tlqual to the ontinate ab multiplied by the
prl'S!'Illnl P, exerted by the de.ment II,H 1 on tbe bt!am ABll t This
pn's..'mro varies linearly (rom PI = 1 when thu unit load is applied
lit hinge Ut to 7.ero when it reache! hil}ge H: and thl'lrefore the
innnCllo:e line oYer the portion HIFf~ 01 the beam may be obtained
by ~illlllly conn(.octing the ordinato b oyer hingt' [[I with n pOinl.
ur 1,Qru ordinll.W at the hinge lJ:. Onoo the load has ,5hif\Ccl to l,he
rig-ht of thu hinj!t! JI:, thl! Tellc-lion 1\t point A will equal ro(Oro And
thordoro the ordinate:; of tile influcnc-e line f,'om J/: to D will nho-
()qultl ;';(1(0, The simililurlll o[ triangles will permit us Lo liud tJItJ
ordinate.'l to tbe pcrtinl\llt poinls or our in!1u(Jnee lille
ih H2 - l':
-_. __ ~ Whl:'UCl' gh=l",.--:;-= I X?= I,:,>
3 3 _
Ik ~ ~-

ab 1 - -:-r1 '1
,1 ="'2 Wlll'flce ab-=l~' 2=--1 X 2=0.5
rA'l ll!l- now cOll!lrucl the inllul'lIcc li~ for tbe LcndinlZ moment
"cting over seo.:tioll 0 of (wr ht!am (Fig, a6,2d). When the Il!lld tra,'{'is
alull~ porliolllI:,D tho construction "f the influcnce tillO WIll be ('XIH'.t-
h' the SIIme:l..'1 for a cantilen'r lx>am with a builtill t'nd (:<ec Ark 1i.2).
fltAAing to pol1ifln If~C we uoticc thllt lhe prcssuro R 3 YlIriefol Ilro-
pllrliunnlly to t.he difoltallt.:e of tho unit load frolll point C rotlching
:U!N' whcn tho load is O"er this pOillt: therefore the innueflcu line
over this ]lOI'lion will ho repl''I!S(\lltcd by a line tl'Il!ll'('ting poiut cl
with n point of ZNO ordinate at C. Point 8 under hillgc Il z will bo
obtnined by extenuin.et this Hno until its intel~etiofl with 11l{' vortical
pn.'Osiflg through this JJingtl, IInd tho last portion of till' HnC' between
hing('s lt z arid IJ, will b(l obtained by connecting point e with a
POill~ of zoro ordinate at. the hiuge HI' Tbtl similitude of trillngles
pormi\.s the computation of the ordinate r! as follow~
e/12 --12
-=-= "., wllelJcc'l = cd'-;;7 = 2 X 0.48= 0.96 to
~ ~. ~.~

It is apparent that.. the illnucJ)("c lino for any fUlIction ill any lIection
of a mullispan statical1}' determinate bteoam may bu eonsLruetcd
follo"'ing tile prucedure outlined hereunder:
(I) The influence line corresponding to that portion of the beam
whi(:h contains the section under eonl\idcration is COllstrllcl.t..d l,xlI.ct.ly
in thc same WilY Qfol for 11 simply !upportcd heam (with or wiLhout.
overhangs).


'Thi~ {"HQ"""' frQlll the equilibri"m of ..,l('ment 11,11 2,
(2) The ordinate ubtained at the paillt where the beam member
conllli1lillg the section meets with the adjactlnt one is then conne\l.l.cd
with a point o[ urO ordinate under the 8t\Cond support o[ thifl laller
elument. The same procedure JIlay be fuJlowed in order to oblnin
the iT.OLlence line uver Ul(1 more dislant elements o[ tile beal/I.
(3) The ordinates to tho j'l(lrtinellt points of the inOucnce line.
may be deri\'ed from tho similitude. of triangJes which cUlIstiLulo il.
The reader is inviled la chrn,.k tho inOuellctl lines represonll,d
ill FiiS. Si.2 nnd 58.2.

12.2. BENIHNG MO"JE~TS AND SHEA[IING FOnCES l)lDlICED


I3Y FIXED LO.\OS IN STATIC... ",;\' DETEHMli'\....TE DENTS,
({NEE .'IlAiIIES AND BEA~IS OF POLYGONAL DESIGN
The dctct'minf\tion of real:1 iOlls flril!infl 8t lite I':upporl,s of Illn! iea lIy
determillah: h~t1I" alld beams o( pol)'l:onal desigll, th1,l eOJlljlulalion
of internal forces ar1ing ()\'cr their c:roSf: seclions and the Lrllcillg of
Q. X :and.11 diagrams aro carried out in lite saDle way as ((.II' ordiunry
recLilinoar ht'am!. All the formulas, sign convent.ions alltl equilib-
rium l'qnations mentiolled in Art. 1.2 fCma.ill valid. Wh.en llenling
with knet' (rame" or other strucLurcl'l comprising "'erLicaJ elcments
it j~ J,'OOtI practice to del'ide htlforehand wbich extromity of sucb
nil element will be ronsidered al': t.he left-band (lne tlnd tu mark
tJlis extremity by ,s()IIlC Convent.ional sign (Ior instance. un tlswrisk).
Th... foLJowing 6xnmlllcs will illllstrate tbe construction 01 Q, IV and
lr( dingrnms for structures ill question.
l'r"blelll I. nequlred tho Q, N /lud AI diugram" ror a b(oam rtlllfl.':ll"Hll.'d in
~'il:. MI.2~.
Solution. 1I lIving doc.tdod In con~i,h,r the 1000w\)I' o~trenLity of lile elemeTlt AB
as the Jult-harlfl one, Illllrk it wilh an ostl'rl~k. The beam etlnslsling of tWll de
lUefl1s, U.OB ('.'(llrl'~si"lJs (U!) tllrougll (3.2) fOl' l.lw determination of Ihe slu::aring
and normal forces /lnd or thl! be.olling moment! in each 01 the.Ore elOlUents..
Eltment I. The intorn,l r""ee.~ ,,"cUng over 11 cro~s :.'\:'CUon. di~t.nco., from
tbll uf/per CIH) of t~1l eJ.emrlll ALJ will be
Q' __ ~y _ _ I' .Vl _ _ ::x_O

"
,Hl,,",~i1f= _(_ p%I)=P:rj
"
"
F.ltm.ttd 11. 1'1,0 lnlemal f,,~es aNin!:, oYer .ny 5tCition tlbtaoce ;,:: from
l!)to left end Ilr the elernenl BC 'I..i11 {'l]ual
rj'_:I:Y_O Nlr_1:X_P
L L
M ll <= 1:.41 _ - p~
L
Grallh!! obtuilllld WiLb the aid 01 Ihe abll\'e ElXpC!lSions .re roproduced'
in Fill;'. 5!L2b. t nnd d. H Sh"llld be no1ed th;.t lhe t.lpre5Sion~ ohLalncQ {or At'
r"

I
Ilnfl~1!fIC9 l~fN"1
I 8 I
I
I
r"
I I
I/!'f/uem:e Uf/efor :
i M.. I
I I
(d) -"";",,,,-,,-~
I
I
Ilnflu8f1Cf1 lineforl
I
I
':
I I I I
I
I
:
I
f
I 1411 I I , I I I I I
I I I.'I~I~'
le) I I
Ul7m1lttJl""l~l-
~ .......
I
Ftg. 57.2

n k
I I r. I I
/ , , I 'f.I I I, I I I . I '
AB ~'I 0,11 El F
l-.f. __ l~....L,""I_L....... .h-k. L-I ~11..1-1.. 'L-+-L_
I Z I Z I 2. I
2 I 2 z ~ ~I 2 I Z Z I
I{~I I ~I I I IfnfluenceUneforAI
Ih) I"""'"I--J.-~~ , , I
) ~ I : - 1'1 I
I I I I I I I 1
I '~lllll
I I I 1
I I " Iln(Weni:e li.ne for lJ I
I') I ,_, I,! I
I I ~ I I I
I I I I I J I
r I I I , , I
I , I1nflllence line for I
Id) I .....100 M

i~:"f1"'''1I",:r~:
I I ....~ I
le) I_I I

Pig. 58.2
12,2. Hrll'filll/ NC/1WII$ fllld SI'NIr/IIK Fvrce~

(H)d (/ ,10 Ilot ~ati~Ir cxpr(\"I!iulL (' . 2) of 11.1'1. 1.2 derived fWlII the theorem of
Zhlll'l,,.~kS' Ind..,NI.
dill! = diP.. j ) -I'=-fE
(I'lj dXj
t
Itl~lead or dM =Q'
d',
Thl~ is ,low 10 the fac~ l!uH III ~tl<J1I I or
thE' beanl 1,(f~jl;H' \'alue~ "f the ah~'j~
~(lS WC1't\ tJlE'aslIred lIOWllward~, III {,thE'r word~, rr'om l'igll~ to left, while the f0:.>1:,-

tiO'1 dM
(! _. ~ ,
rl'rnnms \ru(\ "11 1y WIle" '. UJJ~,l$1lIlS
1"'.!'ltlv~ '.' nr,_ !Jl(!u!ured [('oJ)O h . [l

\Q right.
A ,

(11)",
r ~r (b)

,,'

"'1" -59.2

Lt'l II~ now eJl1lck the {'{jllilibrium of joinl H. ~,,!,arnting it rrol11 lit"
1Jlh{,r 1'lIrt~ of tl.e ~tnwtur(\ 1I11,] applvi".~ at Llw cut~ th~, illleruJlI {(lI'ros coml!"tcrl
nhovQ wo <llttain the f{ll1owing e'lui)lbrium cquntiulIs (Fig. .'i9.2e)
:.M11= -M1l4 -,-JIllc- -1'<1+1',,=0
~Y_O

::::x_ -Qn.,+N l1C --f'+P-O


wtlic.h ,how.. that all the in\(!rII111 forcrs Wl\m computod COl'l'(>{'.tlr
It shonl,j bl1 rem~Hlbllrell that. E'1JuillhriUl1l equntioTls must JJl> ~R~isll~d what-
evor tl.~ '\"mlll'f of llllr:'! l\'l<'('I;lIg nt ooe joint. provilll'll atlt],{\{'d"l'Ilal 109,111 llP-
pliol1 diwclly to this joil1\. "re l1uly lakPn Cllre of.
Problem 2. 11(,IIuirerllt> Lr'lCll th" Q, N nnd jIf diagram. fM II knee framo r<:J'-
r"SI'"t{\,1 ill fig. "0.2".
98

;/ , ,
/'
~- p,

,.,
,0>

P ''-
,0> (6J

,..
~.~,
('r:~ '"'
.
p

~", ..
Fi,. 60.2 Fi,. 61.2
12.2, Bending M~mwt$ and Shltaring For~e. 99

Solution. Choo~ing once again the lower ends of tbe vertical @Iem@nts M
tbeir loft-hond oxtremitillS, nlllrk them with asterisks. Subdivide the knee frame
ito;elf into four separato:! portions and write for each expJ'(lssions (1.2) through
(3.2) giving the shearing ~nd nonnal iorce.1 and tho bonding moments.
PtJr/ltJlI I

,
QI=:EY=qzl

Portio,. 1 J

PorlJon III
QI1I=_IY_P_qo; NIU,,",_IX __ I/o
R R
q~
},f I1I =-t.:I-~-2--P(Z9-a)-q4( "
2- )
Z3

P~rlion IV
QIY __ :EY __ qo; NIV=_IX",,_P __ qo
R R

,\flY"" -I/;1 _ qo (z~ _ ~ )_ Pa+M -'la (z~ _ ~ )_ q0 1+ qa 1 _

_ qo (z~- ~)
Tbe .liogr.1ms Obtained using the above expro~ionJI <lTt" repTt"senled
in Fif(. 60.:.!:/), r lInd d. Fill. 60.2" repr11_o;ents joint B !lubjecled to the internal
forces anrt moments acting at the cuts. It will be eeslty obSl.'rved that all 1ho
equilihrium equations for this joint aTO SlItisfied:
qll2 3
:ElIJ B - _qa 2 --2-+2'10:1-0
IX ... +qll-qa_O :EY =qa-qa. .... O
I'robl"m 3. Required to construct the Q. Nand lr1 graphs for lhe Wltically
determinato frame TepreSl'ntl'd in Fig. 61.2a..
Solullon. Detennine reacti()n~ RA' R" ilnd JI B shown in Fig. 6l.2a utili7.ing
tbe well-known equilibrium expressions
!M 11'" R A2a+ Pa-q2Da_O
wborofrom rornernhoring that P"""qa wo obtain
2qa~-qo3 a
R,,= 2a -qT
T.M A - _11 D2<l +q2aa. + Po "" 0
and lbus
2qaz+1a3 3
RH"" 2a -Tqa
IX=P-H/J=O
giving
He_P_qa
7'
100 B~(II'u

"lark .glin tl.o lower end! of the v('rlinl dcn'llllt5 by AD .:;Uri.!lk as


iQ Fig. 01.20 con.!l;derin~ tbom In Iunn lhe J""l.-hand eXlrt'milics llnd subdi"ido
the /warn into fo,,1' portions for t'a(h of whicu Wo following CXllre.!f;ilJllll .rv
reallil}" obt.inl!d.
I'Orlflln {

Q'_o:
PorUon. IT
QIl _ _ p _ _ 'Ja;

lihd"g for
Z1-0 ,uIl_O I'lUlllor "'2-11 .1I 1t "'_q,,1
Po,litltl 1 If
Q"I_R... _qz,_q (-,i--Zl): Nttl_~p qll;

, qr~
" '" - R Ilrl-PfJ----;t-~'l ("
7r3-"--T .4)

Olll q ~

rlfl 3 HI
"'lien "'1-24 .j '"" -Tqa oH = -2.1,,1

Tile ,hearing force Q'll =9 ( ; - "",) bct"AJmes oil ",lIen %'1_; an,l
lI.(~rdingly lho ~ndjllg mOlJM'lLt will 1>11$ in this H"GtiOD t.h1"O!\Rh R mui.
ilIum or a tnil1imum
M '" -q (0:
4-/11_ 8Ill) --Tlld:
7

1'orl,o.. IV
Q,v_lI n _'/fJ: NIV""_RlI __ ~ q": .HIV __ fln,'l;~ ... q"rt
whe_n %,_0 M1V .... o
whl!'lI .l:,_21l JU'Y .. 2'11/1
The correspomllllg di.a~llS for Q, N and AI .rt' re"re~nt(\ol in Fig. (;1.20,
t lIod d.
Prtlld..m oli. 11.'quirt"<l to elln~trn- tbo Q. .\' .nd ,u di.grams for 11 heam n'pn'-
~nted in Fig. &2.201.
SOIIHUOIl. ltcplueo the iQClined load P by iLS vertical Dnd h<Wizont.1 eompo-
ntnts P, :md Pz
P",_P,_ Pcas4S"_O.707/>

and dctcrmintl reletlon RA whioh will suffice in tbl' eM'!.' uuJrr eonsideration
:f./If/!= R,,21 + PilI. 7071 + p'~1.7Qil_O
12.2. nl'n(/(tlg Muml'lIu and Sht'arltlt! }'orl'u 1(01

wherefrom
~(1.707P~+O.i(l7PJ:) I -1707-0707
2l - - Z . X0707P_ -O.853P

The negath'o vlllue o{ thIs reactioll jJld;ca1e~ 1ha1 i1 is direcW11 downwards.


For each <Ji the 1hreD porlloM ('Of the heam the following equa1iolls giving the
v1l.1hcS of the shearing and nOOlnal forcl'.~ Uil!! of the bendjng mOIJ'Ienh /flay bB
now wrlU"'1J as

.;.... ,~ A
?
i,!

Q sraph

(b)

N graph
t,!

(d)

F,,;. {j2.2

Par/loll J
Q'_il... __ O,R5.1P; _!'{f_O; ltl f _-" R ...'rl- _O.&'"'~P.r1
whco :1',=0 _If' =0 when %)=21 NI = -1.70!'Pl
Portion J f
QH _P y =O.707P; Nil _ -P:r- -O.707P
.l{lJ _ -P",O.iU71-P~ (i.70l1-".;?l "" -0.707P (O.707l+1.707l-x;?)_
- -P (1.7071-0.707"'2)
w!ton %2~"() 1IJ11 = -l.i07Pl wllen :1'2=1 M IT = - 1'/
Par/itm II J
102 B~"I1I&

, ,. p p

(a'

n p :
q
, F1 'p
- @.
" -,. p
N -

,
# ,.~

(U;;to
'-1::
,
."
a

R"r:t @-<'
p

a a p
le)
p @
a -
, p

Fig. 63.2

,
a
p
HI
q

"" I ,
a
"
a
-
"
~
" ,,
, ,,
p,!!'-

~
a
"
,
p
b ,"e,., -~ ",-
" rh!
q
p/=lJr (c)

,
, ~
a

<"
p

( ,)

Fig. 6/.2
103

The corresponding diagrams are represented in Fig. 62.2b, c and d.


The reader is jnvited to
(1) ChllCk the sign of the shear diagram represented in Figs. 59.2
through u2.2 using th.e rule mentioned in Arl. 1.2 which stipulates
that tlte shear is positive when the axis of the beam must be turned
clockwise in order to superimpose it with the tangent to the bend
ing mOTJIoot diagram,
(2) check the Q, Nand JU graphs represented in Fig. 63.2,
(3) trace the Q, Nand .1f diagrams lor the frames represented
in Fig. 04.2.
3. THREE-HINGED ARCHES
AND FRAMES

1.3. TfflUJE.H!NGED SYSTEMS

A thrt'il-hingocl system con~ish of two plntes (T "nd IJ), cOrln('f,'li.'d


together by moons of a hinge (hillge C ill Pig. 1.:5), wil.h two-hillged
Supports A nnd B resting on the ground. As the latter can itself
be regarued <lti another rigid plate, it rllny be snid that a three-hingel.!
system consi.~ts of three plntes connected
together hy inNing of thrcll Ilinges. these
hinges /lot Jyil1g on one straighl lioe.
We have seen proviously (soo Art. 2.t
and :Fig. W.!) that connections of this
I type arc chal'actl!-l'i!':tic of georllcLri(:aHy
, stable structures.
When the plates J and II cOllsi.<:t of
curved bats tlLC system is called a three-
hinged arch (Fig. 2.3a); in the event
these llars are :>troight or L-shapcd, the
system will be clllled a three-hinged bent
or fram~ (Fig. :! ..1b Ilod c); flllaUy, whon theso plnte.~ are through
.~t('ncturcs, lhe system becomes a thrl!e-hinged tmss or spandrel arch
(Fig. 2.3d).
The distanco l between the oculI'(''; of lhd Itingcs Ilt the supports
is c.nllcd the spa,n of the arch while tllC distancc f from the centre
of the l\rowu hinge la the straight line plls~ing through the former
two is callt.'<l its rise Wig. 2.3a).
A three-hinged ~}'~lom fIlay or may not !lave a vertical axis of
symmell'y. In lhe first case (F'ig. 6..3) lhe contral hiu/{tl C will lie
on this axi~ of symmetry and tiLe hillges at the supports A ond /J
will be at one and the same leveL Nonsymmetriclll systems may
have tllOir SUPP01'ts at different ]evel~ (Fig. 3.3).
r11 tltrec~hinged systems the fClactions at the support-s A alld B
will ha chur3c-teri7.ed by two parallwlcrs each_its magnitudo
and direction or by any two components of the~ fCflctiulIll,
SHY, tilo vertical V and the horizontal 11. (These two compommts
_______CJc-'C----'T"'-'''e~-JlI,.geri S~ste.,""'C' _

(lrc frequently rjlIcrrcd to M the vcrlklll and horizolltrd


m1\ctions.)

~'X-M II
};,;_~ L~~

~11;"'~-
!Of

f II

, (e)

FI/I. 2.;;

Accordingly, tho rCRt;liollS of 11 threohingud arch will ht, full)"


determined by four )Jaramctcrs, for ill~tanc(l. the lIlROIJllts of thl'
reactions If A. 'l TO, V A and V n (Fig, 4.3).

II

Fig. a,3 Frg. <1.8

These may Le obtained from the three equilibrium l'qu[\tion,~


of external forct's (inclutlin,g tho reactions) acting upou the system
and from a fourth equation, expressing that the moment or all
the external forces acting to the left or to the right of the crown
hinge about its centre must be nil.
Thus, a three-hinged system is always statically det.erminal~,
\Vhen a system of vertical loads acts on a t.hree-hinged syst.em till'
horizontal components if" and H B of the reactions at Ule supporl~
+
*Thls is due to the bet that in any hinged 5Y5lofll in equllibt'ium lh(\ mOtllell!.
about any hing(! must be equlll to zero.
100 Thr"~-Hlflg,,d Au!>". ~J1d Pramu

will not reduce to zero. Accordingly, the three-hinged sysl.ems


usually develop a thrust. which must be ahsorbed either hy the sup-
ports ur by ,';;ome other arrangement.
It will be shown later that the bending rnomellls and Shl)ars acting
over cross sections of three-'hinged arches are cOllsiderably smaller
tlwTl lhll corresponding stresses ill a simple beam covering the same

IQU
~ i.~
c

,,,
" (II)
;0'

W H
C /I

Tie
A ,
A (d) ,.. f!
. re)

FIG. 5.S

span and carrying tho same load. Therefore, three-hinged arches


are more economical than ordinary beaJOs, particularly for large-
span structures.
However. when the spans are small, three-hinged arches !leoome
less desiraulc than ordinary beams, as their construction is lUore
eOnlplictltl~d and the prQvision of hinges both at the supporL.s :md
at the crown requires the use of more intricate arrangements.
In the throe~hinged systems coDsidercd thus far both supports
were c;''l.pable of absorbing a horizontal thrust. In practice it is
not unu~ual to encounter similar sy:;tems in which one of tbe hinges
is movable. In this case the geometrical stability of the system
+
Th'i lirs~ arched sys~om for l\ JarRll span was [lI"oposcd I" 1776 (i.e . some
hundred years before the creation 01 the science of structural mechamcs) by the
(lminent Russian engineer I. Kuhb!n. On the basis of general principles of theo-
retical mechanics. ho designed all archei! wooden brJdgo 300 m long spanning
the whole of t.he river Neva at St. Petersburg. He \VII,!; tho r,['~t to dotermine the
interaction of oxternal forces and streS3Cs in a throo-hiDgod arched system and
to use a funicular polygon for tho determlMtion of thc W,llpe of his arch many
years before this moth!)d became widely known. A huge 30 m model of Kuli-
bin's brtdgo was tosted by a load of approxImately Sf, wns and approved by the
Hussian Acadllmy of Scienco. The great mathematician and nHlmbar of tllll
Acail(!mY L. EuJer checked 1111 the computat.ions and i1rawings nf KuUbln's
llridgo and found them perfectl)' correct.
2.3. S"pp(Jrt R"lIcti,,..-s oJ /l ThrtlHinll'd ArcA 107

is cMurcd by tit!$ established either at the level of thu supports


or somewhat. higher (Fig. 5.3tJ represents a t.hree-hingou t.icfl or
bowstring arch; Fig. 5.3b-:l three-hinged arch witll Rn elevated
tie; Fig. 5.&-3 thrce-hin.lted tied bent, and Pig. 5.3d-A similar
b(>nt with an elevated lie).-

2.3. SUPPOIlT REACTIONS OF A THHEE-HINGED AHCH


l. ANALYnCAL ).IETHOI)
As ha~ already been stated, wnon a system of verticul loads is
applied to a throtl-hinged arch (Fig. 1).3a) a vertical and a hori1.ontal
rlSl1Uinu will arise at each or the twn gupports makill~ four runctions

P,
c P, P,

,
-;;;-4'
fa}
IV.

to he determined in all. Let us designate the vertical rcachous by


V ..\ anl! VB and tho horhontal ones by If" and II JJ. rcs)')Cctivcly
(Fig. 6.3b).
In addition to the three equilibrium equations suppliod by the
statics for coplnnar syste1ns. a fourth equation can be used in the
cose of a three-hinged nrch. this equation oxpressing that the bend-
ing moment at the hinge C equals zerO, or in other words, that
the !lUID of the moments or all the external forces acting 10 the rigbt
or to the left of this hinge about its centre is nil

Theso fout equaU(lns of slat.ics will datermine compll:!t:cly the


four reactions at the supports.
It is recommended to a'"oid as much as possible !IimulLaoeous
solutions of several equations with several unknowns. For instance,
in t.ho case of an ordinary arch roprescllled in Fig. 6.3a we mB)'
fIrst write the equilibrium':equation ror the momellts of aU forces
about hinge B whicll will ci)lltain only onc 1lllkRl)wn vortical reAC-
,(6

tio" V,t. When this i.'l known we mAy solve the equation ~ Jfc-O
L
c:tpl'l!SI!iJl~ that UllJ sum of m01l1ellts of 011 forc.es 3eting ontllO leh
part of till' arch about hinge C is nil. this equation containing the
ronc:lion V,l which has just. lx-en determined and tbe unknown reac-
tion 11 A' We may thtlll proceed with the solution of an cllHation
OXIHO..c:silllt that tho mOIU('lIt of all external forces abouL hing<' A is

I~
F" 7.:1

7-lro which will give 1I!l the nllue of reaction V R ,md thOlt obtain
tILe mal!niludo of H JI t'quilling LQ r.ero thl' projection nf all the
~J(k'rnal (oref's Oil thl:' nori7,OIltaL
Till' computations just drscribcd may ht' ChflCkcd usinj:l' the equa-
tions
!Y =0 Rnd IM("=O

Tf thB Lwo ,O:llpport!l wl.\te at cliITOI'Cnl lovels as in (~ig. i.il/l, tho
('4unLion ~)V" = 0 would cUlltnin twu ulllmown.'; V" /tTlt! If..\.
thus requiring' the solution of 11. ~Y:ltem of two equalions with two
11J1lcrlowns. This can be easily avoi.ded if hol,h reac~ions WeN r~s<)h'cd
into cOlOponclll::i onl! of which woulct follow the linu C()rJll("cting
tile two ~upporl., ,1 and B (Pig. 7.3b), Whrn these components v:~.
Vi,. fr. lIud 11'0 arc Ilott'rmilltHl. t.Iltl "er Lit-I! and hori7.onlal compo-
1l0l\~ will be castly found u5in~ the t'xpre-ssions
V A = V;" + 1I;" !tin 0:: V II - Vir-Ilssin 0:
lI,A=JJ;"tosa; IJn-lfilcosa

%, \lR..\PII,CAL NETIIOD
1'ho graphiC<ll determinatioll of the reactions requires that tIte
rosu.ltants RI and Il z of all ilio forcC!s applied to tlll' left and to the
right of the Qntral hinge should be found in the firllt place. '['Ile
wactiollri indlle.ud by cne.h of these resultauts RI and /l2 will then
bEl dl'hmoiocd, their sumlllllt-ion giving t.he fm31 \'aluu of tile reac-
tioll l't'quinld. Wc may stnrt wilh detcrlllilling tbe rcactinos at the
SUPI)()rt ('au..~ by the ajlplication of t.he foreo li" In this ca~ the
reactiun at. th~ righLhnnd !!upport 0 1 II\Ust pass throll/.t:h Illc hinge
at this sUllport and the hillge at the crown (fig. 8.:1a) as otherwise
!he rll,::ht-hand portioJl of the ardl wbich is subjected solely to the
reaction at B l and th~ interaction of hin2C C ('ould Ilot remain ill
equilibrium. With fCactiol\ Al arisini: at the left-hand ~UI)llort,
tho orch as a whole will hil ill equilibrium under tho nclioll or th",'C
fvrl:es .1 1 , B l , NI

" A R,

8,
o 8,
8

rb,
,

Theoretical mechanic!' states that. three cvplanllr rOl'(llS actill~


on 0. body in equilibrium must nect'S&lrily conClIr at onc oncl the
so,mo !loint. The UI'lI) of thil! theorem ellnblcs U,S to fInd imml.ldi3tcly
the lIil1.'ction of reaction At whereaftl)l' tllo force IJolygon (Fig. 1:1.3b)
will give us the magnitude of both support l'l!-llCLions A I And El' The
support t'C'action.~ A ~ anti H,! due la tho appliClltion of the right-hrllld
resultAnt ll'l will be found ill exactly the sa.mo way (!$CC Fig. S.3a).
The method of sllperpo~iLion will ennbl~ us to obtain the I'osultant
l'l!-t1cUolls".1 Ilrill B at both supports. l,'or thiil purpose Il line )I<lrallel
to the line of action of the reaclion A z ",ill be traced thnlul:h IKlillt 3
of 11 force polygon (Fig. ~.3b) and the magnitude of reliction A,!
will b6 laid off along this line. The point 0 so obtailled will tllen
be counected with point 1, thus giVing the magnitude (If the full
reaction A at tile left-hond SUIJport, the full reaction 0 d tho right-
hand SUppfltt being obtllined bl' the Sllme method. The verticnl
nod hllriwntal compunenL'l V A , I/.t , V JJ anti If JI can be oblaill\'ll
th{'rl'a!tcr in lhe usual way.
'I'be graphical method of dotcrminillg the reactions lit tile SUllpllrls
of a three-hillg'ed ar..:h carrying a flUmber of verticlll lon{(s is iJIu-
110 Thrte-HI,,~d - Arc/ut and Frames

stratcd in F'ig. 9.3. At the outset resultllnls III and 112 ore found
u~ing tllo method of force and funiClltar polygons whereafter the
procedure followed does 1I0t difIer from the onc just described.
Problem I. Using hoth methods d9'>Cribed "hove determine the support.
reactions of a three-hinged arcb supporting two vertical loads liS indicalNI
in Fill. 10.3<1.
S"lulioll. t. A wzlyttcal mC/Md. Reptaeo the support reactions by their com'
ponents Y A, ]fA and V D. 1I I! (Fig. 10.3b). III ordcr '0 de!crmioe the magnitUII&
lIf V A equate to lOTO tha sum of all the forcl,lS actinj(" on the arcfi al'O\ll
llninl n

(I 3)

Ilc...~ M" is the moment of :Ill the e:<t9rn1l1 Lo~ds about the hinge aL the right-
hand suppOl'l.
The mngnitulle of l/ .. will be obtained from Wo equilibrium of the moments
"r all C:o.:llll'nlll forc-cs aeting on the left lu:llf of the are}l about l-he erown h;ll~ C

whell~,e
,
~Mc= V",h-f{",1- PI (11-01)- 0

H A
V Alt PI (It
1
<It) MC
--/- (2.3)
Horo M~ is Lho !lJO/llllnt of all tbe load~ (ox('llpL of H",) aIJting ou the telL-
hand porLion of the arch :thout point C.
1'lIe vortieal road ion V Jl will be obtilined by summing up And equllting:
10 7.'!ro lhe 1Il01ll0l\LS (If all tho ext(!rnal fOl'e",s about hin~ A
:::,M", __ V nl+ P::a2+Ptal =0
whence
(3 ::1)

Hl'rl" MA is tbe ruoment of nil the loads ahllut tho leftblllld support.
Thl.' last unknown roaetion f/ 11 will be found by projoeling all tllo forces
on the raxis

nA-Hn-n ~~
The l/lst fonnula shows that the fhru$/$ ari$lRI al both lupports o/lhru-htngea
,!!mm~lrical ar.nu ,ubjuud to ,-,<"rlieal load, a~ equol in site and oppodt~ /"
,lireclloTl.
Substituting in equations (1.3) through (~.3) tllll numorieal values of all
the paralllotlll"S wo obt.aln
V .., 4 (10-31+3{IO-6) 28+12 4l<lns
~ 10 ---'-0--
4x3-l-3x6
V H- to _3 tons

llA=HR-H .. 4x5- 1.{5-3)",.3 tuns


4
:t.:I. Sup".'" Httlt;/iofOS 01 r4ur-Ifi"trd ,lrrlJ lit

,,
p.\
,
-- '
.~ ~:)a,
P.I(
0
---
C_
l\p,
0
, -, - ,
'
" ,
A,l
A /,,/A:;:
,
-- R, R,1... , \82
'
B,"', ...
8
fa' IbJ

Fit 9_'

,
la,
A
-"-

H,,"'Jt
'f----
fh'
~"'~t I
,,
". B fi;"
I

0
, o
0
v, (el
, I

,
0
0 P, 0 P, ,
0 I
v,,"'Jt I
'c
la'
,, "";1 lfI'"
,I
i'P. 7 ........ - __ J
'" a H~=Jt
A
a , I Srot8
t f r ft
Ftg.10.6
1I2 l'hru-HIIlIl,d AuJlr-6 IUTd Prtuttt'

rutin t}t upr""lon, (l..1llllld (.1' ..fI it ",Ill bt obl,rl'<!d IAa' lIu wrtk"j 'upporl
"art/MU 01 ti,u-nl,,:fil lI.rd!e, It,lU'VIIlK L',rtlNIlldlo alOll1 illL'C' file 'amI ""ho"
'fl In, ",adig,., gJ ,Imp!, ,"pport,d k",,,... of tlu .",m' ,pt'" and lo}Gded In rile lIIIlfll
Io"f{/ (t'lg. 10.3c). The bending 11101ll0'llt III mldsptln of this !loam "ein~ l'quIII 10
M~, 111, illru,l 1ft the artn 5upporl, mall IN oblllined hg dlllldln: till' krultn:
mOIll,,,t by /114 tiN of IM IIrlll [51~0 ~ua.Lioll! (2.3) and ('.all.
2. Graphllt,ll m,lhull.. Us-in(l the schomatle dr;'wing of ~hll aT('h (Fig. to.3d)
[t't us connect hinges A Ami D with the crOWl1 hinge C, oxumdillg thc.oc lioe~
dine' I llnd III to their interlleCtloll wilh the di..,)ction of 'ort:Oll p~ (,ml p,.
T1h!J1'rtively, HI, pnintll K 2 and Kt. Thew looilllS are lhcfl connecled directly tu
l'OIll!!.A Hin/: lllltnd I1 llille 1fT).

FJg, 11.3

IA'! us now Ill)' 011' loO SC:lIle forces Pll;Inl! PI (\'octOI'!! 1-211nd :1-8) nlong 11 \,'T
tied a~ in t'la. to.:k. "'01'1"" PI is tben resolved into two tQtnlHlIlent.3 ill' DJ
pauJlol to the linO\lIV antllllsee Fig, H.3d) fOf" whkh PI\I'PO~' r"ys 2-:' ~nd
1.$ ore trOl.'d through its ~nJ$. For(:1) P z i., resol'-(!llln Ill" SlIme ....ay thlls "Lt.ain-
inK a ray 2-1 oquml in amOllnt to A~ IInd para lid 10 the 11,,0 1 anti iil 111)' 3-4
<"\Iu'!.' ;n OmOI.lOL to R~ and I'nrollel to Ilflt' Ill. nlOl1'After TJ)'~ 1..s and.i-6
3ro Wired paralkl to hnes 2-.5 and 2-1. r"sreeth-ely. Hay 6-1 ....iIl he l"Qual \0
the 1('1I(';lIon al A lmtl u.y '-6 to the reaction 3t D. Tht' verliullllHI Iwri~Ollh'
<:omp()I>l'lIta of tbllSll TNcliollS " .. , VII .nd If A' n.ll Ill'(' <'ll5ily found.
I'rnblem 2. Dolormillll al1~lytielllly Ihl' thrusl of nil nl'<:h rcpr~f'nlel1 hi
t-i~. 1t.3 nniformly loaded <I\'('r the erlllro "'Ilan wILll Itn illlNlsily q.
SDII<!iDn. Starl with dClrrmining the fcn(';tiollS III tho "'ul1jJ(lrB U~jllg Ih"
following "llllilibrium oqllntionll
~MB""O ond ~MA_O

III the case untler clll1lll,leration thl'se equot'on! hoeomo

~,I/H-VAI-ql ~_o
't.M",-_lfsl+qlY_O

V.. -Yn-7 QI
,
In t!to cuo of vertical londs nlone the thrnst lI ... =ff 1f =f' m"y
Ill> ,leU'rmino<l hy rlluatinll I(J 'Zl'ro thn momt'nts of :Ill ('xtl'mnl fUfC<!S lIctins
2,.1. SUI'!,ort lI~odtmls uf" T"rc~-!li"l:rd J1rc~

on 1Ill' Id' Imlf of Ill(' arch ahout the crown !Iinge C


/ I /
,
~M(."""- V A '[-1l1-72'7;~O
whenrl'

I'roblem :I. n"q",md tu ,1"'''I'I"i"o ],"1," Il'nl'hJcall y ""d un"I"jie"llr the


r\)acti'm~ induced at Uw ~\J]II'<lrt~ of lhe lll'(~llhjngNI Hell 1'l) lirI'SO"llrd in
flit, l:l.::lu hr 1111 j"rli"eu f"rc~' P = 5 Wll5 for cos ~ O,li allrl,~ill 0:; ~ O.Ii.

p
H.
I
11
8 \1:.--1
8 L..~

",
rr
..1_ ,
Gm I"
Smte
v, q,---,-,_~l_--,qm
/0 )

.'iU/IIl/QU. I. AlllIl!lt/f(lllll~lhDd. J,d ll~ t<\"olvE! tho rl/fCll l' int'! its v('Ilklll
nlll\ ],orizol\tlll c.umpullel1ls
p"",,,,~XO.8--=4 toM: I'r=:iXO.f>=3 tons
The vertical rI'neti,,)) V A lIlllr \l"~,, II(' dotcl'miul'd fr'>]" till' equilibrium
'~'IUlllioTl "I tlw ",om'ml!! about pojnl, JJ
~M}I-12Y" -9PII+3Pr-O
whl'lle'-
:~Pu-3P" :m-'J 27
12 ~----r:r-=12-2.25 ~ons

1'11" r rl'llcli,)II l'll will [Ill' ohtoined lrolll lh~ l'{Juilibrium


lllItJUI- I'lliot A
:EM ... = ~12VJI+3Pu+3P,,-O

V Jj"= r,x3+i:lx3
12
17' ,
,",,'." u,,~
,,-,. 1"111' now det.erminl' tIle Ill,riznnlut rl'8CliolJ 1,,,
""l,wtillg tIl1.H(1 lie
Ilwm"lltg 1) oil I"Kes aclino: <m ~hll Icf~ lildf "r the arel' nhou~ tl\l.' CI'O\\"
hjnge C
Ill,

HA _ '.'."x'
""-"'' -=::;-''-' ' '",""_
3X1
4
4X3
-0,375 ton

'rb" ncgatil'o sign oblainild indic."lW!! tbat tllu reaction ll" 'i.s di~k>d
tnw~rfls the left, Tu determinl: ti,e reliction II n l(\~ us equllte to ZCl"O the SIIIlI
or hnthontnl JlrojllCUons of all tho fotCl's;
~X-ll ... +P,,-{fTJ=O
wh~ncu
lfn =-0.37:i+3 .... 2,li2.', tLm~

2 Crap"lcal m..-thad Tt>lc{' line /1 through hing~ B HIIII C until it,. intl'N('c~
tlon wIth tho dIrection of !orr.c P at point J( (Fig. 12.3a). Point K wHI tlwll be
('onflocl-ed by line / with the hinge A, Thon Iny to ~nle Inl'Cl! P JlI.mllcl lo it~
directi<lll as ShOWll in "'ig. l2,311 and through Hs l'flds trace rays J-.~ llllU 2-$
parallel tu linos 1 and 11 of Fig, 12.3a. [0511~,<:_ti,,(~ly. Thoil I_wo rafs \\'illl'o)lm-
~nt to sen III ttLll "('nctinns at the ~upport.~ A and l); Llw;r' l",rimntlllullll vortica I
cumpoucnu :U'O /fA. un(1 Hr!. VA and V lI

3.3. DETBliM]:'>'ATroN OF STnESSES LV T/I1UEE-IitNCED


AnCII!I:S
l. ANALY'l'!CAL Mf',TIIQlJ
Tbl' inlorllal forces or stresses acting over tho l:rOS$ SUCLillrlS of
a thl'L'C-hillgcd arch consisl, of bending' moments _M, shears Q 3nl1
normal forc.cs N. They may be eompuled on the basis /If loads and
reactions tlcling to the left or to the rigllt of the Scctiou eon~idercd,
\Ve shall use lhe s&me sign cunvention!! for lIw three-hinged
aN'he,!! as adopted in Art. 1.2 [lJxpros.'lions (1.2) lhroug-h (3.2)1 for
ordinary beams, with llle exception of the sign of the normnl fon~e
which in this CllSC will be rcckonod positive when prollllcing- a co m-
prl':'l::iloll.
In the COfllplltatioll of stn\sses auxiliary coordinate axis will
he IlH'c1 for oach eros" f;l,!CUOII eOll:sidt'rod, tllO axis of nuseissas Il
coinciding with tlw tangent and tlLO axis of ordinatos v with the
normal to the c-entl~J linl' of the arch at this !\(c-tion. Th" projel'Uons
of rorces on tlws axes will be desig"llnted by U nod V.
With l_hc~' ('OIlVl'ntiolls cxpl'cssions (1.2) lhrough (:1.2) OtoCOlnt1
Q=rv=-~v
L ,

M='ZM= -2:M
r. 11.

N~W-
,. -w
, (1.3)

In these expressions lhe momcn15 will be reckoned posit.i\'o when


lhey lend to turn the section clockwi::;c, the compononts V W1Wll tll6y
are dire.ctod upwards and the compolllmUl U when they are directed
from left to right. Using cxpre~ioJls 1.3 let us determine the internal
forces .llcling over a c,ross section K of an arch represented in
Fig. 1:l.3
Q =:EV -V,I cos rp-I! A sin rp- :EP v cos W-:EP"sLn rp
, "
111 = 'f.M = V Ax-H ;,y-I.Pv (x-xll)-I.P" (y-yp)
L L [.

N =- r.c ~ 1'.\ sill ~I' .!...1f'1 cos ~r--I.P~ sin rp + 'LP" c,os q' (2.3)
, "
where J: and y = coorllina~'.':i
of point K on the centrc. Iilll~ of the
(l,rch
1j'1 = angle between the tangent to the wntre line
of tlte arch at point K and a hori7.ontal
P iI and P" = vertical ami horizontal components of force
P, respectively
xI' nnd Up = coordinates of the point of application of
forcl) P.
In the CX1)re~'$iotl$ for Q, jl;J and N the summation must comprise
the componentf: f.J~ and P" or all Lhe external loads and forces applied

v, I
Ft!!. 13.8

to the aro:h to the left of section K. In the case or the arch represented
in Fig. 13.3 only onc component of focet\ PI (P., or P u ,) will ellter
L'llo each of thesc equations. It should be noLed that the stresses
Q, M alld N could be expressed with equal success using the forces
to the right of :<cction K.
If verlic.al loads alone are applied lo the arch (Fig. 14.3a) all the
horizonlal r.ompollents P", are llqlHll to 1.ero, t.he \'erticaJ compo-
llcnLs P y equal P Ilnd~the thrust HA = H D = H, In this case ex-

"
111\

JJI'cssion;< (2,~) bt,t:oflll\

,
Q.- (V.\ - r,P) cos '4:-1I sill (I'

M =
,
V"x - ZfJ (J,-Ij,)-Hy

N = (V.\ - :L.P) Sill (P + lJ cos (p


,
Till' e.\IH'llssiOIl (V,I - r,P) ('Opl'llSl'nLs Lilo slwnt' Q" ill tho COIT{)-
,
,!lpolldillg $Cctioll of 1111 lJlHJ-SIIJlPorlod "rt!ferCIlCO" beam subjected

(al

-" ---I--
(
,-_.vp' .
~
,
8 c

H
x__

lv,,
,,
(0)

to lhe S:llllc I'):HJS as !'ltown in Fill'. 14.3b Itlld tIle t'xp .. !.\~ion
IV,\)' - 'LP (x - xl,ll-liIC bending momenL JIG ill the S<lmc scdil)fl
flf tho SlIllle b031ll.*
Wit.h t110SC rlt'.signnLioll:;; the IIJJOVU expn'ssions !lecome
Q ~01.'os(p-Ilsill(1'
1\1 ... AJo-lly
N -QGsin(f+J1cosrp (3,3)

O"lIllghl ht called 111<' he"1Il ~Iwilrjn!: f()i"t~c, and MiJ till) lIl>111f1 Imnd,ug
1lI0'fllnt.
J.,Y. l)~t"nJi .. atro" of Slr~lItI in rhru-Hi"gro Arth~1 11i

Oll~ Lho lIlagnitudes of Q, !If and III ha\'e been deL.crminetl for
a llurflcicllt number of crO$ sections, the graphs of thc~ fuocticllIS
will 1)oJ casH)' constructed. When verlical forces alone ad Iln \,Ill!
arch, allY of the three sets of tltluations (l.3). (2.3) or (3.3) limy Ill'
used, ill otlWf ~scs use should be madc 01 exprt"ssiol\!:l (1.3) or (2.:J).
H will be noted that in the C\"tlllt of a "crtical loading eAch gmph
may be obtained by the !'!llouualioll of two other graphs. }'or inslonc:o,
the bending moment dillgl"llm /lIay be ohltlirlefl by summilll% liP

P=&t

8, '!._
H.

v, v,
1'/;:. j!; !J

tbe bomlillg monu'llt diagram MO For reference bcam with till' grtllJh
of Lb~ arch ol1:1inHWs y mllltil,li~11 by f-H), this illustrating \cry
clearly l.he extont Lo which tho Oendillg lJIolllonL<;; aft reduced in
the orrltes.
I'ruhlelll I. lIclI"if"C(1 tu df!lerminl' the rcacti'1D~ lOt lLLe ~l;Ip ....t' 0,. ,...11 (I~
lha boudinl{ !noment. shc.lIr _lid )\.. nnol fO'"Cl......chng .....-..., SOCllUn ". <If a Il, ........
hinged areh "l'l"~'nl.t'd ill fiR. 15.::S. Tbe ccnln' lille ol tile ard, follo",~ a c..."jc
p~"lIb()lll lI:ivl'lI h)' thc equal.OII
4/ I 4.<1 {12-r} ... 112-r)..,
y .... p{ -.rJ.r- I~Xl~ - !:l

The :.b~ci"-",,, "'"_ ur point K is 3 met~.


,\'oluloon 'i11l\ dl'Wrlllinc too ordinalI' Ilf poiDt K
(1~-3)3 ,
JJh" 9 - 3 pmlr!!!

The Illllgl'lIt of lIw nngl<! {onnl'd hy lht' tllngc"t to the Cf!nlrll line "f lilt!
urch and tho l.xi.~ of ~h~is.sa~ wilt ho: gh'e" b~' the rtrst dori\'<Itivll lOf Lt,l]
pnr:.lloJ..
, 12-2.1'
lll.ll<P:o .... 1I --u-
'18
For point K (.1:'<:3 metres) this tnngent will be givo" by

tllll'flt""
12-2><3
9
2
-,

Th~ (rOllctions I'll the supports will be dCI(~rlnjl1cd using ~ho lollowillg
"quatlons

V _2X 6 X 9
A-
+8 12
(0.5+0.866j3 11 ~31
= " On~

l:Y "" V ",-q6_P sin r.t ,1- V B'''' 0

Vn- 2X6+8><0.866-11..3.". 7.20 1(>1111

the..
,
!.Mc = ~'A6 -q6x3- H ...'.=0

11,.,= ,
t1.73XO-2XI8
=8.60 tOn!!

LX _11 A - I {n- - P OO~ a_O


leading to
Hn-8.60-8XO.!i_It.6U Ions
Th' bending moment in S",C\iOll K will OlUonnt to

MK=- VA3-1I..3-q3X{-_O.39 ton-mctl"l!

whilo tll(.' shellr in tbl.'_ Slllll(i .'l'?cti.,m will Intol


QK= V A cOSlI'it-H" sin tpll-q3 Cus (l'lt =0
lInd finally thu normal force !l'1{ will 1~
Nit = V A sin lplt +H A cos qJlt-q311in 'f1l--1Q.34 Ions
Problem 2. Rcql,lireJ to conSLrllcl lho diagrams of l>omding OWlncnl,~ M,
sbeus Q and normal 10m3 N fOr,)n orch rt'pl'1lS('nlcd In Fig. 1(:.& and fol-
lowing 11 conie parabola whoop rqulltion is
'I
Y=!i"(I-;t),l:

+
Their values CQul<1 also bp found directly u5ing a!ljlroprllltc t;,J)!e5.
.9..';, Determifllllilm of Slreu~$ in rhr~~H/t'/[fd Arc~,' 11~J

V'
il'"!laIIII1n~~~t~f1~i~,~P:':'lE.b"'3~ml
'0'
,I.,'" ",
, ~
"
H ' .H,-,~8:;", _ ~.!_

+
C~ ----

.f..~ IZm v.

(r. 1

Id'

("
Qgraph, t

Hgroph, tm

"J NgrrJph, t

Mgraph, tm

,Fig 76.3
S ..I"'I<"'. L.,\ U5 Ikt~.'rluinl' fi~rt llic Il'<lctiu... ,s at 111<' SUIlllt'lrt.! V .. ami V"
I 3
!Ma_V....I_ ~ XTI-f'b-O

~I' ~V.. ;-J.n-q~-p-O

v....... ; <J/ i-Tt>~IO lUllS


I .
Vl/-Q7 t-P-V .. .. I. toilS

nl(' II,r,,~1 If will l~' ,1"TI\\,1 frorn ~lt(' "I/III1\i""

wlwllc"

TI,<" ,ud, c:arr)'iu" \'("rlitltl ltlad~ alone. t'),:)lrl09iullii FS.3) lllll) ~. u>\,,/ Inr 11...
(un~l.I"ur""'u df lh"{,, Jf alld ,\. Kralll,!' H'll'll"".
~"K. l!i 3b repro~"lli simply ~UPIl<.>rl<.>d I'('fert'llt.. 1){'<l'" I,,,,,,,,.. ill U,,, ,.,,,ne
way u~ LI... Mc/' and Fig. Il>.:k und d reproSC.-nt.:lll)(' IIl.glflln,; .. r lilt ~lw,,1"1' {.I" allll
ll('ndi'IJt 1Il'~U'"l.II MiI. .\11 h.... I,", emnpullllious :afl.' fflt.'red 110 T"ble I :~ ..."IUlltn
I ooul.:\lI,ing lIlt' "h:l(i~s J; or Ihe P<'jnt.~ ,limit lire :...<:h crul'''' lull' IlIktu "I "ne
lIlo'Ln' ,u(,rO'IOl'III:<, find tOhllnn :1 tonL'liniug lhe turrw<p..",linJ; Ul,II1I1' ........ (;,Ir\l-
hllto(! \llolIlK 1111' ('sllr,,-~'<ion
-if 12-.2"
V-l1(I-~) r--,-'
Colun'n 3 COIlI,'liIlS 11t~ "ulu,'!' of t.'ll q> onmr",tod rrolll
41 lj_;r
l.:lIl'J,-y''"'/f (1_2;1:)_2,.._

"..Ill It' lI". [,,]lu"'III.'! th"lr eoh""Jl~tJ,"'hll,'r.(','~I,l{1~' of q', ~1l11' 1'1lI1"'h". 'I'hl'
val",~~ uf Q~ nud MQ lahlll111t>11 '" cl,11l1l1119 i und 13 ut' t"k.'Il !lIr"11.\ r."1Il lho
eon'('~pmllliu~ tlj~l:nm_~ l'O.'llI'Otluccd In Fig. lr..tlr at,,1 d. Cull1mn.~ l:I lhl'uu!l:h 12
tOllllliu Ihl' 1,."dur.lIt of tIll' 1I1o{'Ilr (,0 :uld the ~hrn.~L 1/ h)' ~'!I 'f. C"~ if' ;",,1 Ih.,
,.f
v.t1illa\Il.'< u ..- (('lIlro lint' "I the ar{'h.
Thelnst tllrw e(,lull"'~ o( Table 1.3 (r"llOmn~ f<l. 15 anti 10) <,;.",I"in the \'(11-
\IllS of Q. M and.V ~r.~inR' u,'er Ih{' (,<lrrt"~I'Ollding tr!S I't'l:t,{.".. "r lht.' "who The-)'
11l\\'~ 1Mll'1I (.0<111'11100 u.cini rOl1nula! OLlj .....ili.." Il~n::< tb.1t Ih.. maltllilurl{' ...1 Q
....l\! .. hLai,ot'd by >snnunilllt Ill' dl'l.efS apl't'Mill!l' in rolurnns 9 1l0ld H'. Ih, ,'.1".. of
.tI -b~' "ullIlIliug Ill' drlll{'R flf ..IWIlIlS 12 and liI, and 11". 'al", "~I ;\' _lhQ."'I!
01 column! ~ lItul t 1.
The ~hl'ar_ Il(oudillR 1ll""'DI1t lIllU 1""''''111 (;u'({' oliagrllJus II/'I....llrllllj: ill
t'ig. 16.3<0. 1 and g hllve ~Il con~Ir\l(led USill1' Iht' dal:! tuntsdl'lf.'d III Ihl' 1lI!'1
Ihl'('(l (,,,IUIDDS of Talllo 1.:.- h, Ihese Illrff diugram" Ih; "rdinalE'!" 1.;'1.... 1.('('.11
1,1 ,,11 'rulll 1. 1"...i7.",nLal litis; in "dditlon Ih., h('J,di'lI! mUll""t di1.gnlO
NlI'r{-':it'IIU'd in lIig. W.:Vt loilS I~n con~trtlcl ..o(! by layiug (.Iff lh,'"I' {/... Iin~ll~
h,lm 11It' curv,,r '~"In-' Hili- <lr 110" arch.

- fur (Ollvoni'tlcu. ,I ilJnrcn!. >,(,,Ilh'~ loll"!"! JM:I\l1 atlnpl,,'l fur di lJl'I""lHli"g"1.lIl~.
~U"l .\'
'B.
1--1-=-1 '"
o o o

Stl"l (I 'o"

'~JVUI
-U", o
~1I -

."0\
~l"'II-

1--,,-.-,1.Cg=- ~~
i> "I. ,.t)

StlU1.o

lu "
122

2. GRAPUlCAL METHOD

The graphical determination of iut,ernal forces Q. M and N acting


oVer the cross sections of threehinged arches i~ carried out by con
ilLrllcting the so-called funicular polygon or polygon of pressure.
Fig. 173a represent.'! a three-hinged arch IOtlded by forces PI
and P:. Only one force acts to the right and one to the left of the
('entral hinge C and therefore we need not bother about the dewr-
mination of an:r rt!sll1tnnls. The reactions nt the supports A llnd 8
are dctcrmin('d graphically using the force polygon in Fig. 17.3b.*

,
N~~I

P, , , a", A
3
P,

__ [1 B,
0 ---- ,
B P,
8 z .' I11
B,
Ib' ''
P,

C *,

A
,,'
Fig. 17.8

Let us prucaad now with the construclion of the funicular polygon


(Fig. 17.3c) corresponding to the force polygon already montioned.
For this purpose we shall extend the diroction of reaction .4
(Fig. 17.3c) until its inwrscction at m with the direction of fOJce
PI. Through the point of interscctiOIl wc shall trace tho string Il'
par:lllol to ray If of the force polygon, this ray representing the
l"l.'SUll11Ut of the reaction A and the load PI. Let point rt bl:J the
in{.()fSl'clioll of the string IT' with the line of action of the load
P2. 'I'hcougll thiS point we shall trace the string HI' parallel to ray
11/, the latter being the resultant or reaction A and [,)ads Pt and P~.
+
*51:0 Fig. 8.3 of Art.. ~.3 for eXfllanalion.
If all the <lpcrations were c<lrricd out correctly, the string JT'
ropre!'ellting the resultant of forces A and PI wil( pas~ through
the contrc of hinge C whilst the string HI' whoso Jirection must
coincide with the direction of the reaction at B will pass through
tbe pin 01 l.hill support.
The funicular polygon J'-lT'-flr (Fig. n.Se) is fl\)quonlly
termed polygon or line of pressure a1; each string coincides with the
direct iOIl uf the pressure exerted by onc portion of the arch on the
()th<,r.
Hence th{J$l;1 strings will coincide in diroction wilh the ('csultant
of flLl the force!> acting Oll the arch to tile le[t or to tho right of the
.section congj<lered.
This may be illustrAted by Fig. 17.3c where to the Idt or section
krk l thore is only the reaction at the support A aut! thus :;ltring
J' of the fUllicular polyg-oll will coincido with the directioll of [orce
A which is the resultant 01 all tho forces to the left of the c,roSS
:;ecLion considered. Passing to section l~t-k2 wo note that thero are
already two forC{1~ A and P 1 to its left. At tho same Lime string 11'
represents the rcslLlt-ant of these two forces. III tho caso o[ 8(Jctjon
k 3-k.1 th\~re will be already tluee forces A. PI and Pt to its leH.
their resultant passing througi( the point of int~rsQetiolL or strill~
JT ,,,ith force P2 as string II' is itself the roSUILAllt of forces A
aud Plo Thereforo, this resultant coincides with string Ill'.
Accordingly, any line tn the pressure polygon AmnB reprf!SJ'nts
tlu' direction of the resultant of all forces applied UJ the kjt (or W the
rtght) of the secttlm under consideration. The magnitude or- this resuLt-
ant may he determined with the aid of the polygon of forces.
Thus. in Fig. 17.3b tho resultant of forces A and PI will he gi"on
by l,he length of ray JI mea~lUrod to scale.
Thus, the polYgtln of fo:n:.:es and the pressure polygon permit the
determination of all the stresses in any cross seetiou of the arch.
For in"tanee. the bending momenl may be obtained by multiplying
the rcsullaut by its distance to the ccntrold of lhe ~eetion un(lor
considerAtion.
In section kl-k l (Fig. 17.3c) the bending moment M will thus
equal Ae where e is the distance to the line of action o( (orce A meas-
urad along a perpendicular dropped on this line from the cenlre
of gmvity of the cross section.
In or-dor to determine tho shear and the normal [oree acting o\"cr
section kek, Lhe resultant of all the fo~es to the left of this sec~ion
(ray J Or reaction A) must be resolved into two components. ()OO
paralle.l to the tangent to the arch centre lino at this section (rlIY
6-1) (1Jl(t the other (ray 0-6) normal to the ~ame line. It is clear that
ray 0-6 will rcpresenl the shear Q and ray 6-.1 the normal force N
in our see-lion.
'" 'J Ill' Iill~ of prtlS!!uru ptt,lvides :I. nOr)' clear picture or the work of
fill nreh. Thus, Fil? iLk shows that tho forces acliull on tIll' "rrh
telld 10 inCl't'35C the C\lrvaturc of its rigbt.-Ilfllld portion ""hl're Iho
resultant is Lolow Lho ('t'ntre IiIlC, whil('l tho CUf\'ature of the Idt.-
hallll portion will dCt'rt'lL..'O('.
When Cl JS}'slern of vortical load!' PI. P1' P3. etc., ucl~ nn It thrt'c-
hingctl :lrch. the CO/lstructiun of tbe prt'.'l9Ur<l !i,IC will bo tarried
out ill LIlO following sequcnce:
(t) fin;t find thl~ 1'('S,dt;lnt RI or nil tho Oxl4;lrllal Imllls nplllicd h,
tilL' h.'fl of tht' crown hiJJgc;
(2) nOXI lillU Lht' j'('sultant /(~ of all the eXWt'IlaJ loodfi ltl1llliorl
tu I he ri/.!:ht of till' SIIIlU' llillg'l';
1::1) L1ll'lI dchn'rnino till: rcactious A onll J) indltccd IJy !lIe rc~lIlt
all!.s ft. and If~ jllst llctermincd;
(") lillally c.OII!lLrucl the forl;t' polygnu and lhl' linl' or pro."Sllre
Illkillg illlo cOllliiileruLion nil tho ~flfU",dlJ '-OI,titlll loafl!! P.
Thero is alwnys DuI)' OilU IlOly)(tJll lor line uf prt"s.~llro ("orl't'sIKHld-
illM' 10 1I.Ily lid (lf IfI"cJs applied 1.0 a lJlrrthmb....d IIn:h. Wlvn {ill'$('
l"ocLJ art disJrlbut~ t}~ lUlt 01 pr~urt Jjom,nt a l'J1Ioofh (urvt.
H U~ t't'lItro lint! of tbe an:h were 10 ctlincidt willl 1110 rl't'~un;'
lille portailling tu allY jlnrtic.ulnr sui or IOllds. these 1u..'\(1s .....ill induce
nl\illtcr l.~lIdillS' moments nur l;hl.'nring force.~ in 1I1c ~I'O:o.'" Sl'('li<"ln
.. f IlLo arch which wilJ tben he subjected tu nllrnllll fOrt_NI Il]UlIO.
This p"I\'id~s sllb:lLllntial ad"lllltaj,tC!l t,spocially {or masonry or
l"lllcrek' llrch cs. Horeulldl.'( wo shllll designate b.r tilt' term raUcJf/.a.!
1<lIch II f;ullf'jo(lIratioll of Lilo C('IlLro Hill' l,f an arch which will ('lIill-
ddo with tJll' lille. of prel'OiWre corrcllllcmding to LII(, dcod load_
It should l)l) netod thaL Lilo lino ur prljSSuro can nlso ho (lh\.ainud
1IIIIIIylil':Jlly. rur this purposo it would ]ll' nC(,./J)o'.~m')' 10 filiI! 1.lle
nwgnitude ur tho 1~llditlg momunt At and the 110rrnHI forl:~ N in
/1 llll III 001' of ('.ross secli(ln~ and theu u('!ccllliu('. the ('('('('lItl'iuilr e'

.
'1.~lIIg
I
Lie Iorllln Ia ~ - .11 N'
IIltving l'lid 01T thm;e cc.ccntrkiti~ )Ilong the Ilormolll to lbe
(Ilnl~ line (If LilO 3~h. the line of pressllr'\' will be obtailled by sirn-
ply c:.lJllllllt:tilll; LO'.;cLlwl' '.h~ points obtairlcd. The cOIJ!lI.ructiorl uf
It line o( Pn'~urt ror all arch whose reactiolls Wl!'" doletmillC'd in
Fig. !-l,3 is illllsLrll.tod ill Fig. 18,3. Fig. UJ.3 reprt'Sl'Jltls tile delotmi-
natioll of inlcrmd forces actilrg o"er !OOtion k of lhi!l llN;h.
When vtlrLicnl loaul! ILlonc are applied to the arch. tho horizoll-
tul component (If allY I'CsultanL of forces tu the right oc 10 the Icrl.
of 11 ,c;(octioll will IIlways t'-qual the lhrll!iL If,-

-EfII:lr ray "r Ill... !,1l1~'g"n of f"rces (til!. 111.3/" has the ~"Int !Itlr;wnt/l.(
c"mpvrllml e.ll'n[ 10 1J1I~ ll,rll~t.
'0 ) 'b)
Flit. IS.!

P,

I d
(b)

1<1
FI,. 19.3

'--,
n H

Fig. 20.3
120

Therefore. if tlm result3nt of all the forces acting to the Idt of


any cross section were resolved into its vertical Anti horizOlltal
CCJloponCllts S 3m! 11 (Fif{. 20.3) the bending IllOmcnl in tlLis sec-
tion woultl be equal 10 tbe thrust 1I multiplied by the distance
/IlQasllrod verlieally from tlll! ccntroid uf this section tu thC' ljllt~
of pressure (the vortical compon~llt inducing IlO moment in t.his
~ctiun). Accordinglv. when vertical loads alorl~ ar~ applied, Iht' ('er-
lical tlistoncu from the centre line to the liru of pres.mre reprtSl'nt at
it uT/ain Ktl~ the lH>nding moments aclVig Dllt'r II~ correspollding

P,
AI
JI

P,

CV
5
(0) "
(Cl
FI,.21.3

SI'(;ti!HI.~
of du' (lrek. In ollwr words. thcso t1iS[llIlCl!~ consUtllt.c a dia-
gram of LlIu bundin:r tnomt'lIt5 ""iUI Lh\J !lolc diITl.'renCt. that in this
t;aSl till} dillgrum will be silul'Itoo on the side of thE' cQmprcsscd
lihr('s. F'i~. 21.:i t\'Iln:scnls ljlldl a diagram fl('rtaillillg to Lh~ arch
!!hoWIl in Fig. HI.:i4.
rJlJIJI~m J. It i~ rl'qui~ to (On:ILruf;t grapbkally IIle Jlr~rf' tine of the
o!'f.h ~uml}'Uld III 1'J()hl..,m :.I <see Fig. H;';11 IInd 10 delerruloo Ihe sl.l'llSl"P in ~
lion ,. illtliral..d in fill'. 22.38.
Solulllm. L.:t 11.'1 rt'plllC" 1/... ~lnHonllly dl!trilouled load IIrl,lil.'ll IQ the left
half of 11,(\ orch l.y I; (ont:('utr1l11.'d fol'C(lS IIffiounl1n!:" 10 Z 10uS uWe11 and 111:til1g nt
tIlt' G~ntrl'$ (,f (j t"IUld portlo!ls ('1Ich 1 ll,elro long. After lbat_ ll'-t liS GOII~lruct tllo
IQr(;,Q polygt,,, U,;llng the values 01 thl.' l'f'ac.li()n~ computl.'d in Problem 2 RUlI Ihe
IU;llh :1(1\1311) :1I1,,1i()<! ond 11'1 \1~ tI'/lCO Iho r..,/s llhrllugh V/lll\s in ["jll'.22.3"-
Drllwin)t la~ in fir. 22.3/1) 0 series of strings pllralld 10 lhoSG rays Wl' >hall
obtain 11 llOlygon of prll!!ur". TIl@ area helw~o tl~ f;ent~ lint' of tho anll :lIld the
hne ol p~ur(' ~11l1l1etJ \'Ilrlieally In th" fIgure jllst. mentiool'll repff'l'l'nLS tho
diagr:lln or Iwnding m<illlen~ .'if. In lOall}' rt'.!pecLll it i! analogolll' to thc.o rlia&:um
ol,tai!Wd ..u~lyli.,.lI)' in Problfom 2 and !'l'pre~hld in Fig. Ifi.M, I",t diltnQ
il)' the fIIcl l.!,at in the JUlllr c.a...~ \.he 'hstanoos bad to be IlItll~red D"'UI.J1y
to lite rcnlre line or the ordl aDd 1101 ""rlkallr (llrls ",as relll'ele(l hy a hateblnr
normal tu Ihe C(,Dtn! !inN. MI'T{'over, tI,,, diagr.m i~ loc.all'd lIut I" till' com-
JlTessed IlI..e5 in~tead of Ihe oXI(uuled fllll'l'lIlS was the usc in Fig. tn.3h. TlJl!"ether
with Ihe lITulo of lenlfLhs i1nd fol'ces IIn addi~iollAl sc.nJe 10 which the bl.'llding
--
N N

,I
~I
" I

'" '---------
I

101'" '11
~

!---=c-,.--'!
wI;=j

-..
~
.;

1:'
",;
,
~
.:J
~: - .
~

-,. -
"
'0 ,
,
"
~

-
~

.~
~

-
~

~ ~
~
s~.~
N
:-.!- <' 3:t
,,.
,0"'"1:11\ "rdin:llI.ell mould bo 1~1l5ured In I.ho graph is iodle_I'OiI III riJ:. 22.:{.
Tills Ip~k'(" !glo is obtained by lllultiplying the 5Ult' or lengtll b) the 1II.gllil.Udu
"I tl"." UI"lsll'qual in tbls c.-~ to 6 tons.
Al l\(>inl k lht' bondiflll mOfllol:nt .'jll ~ ollUlllled j'r Tnl'.:!ur;ug the ':"("",1)011,1-
lUg "rdill'lI> in the irf"aph whi<:.h fumi~hl!!' a value nl Lh~ lonmlJot.ml;. The
~IW:lr I" 1.1,1;<; "llCliufI will be nil as the tlnltffillo Uu.> ('nlre Ii ....e v[ the ore'" is
lll'lrallel W ll~ polrr<1II 'If P/'E'!<!lUl'E'. ,...bilc tho norrlllll force N. ill fqU..t h. the
en)' IV (ng. 22.36), i.c., w 7.1. tons.

4':-1. MAX1MUM F.:CO~OlIY ARCHES


lI~
slllled llhIlVt'. wc .~IJlIU c(JlIsidtlf that n Lhreo-hingcu al'd) pro-
\'ido$ for rnnximurll CrOllolllY if its 1~lmlr'tl line COillCidu8 with tilt'
IIIIC 01 prcssuru of all the dead load~ acting 011 this al'c11. In Llllf,l

---~~

,cnSI) IILcSt, lo~ds will produce HO hl'ndillg in thlJ s~rll('lltrl'. Ll\~ y


1111<1 '1 I)e lhe orclinnh.'s o[ tho (lreh I;Olltl'll Iille and of tilu lino of prcf'-
'<UN. resllcclh'lJly. These uruillaLc:l are a certain rUllrtiun of .L
v=/(x) <llId TJ="'lJI{%)
Jr th~ ('outre lillo of Uu." :u-ch were to provide for maximum {('on-
omy il.'id('fillro shove, wc should blwe
Y='1
Let liS t'xamillll tho uS(' of all arch sllbjected to verticAl IQ.'u!s
ouly Wig. 23.3). The oquilihrium tltllll\tioll of the mltln(llll! of tlll
fOn:l'S I)'illg lo the left of nllY poillt k 011 tht< liue of pressure
will 11(."

whclICC
V",z._'tP(z_u}
11
It will be 1IotOO that the nllmern\,or iu the last cx'lression
is 'qual to the btmdiug moment ill the correspouding section of
the re(!'rt'uce J)t;jj,m. Lu., lo .M~, and 'herefort'
.M~
T)=u
Substit.u\.ing this e..(prc.~,:~ioli ill tbo equatiun y-11 wc oLtaiu
the followillg uXllfusgioH for t.ll!' eeutro !ille of fill arch of IlHIXi
mum t;!CHILomy
A1~
Y-/T
C011SI'quelltly, in the cast' of vertical wadI; manmuln C(;OIlOmy will
be (lcht~ved tf tht ar(;h ((',Lire line flJlww~ the bendIng mOllumt diagram
of /l. simply sllppor~d beam.

rroblcm. Assume thllL a three-hinged .roll carries. '\'erticaJ load of itllcn~l)'


1 uollormly distributed (l\'er the whole of ils length, Lbe span of the arth being I.
it..o; rise I and the cenltal )Iingll being situated at Ille (ro.....n. It h required to
dou.nninc th.t" eonr~lIn.Lion for lhe conLre line (If such an .reh. whieh "lOlIld
provide for mu:imllm ooooorny.
S"I.. lio11. To ~h'(! Ih;" problem we shall \L.4il! Lilo C:lp~iOfl
.,.
Y-If
"ql ~ qz
M"-Tz-q%;r-T('-~)
,
1/_ .lft- _ 12 (l_2.)J..=~
/ 2 2 / t!,J
WhCllCl'
8
Tg< (1-1:) / 4/
u..... ql~ -T(I-z);
1.0., tile centre lino o{ the a,\:1I wu.'\t follow 11 ,,;ollic p,'lt"l.ola.

5.3. DESIGN OF THKJ,;EHINGED ARCHES SUBJI::CTED TO


MOVING LOl.DS
l. lNf"LUli.-XCE UXIlS POIt .AllUTMNT nUC'rlO.'i:S.

Le\- us assume th;\t It three-hinged llreh carries n 111IIt load P


applied a dist.all~ J: from the lefthand abutment Wig. 24..3a),
and let us writ.e. the equilibrium uquntioll of the moments of all
the ro~es 3bont the ~upport pins
~MB= V.\l-l (l-x)=O: !.M A -= - VBl+ '1.:1:_ 0
Soh'ing these equations for V A and VII wt< ohtain
l-:I' :J:
V '--,-; V=T
Jt wilt be ob~erv~l1 that tho expressions for V A. aud V IJ are the
:salll() as those for the reactions of a simplo beam obluinl;d in

,,,
,,,
r,) ,,
H~'~'H""'-1-
. ' ------- 0-------: I ; - - - i"; :-~-::-~-~1~H,;.;;H
8
------.;.>'1 ~ -1
V,
Influence for V;l

, ,,
,
lnfluNlce \Un/;,
,, roe v, ,

,,) )1
, ,
,
,
Influence
,,:Une for H ,

Id)
T"
(

k
Jilt:. 21.3

Art. ~.2. This Int.'8ns lhaL OlO influtmce lines for V A and V /1 do not
tlirfer from the influence lines for the support reactiollS of a Simple
heum: th{'so influence lines are represented in Fig. 24.3b and c.
Since the thrust Jl is determinccl by the equation if -"-- .l~; ,
the corresponding infiuence line will have the same shape a~ that

+.
for the t)(lam moment j\'1~ differing frolll it only by a constant [actor
'fhii> influence line is shown in Fj~. 24.3d. Tn case l, = l~ --T
011,) urJiJlaw of this inllueuce line at jJ $ectioll passing througll tJl(!
I
cl'uwn equals 7;j'

2. INI'LUE:NCE LINES FOIl lNTIIDXJ\.L FOHces

A~ 11 preliminary ~tep, wc shall examine the methods of detC'r-


mining the so-called neutral points, i.e., the position of the points
of application of a load which will render t1le internal forcl) {hend-
ing moment. shear or normal force) nil at the section k llndl'r COll-
~ideratioll. DcnotifJg tIle stresses acting over this cruss suctiou

r- . . . . . . c

hy M~, Q", and Nit wc shall say Uw.t thl) loa([ is appliod lit the mlU-
tr:l1 poillt when the value of the c(lrwl:;ponding stress and tllerofore
the ordinate to the (~orresponding inlluellcc line become nil. It is
obvions lllllt w}lI:m tbe line of acUoH of n force passes throll~h ouc
of tbe abutml1nt hiugcs, all the strcsS(!s at (lny section of the (lrch
will be nil. In addition, there are uther MIII.ral points (HI the arch
which are of groat interest for us. Thus, if a load P is applied at
point Fm of the arch represcllted in Fig. 25.3 the bending moment
in section k will reduce to zero for the resultant of all tILe forces
to the left of tllis section (i.e., reaction 11) passes through its cen-
l.roid. Accordingly, point Pm will be a neutral point in rela~ion
to the bending moment acting over section k. Point Fm will lie un
the vel'tk.al 11Rssing throllgh the intersection point F of Iill':! Ak
and 8C.
lf we consider the arch shown ill Fig. 26 ..3, the bending moment
in section k would reduce to zero only if the load P were applied

"
at point F". to a special bra~ket fixed to tbe arch between sectioD
le and the CroWD hinge, for in this case the direction of reliction A
would again pass through section k. However. if no such bracket
existed. there would be no real neutral point in relation to the
bending momen& <acting over section k. III effect if the roiJlt of

Ftg.26.$

application of the load wtre transferred upwards, so that the lond


would act dirodly on the right-hand porlion of t.he arch t.Le direc-
tioll of reaction A would alter, this re3ction passillg lhrough tlllJ
hinges A and C, and therefore the bending momeot in l'Cclion k
would ItO longer equal zero.
gl
, r
,I C
I ,
A
I
I

. '.
"
fi r 8
,I"
, 't -'~

I - v~
""' I, I.

FI,.n.$

Denoling by u... the absei~ or the neutral roio& pcrt.ainiog to


the bending moment in seetioTl k (sec Fig. 27.3) <and usin: tbe si-
militlule of the triangles AFFI and BPF I we ob13in

-PP j = U", lallo.:-u".-"


--
"
(l_I'",) J
FP l "'" (I-Urn) \,an ~- /2
S.J. Du'~n. oJ TIIr~lfjnxd Ardu'. SubjrclM to ,vol;/nf [AlId. 133

Therdore

whence
1/:'/0 (4.3)
U",= Y/o I2+%/oJ

This expression permit! the an<llytical determination of the O'bscis-


sa U", of the neutffl,l point or. in other words, 01 the point where
tha innuencc line for M Ja will pass through tero.
In nrder to determine the neulral point corresponding to Q~
(Fig. 28.3) a line AF must be drl'lwn through tho r..cntre of the hingo
l:lt t1lt1 support A (this line being parallel to the tllngcnt $-$ at
point le to the oontre line of the arch) and the intersection of this
line at point F with line BC must bll futllld. If a load P were now
applied at a point P q lying Oil the same vertical AS point F, the
shcnring force QIt. in section k would reduce to tero, for there would
be only one force acting to the left of section k and this forco would
be parnllel to the tangent through this section. At cross section
k l of the same arch (Fig. 29.3) the shear would reduee to uro only
if the load P .....ere applied to iI bncket. fixed to the arch between
this section :md the crown hinge. for the point of application of
this load falls on the vertical passing through t.he intersection of
the lilies AP and BC. From Fig. aO.3 it is dearly seen that.
PF,=u q tau lpJa
,"'F I = (I-u q ) tall f\
Thorerore
Ilq WlI tpll. = (l- uq) ~1l.1l 13
W!lClICC
11 ~ Illlnji
q- tAn p+\an '1"/0 (5.3)
This t.'Xlwl!Ssion permits the cOlupulatioll of the position of lhe neu-
t.ral point for the shearing force in section k.
The normal force N in section k will become nil when toad P
is applied :it point Pr< (Fig. 31.3) lying on the same vertical as
point P, this point being determined by t.he inwrseet.ioll of Hnc
BC wilh It line AF parallel to the normlll to tho arch centre line
at. section k and p!L'lSing through the hinge A. lo'rolO Fig. 3t.3 we
nole that
PFt=-Uncotlplt.
'nn
F1'\,"",(l-u,,)tD.ll~
'"

s
, M
c

A
Fie_ 29.H

-~-

Fig_ ,10.11

F~l
p.,-jl(~.
l
~
I

r,
whencc
- It" collpll -= (i-Un) tan ~
aud accordingly
u- lUn~ (63
n- tllnj} Wl'f/l; )

'Ibis last formula permits the determination of lIle nculrfll point


relnted 10 the normal force N in secUnn k.
V/hen the value of- the neutral point o.bscissa obtained from for-
mulas (4.3), (5.$) or (6.3) is negaU\'e it mealls that this point lies
to tho left of hinge A.
Let us now examiuo difft:renL llllJthods of r.onstrllcting' influence
lines fot" 11111 , QIt and N". As will be .~een from expression (3.ii), the
bellding moment ar.till,ll over snetion I, of the IU'th represtJl1tcd ill
.FilL". 32.3 will nmO\1I1t for any position of ll, vertical unit load 10
M .. =M~-IJY/l;
This means that the influence line for llf/l; may be obtainoo by
sllmmirl~ the influonce line for tho bending moment ftf% at the
corrosJlonding section of t.he referenco beam (Fig. 32.3b) and tlint
for the thrnst H. all the or(linatell of which have been multiplied
by n constant factcr equal t.c (-Y/I;). These two influence lines are
shown in Fig. 32.& and d while the influenco line for the bending
moment in t.he arcb obtained by their summ:.tion is represented
in Fig. 32.3e. It is clear that the IloilH of intersection d of Iin~
(lIb and ab l must lio 011 the !'ame vertieRI as the neutral poin" Pm.
this providing n rapid dleck on the accuracy of the influence line
oLtainecl. }<'ig. 32.3/ represents the same innuellce line. witll the
ollly differeuce ~hllt its Ordinates hnve been laid off directly from
tbe x-axis.
It lllfly be shown tbat the area under the influence line for M 1<
will reduce to zero for any section k of u unHormly loaded three-
hinged arch whose centre line follows a conic pflrabolll. Indeed.
lhe I,ending momon" in any section of such an arch will amount
to ZCro (see Problem in Art. 4.3). If wc were to determine tile Inag-
nitude of this bending moment using tile influence liuo we would
usc the equality M,. =- gO, but 8S .ltf,. is always zero, Lhe 1Irt'1I un
dE.'r the inDueIlCC line Q must also reduce to zero.
For tbe ('ollsLruction of tho influence line for the sllCar Q..
(Fil1. 33.311) we may use the first formula of tbe set of eJ:prc.'!Siolls
(3.3), viz.,
Q/I; = Q~ cos 'P/I;-H Siulp/l;
wllore Q~ is the shear in the corresponding section of an cnd-sup-
ported beam of tha same span l (Fig. 33.3b).
''''

Um

Pig. :12.3
5.6. Dtlfg,. 0/ Thr__JlIIlXtd. Ard...c $lI.bJtcftd to AJouillt Lotulc ta?

l'his expression shows that the influence line Q/I may also be
oblained by the summaUon of two infiuence liues, the firsL for 0:
all the ordinates of which are multiplied by a constant factor cos 'Ill
alld the seond for Lhe thrust H tbe ordinates of which ore multi-
plied by (-sin IPA). 'l'he inl1U1mce line for Q. obtained jll tbis \\':lY
F p./
->-. c
la' "(. 'f" (" ,
k I

/,,~
S
A~ I,
, '
I '
,, : , 8

is represented in Fig. 33.3c where abk j kt4 ill the inDuence line for
Q: cos P.. aDd the triangle tu:b is the inl1uence liue for H sin lp...
Point d in Fig. 33.3c must fall on the 53me vertical a3 the neutral
point F q'
The same innuence lino Is shown in Fill_ 33.3d with the only diner-
ellce that its ordinales have been laid off directly from the x-axis.
,,,Id FrtJ~~
""In order to construct the inDuence line
Thru-Ilingtd Archu

(or the normal force NJ"


for cross Sf'CLion k of the arch wc shall use Lho last forlnula of e:I.-
prt'SSions (3.3)
Ha = m
sIll er.. If cos lp.. +
::iumming up graphically tho two componenL<; (01 sin 19" :Jnd
n C<QS lJl...> we obLain the inOuenco line for iV/t repre!lCnted h,

I
,,,
(iJ)
';!po k'" ! 1<"*.
,-. I ......
~/('- I ...... " .....
_ A I I
I I ~ ~ i, _ ..L--.fL----l
Id I , I I I

(bJ ~'---i";O
, - I l/nfll1t!tlCe
'0\: Unt' for NtlI
t "~. I 1
I Y, I J'"
,
'I'SUlrpi(
I 11 .... I
rI
c- b
I I ,
, I I
I I 1 6,
I l r 1 ~
I I le! Ir e'
::
I I
i
I
I
i
I
I
..:1....
I 1 I I I
I I I, I
I
I I
! I
I "'i:
1L
I I Influe!ll::e line {or Nit I
r I I I 1
I I I Cl I
I I I
, I ,
(c):, I: :I
I ,
d
u.
Fir. j/.3

(~jg. 34.3b. H",re ub".ktG is the influence Une for Q: sin ff'k and the
(,ri(lug-le abc rcpreos<>nts the influence line for H cos (Pit. Lioe-s a,b
5.3 l)~$lgn of Thru-Hinud Arch~s SubJated to Mol""/! f>o'U!8 1351

and ab z must intersect at d in the vertical passing tlU'O'lgh the neu-


tral point P".
'l'lll~ positive ordinates to tine da l represent the values oE
0'1. sin <rh whell the unit load P is appli~d 10 a Lracket shown in
Fig'. ::l4.3a while the negalivo ordinates to line da (plotted <Ilso
ahove ab) repro!lent the values of J{ cos lpk for the same position
of thC'. load. In t,his case the normal forco N flctiug oV'r section k
will be ohtaincd by suLLral'.ting the orclinfltc y! Irom YI find will
be equaL to mlm2' A corrt'~pondillg illrLucllce line with its nnlinnlcs
bie} off directly Erom the axis of abscissas is presented in Fig. 34.x.
Preliminary determination of the neutral points would allow
direct construction of t.he influence lines M I" Ok and NI<. This meth-
oJ lIas receivt'd the Ililllle of the neutra,l poInt method. The pro-
cedure to JlO followed Illay bc cosily derived from t111~ eX<llllination
of tIll' influence lines shown ill l<'igs. 32.3/. :n.:3d (lnd 34.3c. For
illst(lJlc~. if it were l'cqllircd to use this metIlOu for I,he construc-
tion of the influence line ror MI< 'proceed os follows (sec Fig. 32.3/).
(I) Layoff along the vertical passing through the Il'lt-hand support
(provided the. sedion under consideration is in the. lelt half 0/ the arch)
the abscissa of Sl'Ction k, i.e., the distance x,\..
(2) Jfarlc the neutral point F,,, on the x-axis.
(:3) Connect lite ordinate XI< o/}(!r the left-hand support (point 0.1)
with the projection of lU'u/ral point (potnt d) on the x-axis (line. aid).
(1-) Fiend the point of intersection of this line with the vertiJ:al pass-
ing throu.g}~ section k (potnt le l ).
(5) Connect k l with the potllt 0/ zero ordinate at the le/t-IIlUld sup-
port (point a).
(6) Find UIl' point of fntl!rsection 0/ the line ald with the verUca,1
passing through the crown hinge (point Cl)'
(7) Connect point Cl with the point of zt'ro ordinate over the right-
hand support (line. Ctb).
L'fOhlclll. It is I'NJuircd to construct the. innuenco lillos for M., 'lA anti N
",;llllg o\"er '>OOtioll k of a thrw-hinged parabolic arch d(lalt wUh In Pr"hJCrtl
2 of Art. 3.a, and to determine wilh tln._ "id of these lnlluenee JiDes tbe alrcsscs
irllluccd in this section by tbe s~'~tel1L of loads indiealed in Fig. 35.3a. The param-
1'Iprs of point k are
Zp'''~h. ... 3 mt'tres: tan 'fA=-; : sin 'fk=O.5fl5; COS'Ph.=O.832
SoIlr'l'oll. Dt'tcrmine graphically t,hl: position of ncutral points 1'",. 1"1
and F" a~ weil as their ah~cissa5 u"" v q and uti ilnd chuk the "l.llIes
of tllf'S<' absei~SIls using rormula~ (1.31, (5.6) "1Il1 (6.<1).

~ 12X4/6 ,.. _!l '


u" - 4/IJ 3(l . 6 wclres
\,

1'1

(0)

le) Influellce Ufle fa'


a,
, Riflh/-hclld
- rtion!!

Fig. 35.$
The cOnstrUf-lion nf Will innU(llIC" lin"s requ;rud may nil\\' ill' Cllnil.'ll out us
tollow1!: seal" tllf on the verticaL pa~s[nR through the Left-h:md sUJlJlorlthe l'lIl~ths
%",eo~ 'h nnd 1!in Ih asindicatell in Fig. 35.3b. cAuddandconntct the ordinates
<'Ibtaiuc(\ wiell t}l(> ptojec.tion or th'l neutral point on the ;t-Il,xis. Aftl'l' Lliat fmd
the illler~et.jon of the- "erlieal paSl;;ng thl"",gh lilo crown hing!' C with tilll lin.. ~
jU~1 obL.ained. Connect this pOilll "I intel''!t'ction with the point of ~('ro orcli"all1
at t!l<) rh,ht-lland support. [1'io,) nlso the jwint of intersect,i'lll of thl~ nhovl;' line
with the vorlicalllas:;ing t1ll'ollgl, section k. On th~ bending moment jnnlJ('I'~c
lino IhL.~ point i~ connlletcd clireocl_l)' with th" zero point at tl10 I"rt--bund support,
whit!' in Lho~ Ior tho Hhenl' Q. an,{ for Ul(' normsl fQrc,<l N.~ parllHel 10 tl,,: line
d'.'leMllil)r:o ill the fll'St place s!wlIhl be truced through tho l(~ft-hnlld support
ulIlil theil' IlIlc.,;ocUon wilh tl)(' \'('rtiC<l1 mcnLion("d &bovll. AppJring Ihl' Juws
of ~i!tlilit"dl'. to the IrillngJM i"voL""d, wo may now detennine th,' onli""",;;. 10
thn p('r~in('J1~ points nf the innnence lines, the '11',","5 und.'r lit"."" lin"s and Lhe
lnterrwl for(,e~ Indll(:l'd in ~.~'llon k 01 tI,e arch by till' j:!h'en ~r~lelll (of 10~lIls.
la) In{lIIt1IU Ih,~ for Jr.

3{4.8-3) _1 125 m('tn'.~


4.B .

-
cd_lip
.-"'f iib
'="T""'
The af('ll 'md"!' Ihe inlhll'nce lbw corrcspollding to Ill\! di~tfillllted load
Njllals
M l.t25x4.8 1).7[>(6-1.8) 225
w(l - 2 2 -. square metrl,lS

J\cc"rdinllly. tilt' hl.'nding m(lWl>nt Mk will amount to


M ~ _ qfjJ~1 + Ptl~r _ 2 X2.25- 4XO.375 _ 3.0 tOO-lIwtl'l'S

(11) fn/l"mct li"~ far QIl

_ _ ~ eosfJ'1l;
_k3k, - ll-XIl; cos ljIll;=---XO.832-
wlwn,=" k~I<~=--- 6-3 0' 0
.tlv
~.I'-"h I1 . I1 l)

~.k:; = cos 1ft - ~k, - 0, 832- 0";'16= 0.1116

I!~ _0; {"~ 00'. _ U':;I:><3 + O.41: X 3 =0


Q""",qfjJ~ +Py~ = 2xO+4XO=0
,"
(~-l {1I/1u('!U(' Ime for Nil

k6h~ __ '_Illth - ;/"/1-" ... , 3+9.6 0' 1~


Wh"IlC"/ie 3 = - - - SltllJ'h=-~9-6-X .. ;)5=0. ""
:1;h-U" -11" -l.l~ .
"
k,ka- k6kS - ~in q-II. -'=0. n8-0.:;:i~ "- 0.173

-
(', ,I-lip
"" --;r---Z,,0.451
;;To; 0.002
.\' O.lnX;i 0,128+0511)'2., ".,
)q =-2--+ :! Xv"-'2. vi'

.11,',,- qw~' + Pg;; -2X2.1l)5 +~Xll.r,51 __ 7.21 tous


Tht\ nlllgnitude~ of M",
Q.. Ilnd Nit just found coincide witb IhoSl' COlllpull~rC
III Probll'/Il 2 o[ AI'!. :i.:i ('l'ablo 1.3 and Pig. f6.3)

6.3. CORE MOMENTS AND NOHlI1AL STRESSES IN THnEE-


HIf'iGED AftCHES
In i'lny t'cccnlri~lIy loaded bar the normal unit stresses l'caeh
their maximum and tboir minimum in the outer fibres of the c:-to~s.
sections t1nd. jll'Ovidcd ~he material follows Hooke's law, th('k mag-
nitude's may be ohLained from t]tO cqUiltion

o=~~
F W

wJUJrc P = arca of- the crllSS section


W = its rcsi!;ting moment
N n IIU M = Ilormnl force and beuding moment (\cting oy!.'r thB'
SC{'LtOII, respectively.
It is assunled that both 1'1 alld M' act ill a plane passing throll:,:h
onc of tho prineipal axes of incrtia of the section alld normal to it.
,Vhen u moving. load i~ aplJlied to thc llITh, the use of th" flbove'
formula wouLd require that both the influoncc lines fur N ilnd .11
should hll used simultaneously. these influence lines ha\'illg flll
clllirdy t1if(t>rllnt tOllfiguratioll and Olle of them possessing botl!
pQ.'sitivt' alld negative p()ltions. It is therefore espedient to tl";lnS-
form the above-mentioned formula so thai, it should consist of Ollt'
term only.
'.rIds may bl\ obtained by the following procedure. Let U~ HI'S!.
rlOd tilo compouents Nand Q of the resultant n of all forces "clillg'
to the loft of the Section invol ved and passing through a IJoint ,~"
thereof (Fig. :i6.3). Let us them apply ut the ('xtreme upper point
or the c.()re of thi~ se<:tiOll (say, point k l ) two normal fOI'ces N equal
ill si le IInd opposite in direction which will b.l1an('o c3('h Olher.
As II result. we sbnll ha\'(' three forces N acting over this scclion
wllich may be fClll3.cc<! by a moment. equ"l to N (e..L Ct) 811d hy
o normal force N acting at the upper edge of the core. In this ctlSl'"
the unit sl~ at the bottom f,
fibre of the section will be /...,1.,1.
~iYell by the formllla " .<i):-I ZC
N(II'+t'jl " y~ I I
0",= 11'", ~-hll
(a) ~l'llftn I I
} 11 I I
4 '1 1
, i I
Normal forces nppliod ilt the --"1H-...... r-
uppt't limit of Lho core pro- ., IC
d' I
11'
duce no st!'psses ill the lowel' _ 101
~*,

flhres of tlle sectioll. The prod-


uct N (t + Cl) roprc:sentl:l the :2...1.1 ,,",,'
I ~In

(bJ~
,
,I''
, I
I1 I
"
1I I .'
,
,
I t 1 I .nr<.J.CfIC'e ltfJf
"''''!!Jj''>i<,J,;
- , r, I , , or
I,' ,
MA,

i'
i I I
"
' I,I,,~
'
,
(..ne
I for ,.,
f
""" ,,,, ,,
I

rd) .... "", I Influence ll.ll(J


I I for M{
R
f,
F,g_.M 3 FIg. 87.J

moment of tile nnrmal force applied III PtJiut s of the St'clioll about.
~he npper point of the core k, and will he hen'aftcr c.alled the ror~
moment. The core moment. differs from t.he ordinary ht'nding mODlent
by tht' fact. that it.<~ computation requires that Ute di"tance of
the forces (to the left or \0 the right. of the sect.ion) should lw
measUr<'d not to lhe ccntroiil of the section hut to the Uflpl!r or
the lowcr point. of its core.
ThtJ norJUal l'Itre:l..~ lit point n may he determined in a similar
way, ollly in this CAse the momenl of exlernllol forces should be
tAken ubollt tho lower core point. n Ilnd tho approprint.o rl!Sisting
moment. W" should be used in lieu o( W ...
N (t-tt)
0',,= IV
n
rhru~Jfinged Archt. and Framn

Thus

wllero .M~, = moment of external forces (to the right or to the


left of the section) about tbe upper corB point k ,
M~, = moment of thesame forces ahout the lower COfe point 7.2.'
The above two formulas are motlomiol and tbcrefore they lead
10 H quickor and simpler determination of the maximum normal
unit stresses in tho cross sections of an an:h
carrying a moving land. As [or the in.Ouence
lines of core momenlS they aro conslructed in
oxactly tho sa me way as those for tho bllnding
;---- momsllts.
The influence lines for the coro moment:; and
" for the bending moment in.section k nI 11. tlme--
hinged arch are represenltld ill Fig. 37.:~, these
m influence lines having been c,onstmr,ted u!\i/lI,C
t1Hl neutrnl point method. The small triaTlgles
Fig. 38.:1 shndcd bluck on the inflllellce lines for the core
momllnts just next to tIle centroid arc due to
;1 vortical rise in the influencB line for the normal force at thi;; point
(.see Fig:. 34.3). In practice these areas nre usually ignored due to
their insigl\iflcanec.
Uiling the core momont influence lines, let us now solve the following
problem: which part of the three-hinged arch represented in Fig. 37.3u
should he loaded (uniformly or hy a tl'aitl of COllccnLratcd loads)
in order to obtain the maximum tensile stresses nt tllQ extrados of
section k. It is obvioTIS that thll extrados will be extended only
whon the resultant of nIL external forces (the rig'ht-hand or the IcCt.-
hand ones) passes below t.he c,orc (Fig. 38.3). In that case the momlHll
of the r('snll;.'lllt about the core point k 2 will he negative. Consl'-
quenl.ly, the lond orloadsshould be placed over the negaLive portion
of tho influcnco line for the core moment M~. The loadillg of the
positivc portion of tltis lino would cau;;e the compression of thE'
extmdos of thc arch III sec,lior] k.

7.3. ANALYSIS OF THIIEl:,;-HINGED TIED ARCHES AN))


BENTS

III the preceding articles (2.3 to 6.3) we have passed in review


tile methods of stress computation applicable lo ordinary three-
hinged arches without ties. Let us now cnvit'age the tied threc-
hiTlg1ld systems and in purticlIlar Lhree-hingcd archos and bents.
Cert.,ill p('CllliariLics of tht'~ ~Lructure8 introduce" Ilumber of
c1UlllgCS iU.lhc stro",'! computation meLhods Je.<;o.:ribcd alJuve.
Fig. 39.iia represcnts a Low!ltrillg an:h freely ~UllrlOrLcd at /J,
the tiu precluding the horizoJlMI movement of tht! abuLml'rll bin~t.I
aml thcCCr(lCU 1'1IJlladng the horizontal c,on~tl"aillt Ilt this I)uiut..
ACcot'dingl}', c.omplll'lItiocl m('lhod~ pCl'tnilllng to ordinary lhroo~
hinged nl'dll"'~ (Fig. :iU.3/J) will llccmit tllll Jd,l'l"I11illlllioll or ull

,., tb)

",.:'4--------4'6 ~ ~..,A 8
",

Fi,. 89.3
tbe stl'\'SSl'S ill thilS purticular ca<:c. Stresses in the cross scctioll~
uf botl. al'\'hes will be exa.ctly th(' .!ame alld LIte illtcrlllll roret! in
UU~ LitJ will 00 ('qual \(J Ih", hOrizOlltal thru.!L lJ IJ' The Vl'rtil'u)
"'actions \"A and VI' will al~ n'lIIain llxacUy the.' J"1I1llt.'. Thus,
ttll' iJlnlll'lll'tJ line.! fur Li,O llbutlll('llt I'\'actions nlld Lhe ."lru8.-.('s

10}
,
,., D
c
[ I! [
"0' "0'
A
8 81it
"
Iv, I"
Ft,. 40.3

acting OVer ti,e "orn's[,onding cross :<cttions or a bow.'1lrillg nrc,h


will 1l01. Iliffer in /lily respect from tllOSC of IHt MI!inucy llil'e()hill~
gl,rl llrdL
Let till now CUllllitlnr l\ t1lJ'l!e--hillgcd arcll with MI l,!h.'_\'t1lud tif'
DE a~ IIhown in Fig. 40.311:. Wl' may replace Lho lio by two hori~
zonlnl forces Nil.. applied at points D .lllld e
and equal to the h!lI~
siull in the tie (Fig. 4.0.3b). The thn'C- alllltment rC3.cliulls V,b V /I
and 11 If may then be determined as u!lual with the aid of th~
equilibrium eqllntiml~ o{ nll eltlt'fllal forces applil.!d to the arch.
Tbcsc equations do lint. contain the above mcntiollOO rocces Nf/t
w1ljch hnlnnce tHtch other; their JnlljZllitude mllY b<' obtained by
lO-U~
'" Thru.. llillfw Arch~.

equating La wro the ~um of all the /IloHlcnLs of the external forces
and Framu

flpplied to tho left (or to the right) half of the il.rch 3hout the crown
hinge C. The stresses in all the cross sectiOllS of the arch 11$ well as
the methods of constructing the corresponding innuollce lilies may he
derived frOIll the expressions (1.3).
Y! q_zt/m
In!lum,,'t' lire (1Jr Q~
aWl
~~
O~,4 a4!,'

(to)
;b,.
f"wm
AWUJlI!llll
c
y'" 8,
.'
(0
In{lu''lN:e litll/ for v.
re'"! ~
,-WiillIC lll1l!IiIIl:!In
(j) lnflue.'!Cf111rNiJ ler q/ linl"k
lnf/.JNI'/CIe Une {or v"
~~1sr~,.!f.-
. .- {(VI! _
(If J
~, ~ ,
~ - .
'.. In(//lIme/! the fqr Nt In{lw"ro
'.
Ii!:!.........
...Jj c().<'!'Ir...
= I. 2"8

-~ t.!~-U-~'ll'~-ll'lllllillillrn.."
(;;r ;;;',;";;:O\",
/;'1 I,,!lufflre iI"I! for 101*

1 (!,
-ISU"

Pig. 41.~

Problem I. Gl \'e_R the arch with surcrelevated tie (Fig. 41.3,,) foll()wlllg a c_onie
parabola dofmed ill' tho pquation
4t
y=-V{l-:>:);r;
R",qllirO?d to det('I'lTlillO tllfl roaetions V A , VB and H B thl) tens-Ion in tho lil'
NIle' the intcmal forco~ MA. QJi. And N~ find to COtlSlrllo::t tl,o influ..nce Iluos
for all thoSll !lIrce~ Ilnd strl),';!oCS.
5(11111/(111., The reactions ne 'le_lermined rrom the eqoilihriulIl ot(oaliDn.~ of
all the &xlcrnal r<l~S ading un 110" :II'd,
~.l'Il-J.-AI-q ~ +'-1'11_0
" ,
IM"'''"T 'T+Pll-h)- Y pl..,O
~X=-JI,,_o:

Th,'''''' "qllnion~ yield


.
~ . . - a:J '1 1+-,--1f
Ph 3 <lx3
x2X 12+'""Tf""-1O 10/lS

t}J...l.. p (,
t' 11-8' ')
-7 =-,-
2Xl2+'(t -IF
") .. rt
1 I)n~

111/_')
Th,! It'nSil.'1l in tl1<' tip is OOI('rmincd from

It'c- Y
l
A 'Z-N/i.P -2'1"-0
'11 I

It 2xl2"
1 qlt) I ,u} IOXT---,-
Ntlr~ ( Y,,-y--S 7=(1- - <': ~121(l,,~

wh.,K' M~ i'" 'I.e hending moment arling over I'eC-liQJl C W a !imllle I1(ollnl ~o"'n
in tig. 'L3b.
The llugle 'h fllfTlled bv the tangenl Lo th(' (entrt.' line or t!tll 1"'l;h aljluintlc
Ilnd the ~-n:xi,. and Ihe urtlinlle y" 01 point k anI dt'lf'nnllled IIJ!' r"II",..~

t(lnT-~_~
dz dr
[2L(I-z)z]_iL(I-Ul
It J~
.,
fur .r_,l:~_3 m tanl:p"-,,t.on<rl-j
.....hul'drolll
'1'-, =u 33<12'; Sill lh'" 0.1.'15; CO! If1 _ 0.832
"d
<If -'X4
1>'1 -If" (1- ...1).r,t =""""i"21 (12 - 3) 3 - 3 metre,

~llh!lituting 11"lt"5t' vlllue.! in eJ:1're!.ions (1.3) '.-0 "bhtll the !tn>!l!ie!I


ac.Ling O\"t'f ~;on k of llHl Ilrcn
Q.. = ~v ... y .. )$'h -Nti. s;olj'l_qz.. ros '10- -3.33 ~11S
L

/011<= ~t'-= V.. f"~-N".(f,,-I+d)----;r--9,n


'.1
tIlo-llutres
1

N,,~ IV __ V.... Iiin <flJt.+ NII~ CO!'f1-qz15i" '1'1-12.20 I"n!


L
Th~' innn('nc(' lin('~ ror the allUtnU'DI, re3ctioll! ~'... Rnli V" shown
in Fiil. 41.3e 8Tl1111 will ho lhl! ~amc liS fol' nn OI'i1jll~ry lhr~e-liillgl.!d ltl'clol"he

""
'"
Jt
lnnuell(' line r." the tie tensi'ln ... i1111(' ri"riv<ld 'rum tbe cqullliUfl Nrlt~T
t
(500 Fig. 41.3(1.
,',,(\ (on!lI'llrtion o( inJlnf'n<:r. lines for QA .4I, .nll N a wlllt"j ha.....>d on the
following 1'('11111"n~ NlIlilll.t in e\'(\ry re~pl~t W UIO,lse of (::l.:S)
Qh - 0''; (OS (j"'!l - N tit sin 'r"

;!fit ... Mi -!VI;" (HA -/-1-/1)


N", _ Q',' sin ~1.+ N j I, Cl., 11"

1'J10Sl' mnu."co Ii""s togetlll.r with Ihl' iutr.rml'di'ltl' gl'a.,hklll "Jl'-'rntio""


Ue tl'l'tt.... ,lo'll III Illg.IjI.3/.,. A, I, I .lId k.
A~ a rheck lo:t II~ find thl' $.l.ros.sl!.! in ~tiol'l " u~ng thf' h,flu~ll('e lint:'" jll"t
obl.'lincd

QIt = 2 ( --}XO.>24. 0x/).208-}X(l.4lti) -4X ~ XO. .\16 _ _ 3.33 1''''11


MA -2X~ X f .5x6_9,(1 IOlj-ffi('lrl!5

["
Na _2 2'Xfl.1.B3 ~:r(O.~85-'- O.{if.a+ ] ,
1.:'20) +4XTX U2(.... 12.20 tUlIS

TIIl-S!l v;llul'~ C"illc.itle l~.l~ct If with 'hose (oulld l)redoll~ly. A11 the <:u"f'ul,,
HtJl1$lUllr Ill! Mlo;ly It'J:llrdl\d .ll COr(~L

{.(-l us rO'lsider /lOW (hI.' lht'l'l.'-hillgt'd Oents. Thuir nbulllll'llt


"'al'liulls will be determined in exactly the SlllUIl WilY 1t.'S for till'
th~('-hill~d Ilrrlw.s. the l!llm8 applying lo llle' d~u.. rminnli(ln of
lhl' ink'rnal ftlcc.us and La tho ronslrllclion of inOUl!lII:f' lilll'''' (\\i"l'tlt-
er h~' ,l{raphictll or allalylical luethoJ...). Exception ]lltlst he IIHtdl'
for \'I'rlkAl If"ltllnbcr.:; (prtWidcd these arc prcSCIlI.) for the nl'Ulrlll
jloilll Illothod CllllllOl hu appli('d to the constrllctiol1 nf the 1w.ndiug
/II0Ill,,"I, alii! sh'~ar innmHl('l' liues for the< latler. IfIJ\\,OYUf. Ihis Illd.h-
("I rUlllnjlls tfuilll suitnlllo for horizolltnl nlld illcrilJ~,(1 llIcllll!C'r:<
"r I hi' hl'll L.
I'robl ... m 2. Oelt-rrnil)f' the lI1,uhnenL reaeLiol)lllll,d tbl) 1l~1'(''''<e5 in CrQl:5 sec-
.)(. Ull"ll III lllld n Il(l~ tbrough ~h. uprights of Ull! bp", in Pi". 1\2.311 And 'haw thl'
torre~)K>ll.lilll;" innuel\ef> linf'~ for Sl!'Cli.........
$0',<1/(11I. The lllJutmeonL reaction~ will 11(' ol!laillt,d u~llg llu, cqltilibcium
Olllllltitlus
};M. _1P. +JP:-4V0-0
!.oM J' _',PI_I':."I' -t-O
,
IM,,_ 2F-t -I,'I-t _(I

I:X .... l'j-! fI"-/!H-(1


'4f1

(rum wlllel, Jl''( , 01 Pz~3t

V/l_+(\Pr+:iP~)_ P 'U --'e


f-i,,,zm,
,
=~,2X/'"'T3X31-".2~ IllJl~ 1~!l5m
oi .I
\ ' A-T1--.
, 'P t I- P:l- m I In
I
I": I
-"'~1-2l(i+:tl~-I.~l"n~ .'! I
I
N

, v... ...,.
{I .. ""'" - -
H, I I~t
~, -
H,
'\ "l,
"
-- - -rX l.:t"- -0.62'1
1f1l-P,+ fI,,_
'7:: u-o.I\z., . . . 1.a75 t"h!
Ri.'ganlllli ~hl' low"t l'xtrrmitf tlf tlll'l
uprifthl! a". tlK'" "'f'-ha"d on1l. "'~
rntly n"W Iin,1 lI,,' "'lN5.."S acting ""er
5('CI1,ll1' I1l :lIl<l ..
(b)
QM--f/A-II.lj2~ ton
M~,_ - 211 .. .",2XO.G2,'i _
_ t .2'l tOIl-mdt~8

N." ...... I'.. ...,.-l:!;; lon! (Cl


;I"d
Q.. -. - I"j,C''''qo.. + Ifs!in q.. _
_ -4.~'lxl).Z-"2 1-1.37SXO.9Ql=
=O.:Il11 Ill"
H,,_ ".~Vf,-:!H"...
__ O."X<'i.2.~ - :!.I1XI.37ri _ (e)
_ _ (1.1;25 ~OIHnch'('

N,,_}' If !lill q'" T If II CQ.~ q'" ... If!


oc'1,2:I,0,1./I';8 i 1.37~ l(l :H2 "'" ~.4S IOn1
Filt' '\2 31., ~ :lull d rt'1'U'-!f"~ the
illn,l<.'ocl" 1I1lt'~ rH' the alml'oent ''ell~
lions \''''' ,'" IOn,1 11" -- fl" - If
which ,I" l1'.t ,Jiff.. !" ill ~II)' rtl!pec_~
rn'ln t,hlllle- <If 1111 Hrdinnry IIrcll (roe
F.g. 2~.3)
Fill:. :t2.3r, f ao,1 G cOlltah\! 'ho FiX. 12.3
inn"ruO(' lirK'S for Q M"" and N ...
d"rh't'd from IlK' :t.:"........~lons Qm - -11 ... , AI", .... -2H.. ",1 ,\'", ,. ,'A-
Tb.. illn",,"c~ 1"1" lor .'1; ... mighl lI.1so be ublllllled using tho llool.,,1 ,,,,,nl
m~h,,,1 (~ to"lll. 3~.MI. In Ihls Ui!O llie nou~r.1 pl,in, will eoineilk> ,..iih Ihl'
trnt ...., 01 htnlt<' n, 1'lllJ Ihert'fo", 1'lIving laid oft ll, le"gth COtrf'~poo"'n" to
"in l{'", - 1 ovt>!"l'viul Awl' shollld connoct tho ordinate (I 0;01 ohtainfol[ v.ilh thl'
IIl'utml "vint. 1.0., with thl' point or 1.('ro ordinate over hillgo.: n
(FII(. ii2.3,J.
4. THE TRUSSES

I.~, Ot;FtNlTJONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF TnUSSI!,s

The truss ii' n (rtlmed strncturo whkh will cont'LllllC tu form 1111
lloyicldillJ; cOlllbi''lllliofl ('\'('11 when all its rigid joints lIfC cOII\'on-
lionully I"t!plnccd I.ty pufl'ct hingl'5. As It rule, lru5S('S are used fUf
the &1.l1ll-' purpnscs U!l bl!3mS Rlld gird~rs, except that the spans thel'

Fig- l.I Pig. fJ.1

('O\'N arc usually much larger. In tlWEe cases solid w(lb beams
hecorllc uneconomicnl duo lo the fact that the strength of Ull" web
cnn never be utilized \0 the full t.'xtel\t (unit stresses ill the web
l>llillg lower than in the nallgl's as will be st'CIl from Fig. 1.4) and
also due lo the dan~r of web buckling which becl'lInC5 more and
IIlOrc acute with thc increa&'_ in the lK>iH:ht of the bc,;lm~.
I n framed structures such as trlls..~ (providBd the loads net at
tJlC joint"') all the members are subjocll!d oit1Ler to direct cXWIl5ion
or compre.&<iull which enJ'lllTe::i a far better utitiz.atioll of the nlak-
ri3!s, lh.. sIre.!!." diagrltlll fur ('aell of these JIl('mbt,rs being pracli-
calJy rec-langular. Thercfort> the lrusses arc alwayll much lighter
lhan solid wob ht'alll:'! of the same span and thl'saml'height. A typ-
ical cxnmplc of a IruSS is showl! ill Fig, 2.4.
Apnrt from h'o-dimensional trusses in which all the bars are
~jluotud ill OllO allt! the !laltle plaoC'. thol'O exist tllroodilr\P,flsional
'51
or S!JllrC rramod structUN$ in which the cluments arc situated in
!lCvt>ra! plalle~ (Fig. 3.4). Huwever, ill a gN:lal numhllf or c,ases the
dcsig'll of tllN-'l.-(!illlcnsiollul framed structures may 00 reduced to
the C3~\l of scverfll plane !Iy~tcrn3.
Tho span of l\ lrlL'>.'l (Fi~. 4.4a) i!S the dist.allce between it.<! sup-
porLs. TI~ low(>r IUIlI upper longitudinal members fOtlO the upper
and !OWt:f cJwrd.'1 of the ltllSlS, while the memoors which conned

fl,. J.4

the two chunls arc called the wrb memkr. The latler may h~ !'tub-
dividl'([ illto /.It'rtica.l.~ and dlagoTUlLs or into stmU! and ties, the
struts lJcing always cOlllprussed and thl' ties cxwndcd. A cOllnter-
braet: i.!l n lllcm!:K'r dH!ligncd to resi.~t !KIth tensilo and cornpN!l'fSive
stn'SSl'3. The cnd pusts also called batter brllces connect tho upptr
chord lo the lowllr onc and R1tly I>e N!garded as belonging boLh to
tbe upper dlOn! and to the web mt'moors. Tbe dist81lcc between
two adjac,l'nt joints mensured along the horizontal is usually called
a pa,~l. llac juiUlS Lhl'omsclvl'S being frequently
reft!rr~d to as panel
poinls.
The fulluwillt{ li~'e criterions l!Iuy kln'\.' as It b:t... i~ for th", cJus.... i-
lh:lllillll oC tru~S:
fa) the shape M thn upper and lower chords;
(b) (lin type of Ih... wuh;
(c) the cOll\liLioll!o nL Lill' support.!:
(,I) thu dC'sLillllliorl of Lhe sLructure;
(c) thl' le\'el of the fluor.
in IlCCOnlalll'C with Lllu fir.... t criterillll, t.he trusses mny hfl sub-
,Ii\'idud inlo Lfll.'i.';es with parallel "'lOrds (Fig. !I.t,a.) tllll! illlo (loly-

==m (/)

Fig, 5.4

b'MH\I l~lld lriilllb'lIlltr IrIlM{'!< (I-ig. 4Ab nll,1 r), Trus-~II with a 11'11">1-
bolic L1ppclr etlOrd (Pig. 4.4b) btIOlllf to I.he fir!'>\; o{ I.he Ia...... t tW(lldllds,
The socund uitcrioll permits to subdivide the lrUI!.'<C.!I iulO Lbose
with n Iriilll~ular pattl'fll of LIlt.' w~h lfiU. 5.<'ia). Lho~wilh II quad-
rllllgulllr pntterTl formed by verl-ielll:" alii! dingoll:'lls (Fig 5.4l')
'In lb... 1S111::1~ll!vc;kinK o:"untti"s. whl'l(' .11"
lr'ellllllltj..,il~' (.1 trll"S lyJlt'!'
tire calle,1 arL~'" thll !lam!!! 01 eogiul'i'rs whu first ;uln,dueoo Iloe-1l1 Oil II lllrge !;(':11E'_.
this Lrll'>S is knO\\"1 Il~ thQ If/Jrrtn tm.' {T~, /lot.. l.
uThe ltlo~e \\ld,I} used of no"sc arc th!! l,~(,tl lt1ld th" lfo.u II'U"~.';, Ih~'
fln;t I.o"ing ch"rllcled,tHI 1.0)' (':(tendu,1 ,Uog"nnla ,uu] cOIol,n"."...ri "e"tica!s, IUIlI th,'
".-'<:ond-hY (~tl'll~('il "(lltkll]S i\nd cor"prl!-,~\l(ld dlllj?onn].<; t1'r. ''''/rl
tflOSt~
in Wllkh Ihe wc;h mcmbl'rs fnrm a lel.lt~r K (thc sn-r~dlt~d
Klmss sllOwn ill Fig. 5.4c). lint! 1'11I1l][Y trusses. tf1(J webs of whil~h
are forllled by the sllpt'rpositioll of Lwo or rIlort'silllpll'gTit!s. illlls-
t.rakd in Fi~. !JAil. e llnd f. lIsulllly rdcrrt'd to 11.'1 thn dOli hie. or
mnJLiplt' lrlJs~s*.
TI\() Lhird c_ritcrion {It'l"mits to disLinguish Imt.wcun tfw orditHlI'Y
end-supported tru~t'S (Fig. fiAo-), the cantilcver trll~~ wil.Ji a
llllilt-ill cnd (Fig. 6.'1/1). the tr'IlSSCS (;ant,ill'vcrin~ ovor ono or bot.h
snpporl..<; (Fig, oAr. lino d, rCllpectivcly), fllld Jinlllly thcl)l"of~t"IL
lInd nrched t.rIlSi:<'." in Fig. /i.tie lIlle! f-
As regards their lI11sLination the t,rll.'<sns llllly h('_ suhdi\'hlod illto
ruof tl'USSCi> (Figs. 7A{/. llnd 4.1ir.), br'idg-e lrusses (Figs. -1.Aa HmI
8.4) alldllliscdlanoo\Js t.rU1<80S 1Isml ill CfUUC o:ollslrudioll IFig, 7Ab)
Illld in tILe eomtruc[ioll of VAriouS tOWNS. b(>_n\.S, ('.k. (Fig'. 7.4(").
III fJridg-c ('()I\~tfuclioll lhc l.rnss(.s Ilfl.~ lrc-quC'lltly ~Ilh"j\'id~'ll
into lhroug:h-bl'iclgn lrusl\CS, in whidl the 1'1lilw3Y (or rMd) is o:orr-
ried directly by tlle hottom chul'(1 joilllS (Fig. 8An), tllc rll'(',kLridgc
tl'lIsses whort~ the upper chor'ds or their joints (\!IL'ry the rolhlwHy
(Fig. k.<\b), 111111 fitll1l\y I.lw I.rllsSllOl w]wre thu cleck i.~ t;l\rried a[; ~me
illtermodirlle lovoJ (Fig, 8Ar),

:L<\. DIHECT \lETHons tW ~THESS DETEIIMINA'flOf\ I~


"lE:'.H~EHS 0)/ SDH'LE TlIUs..<;ES

\VI) have "Il't,ad)' seen (1\l"t. 2.1 llmI3.1) thnt framed 'll.I"lU~llll'l'S
(orll\Nl hy (hldil'lg ('Otl~~l."II.i\'(.dy any Ilumher of joilll.~ t.n a llillge-
c,olllwdcrt tl'illtl~lu (Hao:h joinl, hoiD!! (:(It1Uel'lN\ hy lllt'(lIlS ()( two
conellrrerll I"\l~) ,H'C !;talio:ally detcl'flliu31A\ arid form all lInyield-
ing ,'orubinalion. Two-dilllCllsiunal fralncd st.r'UClUfI'S !orlned ill
this way are \l~ually clllled simple lrusses,
.Tn Artide 3.1 it has hf'ell ~hown I_hut 2K equutions or
~Lal.io:lS
can bl) wril.lell for /lny :<hltkullr dUUlI'rniullLc trll~S (K lmillg the
number 01" itl> joints), with the lliJ of which botll tilt' f\l!Utllt~llt
l'ellc~ions Ilnd ~t.,csscs (intern"l r(jl"l~t~~) ill flll 1.11(' rni~rnbcl's o:nn b(
dt)l(Jrminc<!, IL is lIsu1l1 lO Slill"l with lhe rlelel"lIliuaLiou or tile :d"ll-
munt rtHw(.iollS for' whil;h plll'pose thrfllJ eqUilibrium iNlJ<lLiolls lIn'
writl(>1I fOI" thtl LI'Us's as II whol(l,
The slr(!~se~ ill tllll Sl'(laral.l' memhers of t.lw Iru.,*, can he deter-
mined J,y c,ollsiderirrg tho equiLihrium of ~parat.u parls or joilttl>

+
*The trllS.~ in fiR. ~,1d i~ 1I~\lall}' CUIlI'11 11'1' d(wble lI"arren Ir'IIn fur il~ w~_h
ll"'~' 1... u!llll.iw.d by lhi.' SUJX'T\IOsition of tw<> ~ill\Jlle triangular wt.h~ while till'
ItU~S in Fig. 5."~ llJlly hI' l'l~gUrt ('<I ~l~ ~I m",1 iiicatioI' 01 th.. 1'0.1 or fI[ the \fhipl'le
tru~~ tTr, 'lotL'l.
(0)

(0'

PI,.Ii.l Fi,.7.4

(c) r
Fig. 8.'
1:;5

()f the stfUC.tufo, t1lt'SU par~ ()f joints boing acled upon hoth by
the l'xternal forces 11lld the stresses in the i'tlctiolled bars. The total
number of int!'pendenl oquilibrium equation!> amounts to 2K-a.
it is very important to find such imaginary sec,lions which will
nllow direct determination of stresses in the separate hars, without
nl!c{'ssitating tho simultll.lUJQWI solution of i'ievera( eqnations with
:le\"eral unknowns. This simplifies very considerably all ~he compu-
tatiOlls and at the same time enlu\JIcl's their accuracy.
Tho following two methods will usually permit the dcllmnilla-
tion o[ the stl'Cl'ses in all tho members of a simple tnl.~S h~' so(Ying
in each casc one oquation with a single unknown.

'('liE ME'I'HOD 0" MOMEX'('S

'rIds method is used mainly when a sectim) Clln be passed throu~h


the truss in such a way as to cut three nonconcurront mcmoors, as
for ex.lunplo section I-I in Fig. 9,4a,

Fig. 9.'1

The axes of such members will illlerStlct by pairs at threo differ-


Wit points not lying on one anti the same straight line Wig. 9.4b).
The cqu.iliLrium equations of the moments of all forccs, both
inU.'rnal and external, acting on the cut-off portion of the truss
taken abollt each of these inLersoctioll points will reduce to one
equation with one unknown, this unknown being the internal forco
actil\g ill the bar not passing through the moment point.
Thus, ill order to determine the streSS acting in allY mcmber of
\..he truss, a section should be taken across this truss cutting tlu'ee
nonconcurreut bars, one of these bars constituting the member
ill wlJid\ it is desired to fInd the stress. In such Cl case the equation
+
*H will bE' shown later that this method can Le (lpl1li('11 als!> In c('rhiu more
('ompllcated ca~.
of nil the "l(JrIICnts llholJt tlte pointolintcrsoctioll of t.11e tlVO other
burs will yield immediotely ~ho stress in the mllmoor under consirl
()rH(iorl.
I1u' poi", of tnu'r,';'ctlOlt 0/ two nu'mbers alillut which the moml'nts
ar!' f,(lkl'tt Is IISIUtlly called the fJngtn 0/ m(lmellt,~.
Whl!II writing the equilihrium equat.ions all the $tre~es ill the
l):J.r~ art) (:onvl't1tiollIlUy wdwnetl positive whic.h, with the eOllvell-
!.ion (I[ tIll! siglls HI[Optcd, me/lns t.hat the bar... are in t,(Jll.~ioll Hlle!

'"' Pig. lOA

the strl'SSOS lll't.' diJ"(\c:!.I)rl aWIlY from the Jomts. Therefore, wh01l 11
II~'J!/ltivn !<lrt'~~ is olltlliH~ld tJli!< iIldkiltcs t.blll Iho lllcluher is COm-
t1rl:.'l"ed. l-Jm :-lrtJ,s,<;; acting- towards the joint..
Wc ,~h1lll now i[lu~trati.' the mc-thod of IllOlllcnls ius~ desnibcrl
hy S('vE'rnl exnmple~.
III tlw.<:c i'XHtnplc,~ wc shaH dcnolc by tho lett.er U the sll'esse~
ill tile. lIJlJll'r dlOrd, by the lotwl' L [he strtsws ill the lowet' Ollt'.
)lllll by tho l()[tt'~ lJ ~llld V the strc!'lSCS in the diagonals And YNU-
(:IlL~. n:;pcctively. Tlle~l' lott.ol'l< will be f\c('ompanied hy cipllNS
illdkaliujZ ilt I.'fll:h Cl!,'It' the numhers 01 the joillts to which till' b.u
ill qlltlsl ion is ('onllccl"d,
Lpt 1I~ HOW d(~l(\l"fnin(\ the stress in the ml.\lllher ;]-5 (of ti'e tl'llSS
in Fig. 10Al~. For thi ... plIrpose wo shall pass sectiun T-T (~lJLting
thl' memllOr ullder l'onsidMatioll lIull two ot.hor ml:>muct's. OHe bdollg-
in/{ 10 th,~ llpper llml the other to t.he 10w{>(' rhOI'd!!. H is nlwn)'s
mOl"l\ wlivtmicllt t.o consider that part or tIl(' t.russ ac.\.ccl I1POII by
a sm:IHel' tlllmbcr of 1"1I1'I'CS, IInd t.ht,I'i'.[ow Wt' sllall di~'lIl;s here the
Idl.-h'llld portion or (lU'I' trllSI< which must hi' ill l'qllililtl'illlll mlller
the action of the eXlN'n:tI forcps A alld P J ami (,f thl' intm'llal
str('sscs (/2'" JJ3~ 11iI(1 1: 35 , tJU.'Sll I<tres.-"es roplllcillg" the right.h:lIHI
[I<)rtioll or tIlt' trlll'''l (Fig. WAb),
[11 (lnk,r tu tll'll\rminc the 1I11knowJl stres.~ La~ lli'ill;' n i'ingll'
elluation wc ~halJ pl11t'(} th<: origin or m(1ml'Jlt..~ al point 4 whem
IIlt'nrll('~ 2-4 all\[ 3-4 COIlCur.
Tllt1 llum of momcnt.s of all tIle rOrt~C,~ HclinJ,: olll,he IBft-llll!ld pHl'-
tion of t.ho trus~ about. point 4 is
ZJU, -,Aa,..LPIPI-La;,h.",O
whcrofrom

lIt're h is t.llc l('vcr IlTln or stn'ss L3~ about the origin of mllrncnts
(in t.his parliclllar C-Il,*, it is cqual to t.he llCight of t.!IC tflJ.~S), and
.11-1: is tllc I1lUIlW]tt of all the external forC1:s (illdnding' tile reac-
tion) applie,t1 lfl llw lefL-hand portion of t11l1 trllS!l al")lIt joint 4.

lhi,~ momt'Jlt heing l'qual to t.110 hending moment acting uvor l\ i;Cc__
tiOllll[ a sirnph' beam situawu at. the samo distll!\("(' frOIH the sUJlport
ali Iho origin of moments ill thl} truss,
I{ indeed the trus~ were rcplaet1d by a simple bealll having thc
same s\)an autL suhjected to the same loads (Fig, 11,11). the lIe1l.1-
in!? m"mt'flt IH-:ting over a section of this bc-am situated lit tlte slime
Ili,~lallce from t1ll1 lefthand support M tl1(\ vl'i~in of lI[llments
would bo l'xadly cquj\'llllll1l to the moment or all rorrl)~ lIppliBd
10 thu ldl~halld portioll or the truss ahout thi>; origin or In(Hlltmls.
ThIU, the .\'tress tn allY mf'mba of l!t-t' lower dwrd of a tru,'l8 ""ay
be flJ/tnd Il~ a quol/rnt Ilf the beam bending moment by thl' l~vt':r arm
oJ lh~' sl"~ss fLb/Jul the origlu of nwments.
Thl) bendill~ momont in a simple IJuflm ret/wining III ways positive
undor any sy~tIHl\ of verticllI IO<ld8, the ~tro!;.~ r'J~ will nl~o remain
always posilivll, whiell means that tho elCflll'uts or Ilw lowt!r chord
will hI) exLeudod as IOllg as tho loads []c.\ downwards
Let us lIOI\" deterlllille the stre!lS in mornbt~r 24 of the upper
c_hoed. In this casu the Migin of moment.'l should he ll1ken nl joinl
3 ane! the moments of all forces acting on tlw Il'ft-hallrl [lOrtinn or
15' rh, TrullU

frool which
U' = _ Ad-P1dl2 = _ A/~
n , ,
Tho nUlIIerator of the fraction which we have donolOO by Jf:
is aallill equal 1.11 tll(' beam bending mflnlClll acting on'r a Sl.lction
tho aLscilt..a of which is equal to d. As the beam moment .11; is
II1w3Yll IX'sHi\'e under lite gil'en S)'!llelll of loads 1\IId as the fr<le
lion .&;; is preceded by a 1J("~lItiv~ sign, th(> stress lJ Z4 is negative.
which monns lhat Illl'IilLcr 2-4 i!\ cOlllpl'C~d.
It muy lK> oasily shown, using the same I\':tsoning. t1H1t. all the
/ltcmliCf':'I of the up('lt'r ('hot,l 3S w~1t as the 1'Ild post.s of n lru!l.'i will
1I1\\,IIY5 remain COlllIJrcs."Cd llllder any system or vertical load~.
III orocr 10 Jctcrmillo the !:Itross D3~ iuJ.uecd in the dilllZlHlal
8-(/. let lIS l'qllaW Lo ZNO ,.hl:' slim of moments of aH thl"' forn:s
Het-iug on Lilt! lctl-hrHltl port or
the truss Ilhuut point. I. nt whit'''
1,110 dircrtion of lIars 2-1 and 3-5 inlNsed well bt'yomL IhlJ ]ll'rillll:-
l,,:r (If tllo truss (I;oe Fig. tOAb).
ZM~=-An+PI (a+4)-O.Hr~-(J
wllcrclrOlll
PI(G+~)-'1a M1
Da4 -~- r"
=
-;:;;
It \\ill be lhu!l oo:;urved UnIt in tk m~lhud "j mom,t>lIts the malllli-
Iluk oj th~ fireS!! is aiuXl-1JS ~xpr~~d by the quotit'nt (Jj the nwmr.lIl
of (,.l'~rliCIl jorc('s a.clLlIg Oil tltc kjt}umd parium (Jj W trtlM M by
11" klXT arm 0/ thr sJr.'S'J r ObOlU lhc lame p(Jillt

N=!!.... , (1.4)

Simple tru8$t'S defined ilbo\'o may havo A more intricale pattl'rll


as rt'prtSl'l1lcd in Figs. f2.1i and Ilo.li. Nc"ert.hel~. the melhud
uf IlHlIllcnb; romllins ilpplicllble for tILe determination of stresses
in their lllellloors. llldecu. if tho truss in Fig. 12.4 is ~CtiOIlt'11
;dolll: line {I, till.' IIligin uf moments may be laken at POilll6 when.
tllrt,'l,l of tllo four sectiollcd membors COIl\'llr~e (Fig. 1:'L<'i), and theft'
foro we "hnll ngain obtain one equation with one lInknown which
will yield tile streSs in tho uppcr chord mmllber 1-7
r.Ms=Ad+U"h=O
2..1. Dirut ),frl"t,,1I Df Sire" D~I(rltlinlJti()ll 15!)

whercCrom
Un=_~=_.M~

Ir i\ is desired to find the in\erna} force acting ill mcmoor (j-!i

of the lower chord \Ill' origin of moments should ~ shifted
to point /, then
1:.ftf,=Ad-L.,h=O
wht-nce
L Ad Ill:
~--.--T
Stresses in the llllper anJ the (o....'Cr chords o( tho truss shown
in~Fig. 14.4 can also be delcrnlincd by tho method of moments.
P,


""
1
" v.,
~
z
" , '15
J zo
Lu
1 A
Fig. /2.1 Fit. /3.1

Thus, in order to find the stress ill bar 7-9, section I-I should he
pas..."Cd, cuUing in lIIddition tu thp member considnn.-'<l live mnro
J
p p p p p p p p P
J 3 7
~ .::::-. I ~~ ~

Z
"-I.I~
G
I
ID
fL ",iI"
I'fr. 16.4

bars, all converging at point 10. If this point is taken as tile origill
of IIlOlllOllLs (Fig. 15.4), the equilibriulll equation becnmes
~Mlo=A4d-4P X 2.5+U ,Dh =0
fl'HlI1 whir.h

I..et u!l lit'\\' COfl.-;idCI' nn eyen morc cOmpliCtllcd I.russ \)('opOilod


hy the cminClll 1\Il!'.'lilill clIgineur V. SllUkllOv fo\' Ofle or the Iflrg1.'-
ilpall huiJdings in Mose"\\' (Fig. H\.4),* Thi.-; trll~!;\ ('oll~LilHtcs an
unyiultliug :;!~'st(Jm Iwiuj{ composcd of two Lasic triangles 1-4-5
and z-3-ti eonllot'l.lod by th!"!!!; 1I011(".OllcurrenL 11Ins 1-2, 3-4 unli 5-6.
TIll' truSS is ISl1lLiNl11y dcl-crrnirwLo ns the number of Inu'S S satis-
I'll'S the condiLiun S = 2K - H .... 2 X ti-;{ ----' n. It is not pos~
silll" 10 lind a SCt:lioll through lhe Shukho\ lrus~ CUlling any numbor
of hMS eOIl\'erging at 11 single pOil,t with tllC o.~ccplion of onc.
p

, 7
p

,
.J",j---~. - ....
, -....-"''''"
2 ,
'd

I'll!. 1:;.4 "ig. f6. .t

lIoWt;\'C'r, the ;'SN~!ioll r~t wllich t:.uL!; hars .1-2, 3-4 nllll 5(; 011('0
and hars 1-4 I\lld .1-5 twicc pcrmil05 I,ho dl'.Ll'rmilliltioll of strl'!;StJS
udiug- in halOS 1-2, 34 find 5-(j,
As 'will (}c scen frorn Fig. 17.!i, the Stl'('S.~'$ in harli l-4 and 1-5
will bnlanl;t), the~ r>lress\)s onlering" Lhe Clluilibriulll eC(lJatiuJ} twice
with an oppusite sign, Therefore in thi~ sccLion ooly llll'!:o 1I1lkllOWIl
strc~;ses will rCJtlllill U 21 ' UJ;, Il.ud Uu which muy lJ", 'Ja",ily det,lH'-
millcd by the muthod of lllomellLs.
Thus, ill order to lilld the sLrcss ill Lar 1-2 we '!hllll lllac.o the
origin of mOlllents ut till! point. of inLcl'iloetioll of bllr.s :i-1 alltl 5-6
(point k l in ''''i~, 17.4). Thon
1:.111/,/"'" -U:1r,,-Pp-Bb,,-O
Wlrl'rdrom
I. ,Je,,~.,:,:!-,J"'f ,-
J21--'-- r"
+
"This buss cnrllloL !J(l COllJlldl;l"od (IS IHll"nging to the SillllJ11' f"IOS hili lll'\'l'r-
tlreles.~ nil tit. stre.';.,'es ill it" lllclIllwrs IIwy 1)0 determine! h:V 111<.\ method of
mO<LIonts.
2.1. Dluet Mtlfl!)ds !)J Slrtst Dttcrmlnllll!)fl j(jl

Similarly, POint k 2 whore the bars ]2 and 5-6 mterscct will


be taken 6.8 the ongin of moments for the determination of the
stress ll~J4 and point k 3 Will form tho oog-in of moments for ::;tres.<;
U6~ (}'ig. 18.4). Thus, stre.<:scs U 2l , U 36 and U 6S are determinell
inlLependently using three equatiolls, each cOlltaini"g ()1l1y onc
unknown.
:rhe stres~s. in all. the ot~er Jllember::! witl IlOW hl' uasily oh-
talIlcd by pussmg stralgllt sectlOns lIc.ro~ allY lIl11uber of hats, Jlro-
p

,
,
Fig. 17.1

vided tllat the stresses. remain Ullknown in not more tllan three of
Lhem.
The examples just considered lead to the following conclusions:
The method 0/ moments is very expedient when a section may be
takm ctdling any number oj bars converging at a, single point, pro
lJidtd thi.~ ]XJint does not ta./l on the direction 0/ r.JuJ member
tnL'e,~ttgatcd.
This mdhod can also be used in case." when a. section cuu more ,hlln
three 1101ll"OnCUrrent bars, prodded the Slresses 111 all the bars except
threl' are already known.
The same method may be utilized when the section crosses al.y num-
bt'r 0/ bars, provtd(d each bar with the e.r:ct'ption 0/ three is sectivm:d
twice.
'Ille metbod of moments is frcC[UlJntly considered as {orllling a
partil~lllar case of tbe more general method of sections. Indeed when
two of ~he sectioned members are parallll1 it becomes impossibln
to tllkQ the origin of moments at the point of their intersection
and therefore the method of moments can no longer be applied.
But pas,<;ing a section through !'he truss will still pl.1rmit the detc'_r_
Illillatioll of the stresses required as wc may in that case use tbo
eqUilibrium equation of the vertical components of the intermll
linO. oxlcrnal forces (it is assumed that the chord.~ are horizontal).
As all example, let us consider the truss represented in Fig. t9.Li.
Sections I-I and 1111 wilt permit the computation of stres..~s
11-853
'"
fro... which
Tilt T~u ..,.

J' ~Ad - HII'd


l.;~=- 11

1...-1 us now consider an CH'n lIH1re cOl1lplieal.cd IrllSll proposed


by lul' Nnill(llll RIlSSitlll l'nginccf V. ShllkllOv for tlnl' of Llle 13rgt'-
Spall hUildilll{" ill Mosc(Jw (Fig. HUI).* This truss COIlSUtut.es an
unyiol,liug system being cOlllposed of two bn..'lir, triangles 1-4-5
811,1 :!~3-fj (',Ollllccwd IJY tbroe n'JIlClIl\curron~ Lars 1-2. 3-4 and 5-6.
'1"11(.\ truss is I'l1ltkBUy ,Icumoifloto as the Humocr .. r har., S sati!'i-
lic~ the COlHliLiolL S = 2K - 3 = 2 x U-:-I = 9. It is 1Iot pos-
8illlo Lo lilld n sCI;lillll through the Shukholl lrll~~ (',Ultilll,f allY uumbtlr
of Illlrs fOIIIlI~I-gillil' fit n single point with the u;\"c,opli'ln or OI1C.
p p
, p
J

, . ,

llowlwCf. tlw !!CCtiOIl r-s-l which ('uls bars '-2, 34 uUII 5-1.1 once
."1nl! har! 1-4 and 1--5 twice ptir/lli{.s UIll deLormilllll,j(lll of stresses
uding ill hlll~ .f-2, 9-4 lllld 5(;,
1\5 will llll Sel'1l frorll Fig. li,ll. the strCSIIt.'::l ill IJIll's 1-4 and 1-,';
will hnlllrlCe, thc:sc ~LrcSSL'S cnterinjt lhe equilibrium oquation LWico
with arr uppo.'liltl sign. Thero!orc in I,his section ullly three llllknowlI
.oslrti!l:;l\s will rem/lin U~I> [/3' u"d Ut' whid. m/lY IXl cO!lily detel'-
milieu by Lilo method of momontJ<.
Thus. ill (Jr\It>f ~o fmd the !>In's., in Imr 1-2 wt: sllHlI plal'-t! thl'
origin o! mOOltlll\.'s nL the point !I[ illtef.!lcctioll uf bnfll ,'1-4 and 5-6
(point 1>1 ill Fig. 17.4). Then
IM. , = -Uur.-Pp-Bb.. =O
whcrefrom


-This tl'U~ l'Il\lwt lit' c{ln~idr~eol a.~ bl'Jo"iill11 to tlte SIUlpl(\ on(l.~ bUl ne"'!!.....
theJeSll [Ill tht ~1reS!l('_~ ill its I!Iprlli...~ moy he detl'nnined Jor th(' method "f
lIlQmenlS.
06'
Simi!arly, point k: whore the bars 1-2 and 5-6 intersect will
be lakcll as the origin of Inoments for the determinatiou of the
stre~s U u and point k a will form the origin of moments for sLress
U6~ {Fig. 18.4). Tbus, stresses U!!o Vat ami U 65 are dclorminod
independently using tIlI'et:\ oquatiollS, caeh cOlllaiotJlK only onc
unknown.
The stresses in all the other members will JlOW be casily ob-
tained by passiug straig)'L sectiOJlS ae-ro."6 any Humber of bars, pro-
p!-"-P-j

,
,
Fig. 17.,1

vided that the stresses remain unknown in not more than three of
them.
The examples just considered lead to the following conclusions:
The method of moments t.~ very expedient when a section may be
taken CItWllg any number oj bars converging at a single point. pro-
ui.!kd this point dfles Iwt fall Ofl the directiOn oj the member
inve.~tigaf.<,d.
Thi.'s nwlhud can also be used in ca.yrs when a section Cllts more than
thre!! II'HlCoflcurrent bars, provided the stresses in all the bGr~ except
thret are already known.
rhe s(lmc method may be utili~,!.'d when the section crosses any num-
ber OJ vllrs, provided each bar with the exception Dj three Is .';ect/.lmed
twice.
The method of moments is frequently considered IlS forminl{ 8
parLkll!Hr case of the more geiJeral method of secLions. Indeed ......hen
two of the sectioned members arn parallel it becomes impossibJu
to take' the origin of mOrncnts at the point of their intersection
and t.herefore the method of moments can no longer be applicrl.
But passing a section througll the truss will still permit the rleLcr-
mination of tho stresses required as we may in that case use tho
e-quilibrium equation or the vertical components of the interllnl
and external fOrces (it is assumed that the chords are horizontal).
,\.0; an example, let us con~idcr the truss represented in Fig. 19.4.
Sections I-I and l/-I! will permit the computation of stresSt)$
11-853
in IJlIrs ,)-6 and 6-7, respectivel)'. III eff<:ct projectillg' 011 llu;)
vurtie(l] all the forcl.1s (both external l111d internnl) acting 011 the

I 11

p p p P
, G
" 10 12 14

IJ
l'!i(J9
"
I If

Fig. }fJ"J

leH-hand portion of tho lrH,~s (Fig, 20.4,) \\l: obtain

2":Y = A-P+ 1':;c (I

whorcfrum

whom Q is lhe shl,<tr ill the. ('.orrespondillg sodion of fi simple brnm


of the same splln.

p
p
, p

Z
, ,
v~
~"

D"
'n ,
J L"
A
A
~iK. 20.'1 Fig, 21.1

The cquiHhrillfrl of UwL portion of till' truss to the left ofsflction


1l~J1 (Fig. 21.4) will agaifl fumlS}!
~y =A-P-P-Dc;Sillct=O
2..J. Di~~cI M~lhodl 01 SI~ul O..r"rmlnolllon

D _ A-2P .... -..!L...


.1 - "in 0. l!1ll 0.

where Q is :again the sllear in lhe curn-spolHlillg :'t:~~~ioll Q( u simplu


beam, ~his shNlr being equal to (A - 2P),

Till; "110,;"1101) ClP JOINTS

III thi", method ,hi' equilihriulll of ('ndt joint is \'llllJiiclercd $)pA-


rlltet)/', th(' joinl. heillg separated frum the rc;,j~ or lh(' InlS>! ""hich
is Nltl:a"lll'l h) ~hc streSo.."t's acting in lhc scelioll(!tl Im ..... 111 the C<lk

, .y,, IY
' .. !IQ"
'/,.
,I ,
: .)~ .J.
" ,
r
-u
.,,"'------1 .;

Pig, 22.4

of simple trusses the metllo.1 of joints permits the successive deter-


mination of steesSt's acting in all tho members starting with a joint
rormed by thc meeting of two bars ouly,
As all illustration of the above. let us deLerminc the streSSl!S
in tho ban 1-2, 1-3, 2-3 aud 3-5 of tile truss represented in .Fig. 22.4,
We Mdl begin with considorinj:!" the equilibriuDl of joint 1 Ilt tho
left-band support (Fig. 23.4.). 'fhe projtlCtion of all the forces appliell
to this joint un the normal to bar 1-3 (in this CA.."e a vertical) gives
~y =A+U,1sinCl=O
from which
A
U 11 " " , -ll:1n
--
Q:

UI the prE'Sent case A is equal to ~ and therdore


p
Utl--~
The D\agnitude of tho sLres., in the 1)1'1' 1-3 will be ohtninod by
projecting all the forces on a direction perpendicular to bar 1-2,
i.e., Oil the axis Yl
:EY t = A cosa- L ta sin Cl = 0
".
'"
whercrrom
;lco~a P
L 13 = - . -a- = -;-;-cota
~rn &.

The same result could alsn }w obtained hy projecting (Ill the


forces Oll thlJ x-axis leading to
1:X = L I3 +U 12 cos a = 0
whcrerrom
L 1S = -UIZcosa
Substituting ill this expression U l2 by its ,'aluc foulld C~1"lil!r wc
ohtain onco agabl
p P
L 13 = 2sina. cosa=:r co1a
III oruer lo determine the stresses ill members 3-2 llud 3-5 \\'0
shall separntt' tho join! /1 (Fig. 24.4). Eqnl\tiug tu ~cro tILt' :-llllll HI"

Iy
I
I

l<JZ

Fig. 24.4

all the horizont.1l1 compollf'nt!; wc fillll


:EX=-[.31+L~5=O
Hemcmboring that 13 and L u denote the same stress ill bar 1-3
wc obtain

The vertical projection of all forces acting on joillt 3 j;tivcs


IY=V S2 =O
The stress in bar 3-2 would remain nil if this bar were not at-
right"'3Dgles with the lower chord.
Hence, when two out 01 three bars meeting ut a joint lie on a straight
line, the strl!ssts in these two bars will be cIJual in amount ond
j65

In sign and the third bar will remaitt idle as long a.~ IW external force
is applied to this joint.
The eq1lilibrium of joint 2 will now permit tlle_ doterrllination
o( t.hl} stres."es in bars 2-4 and 2-5 which will be expressed in !.Crms
of tho st~sscs U 21 and Vu already known.
rt ~hOlJld bfl Hotel! however that in tho method of joints the
strossrs in <l.1L the mcmbl'r:s nIe dewrmincd cons('_cutively, ihoSll found
al a Inlet stage beillj;t expre!>5ed in terms or those found at a pre-
vious onc. Therefore, any accidenlal error <:ommitled in determin-
ing /lilY pllrl,ieular stress will he carried IIlong 1I11d will render

,a
J LLue
:'
:~;ll ,:,._
Fig. 2,').4 Fig. 26.'1

inaccuralc a number of subsequent computations. Another setback


of the method of joints resides in the fact that trigonometrical
functions enter the equilibrium equations, thus complicating the
eatcul\liS.
10 cerl.<\io ca.'>es tlte computations will be simplified if we remem
ber tll9.t tt only two bars meet at a jotnt where no external toree is
applied the stresses in both these bars will be nil. This will be read
ily confirmed by eonsidedrJg the equilibrium of joint 1 of the truss
represented in Fig. 25.4..
Iudeed the projection of all the forces acting on tllis joint on a
vertical and on a horizolltal (see Fig. 26.4) gives
~Y=UI2SirJa.=O
:EX =u I~ cos a. + 1~13= 0
whence
U I2 =L t ,=O
In the actual design of trusses all the three olotbods described
ahove arc frequently used together, prefercDce being given in each
particular case to the onc leading more ~irectly to he resll1t re
quired.
~
"

P.Iot /,./Ot

~
:-~.--=>Jr~'--f---t--::::;;j
L 11 .1
-
?

r,':":' "-, .'tJ1 "', ,);)1

Fit!. 2~.4

p.'Ot P.I(J/
F.fJt

P,o.!Ol p,Jtlt PI"JO! p'-JOt P,oJOt ~


_______-'-,,.JIJ""""'
.j~

Jlt,. :19.1

IVRJ I
Pf(li
P-UJt
YI P-I t

,.,
"
"
v i ill 11
YI I)"JtJl p'"JOt

A -/CCl I l/-/fX}e
.
j

I
,
~I~~l~
<.
~HI"
,, - , 11 li
,,
I

~
,
c I
!
~
+ .=
o.
I
~
I
'ol'+ n~
~I
,..'
" ~

..

0
i
7.

'."I ~-
+ "'. ~
""I" .... -..l.. ,.....+ f..'
I - -
!;; ~ ~
~ I I
+ +
-I---f------I---+-----I

1 0
,.,I! I-
~

,.1
H

"-
:i'~l\
le ~

';';> "'l.
~

~
~ ~

~ ~

--11-;;;--=;,'----:;;--[
~ ~
~ ~

-I-~-I--;c
I~

,
- ,.-'....
.;: o

=~ =
-
5"


~
,
<: ~I:
i
oS ,
I

"
i'

~

-
~

~
~
~
~

~
~
~

I ~
~
~
~
I I ~
~ ~
P=!Ol P.fOI P.IOt
'"

-, , d d

If-JOt p,Jor ",Jot P,uJOt p/".JOt


lA .. ,aot 1J~'{}{}i

FiG 81.4

Fig. 32./.

Fig. a,~.4

Fig. 95.1
Tlu Tru$~$

lN.lbl~m I. Compute the stre9.SCS in momber.'l 4-6,!J-8 and 1-8 of the tru~~
Sholl'n in Fig. 27.4-
Salulton. Pas;; h,'O sections as indicated in PJg. 27.4 and consider the equi-
IibrJ(Jm of the It>ft-hand portions of the truss. All the ca(culatiolls al'e given
in 'raM... 1.<\; column 3 contains sketehl1.'l of the portion of the t,-uss under con-
sideration, the other Cl)lumns contolnJug the corresponding equilibrium eqwltions
and t1".. jr solutioD_

Probl....m 2. C(.'npute the stresses in aU the mem bers of the trusses reprt'SC/ltt'd
ill Figs. 28..4, 29'/', 30.4 and 31.4 and draw the corresllonding diagrams. A(I
tho four trtIS.';QS carry the &1mB loads and hno idenl-ical spaM.
Solution. Tile resulLs III all the calculatlons art' reprreontf'd In the form 01
graphs iu Figs. ::12.4, 33.1\, ~I\.I, and 35.1" the width of the Iland along each truS/!
p/or p./O{ p.ru/. 1':/01 P~'Ot

,
_m
m
.' , ~

~
<
d d d d

P,-JOI 1'/-.101 P,"30t 0'JOl p,-JOt

A .I()(JI '" (j -lOOt

m v ~'~ D

'" fit:. .16. :J

rnembet" beinll: ill direct proptlrtiOll t() the mugnitude of the stress. Comp('e~5Ions
(rl'l;koncd l,elativo) are batched "'hill' tensions (reckoned positive) Hr/! lelL
1IIlilmded. (T ,e valullS 01 all the stresses arc giVl.'D In Ions.)
Computations pllrtainlng La the truss in .ig. 30.4 are (Uttered into '1'1.l>lc 2.4
froln wllith the ffctlUenco of ail the eporatlons is quit(l clear.
Tho compHison of stre..<s diagrams fOE' t,hrce trusses of equal span, carrying
tho sallle loads 1Llld having the same woh pattern shows (sec Figll. 32.4. 33.4
llnd 31\.4) that Ihe triangular trUM in Fig. 29.4 ill [~~economit,alIlS the combined
nrea of the grllrh...~ i!; the largest and therefore this truss will he the lleaviest of
the thrt~.
Problem 3. Determine tho stre~S(ls in the K-trus.s with parallel chord'; repre-
.'Ielllorl in .'iR". 3li.I,Il.
Solutio'" Examining anyone of Iha joint.ll at midheigbt of the truSl'; wher(t
two inclined bars meet with the verticel, we find from the prOjectloll of all
foo'c_es all tho horizontal that
!X _Dcos a+D' COli a'_O
wherofrom
Dcosa __ D'CQsa'
2.4. Vired Methods 0/ Stress J)tlerm;nollon 173

Ft/[. ,17./

(CJ

p
p

Id!

If)

Ftg. 38 l
Th~
'" Trl<UU

D __ O'

whiclt ilUlllU:, lhat the Slr~e5 in the Indlllcd hlll'! of OOl!' Alld tht> !!amo IJ, ..O'I t1~
equIII ill magnllud6 but opposite in ~gn.
The dNenuin.tion or the st~SU! in all the members of the IrUM is OtlUuf'd.
l1HllCl1ll,hs of thlJi.O strf'S.."05 arc shQ"'n in Fig. 37.4
The rr-i'ltlcr i." invited to prove on hit! OWII that tIle 8trcS~'S in
all Lrll,.;! mombers marked witll a tll\sh in Fig. 38.4 arc nil.

3.'\. GRAPHICAL lfETHOD OP STHESS ANALYSIS IN SUJPLE


TRUSSES
Jl hflS ht.'(lll shown in the precedins: arLide that all stt't'''--~.s ill
a sill1pl~ t.flll:\S may be determined analyticaJly by tJIC method of
joinl!!. Ever)' trus.'l of lhi!l ty~ will cont3in at leMt one joint wJu.'rt'
only two bnrs moot alld this joint should he the slarting poillt of
the oJlcratioll.
"'le ~h311 now cxa m i no tJlU afll phienl mUlhod of str(!.~s tlllll l)'sis.
this 1I1cthO/l Loillg' ha.~ed on the resolutiun of fora's along two ",h'cn
directit'IJls. The f,)l!owillg seqllcnco should 1)1; tldopt()d.
A joillt where only two bnNl meot nHI.<jt 1)1) selected and tll~1 OX Wt
11111 force (r'Ollclion) appliod to t.his joint mU8t tholl he re80h'cll
~J(lIIg llle .linoctiolls of tht>. two UOl"1t, using oithC'l" UlC parullclo-
grunt Jlll'thod or the trian~lc of forcl:'~ met.hod. Tlu' trialllrh.\ 111I1>;t
Jll'cess/lrily rluS('. for tho joint ili in equiliLtillm. Having tints nu-
lnincd lhe stre5..<;Cs in two members Wf> may jlrocco(1 to tllC Ilext jOillt.
whor(> Lho rcsult:mt of the 8tft'Si; Ilrc\'iollsly fOUlld and of the tlXIC.'I1ClI
force allJIliud to the joint (if any) must be "gain resolved nlong
thu dinlction~ of the Jl(~xt couple of bars. Contifluiug in lhl' SDme
Wl'y WI' shnlJ complete the dl'Lermination of nil tho lltrcl!t!eS in 1111
IlK' members of the truss.
.\5 all illustration of lhe abow', let \IS IlIalyxQ lhe lr~ repre-
sented in Pi$.{. 39.4 acted upon at the upper C'!wri! joints b)' tht
uqual rnl"f'l'~.
fig. &O.4a shows the same frus:s, iL... twn SllpporL." hnvin~ oc'VTl
replaced hy th<: allpropriattl retletions, found either Ip'aphklllly
or Ilnalyticnlly. Commencing with joint}, where two baf'!t 1-2 and
1-J nU,!"I, let liS draw the corresponding forc.e polygon Wig. 40Ab
/llltl cl. The joint being in equiliLrium and nctt'tl upon by readioll
..1 = 3"T and by tile stresses Ut: and hUt wc must
<I> 1:1)' orT at some scale tlla reaction A whose magnitude aud
direction are bolh known;
(2) thru\lgh both ends of this line trace parallels 1,0 tlte directions
of bars ]2 anti 1-.9 until t.heir inl~r. mc.tioll, thus ('-omplcLiI1~ the
fnrce polygon (which in Lhis particullll' caliC reduccs 1,0 Cl I.rlnllgla).
Fig, 39.1

,
I"

a
[Ott
,
L,
if
A S'aile of 1/)(l{J:J A
,
Q QSP ,p 'SP
,
Ib)
", lOP, , L,

re;
a

F;g_ 40.4

P p
V,
U"

Qu Qu if"
""
101 Ib)

Fig_ 41.4
176

The sides be and ca of this triangle measured to the same scale


(\8reaction A will give the magnitude of the streSBCS in bars 1-2
and 19, respectively. The direction (sign) of these stresses will
be determined remembering that in a closed force polygon allthe
forcBS follow one another.
Thus, the lXlaetion A being directed upwards, we shall filld that
the stress UI~ acts towards tbo joint which means that bar 1-2 is
compressed while stress 13 acts away trom the joint and therefore
bllr 1-3 is eXlouded.
Wc may now mark the direction of the stresses found OIl the
~,'hcmlllic drawing of the truss Wig. 40.4a) where Meows pointing

J
la) Ih)
Fig. 42.'1

Lowards Lhc joint will indicate compression and those poinLing


away from Llle joint-tension. Arrows should Le also shown at the
oUll~r extremities of bars 1-2 and 1-3, as the stresses in t.hese bars
will have to be accounted for in considering the equilibrium of
joints :2 and 3.
At joint 2 acted upon by the load P three bars, namely bars 21,
'.!4 and 2-3, meet together. The stresses U l2 and L 13 being lmown
af,l well as tho load P (Fig, 41.4a), the construction of the forel:'
polygon (Fig. 41.4b) will be carried out as follows: lay off I;tres.~
U l2 acting towards the joint and tho load P and then through tilL'
Fnlc ellds of lhese line!; draw two parallels to the dircclions of baf"~
:!-4 and 2-3 until their intersection, thus forming a closed POlYl,J"Q11.
Fig. 111.4b slluws tllat ooth stres.<res U 2 ( and Du are {~ompt\l$~ivl.
Stresses in Lars fJ-4 and 3-5 may now be obtained by cOllsidering
tho <,quilihriulll of joint 3 (sce }t~ig. 40A-a). Four hars lIleet at this
joint, namely hal's 3-1, 3-2, 3-4 and 3-5, but the stresses arc UIl-
knowll ouly in the Illst two. Henco they may be found hy COIlStl'lI-
o.:tillg a force polygon as showll in Fig. 42,4. It will be readily oh-
snrvcd that both thesc stt'Csses flOO tUllsilc.
The determination of the streS5()S III the right-hand hall ()f tlw
truss is 110l reqUired due to tbe symmelry of tbe structllre.
Tile procodm'e just doscribed permits the determination of till)
stresses in all the members 01 a trnss by constructing sllcces.~ively
forcll polygons rtllated to each joint, Each stress will appllar tWit'll
ill these polygons. allirst as RII 1l.lIknown to be found and later a~
.~.4 Graphical i\hlhod 01 Strus Analysis ill Simple Tr"8ur 177

a given force applied to the adjacent joint where two othor unknown
stresses are ~ought. All of these polygons may be merged together
t.o Iorm Il single diagram called the ltIaxwell..cremona or stres!
diagram in which each stress will be met with only once.
Such a merger is represented in Fig. 43.4. This operation is made
possible by the fact that in the force polygons tne forces appear in
the sequence tlley are JIlot with when each joint is passed around
in the clockwise direction. (The opposite direction could be adopted
as well, but following the tradition we shall always use the one
mentioned nrst.) Thus, in joint 1 in Fig. 40.4(1. we meet flr!t the

Un
u,

I'lt. 43.4

reaction A followed by stress U l2 and then uy L 13 In joint 2 fir~t


comes stress VIZ, then the load P and stresses U Z4 and D Z3 . This
sequence is nlaintained in the force polygons in Figs. 40.4c nnd
41.4b.
]n practice the stress diagram for the whole truss is generall~'
obtained directly, ornitting lllo forc.c polygons of individual joinl.s.
This method will be explained using as an example the truss shown
in Fir.t. 44.4. The notations to be used are as follows: letters and
cipht'I'S will denote areas bounded by the truss membllls (areas a, h,
and c) or by thl::' lines of action of the loads and reactions (areas I.
H. and Ill). Each stress. load or reaction will be designated by
two indices c_orrespoDding to the two areas it separates. Hence,
the left-baud abutment reaction [orming the boundary between
IIreas I and III will be indicated by III-J (bllt not I-lIT, tILe clock-
wise direction being followed), the load P by I-lI and the right-
hand reaction by lIJJT. Similarly, the !'!tress ill bar ]2 will he
denoled by I-a wllen joint 1 is consideN.'d and by or! for join~ 2.
With these notntions the Tlumbering of joints may be compLotely
omitted.
The construction of the stress diagram will start at joint 1 o\er
tlte left-hand abutment where only two bars meet. Having laid
off the magnitude of reaction IllI along the vertical to the sc.ale
t!-R~~
selected we shall obtain the stresses in bars 1-2 antL ]-8 by tracing
through points I and III parallels to the directions of these two
bars whose intersection at point a will permit scaling oft of stresses
in the upper and lower chords I-a and a-I fl.
In order to determine the directions (signs) of these stresses it
will sufllce to remember that in a closed polygon all the forces follow
each other in one and the saml3 direction. Thus, knowing the direc-
tion of the feactionlIII in the triangle lII-I-a-IlI of the diagram
we shall readily determine the directions of the ~tresses I-a ann

o c
~=-----13;---~4o--""'::::""5
,
'~7~ ",

[~ternoL oreo~8
1lI
Pig. 1.4.4 Pig. 43.-1

a-UI, the fIrst beiog directed from I towards a, and tIle second
from a towllrds I If. Marking these directions on the sketch of the
truss (soe Fig. 44/i) we fincl immediately that the stress J-a is di-
rectorl towards joint 1 and is theroforc compressivc. while the stress
a-IIf 3C.U; away from this joint antl accordin!{ly bar 1-3 is exttmdcd.
We may now pass to joint 3 of tho lower chord Il.c_Uld upon by
the stress IJI-a just found and by two unknown stresses a-b and
b-III. These stresses will b<:> obtained by tracing through points
III and a two linos parallol to the bars b-III ami a.-b. the pOint
of int.crsec.tioTl of which shall be marked b. The sign of tIleso stresses
will lit! Jl'rived as berotorore from the direct.ion of tIle stress Ill-a
previously fOHnd (seH Pig. 45.4). Marking these dhcc~iollS all the
sketch of the truss (see Fi~. 44.4) we note thl:lt all l-hC' bars mooting"
at joint 3 are oxtonded.
The next joint to be considered is joint 2 acted UJlon by the load
I-If, two stresses already founeI b-a and a-I. and lwo unknown
'.1. Gnpltfr/lt Jldhod /11 $treu Anlll,.,. iH $f1llpu Tr"..~. 119

s:trcsses Hoe and t-b. Returning to Fig. 45.4 we find that the dia-
gram Intains the two stresses b-a and a--J. Addini to these the
load I-If (Hne /.II) we may readily find the resultant b-I1 oC lh~
three fon::~ marked in dash line in Fig. 45,4. Hesolving this force
along two diret.;liorul parallul to the hars 2-5 and 2-4 we shall tlnd
the stresses in t1U:'50 bars given by the length of sogmentll (foe and
c-b. The forco polygon b.a-J-I1-c-b indicates that bar IIJ-c is corn-
pressed while bor cb is extender!.
Passing t.o the last joint4 wo fllld Lhut out of tlte L1tN.'c. bors meot-
ing at this joint the stress in one bar ollly rcllloins unkllown. If tILe
diagram has heen constructed accurately, Iiue c-Jll giving this
stress must. be parallel to bar 4-5 and must pass through point Ill.
in other words, the diagram shall Id be dosed.
The force polygon {or point 5 will 00 represented by 1J-IIIclI.
In the stress diagram tbe external Corees were laid 0(( in Lhe
samc order as they were encountered when passing around the
perimeter of the truss in a clo<:kwise direelion_ The force polygon
of externlll 10ll.ds and N.-actions must also be closed. the whole truSR
being ill equilibrium. 'fhe closure of the external COl'ee polygon
find of the strlls.~ diagram constitutes a ready eh<'ck on the Mcuracy
of all the operations.
The construction oC the !ltress dillgrtlm is usually commenced
by tracillg tile closed polygou of loads ancl reactions which must
00 laid 011 in the same order as they are met when passing around
the truss in a clockwise dit"l.'Ction. This being done, the stresses
in the btlrs intctsCcting at each joint. are determined grapbic.ally
com ID{'ncing with the joint where only two bars meet. These stresses
will also be laid off in the sequence they are encolllltered when
paS8.ing around each joint in a clo<:kwise dircctic)O.
The construction of the foroo polygon for each joint should he
cDrried out in such a way that the two unknown stres-<>es should come
la!'\. Thus in the example given in Fig. 46.4a force PI should comu
fir!;t in order that the unknown stresses Y and X should cOllie last
{Fig. 4.G.4b).
111 the stress diagram each line denoting all internal force he-
10l1gs to two force polygons correspol1ding to two adjaMnl joints,
and tlterefore it is not recommended to show the directions of the
!;t!'eSS{-S in the diagram, these directions being different in the two
cases just luentioned. Moreover, it is easy to determine the dircc--
lion (sign) of eaeh stress without. going aroul1d the whole of the
force polygon corresponding to the joint under consideration. In
deed, each stress in the diagram is denoted by two indice! following
l'ACh other in the !'equence they were met when passing around the
joint in a clockwise direction. This sequence will therefore be differ-
ent for two adjacent joilll.8, for instance, the stress in bar 2-3 (.'ICC
12"
180

Fig. 44.4) should bt! denoted by a-b if referred to the lower chord.
joint 3 Mud by b-a when rnferred to the up()er chord joint 2.
y

x x

fJ

Ib}

la}
Fig.le.t

As POilll a. of the furce polygon ropro~Jlted in Fi!:. 45.4 lies below


point b lho stress lI-b will be directed nway from the lower joint
aod therefore thu corresponding bar will be extended.
Problem. Required to fAlns~rud It litres! diagrnm fQr tbe truss rllprll$ented
in Fig. 47.4/1 Ilnd to <k>terwine the stre5..'lQlI in all tbe Inemher.o or
\.bls t"llS~.
Sol"Wm. U~llg the Ilotation.s dMCrlbed aho..., indicat.a by letlel'8l1, b. ,',
etc. tile areas bounded by tbe members of the lruu nnd by 1, 11, .. " I X
(he arell5 aepan,ted by the direction! of the loads and reactions as the truss Is
pas..-etl around 11.5 perunewr in llelock..... ise. dlreetion. A force Jl'Olyg<l1l 1-1/- ..
.. . -IX-I (Fig. <li1.H) Inay ho then construeted eommeDC~ with the lo~d
aetin&' o\-er lhe lefl...-Il~nd abu(u)\mt. ruetion A (Iorc:eo IX-/) bemg l:lid off I~st.
The roree polygon must dose as the system of u:tern~1 fortes (lo.1ds and rtll'letions)
i~ bnl,oeod-,
Tb<: ~'()Il_...tnletion of the diaJT~ starU It the joint direeHy lbova the left
IUlmlabutllloo1, by lrninl{" dosed fone po1rron of all the forces IIctine: at tJ,is
Joint_ FOl'Cts IX-I and 11/ are already 1ft out. Iheir rl!..-u1tl1nt IX-II b<!ioli
.lirt'Ctf'd IIp''-ards. This force must no... be resolved along tbe diroetions of thl:'
1(,wf;<r lI1ld thl' uplK'r chords. for which Plllptllil' l'I lioo parallel III bar JJ." I~
tr:lwtl throulI'h point lI11nd a. h.o'hontlll pllrlllcl to ba.rQ.-1X through poinl/X.
tbo intel1lOl"llnn b\"ing marked by the lettN" 11. Tho sign of Ihe stl"l'5SeS will I~
t1eterudntld by tbe appl.icatioll of tbe lUll. that in a elOSlld lorea polYl::oll .11 till"
rore~ lollow on.. llnotbl'r in tbl' same dlrt'l;tien. Accordingly Iho t'treM 11-0
most be- di~\('>1 rrom rilzbt to left and do .... nwnds Ind strl!c'lS a-IX frnm I('fl to
dlllot. In ollmr ""Ords. thO stross in bar 1/+4 will be diroetod tQw.. rds 11.11- jnint
whic.lllll"Ans that 1hi;; bllr is eOlnpmllSUd Ilntl the stress In bllr ~-IX awa)' from
the joint ind[enting tll/lt this lOomber il extended.
- Iu tho {"ree polygon fonos VU I-IX (NlI.ctioLl R) ,md 'X-' (rellotion tl)
llr(l slightl)" (Iflst't towardllthc right in order to nv,-,id confusion wit,h the
....Wrmil IO/ld~.
8.1. Craphiotll M~thod 01 Sin's Analysis I" Si"'1Jl~ 7',.,,~,,~ Hit

Points b. 0, d. ete., of the ~trel;.~ diagram will 00 found liS follo\\'!l; point b
hy tracing through point a a parallel to tlio vQrtiealab and througll POint III
a parallcl to th(' I.mr IJ l-b; point ~ bv drawlllg through point b a parallel to the
diagonal b-( ~Ild a horiwnl;ll througi, point IXi point ,I wiIJ he lormad by tho
p

I
III

," III
,
J -JX

I'
b
S.YJle of IXds VI
q f 'If JP
(b)
Yff
VII
Fig. 17..]

inl{'rileclion (.r 3 verticd passing through point ~ nnd o[ a Hnl,'. J'1lrallel to the
upper chord lllclIllJllr IY-d pa~ing thrnugh point IV. I'oints~, ,. g. h, t Md k
will be found in tho ~~me way. (t will he "otod Ih~t pollOts rand; COIIlCid~, indi-

Upper el",r11 !.O"'~r chord V~rtlears 1Ilog0nslo

." I StT~"
"," I Str~os
""' I Slr~"
""' ! Stre".

a-If -IL85f' a-IX 6.3IJP f'-I" -l.OOP b-, 1. GO!'


&-1 I [ -6.85!' r.-IX :i.O~P '-d -t.MP do, 1.951'
d-IV -5.40P r-J X 3.80P <-I 0 t-g L()5P
,-V ~5.40P 1[% 3.80P 'oh - t.5l)p h_i U~)P
1.\-"1 -6.851' h-[ ;{ 5.05P ,.k -l.OOP
k.V[ [ -li.8SP 1<-IX 6.30P
1R2 Tilt 1'r"un

eatiug Lhat thfll;l!'e!!<i iu the vl!'tlie.I,t Is nil. Tb., construction of tho lost dia-
gnllll pertaining to tho right-hllnd half "r lh., truss could he omitted u the
stre1eeS in tll@' lWo hal\'"os of a Sl'mmelrieal lnJs:! !lUbjeeLed LO' symmetrical
system of loads ,.-jll be eJ:A~tl)' the $llo.ue,
In tllo stress diagril.lD of ~ig. 47,4 duh 1iDl'~ indica.te tensions ;lnd solid
linK cutnpril55ions. It will be seen that aU tho mi'mben or the 10"'I'T ~hord and
thi' dUlil\mals .re oxtended, while tbe up~r ~bord memwr; IlIld the vO!"tICals
are eOOlp~.
The m,gmtnoo of tJII' stn...."Se!: !Calf'd ofF the diagr.m aN lahulatl'd allovl'.

4.4. DIRE(."I }UiTHOD OF STRESS DETERMINATION IX


COMPLICATED STATICALLY DETERMINATE FRAMED
STRUCTunrS

Occasionally the designer will hll.\'e to deal with framed structures


or n considerably more intricate pattern lh.alJ those formed by the
successive additi()n ()f supplementary joints to a basic lriallgle, cach
of these joint' being attached by mCtlllS of two cont:urr~ll\t bars,
Tilt\~ !!ystems remain !ltaticaHy dp,lcrmiuate and in a /lumber of
cases th~~' may be derived from the Sirol,Io systems by replacing
one or more bars by the same number of other barswitbout disturbing
tbe geometrical stability of the system as a wh()le,
As a rule. the analysis of such systoms will require simultaneous
solution of several equations with several unknowns. However,
in many cases lhll complicated systems may he reduced to UIO simple
ones, or to such systoms wh.ich call be analyzed without solving
oquntions with numerou5 unknGwns, by a ficliliGUS replacemeTlt
(substitution) of bars. Tile additional equatioILS permitting to solve
the problcln will express that the slre~"CS in all tILt! suhstitute
membe~ remain nil.
Thc follo9.ing example wiH illustrate this melhod. Assume th~t .
it is required to fllld the stres!OS in all the members of thc structure
fiIlllresented in Fig, 48.40. acted upon b~" some <:'Xtcrnal forel:, .!>l\~'.
Jo~d P applied at joint 6. It will be immediately seen that in this
structure three bars meet at each joint, hence the lOethod of joints
!>e<cmes inapplicable. At the same timc the method of mOlllents
will lead to a number of equatiolls each. coutaining .!leveral unknowns,
which is extremely undesir1lhle. III those circumstances ll't U3 trans-
forlll the structure into 11 ~imple system by replacing bar 6-3 by
bar 1-.5 8S indicated iu Fig. 48.4b. The structure so obtained forms
lln"unyielding cOJRbilla~ion liS it may be formed by the successive
nddition of joints 2, 4 and 3 to a basic hinged trianglo 1-5-8, C!ach
of these joint5 being connected by means of two concurrent hnrs.
The analysis of slIlJh 8 traJlJ/ormed system is greatly simplifIed
fol' the stresses ill all the bars may be found, SDY, by the I1\ctllOd
()f joints without tlte ~olutioll of equation!! with multiple nnknowns.
Let us denol.a by X tbe stress induced by the load P in bar 6-3
aud let us apply the same force to joint.ll3 and 6 of the tr.!lltsformed
syslem in tne direction of bar 3-6 (H is a!5umed that this har is
tl'Xtcndcd).
It is obvious that the stresses in aH the membors of both the origi-
nal and the transformed systems will become exactly the same when
the stress in the substitute bar 1-5 reduces to tero under the combinetl
action of forecs P and X. Indeed, the two systems will be identical
for nny I!u may nlways be replaced by a force acting in thl' Sl\IIlC
J

,"~H?-~:-f-1

la' (b)

Fit. 48.4

direction and ha\-ing the same magnitude .!IS the stress in tbis bar,
and when th.e stress is zero this means that the bar IRa)' be omitted
without disturhinl: the system.
The principle of super position enables us to express the strt'ss
in Any memhl!r j of thl) transformed system (and accordingly of
the origiual one, too) by
N1=NIP+NbX (2.4)
where N,P = stn;ss in the transformed system induced b)' the load P
N,~ = salll!) stress induced by a unit load X = 1.
The !llm6 formula aPlllying to the substitute bar. we may write
thMt the streS.'!l l\'. in th.is bar equals
N.=N.p+NuX,-O
w!lerefrom
X~--
N., (3.4)
i/
Substituting the \'aluc of X thus obtained in the expression (2.4)
we shall rUld the stresses in all the mllrnbers of tbe system.
In more complicawd case~ it becomes sometimes necessary to
replace two or more bars. I'n such cases the method just (lascribed
'84
will not dispense completely with the solution or 5e\"eral equation!!
with several unkno.....ns. The total stresses in the substitute ban
will still reduce to zero, and their expre!!Sions ",ill take the for/O
Nt =N,p+NlI X,+N"X,+Nu x,+ -0
N,=Nzp+NI,X,+NuX.+NnX.+ -0 (4.4)
Ng=Ngp+N3IX, + NszX z + N 33 X,-:- - 0
wht'rc N,. NI' iVg _total streS.M'g ill HI(' slllY.otituLe l){Ir"
1, 2, 3, elc.
X" XI. XI' ... _unknown Stress68 iD the bars whicll
h.llxe heeD Nlpla~cd
NI" Nit. NI', ... = stresses induced in substitute bar
1 by unit loads X,= l. X 1 =1, X,=
=1, ... , respectively
li'l> Nu. Nu... = same strtl!SCs in suhstitul(l bar 2, et~.
The values or the unknown stresses XI' X 2, X 3. ('le., will be
tll this case obtllined by solVing the system of equaLions (4.4).
In complicated structures the correct position of the substitute
bar is nut always clellr. However, it may be found in the following
way: baving eliminated one bar reject. OIID by one all t.he_ joint:s
connected t.o LhQ remaining structure by t.wo distinct. bars unt.il
a joint is found whose connect.ions are insufficient.. The additional
har net'ded to fix this joint wit.h respe<:t. t.o the remainder of t.he
strucl.ure will const.it.ute the fOquired substitute bar. If the struc-
ture so obtnincd still does not belong to the category of simple
(r'omed structures, another of its bars should be eliminnted and
further joints should be rejected until aDO more joint. iDad~quately
connected to the rest of the structure is found. indicating the po.~i
Lion of the second substitute bar.
Thi5 procedure may be repeated as Dlany times as necessary to
transform the structure inta a simple system.
Problem. Usinli: 'he replaeement method delermioe the stre!.Se5 ill aIL the
meroOOr' of framltll structure in Fig. ~9.-4;G for sin a _ O.G and sin ts = 0..8.
S"I..H,,,,,. Repl.cing bar 8-8 by bar 1-5 LU Mlown In Fig. 49.U we obtain
simple ."y,stem pennitting the dljterminatioo of the !llres!l .'( in the replacfd bar
by equaling 10 tero Ilto st~ in ttwl !lubstitute bar 1-5
N u - Nup+NIUX-O
wIl('flee
185

N':r llnd NI'" being th,~ stresses induced in lbo llubstltute b.u 14 by
loo P and lb'~ unit ror~ X_I. rcspl>(:livc!v.
The stro'SSt's in aH tbo (lther illcmhers of truBlI will be found u~ing th...
fClrlTluln
Nt-Nlp+N/xX
",h('re NIJ, and Ntx arc the ~lrcs~s in the corJ't'sponding meID~r of thp Irans-
forml'd S)'SU!lll imluced by tho load P and the unit fOTee X = 1, resp~livl!l~.

.' J

z ,

5
(;l)
P ,
Fig. 119.4

ill tbis eX,",lIlpln the n1c>lllOd or joillL~ should be reLainod as Its r.onseeullVe
app1ic~lion to joint. 9. 2, 1, G and 5 will ~how ilillllediately that only bars 1-6,
Tabl~ 4 I

TOUI Urns
Stre81 lndue!'ll Siren Induced SlrclS tnd"ced In membo!ra
Bar No. by unit foree by load l' by toroe X 01 tb. orIgInal
'-,

-.
I","tem

, +~p
2-3 or 4-3 0
"
-T-U P
,
14
9
1-2 5-4 -I 0 -T P -'fp
" , -~p -~p
2-'
"' '-1 +tr 0

-,, " 14
I-d 54 +~p +45 P +~p
" 8 56 7

1-'
7 _lp +.!p
-" 8 8
0

....M<_: "he s~r~ss X In the r'plactd bar 3-0 t~uall


X _ _ ,vl~i> __ 3P H _ _ 2: p
" ii'-l~., 81 1
lB" Tlu Trusus

,~-6 ;lnd 1-5 ()f the transfonned system are stressed by the lood P, alllhc otfu>r
mem bPrs ~lIlai(Jlng idle.
All the computations ore listed In Table 4.':. E:nlriH into thH !'th and lhe
5\1. columns bave been made only after finding the stre~ X in Iho replaced bar
3-6. \'aIUt>s appeadng in oolumn 4 bavo been obtained by multIplying tllo9'
of column 2 by lhe magnitude of the stre.'llil X (!!Ile below), while tJle entries of
column 5 result ft'Om the summatioD of ftgures containpd in coJumn~ 3 on,1 !'.

5.4. STRESS DISTIIIBUTiON IN D[f'FERENT TYPES OF THUs.:>J::S


Stresses computed for trusses of tile salJle span, the same height
and the same [lUmber of panels and actoo upon by the same system
of loads, but differing in the outline or
their upper chords have
been illustrated ill "Figs. 32.4, 33.4. 34.lt. 3a,4 and 37.4 of Art. 2.4-
Examining' these flgurBS it will be noted that iu certain trusses
the chord stresses incn:asc frOm the abutments towards the centre
line Wigs. 32.4, 35.4 and 37.4), while in other trusses they decrease
(Figs. 33.4 and 34.4). In trusses of different shape but of the same
web pattern the verticals and the diagonals lllay sustain stres.'l8S
of different sign; thus, in the truss in Fig. 32.4 tho diagonals arc
extended while in the truss in Fig. 33.4 they arc compressed.
For a number of trusses the mode of stress variations in chord
members, the sign of the stress in the elements of the web as well
as certain otllOr peculiarities of their performance may be predicted
without detailed calculations.
As an example, lot us take the three trusses reproscnLed in
Fig. 50.44, band c which differ one from another only by the posi-
lion of their diagonals.
J n order to facilitate judgement regarding the sign of the stress
induc.cd in the differenl elements of these trusses by a uniformly
distributed load we shall make use of an auxiliary uniformly loaded
beflm appearing in Fig. 50.4d. The AI and Q diagrams for this beam
are represented in Fig. 50Ae and ,. The bending moment diagram
shows that in the beam the lower fibres are ext.ended and the upper
ones are compressed, indicating that ill a truss the upper chord will
be compressed and the lower one oxtendod. In the same beam the
bending InOlnont increases from the ends towards the middle and
accordingly (the height of a truS3 with parallel chords remaining
constant). the stresses in the chord members will also increase from
the abutments towards the centre line.
Section!! taken through the auxiliary bcam and the trusses (sec-
tion /./ in Fig. 50.4a, b. c, cl) will help to find the signs of the strei'lSes
in the web members. The shear in section /-1 of tbe beam being
positive tends to lift the left-hand portion of the beam with respect
to the right-hand one. HeRce tho sectioned diagonal of the truss
shown in Fig. 50Aa will be extended as ;:l1o\\'n [n Fig. 51.4a and
III

,a)

(6,

'"
I
la) ~l ill j
I I I If! I
I

'"
(f)

~, Q gra/)h

Fig. .50.4
188 TIu TrUlI<t.I

the ~c\ioned diagonals of the t.russes of Fig. SO.4b and c will be


compressed (Fig. 51.4b and c). The same reasoning will show that
all the diagonals of the Prat.t truss represented in Fig. 50.4.4 are
\>:<lenrled, those of t.he Howetruss in Pig. 5O.4b are compressed
while in the Warren truss appearing in Fig. 50.4& extended diagonals
will alternate with compressed ones.
Fig. SO.4! shows also that the shearing forces decrease towards
the middle or the beam: similarly the st,resses in the diagonals of
the trusses will also drop to
wards midspan.
When the loads are applil,d
~o th.e upper c,hord of. tne trll~S
J..n Fig. SO.4c Its verttCllls J, .}
and 5 Me compressed and VCl'-
tieab2and 4are idle. Vice verM.
if the load is applied to the lo\\'-
,

I~ n~
".

" ".
Fit. 52.4

er chord verticals I, 3 and 5 will become idle and verticals :!


and 4 will become extended. This !nay be easily proved by coo
sidering the equilibrium of the appropriate jointll of the truss.
The direction of tho stresses in the verticals of the Pr-att and the
Howe trusses in Fig. 50.44 and b will bo readily found considering
the equilibrinm of that portion of these trusses which lies to the
right of section 11-11 (Fig. 52.4a and b). The shear acting in the
left-hand portiou being positive is directed upwards, compressing
the vertical in the Pratt. truss (Fig. 52.4a) and extending il. in the
Howe truss (Fig. 52.4b). These stresses will also decrease towardg
the centre line of the tru!.~s like the shearing forces in the simple
beam (Fig. SO.4f).
5.4. Sir,,, /)iltri/.rlllUm In Ot6e"nl Trlper 11/ Trllr~o 189

All the above is readily confirmed by the stress diagram ill


Fil!'s. 32.4 and 35.4.
If the tfUS.-'<eS were loaded differently, the stress distribution
migM alter considerably. For instance, if a single load were applied
Ilt midspan of a beam lLs bending moment and shear diagrams would
be such II.S shown in Fig. 53.44, band t. In this case the shear
remains constallt along each half span. The same will apply to the
strcs..~s in the web members of the trusses.
When two s)mmetrical concentrated loads are IIpplied at thl!
hip joints of a truss (u in Fig. 54.44) the stresses in 11.11 the chord
members except the ond ones will remain constant as may easily be
-deducted from the bending moment diagram of the auxiliary beam
r~pr6l"ntcd in Fig . .s4.4b. At the samt! time the stres::IEls in the web
lIlembers will be nil (500 shear dil\grllm or a simple beam ill
}"ig. 54.4c).
The aualysis of stress distribution b6c0me!'; considonbly more
-compliCAted for trusses with nonparallel c!\ords such as shown in
Fig. 5.').4.a, band c. Whcm the upper chord follows exactly the beml
ing moment diagram, the stress (exten.sion) in the lower chord
members will remain constant and the compression in the upper
chord will be directly proportional to ~a where 0. i5 the angle forlOcxI
by the corresponding member of the chord with a horizont.a.L Such
will be tbe case or a uniformly loaded parabolic truss (compare the
bending momont diagram in Fig. 50Ae with truss in Fig. 54.4b)
or of n triangular truss carrying onc concentrated load applied at
its apex (compare tho bonding moment diagram ill Fig. 53.4b with
the truss in Fig. 55.4a). III these casos all the diagonals remain
idle find tIle streSStl9 in the verticals are either equal to the load
appliod at the corresponding joint (if the loads arc c.arriod by tlw
lowere-hord) or becomo nil, when the load is applied to tho t(,)/) chord.
Tho accuracy of these 5tatemCDLs is well illustrated by the stresses
computed for thc parabolic truss represent.ed in fig. 34.A.
When the outline of the truss chords does not coincide with the
bending momeut diagram. only the signs of the Slresses in th~ top
and bottom chords and the mode of thoir variation may bo still
predicted fairl)' easily. the lower chord being always tlxtlluded and
the upper one compressed as long as nnil stresses of the samo .5igll
contillue lo ('xist in the upper and lower Iihrt'S of the auxiliary simpl~
beAm.
Let us take for example a trinngular trllss llt'led upon hya ulli-
form load and let us !Uperposc the correilponding bending momenl.
dia,:rrnm in Fig. 50.4I! on the scbomatic drawing of the trus-'l as rep-
restlnted in Fig. 56.4. The scaleil should be so adjusted that mllximulI1
ordinates of both drAwings coincide.
100

"~"-,- -
r---.-'"
;::~
f'lllTIlliffillllllll!lm;"" 'i'O'" f
IIIII~IIIIIIIIY
FI,.53.4
,,

N graph
(~)~

"
(C)~
--------o~p
_

FIg_ 54.4

Fir_ SS.4
The ordiutlte of Ul8 bending moment diagram a dislalle;e...:z: from
th~left-.lulnd abutment will be

y= hm",,- ( {I.Sl0.5l )'hmu ='1%


Z L (l-z)
13
hmu
At the samll }l!ncc the heigllt of the truss equals
n",..",
h =~.:z:= h ..
....... -,

Accordinglr the ratio "*= 2 (I - -T)


will decrea~ from ;lblll-
lIl('ul t<l ecntre lino and 50 will the stn'sses in both tlle top anrl the
graph
/ le __ M

PI,. 56.4

holtolll chords. Confmnalioll of this statemont will be found ill


the diugrltm of stresses induced in a triangular trU-S!i by a UUifOfUl
load fllprcscnted in Fill. 33.4.

6.4. ,\;"'.... L\'SIS Of' CEOiJETRIC..\ L STABILITY OF PRAMED


STRUCTURES

I.SJ:MPLE STRUCTURES

H has heen shown in Art. 2.1 that 11 framed structure may be


instantl\neollsly unstable even if the nllmber of bars in each or its
parts i,q 5uUir.ient to ensure i1.5 rigillity. Therefore, the number or
bars formiug a given sLructure C",llllOt COllfllitllte alone a criterion
of ils geometric:.l stability.
III some cases instnntanoously uns~le structures CAn be detectc!l
fairly easily. Indeed it ean be pro"ed that in separate memhers
of such structures finite loads will induce infllliteor indefl"ite stre.'li\eS.
Convt'rscly it may also be shown that if noy given load will 11ro-
duce a well defined set of finite stfCSSes in all the members of n
[ralllelI structure llnd that when the lond is ni(, all the stresses in all
192 TJu Truulll

the members of this structure will also reduce to zero, this structure
constHutes an unyielding combioation. The metltod of investigating
the rigidity of framed structures based on this property may thcrefom
be termed the zero load method.
I Lshould bll noted howover that before applying this method care
should be taken to ascertain that the number 01 bars in each part 01
tlU' strllctur" is sufficient to ensure its ~tabili.ty. Otherwise erroneous
condusiolls may be arrh'ed at as will he seen from the example of
II hinged quadrangle repr'sClltcd in Fig. 5i.4. Indeed the mcthou

o Fig. S7.4
(a,
Fig. 58.1
(b)

of JOlllts shows immediately that when no load is appLied the stresses


ill all the members are nil, but nevertheless the !:lystem is unstable.
In order to demonstrate the ac(;uracy of the statements made above
let liS considel' the following examples.
A plate connected to the ground by means of three nOli concurrent
bflrs forms as we know an IInyieldin:z combinat.ion (Fig. 58.4).
It is easily proved that under zero load the stresses in all \.he con-
IlI'CUng bars will be necessarily nil. Indeed let us replace these
bflrs by t.he corresponding ronclions ,RA' R 11, and Rc (Fig. 58.4b)
llnl! let us consider the eqlLilibrilllll of the moments of nIl t.ho forces
actin~ un the plate about the point of intersection of reflctions BA
lIud R /l (point 0 1), We ohwin
Rcrc=O
and ns the lever arm re *" 0, Lile reaction Rc is uecessarily Ilil.
The same reflsoning will show that RA and R /J are fl1$0 nil. This
~erve$ to c,onfirm the statement made abo\'c that all the member.~
01 a geometrical stable system always rematn tdle when the strtuture
carrtes no load.
Now let us investigate the case when the plate is supported by
three concurrent bars intersecting at poillt 0 (Fig. 59.4a). Roplacing
onco again the bars hy the corresponding reactions :llld equating
f;.4 A n'lly,'/K 0/ Ge('melrlcul SIa/Ji/ily IIf F'nl1ned Struclurn 19;-1

to :tI:'.J'U the slim of all the momellls of \lx[.C'rnal Ion.'cs auoul P(,iJll
o we (.bl1dn the identity
!Mo=RAT A +HnT1J+RCTc =0
fol' TA = r /; = re = O. Accordingly, ltit' val\te!> of lho reactioll~
tl'Hl3in l1ocletermint'd, 'l'he olhl'r [,WO C'quilibri\ull eqlwtiollS ([or
ill~tanc,(>, the equfltiolHl or thc rorce Ilfojllc.tions 011 [he x and y-nxesl
will not hell) ill flllding a defillill.l ~ohllion 101' they will conta;u
lhrce ullktlowus. Thus. til.. stTessl'S in an instantaneously un/,table
.,y,~lfrn IIwy have no welt defined value e/JI.'n when 110 load i,~ applit:d,
The same rondll1iiOIl will he rNlf.hed if some arbitrary vnlllc Wl'rl.'
nltdl)llted 10 filly onc oS tlle l'earMons. It could tlH!1l he rc~olvL'r!
nlong llle directiolls of thl' other two ha I'.':, tho whole S~'SI.CIlI IwiJlg

i"ig.59.1

thus ill l'qllilihfium. Thflt mcam' that wC' call Ihld allY 1I11I11hcr of
fCllction v:dll<!.!l SllUsfyillg till' t>qllilihrinm conditions. which illdi-
c<\los lhnt tlw I'ly~tem is instontnneo\1l'lly lUlstHble.
If. Lhe same sy:-;tem is subjected 10 l'iomc flllito load P not passing
through ]loiat O. tiLe sum of IlWmCrlt.'s of all ~xtl'fllal Iurrl's IIhout
this point ]lecOlrleS
r.M o=R A O+ll Ll O+ RcO+ Pr =/: 0
as llcitllCr P nor r Mt' 7.1:1"0. That means that t11(' system is IIOL in
equilihrium and the plate will Tol(LLe about POilll, O. I'Jowc\,('L' 118
I"oon as an illfiuitpsillllll roLation will havll o(',('urrcd. the ttlJ't)e sup-
pOlLillg hars will no lung-cl' remain COIlCU1'l'llnt flnd the TtlacliollS
indllred therein by the load P will be able to bHlnllco this loan.
Al this pat'1 iculnT moment UI(1 cquilihrillln erllHlt,joll al)()ul the same
point 0 hlleOllH!S
~Mo=R_1rA + RnTn+R('rc+Pr=O
il1dic,IIUllg lltatlhu 1<!:lclioll in at leHst line of tllo bars l1lu81 he illfi
nit.e. 1(,1' tlw lover fltlllS rA, rn Iltlr! re MC illlinitely:-;ruull. Henc('.
13_1,"
'"
lM inkrnal forces deL'Y'wped in un tllst.antaneously unstablny.st.eut actro
upon by 4 fi,mte load m.ay surPQ$!I any givrR valf~ and therefore such
systems CAnnot ho u~d.
Another example may be furnished by the geomet.rically staLl\:!
stnlclure in Fig. 60.44 consisting of a plate adequately COIlOPeted
to the ground and supporting joint C III tached to it by two roncurrent

halOS lie nnd hr. If i\ lnlld P werCl ilPIJlied 10 this joil\t (Fi~. tiO.4b).
the <;lrl.'S'$e~ .Yr" aod ,V'b in these bllts will be gin-n hy

~x ""' --NC<' (losa.+Nrb ('.os r;t = 0


:EY ~ .r~" !!ill a+.vd> Sill Ct- P =1)
whArl:!rl'Om
N,~=N... __P_
"'" 2'l"IlI (l',

It rouOIws that when tile angll."s a formed by thtl 1wo bars wllll
the hl)fi7,OIlIIlI <lpprotlch zero, llle ~tre.sses in thc&' b;,rs will illcf'{'(l5{'
lndefioilt'll' pro\jng that the syslem hn:o be<:ome illsLllnl3"eoll~ly
unslaLlc. Indeed. in that. CIIo!'lP joint r will be conDPCte(i to the r~t
of the !'ltrllctll~ hy- lwo bnI1l lying on one and the SAme horiwllhll
and wc know thill su('h sysLems are un!'table.
Onc more t.\'l:amplc of instantaneously unstable s.lruc:tures is pC('-
sonl('d in Fig. 61.4. Allhougb the numlx>r o( bars ill tlai! system
IMluals 2K-3, tlte (''7.l1ninll.tion of equilibrium coIllIitions at joints
t: nod d leads l.o f'ontrJ:ldictory COllclullions. Indeed the equilibrium
of joint r requiros that the stre5:l ill bar cd should be nil. while tht:
equilibrium of joint d requires !.hat it should equal -;-P. This cont.,o-
versit.y lndiClltt.'S clearly that the system is instantaneously ullsl<lhle.
Thus, 1} a sys~ln is prollidf>d with a f1um/Mr (I} bars .uffit:lrnt to ensure
Us rigidity U will be instafltaneollslll umtable, if
(I) finite forcl'S Induce in Me or more members infinite stresses or
(2) the stress('s cannot be d"termlfll!d or C()ntrover~'ial stre" valllt'~
result from the consideration of different fJart,~ or joints of the strudure,
Pi~, 62.4 repre.'<ents K number of frnmed structures UII~ !ll.llllilily
of which the rl':ader i!' in\'iLcd to iowslig:ale lISill" the 7.ero land
mclhod, fie should kN'11 III mind Ihat Lbi5 method tJt.oconw$ inBpph.
('-<tLlc if till' numbor o( baT'" IS inferior to (2K-3).

laJ~'dl~
("_~V

IIJ

PI::. 62.4

2. CO~PIIC""'1~:I.I ~,.n1JC'Ull[S

First, 1('t uS (>xnmine tllt'. nl.l;f' \d1l'11 Lllc Ir:ulsforIlHlli(ln Cif tilt>
complicfllcll ~ystl'm into a simplo ono requitffi tll(' T('plnr.('IIl(,1l1
of llllt onc bar,
The transformed system \\;11 rOllsi!L of an elemfl1tAty trlanglf
10 which ::I certain number of joints has ll(!('ll lidded, c(lch C(lnnectcd
by t.wo COD(urrpnl bars and accordingly thl.5 s}'Slcm will {orm all
unyielding combination; hellcc. lho stre&' N .,. indm'l'd in the substi-
tute bar by n loacl P will have a ,",'ell defilll'd 8IId finite 'ahm, H
a unit st~.,. X = J dirt"C-Ll'd along lhf\ bar that has ht't'n r('pl~n:ed
induces in the substilute bar n stl't'5.S N'1 al!'O di!'Unet IroOl :tero,
Ihon, in nccordnllre wit.h formula (3.4), the inm~r lorn' X in the
replaced memh{'r of thf' original sysl{'m will (>I]ual

X=_'!....CfJ
N"
111f;

Sine!:' Ihis stress is linite and well rlr-Iinor!' the Sl;\m1;' will tlPI>ly
to all the other stresses induced by a load'" in the original system
which, as wo know, proves that the ilystem is geometrically stable.
On the other 11I1Ild, if Nu = 0 then
N~p I)
X..::----"oo or X=o
No<
In lJtho!" w(Jrd.~, the stre8~ in the replaced brH becomes ~itht'r inli-
lIite or indelerminale indicating that the whole sy:stem is inslaTl-
tancoll!!-Iy unstllhLc.
N
Acc.ordingly, the e:.::pression X = - _~p COllSUtlltes a means
Nn:
of investig:lting the stability of complic:lted systems. Whcn ]V.'" '*' 0
Lhe systcm fotms an unyielding combinlltion, and wheu N"x = 0
it is instanllllleollsly unstable.
'fhl! abnve elln be formulatod as follows: w}u'n the stress induced
In thi' $1.tbIJHtlltll bar 0/ the transformed ,~Yl'!li!m by a unit !orcI' X = 1
II.dillg along the replaced bar of the ortginal system diQer.\ from zero.
tfU' system is geometrically slable. but whm this strClJ.,i be.comes nil.
the '~!J$tem b insfantaTwously unstable and unfit for pracUcal use.
Figs. 63.1t and 64..11 ropresent a certain number of original and
tl'tl.I1.~forml1d Sy1i;tC1l1S for which the reader is inviled ~o chock tilt'
m::eurncoy of tho value of Nu indicated, and to decide accordingly
whclher Lhe sy~tom is !'!taMo 01' not. The slIh;llitll.tl" bars arc showll
;11 .la.!'h lines.
The plus /lul! minus signs pLaced agaillst certain bars indicatt:'
the direction (.'Sign) of the stre.'Ss induced ill I.he transformed sy;;tellJ
l;y .. unit furco X = 1 ncting along' the rep13ccd b3r of the original
0Ilt'. Knowing the directioll of these stresses (the reader is invited
10 verify them) and considering the equilibrium of joint K or usiug
thl' method of shcars or that of tho mOlnelltf<. tllll readtlr will find
ill mu:h Ctl.1'O whether Ne'" is nil or possesS('S sorue defUlite valul'.
Ld 113 irr\'lls~i:zat.(', (or instanc.e, the syslem ill Fig. 63.4a. TIlt'
lqnilibrium nr joint 1 of the transformed sYlltem show!!' imml:!dillt@Ly
l,hllt bar 12 is I'xll'JIIll'd /lnd thalthe strl'~ in bar 1-6 is niL Passing
to joint 2 we sco that bar 2-3.is extended and bar 24 is cOOljJre.-"Sf.'d.
1\1orl'o\"er, the projection Oil the y()rticul or- all the st.rt'~~es actillg
on joint 4 will show that bar 4-K mu;,;t be extended in order to baJanc.l'
l_he push oxerted by bar 2-4, Hence the substitute bar [(-(i will
he wmprl'sscd, (or otherwise tho projccliolJs of all tl~e fmccs applied
to joi.nt K on the horizorll.al willllo\. balance anill,hcrefOl"o the system
i~ stable. The Ilame result could hllve been arrived Ht hy p:lSlling
ft'OIll ioint 2 to joint 3 llncl thon to joiu! 6'.
It is sllgg~~ted thnt the reader should prc\'c that the structure
1'('!II'csentcd in Fig. Ua,4c wilt hceome "lIslable W/INI Cl. = ~.
Fvr the I<lructurc in Fit:. G3.4d he will /hld that. N~ is lC.I'O hy
tllkilll{ in :illcn,...."i(1ll 1'(.'Ctioll!; n-'t dnd m-m. For the Sy.!!ll1lI in

Qnginal Iyst~ml

'"

,<!

,,"
P.g, f!.Y.,1

Fig. IHAb it he ':-lIsiel' 10 projc'Cl 011 the hurizontal all tlte Curn'g
lIctillg ablwc st'Cl.iOll n-II.
U!ing tile same methods the rcadtr IIhould U'eJl inl'{still'll.t(' the
stability o( tbe structure ill Fig. 65.4.
When the transformation oC a complicated system into :l simple
olle l'l;'quil't"ll tile l'e!l!nc.elllflnt of more thAn onc bar, the '-'4uAlions
198

rll'llylnll the existence of a differonce between tllt' ori(l:inll.l and the


11",lll'lformlld syslem!'l ar~, as we have already sccn (Eq. 4.4)

NI =--.""11_ I NjjX j +NUX!,A'W'.::MT"'-O


Ne -/I,-~r,-iV2JXI+NnX2+YuX~+ = 0
.\'a=-N.,,-' Nalxl;-lvnx1+~.;x)-1 -,,0
et..:.

~
'bI
"
.'.'

--I

FI,. 64.4

fJw sLrcsws X,. X 2 ale" arising in this case in the substitute


bars wilt pos.<:{!,'lS cOl/crete valllGs moaning tllot the wuole system
ill stalllo only wnoll tllo detoflniltll.r1t D is different from zero. t1.g.,
7.1. l"fl"~tW:i' UrvJ lo~ S'uua in Sl".pf~ Fro"",} SJrI.clu~U 19'J

when
'1I_tt"'i:U
D= N~linNS3 "1-0
N:uNuNu
On the con~rary......11<:'0 D =0 the Ylllues l)f strcsst'1J Xl. X 2 etc.,
become ur\l:.~rtain. whidl indicatl'S that the systelll is iustalltll,n~ously
uOl'llllJle.

Ib! le)
"

~~\gJ (dl fe) (fl

(g)

'it. 6$.4
7.4. INHlIE\"CE LI'-"ES FOR STRESSES IN SUII'LE FI\AMED
STRUCTUHrS
A'I,the loads arc gOIlBfQll)' applied to a truss;l~ panel poinl:! tlYCty-
thio!t that has be~n said in Art. 5.2 about the CQllstruction of
inOII('lIce lines for girders with floor beams and stringl'r5 rcmajll~
true for thuS(' ptlrtaining to truss~.
The TrU,k,

All lht! II111UlOds used (or Compulillg strrsse:o iuduc.ed by rll:cl!


loads (see Arl. 2.4) viz., thc meLhod of moment'!. tlu' method of
!hears and lhl;! method o( joints lnay be clllployt!d for the COnSlrUG-
ti()ll of 1Il[hlE'.nec lillCS,
The m~thod 0/ mOln.tllu. hI ordor to cOllslrucl Ill(" illnUClll'(" lillo
for lht! stre~ ill bar 7-9 of the deck bridge truss ill Fig. (i(i.<!n we
shall poss section [.[ across three bars of t.he. cOrl'{'spolldillg I);"nd.
Whell Lhll ullit lORd P is to the right. of joint 8. it is IIlUI'C COll..,('lIicnt
10 consider lllc equilihriu/ll of tJH~ ]eC.... halld part of lhe truss llS
tlic lollor is (H~tCrl upar! ;colel)' by tll{' n],\llnltillL reaclioll (Fig. 1I'.!ib).
Plllciug tlu, (JJ'Jglll of Jllornt1nls aL l)oinL (i tlnd cqu(ll.ing lu 7,cru
~11'f of nIl I,he fore,cs tleLing Lo the it.IL of st,<CtiOI\ I-I wc ohluill
:EMt) =A3d-L,.jt=O
whel'CrOill
aAd
l..1 11 =-,-
l"hll.!l. wilt-It the load is applied to the right of joint S. 1.11(' 51 rt.'ss
in bar 7-9 equals tlte left-hand reactiult A miltiplied by a constllllt
faclOr ~, Il should be noted also that HAd is lIIuneril'ally equal
.\1:
to tile b('nditll( JIlOllll'lIt acting over the cr/)S.'! soclioll of :, "illllllc
bcalll situated i'lL LI,e same distance frol1l the suppurts ll.ii tll" ori~ill
of momenls (poilll 6) in t.he truss.
It ill clear (rom the ll!Jo\'e tlUlt flS 10llg as Lhe load n'lllnill~ ll) 1111.'
ric;:hl of point 8 tile inOuoJlce lilltl fur till! IIhM.~ L 1f1 will be till' SHIUC
(I~ (or n;nction A multiplied !Jy . HUllce the right-hllud part

of tll() inOll(wcc linu tIlay he obtainod by lllying' oH ~ Along the YUI'-


LLl',nl f'(l.ssJllg Lhrough the left-halld uLutnlOllt aMI Ly e.ollned-jllg
it with n point of zero ordiuutt' oL the right-hund olle (!illt' atb ill
Fill{. GG./td).
WhclI the lond is to the left of joint 6 thl' slrcs.c: Ll' can /'1.' dl'riwrf
frQlll (1)(. ('quiliLriullt equntioJl relativE: to the righl-hnmt 1';lrl of
Ill.... Lru!Sl! (Fig. (;fiAc)

In olher words. the Slrt'S3 in bar 7-9 equal,' ill this t'as{' Lhe riJ!;ht.-
Ilnud reaction B Illultiplied by ~. ~\'oLc that once again ;IBd is Ihe
cquiyu(tml of thc simple beam beudilla moment AI: "din!:,' o\'el"
7./. /n/fl<s"cs LilU' J..r SlrCl~r In St"'l'L. f'rtimPd SIr>/rI"ru 201

d IJ III

la,
3
A , 8
I, 9

II , OflI I ,,' It

~
46:u. :
Ibl
t A
u! n
Do
:
I
l ~
IllS 17
L
I 71
I
t
1 1 I I I I
I I 1 1 -1C8~f--;";'-F-;i' "
1
I
I :
J I
i~
OQ
,
le)
I" 8
1 I
1
" ,a
' ,,",,fr~~ I
I I I L 19 19 1
I t I I 1 I
Id} o II
I
Infllle4celi"f!
,
_...1_
"
e-
for
1_-...
u I" __ .... _-r
I
_}b'f'
ljf I --- -1".
b
QI I: tinglirie I
le,
1
:

--{---L'
I I nf{lo't'J1tlj line/or ~n
"
! !
I

01
1
~/~/~M~,~,,:;,,~,-~-,;;r-~-~~ID:F:t:F=i--i'
I I
I I
"j-_L I I
, J
--
I 'y~ : I I -~--4__ sma
(I' I"L I~" I Cmned.0g line rb,
,tS
og, !
'H1'11,
I
IjJ
-
17
,"--,11'
I/lIfll/en?
1 I
~ror VIS
I r
I
(.9' ~{~III1,jll'/l!I!I!i!"'1
~~ L \
Cf1IU.'C(ing une
PI,. fiGA
202 The Tru,u<

:I section corr('llponding to point 6. H.ellce for the load located to


th(\ left from joint 6 the influence liTle for stress L 79 may be drawn
by joining fl point over I,he right~hand ab\ltmen~ ha\'inp: for ordinal('
't with poil'lt of zero ordinate oyer the lert-hand OlllJ (lino bla
fl
III Fig. MAd). If all the operations hf\Ye been carried out ('.ou6ctly
till~ Cl-lb una bla will intersect nndel' joint 6. 'Ve may now shnde
the area bounded by these lines between jojllt~ 6-.16 and 1-6 respecti-
vely. Le.. the arefl acba in Fig. 66.4d.
Anotller way of obtaining the same influence line is based on
Ihe relation existing betweNI the stresS [,79 and the simple beam
bending moment M:
L __ J!~
a-T
This relation illdica~s that the influence line for stres.~ ill btU'
7-9 can be ohtained by dhjding ull tht' ordinat~s of [l simplt> h"'am
berlding momcnt influence line hy tbl? height of Lhe lflL~i'J h.
Incidentally. this proves once more Lhat lilies ajb and bla must
intersect at a point lying in the I)t'rUcal pauing thrQl.Igh juint 6 (point c).
'rhl' above t\xamplc leads to the cOllclusion that thostrcss inlhwllce
Hues for e-nd-sllpported trusses call he obtaiTwd u~ing the following
(JtOccdura:
1. For tlte rtght~hand portion of the tn,f[w:m:e line lay oD along
tJU' l!f'rti.t:al pa$.~ing through the kfl abutrn~lll (upwards or doll'rlUx~rds
dt'pmdlll-g cm the si.gn Of t1u'stress) an ordinale -I-
where a is the dislan("('
oj tht, origin of momenu to tM kft-hand abrttmeut, and h is tht lryer
arm of the gtrrss abrlu,t the same POirlt.
2..Connect thts ordinate with It powt of zerQ ordl:nute at ltu' righl-
Jumd abutllun/
3. On the lllle so obta-tlltd mark the intersection point Of the right-
mul ot the lttt-hand parts of tJw influenee line, this poillt lying in itu'
vertkal passtng through the origin 0/ mfllct/mU.
4. Connect this interseclfon point with the point 0/ zero ordillak
over the lelt-hand abutmmt.
5. Connect by a straight lme. l1u Iwv points 0/ mtase-clinfl 0/ the a/M,'"
llllCS with the l'(Ttlcals bou.nding the pallel which rontains the bar lI/l,dl'l
e')ltsidemtlOn.
TIle soquenr-e of ull the uperations IYOllld J'&ffil:lin l'xaclIy sinlllal"
if Illstcad of laying off *" along the nrtielll pa~ing through tht'
ahutment..1 we started hy laying off { along the one passing through
tlJt\ abutment 8 wht'.f'i! b is the distanc.t.: be-twE'en this abutment ;lJId
tllll origin of moments. Then tIle ordinate ~ should be- <,'ollnQcled
by a straight line with the point of zero ordinate OVllr the left-hand
abutment. the apex of the influence line should be found b}' proJ{'Ct-
ing on this line tbe origin of moments, and finally the right-hand
part of the illnuence line shouJd be ohtaineil by connectillg this puillt
wit.h the point of zero ordinate at tho right-hand abutment.
The method oj kars. As aIL illustration of this mctho(l. let us draw
tne influence Iioe for the strcl>S in tne dingonal 6-9 of tno ~ame truss
(see Fig. 66.4a). The equilibrium of all tho vertical projections of
fol"Ces acting on tlle left-hand porBon of the truss (I-'i((. 66.4b) wllen
the unit lond P = t travels between joints Sand IG requires that
IY ~ A- D.. sill er. = 0

D -=_A_
sin IX
t1l

When the load is situated betwtK>n JOJnts 1 and 6, the :;lIln",


cOllsideratiolls rdative to the right-hand portion of tile lnlSS (St'tl
Fig. 6ti.4c) entflil
1:Y = lJ + D 89 sin a = 0

li
Du = - - -
Sin a

fbese two expressions givil,g the stress Du 10 terms of lhe


reactions sbow that when tbe load is to \JIB right of joint X tlu'
innuen(.fl Jiue may be obtailled by multiplying the l"'ellctiol1 AllY
l'l constant factur si~ IX' and when it bu shirted lo th", lcft of joint 6

w~ rnust apply a faetor ( - Sin


-.-'-) to the innuonca line ordillateli of
IX
l"t!aetion B.
'-\c,cordingly the construction or the curresponding parL:l of Lha
influence line will consist in sotting uf[ the oroinall)s + si~a oVl:lr
tho jefl-hand abutment and - 51~a below !.he rigllt-band one and
In connecting them with the points of zuro ordinale at the ot.ller
~nd of the truss. Tbis will give u.::I the lines Q.1b and ab l in Fig. 66.4r
respectivel)'. Marking on the first lino the position of joint 8 and
011 the second that of joint 6. we obtain the right-hand (positive)
and Lhe leH-hand (negative) p.uts of the innuence line; these two
voi[l~s should be connected by a st.aight line-.
It may be observed that: in t.his ca::;e too the intersection point
.o{ the two portions of the influence line falls on the ye-rtical passing
through the origin of moments, botb points being infinitely db'tllnt,.
The change in t.ho sign of t.he ordiua tcs to tl~ inOucnce I illt: obtained
indicates that bar 6-9 will be cUllse(~ulively comprc~d and then
ntc/lded 89 the unil load travels along the deck from joint 1 to
joillt la as rncntiOllod abo,'ej members designed to resist ~trosscs
of OPIJOsilo sign are called coullterbracc!!,
'fhe Ill~lhod uf joil\t~ may be convenierHly used for the. construc-
tioll uf the innucnce line for tho stress in the vertical 6-7 (Fig. 66.4u).
Unth the method of momellL~ and the method of sllenrs would I)t' llf
no aVllil ill this case ag any SCGtion through the troS! would cross
at I('ast four bars (sce sections 11-[[ and Ill-fIT of the :<H1l1t.!.ligllT'\l).
Eqllllting lo 1.l<ro the slim of vertical proj('i'tions of nil the fOI"Cl'!1
actillg ;It joiut 7 (Fig. 66.4j) we obtain
zy = \'1$ +Ln~il\ ~ =0
wherorrorn

:lIld thi~ is 'alid for any po"itiull or Ihe lond tllollg the lru~ as it
call lIever be applied directly to joint 7, the bridge beillg of the dock
lype. Hence the infiuence Iiuo for the stre.'<# Va ('oulll be dl'riycd
from that of lIlt: stress L u uy rnllltiplyill~ its orrlillatcs U)' (-sill ~).
As ror !llress L H it cnn be obtailloo by equating to zcro the 511111
of hori7.0nL:.tl projections of all tho forces IIdillg on thc joint IIIlller
j:oll~idurll Lioll

l 1"/9
~n= cn-p
Tl1cl'cfllrtl
"'r. = -Lr~~ill ~ - -L r8 lt'lll ~
Tho SlIlIle result can he achiC"tld direcLlr projeding nil lht" foro't!!\
npplitld to joint 7 rill a norrntll to bar 7-5.
Till' illfluence lillc ror stress Vu oblaiued by 1IllltlilJlying the
ONJiIlUlul' of tho innllonco lille fol' L u by (-hllI~) j!l n.'jl11lS011Ul,1
in Pi/{, tj().4g,
The irlnueltc_6 HnQ fM the \'t:rtkal S-!J (Fig. 67.4a) should ~lso
be ctJII!ltrllcted using the method of joilll::l for a~:lill arlY sectioll
through the trUS! cutting this bllf will cross at least th~ more bars.
Cvnsidering the equilibrium of joint 8 .....e find immooialely that
(I) whell the luad is appli.ed to Mny joilltel:wpt joint SWig. 07.411)
l:Y=-Vs ,=O
(2) whclI the load is applitod lo joint R (Fig. /.i7.4c)
1:Y= -V8~-P-O
7.4. JII/I,,('nrt J,lnt.- 'or/)trtMtl III .'illlll!ft Pr'lIlItd Slrud"rt~ 20:;

V.. =-P~-l
Consequently when the \Ioil load is applied to lllly of the joints
J. :.t, 4. 6 or JO, H, 14 3nd J6, Iht' vertical 8~9 remains idle,
bul when lhi!.' load shifts to joiut. S the slre.<:.s V" bceomes cqmll
to 1.
Knowing the Ordillllteli lo the i'lnUlloce line 1I.t. 'he releYant (1llnd
pili 11 l.$ :UHt COllnccting thl'.'I(! by straight lines we obll1ill thlJ illnUCIICC
,
! / 10
"

Iinc f'lHlllill'd. This Iin~ rcpre~lIlccJ ill r'ig. 6i.o'Jd hI'S llto ...halk' of
a trillll~lo with a mo:dmufrt ordinate eq1l1l.1 10 -1 on,r joilll 8. Tht,
~igl1 of the ordin.'l\A.- indicII 'es tha.' tlu> "crth'al can 111' only 1'0'11111'<:.'$St.'(1
~nd thcl'('[ore eonstitull'S a strut.

l'rnhlt-m I. Dr"'" tlw innuenu lino lor llll' !lre_ ill I>~ri! ~B .nd '-'I uf
tll" Pr.U Im"S ..ho.'T1 in Fil:. 1>1:\.-'...
,,'01"11011._ Tt." i"II"I'II<'" (illt' I"r J'7~ ""i11 be olJl"illt'tl l>~ till, "1I'lhod "f m,,
mcnl.1. ad..pliuJ: joillL 8 as tit!! origin of motnl'nl~. The t'tlllilih~,u'n 01 Ih"t l>(Ir-
l,,,n <If tilt' tl"""'~ tn Il,e Ivft or I'.LiOD "-k (FIg. US.oil!) ""'ll~" th., 1011'\ is tu ilK:
r,~ht of thJ~ sertion r"'llIil"l"~
~Ma ... .A::ld -/'1.)1. - 0

A3d .lx3
l'1~""'-h-- A -,-_2.2$/1
Tlm.... tI'll requir1ld infiucoc... lint will be obwocd by laywi oft IlII ordinate
e'I,,:!1 IJJ 2:.25 ,weT the lohbaollllbvLm<.lIl. by conD$(:ling this ordinate ..lth tho
I,'r" "rdmllll' point III the opp,,ltt end of th9 lruSll. by marking the poHtion M
tloo tlrh,:ill or Illoments (joint 8) on this hnc and finally by drawing I linl! through.

, ,
? /, (j 6' 10 f2 #I /6 .w
la)

'J~ I H
: '-}>4'1l1
1_ I I I

~
l? It;, ll) la ~8t7: l
IDJ
, ' ,
, ,I :
DJ1
I
t<01,
...
"~I I
I
'-l!J
I
I
I
I
A I I I,'..r""y.ce I: ne ((11' !.... 7P
__ I I I I 1 '
T-_I-_ I I I I
I ' '
I , ~~'~.at!~~~
,, ,, ,,
t;onnei:((fI!J Ime

I t I I I
(dJ Vjl)' I I I I I
I I I I
~-"l,,-+'-'f.r- ~i,l,I ~ r I I

(e)
A
I
If
iIKnc;'fJ/tne for V79 (rJeCll "hdge IftISo)
I I J __ +I __ j-_"" __ ....I --~ f
; 7' 8;toJiiC ;1[->;1 :I i
~ __ 1..--+-r, I I I
(~lInt''Y f i r I I I I I
I I I I _ I ,
['lI/t/rrn'l/fie forJ/78(lllroug!IIY7d.qeII"IJ,)S)
I I , , __ 1---1--11'
(,
1
' :
I
.. ,l.i1"
i
,r:k..-...l--T
/:. -sJ,il1'-IIi1,.iIii'"
! ! jJ'
'
/< _-,_ -L -/-
(;{;'1ncr.llIJ(j Ime

Fit. 6~.4

Ih~ II'm point at the left-hand abut",,,nt and the point iu..... mcntionGCI. Th.
eompklc<1 iunuenet: line- will be of lrhmgubr shllpe with Ibt apex d.i1'~ly
[Hlder }mnt 8 (loig. G8Ar).
Thj, method of sbGllra is "'-eH adapted for the construction of the Influeneo line
for tho ~Ire~ in liar 1-11. IJsinR seal0n n-n (FIg. 68.<Id) and equating 10 Iero the
pl'oiecllon or .Htht' ror('u ~cting on the !pJtllllnd portion or the !rUM wo obtoin.
7.1. 'nil/una f.'tu!1 /pr St~tun /01 Simple F~II-mtd Sfr,utu~(I 207

\\'l1rn the load P = is to tbe n;:ht or ti,e SC'eUon ,,-n,


tt"=A+YTI_O

v7l = -A
Simll:lfly whell tllf lo,)ad 1I11it) it to the left of ~tion /I .... tllo rqullil..
rium "f tlw ri~ht-h,llId pvrt"lII ,)( thl' trll!o!l nquirn
!t=B-J'jJ_O
\\ 1",,,frul1l
l'18_ fi
It shouhl 1)(' 1I,)lerl tlH'lt, whcn the lond~ IH"~ lrUllsmiLtcO IIHOUgh
lhu 1I111ll'r chort! (as ill ,I('rk bridges) thl.' fIT.,t joint to lh", right of
~rlilln n ..n roJall\"C lH the slr{'ss V r is joint S, Lut when the loac....
arc nppliod to the lo\\'I'T chord (through bridgt>s) it will hI.' joillt 9.
The SlUno wil1 8pply to joints G and 7, the- rust being lI'll1ncdilllcly
10 the Idt ufSt."Ction It"lt in thc ('llSt' of deck Lrilll:'l'S and the Sl:Cl'Jlt.!
in thl: CAse of through hridgcs, As the equations of equilibrium QC
tho lelL- alldior the right-baud portiolls of the tru&< art' indl.'pcudcl'll
of thl.' Ic\'cl at which 1110 loads are transmitted. the IIlfiuencC' liucs
for both cn.~s will be strictly parallBI. but the posilioll of tht.\ plllld
through which soction n-n passes will \'MY, leading to a dlsplaC4'~
Jntml o[ the ponl'l points correspollcling to thl'l ~picE's of tllO hilI:'.
Thc influencl:' lil,cs ill Fig, MAt' llnd J corn>!'pond 10 th(> two J,lVsltioll"
o"tI thp floor ~aln.'s, th .... rl~t p(>rtainlng to Iltrk bridg-('s and tILe ~colld
1I1lU to through brillB'e~.

J'roblem 2. Hcquil'o(!th,' llInuonce IiJl~ fol' $tro....~ D~! (>f Ih~ tl'1I51l ropnl!'t'lltod
III ~'jg. 1i!1.4~.
SaluJl<m, T~kjng I;(ocliou .... r! 1\0,1 US!uB' the method of mOlllont.s (pOillL Ji.
loCIIl!/" t."ken (I" 1.11,' origHlI \\0 hllll llwL when the IQlll1 unity is tu tho right of QUI
el'clltln

'tI'llO'"rl'OllI
.-I"
D ~-- ,
I/.,rl' , i.~ ~h" II'Vf'( 3(111 III t"l' stre5.~ ~ n;h,hl{t> III point K. 'Dd .. tbat
"f 11n; ~ion A /l00t11 the 5l'lme point. Tb, dlslolnee .. mlly blo fwlltl fr"m
ll,~' tri:anl::le K-:i-4
a+2d_...!L..
'"."
",III.'r" h2 i... th... height of th~ vtrtitlll 4-J r>qu.,1 m.'tn.'s .nd t.::m a ...

ft-
___, T " 0.1108\.
,'"
Ht'"lIco
,,_18 m

TI... It'vrr ann I l'qllal~


r.,.(.+3d)!ill~
The .nglo:o l' will 00 .....umnined from
32i~ 32
l:m 1'--'--27-1.185
U~itlg I"bl,~s ... r lIal"r,,1 tdgoJl()lnetric functlollll 'M) f""l"
1'-4~'50' and sin P_(l.iGlo
U~i,,~ th(>$(' __..lue! wc fllld
r_(18+9)0.11>4. .. 2O.13 Ul('tl'('~

:""hSIlLn1ing Ilt\' II!KPVl,l in the formula Kivlnll' li~ ill tllrlllS 1 " lllld r we
"bI"in
"A
D~-""2'0.6- (1.8710.1

Th(> constmdin" ", till' iunuellrc line fM LJ". wi\llJEol.!in wiUt tu riltllt-hand
p"rll(\1\ which will be for"",d by the Hilt' C"III\CClilll: the ~Lg;4 or"inah' UY(Of" the

'.
,,

"
d,
,,-
"
",,
, ,

1.h-lmllllllhtJtlll~nl ... ill, tlL" 'lr.l'O <ltdlllal.. looiul:ll LJte olhrr ,'nd "r tl,e truss.
1'1,,' 1(>Il-b~II.1 roortioll will he obl"lued N1l1Cll,b,mllll that 'he dlrt>etiou, of tbe

.. 'l'hl' S.11ll1l filCurtl could llC ohtainoo. wing tloe formula
sinp_ 1111\6
Vl +\all l ~
two I'"rl.~ 1I1",,,ys illlcr~t \I1H1(', tht' odg;n u[ mOlllcnt~. Wilhin tI", plllld (on-
tnilliug sec~ion n-lI:J, IlIil'(\ lin,' wIll ,:unn"cl1hc v~l'lin'~ lying unokr' t!le [Ollllel
!,llints on butl. :o..i(I(',~ of S(,~~tiol1 n-Il. 'fll<' cnmpllllod inn"..,,,,",o ['m. is .~ '''wn
in fig. IlO. 'ob.
Prohlt,llI ,I. I\t'(luired [.h~ infiu('Jlce JillC'~ ror ~~re.l;S('~ ('~~" J),;Ij :J.lld ~'7G
m'i~jn!: in " tri""l;:ulllr roof II'u,,~ in Fig. 70.;'" wlll'tl th(' l<lIlfls:H'<.' Ujll'!i,,(] to till'
lower chord.
SQlulton. lnf1u~na lint for snus UI~' l'~I",~jng ';(ICtin!l !I-I! and 1'I,,,~i(I('ritlg
lIt<' '~Illilil,l'iultl of the lelt~hand part 0 the tru.~~ wlll'tl ["n,1 1IIlil)' J} i" 10 Itw

{Ill

Flg.70A

right uf th(' :'!(,'clion we oblain


LMe =A3d +lI,!I"_O
whcrefrorn

/'('I're~ntl.'d in [lig. 70.<\b will 'hll~ have a tr,angl,]nr .~hope


The ;nnuenr,a \in!.'
with il~
allex uir('cth' lIndpr the orijin 01 mom('n~.
{nflutnu ltn~ fM' Sin'"'' lJ~~. Using t le MmI' seetinn nnd l'I!twj;lIg Vl 1.l'ro
tlw~llm or nIl thl' mumcnls uf r"fl;ml lIet,iog un thl;1 h.rt-I"lrHl part"f tlwlruss nil",,!
jlolnt I Wl~ ulJjldn, "'hell tIll' uroillulld l' = 1 is 1.<1 tllll right or lll'ctj'm non,

D~_O
2" Th~ Trfl.n~,

'i,_ 71."

/,

, " ' _ I , , ,,
"l '/"([um,:e llllr. for I

" ' I "


l~; (/lr~,,,ncf l,~ {(>ri' ",
I ' : /1'{lbl';\.'1' lI,.".lor V,
:~ ~ IZ~(IUla': '/CfJ(r,a1fIlt'

~ '1I'{'rffifuii"".~.r~5:i""'=-~:-"""'~
~lel:lulli,.!i!!'-
I I

: r,tL~ r ,
.: ,t;"f.....
L. ---- .. :: ..J. __ ,
' :
In"lJf .....l'14~f""DI I

~: : A!!iililiili'O=rr... )'I ........:


-"!i,!GIIP' ~
- .---.-. __ I iiiiCi
7.4. IflpufAU I./Ao IQr Slrf.u. 1'1 Simpl~ Prnm{!d SlrU~llJ.ru 211

Hence tile llrtlinatN! of Ihe InnllPnco Iille will I"('duc-<' 10 n>ro as long .~ the
uni~ load Is In tllo right of the pll"oll:ontaining hllr 5-6.
The leflhand portion of the hlnuence line Illlty be constructed using II\e
clJlIlItion of the equilibri.um ol mUUlenl~ pcrtnilllng to till' rillht.-huntl part of lhe

dtlQ'tf
:
,/lIli_V! /<he (fir v,..
I ". ' " --. -
tf~tri4~ t

,II'~
,: ,~ - fl
'/nfl!l1lMr' If."Jf!f.-'''I:(~ ,
:'c'lrl v,. lr,;ss't ;
~),
, I , I , Fig. 74.1
I I. ,
'''([!lint'i! UI'I1 ft}('
, , v,,,, ,,
,-_+_..,1=' , 2 , ! ,

I"
:,, ,,I'
.
:/nf~nt:'e U{I8lor', :
I D,H' , , A ,,

~
::I""'I' t--_: Inflll~ !.np/11r0nl
" , I

"
, 'I I j ~
ftIU . ,'
p'G. 78.4

tru~, the. IOld unity P being to lhe left 01 ~tlon A-tT,

1:."11"'" -BI-D1IIr l_O


whl'l1'rrom
D ~ . _8l

~tfflll~
'. abutmell~ 'eaetit.n n lIlultiplied hy
,:
I.e., the D$8 h &quallo the rlgM-hond
(- )
'" TIt~ rot'll'~polldillg illOlK'nCt' line /Ippcns in Fil' 7.1.4e.
iIIfluenn lint for ItrfU \ .... Using tlilllJll'lh04 uf juinB ud prujl.'fting all
tile 1Ot'tt'.~ :oc:ting On Jolul7.m " I,or;:wulal Wf' obuin

!.l.'"_ -{,nc-,% -l.'7tCOS a_O


ill.Hcating tbllt

,.
1
rL_I-!"'+_~ :<; '~ ~

~A'-t-+_-'-_---:c:1'
10

Fi,. 16.4

The prtlj("ttion or ~hl' ~amll fo~ un " vl'rliclIl gin's

wl\CrCfrom
111,,,<,.4', IJ,,: illnu('nco lin(' fI,,' 1',. nu.}' 110 "lilall1("<1 by multipl)-iu\: ~1I Ill('
"rdlnjll,.('~ of thl' innUC'lICQ lln~ I,.r {}~.', by. con,tanl ["rIOf" {-2I"in (1). '111l' ma~,
mum ordin~t(' of tlli.~ illnu('l"M;(' !1nl' ShOWll in Pia. 7(.1.-'1 ......111 ho, equ;lll" I.
Tht' "('.'IJ!::r i~ i",ite<.1 t<l solve lilt' rnllo"'ing I"..n prnblt'l'~ on hi~ 1''''".
I'rubh'm l. Pruvo t,hl' :,rCflr:M:r u[ the innueoceli,,<.>s in fj~. ';"1.1.

I'rebh:m 2. {al Prove H.E' Iccuracy (,f Ih(' innn('nce J,"C" ill I'il. 12.0\ Ihrough
7li.'\ ;'lId
tI'lllr"", the Illnueoce liol's for 110(, ~trl\SS('S in .dditi"m,1 h;v~ l1l11rk(d llY
11 rlm,bk (!Iosh.
l/ilib. la) 11 i~ reWmUll'IlUNllo \lHl the method of joints fur thl! lllnllcncc liul)
r()r ~tross V! of Ihl' tru~. rqll'l'51'Il\.l'u in Filj. 72.4. Whl'1l 110(' I"at! uulty l' l~
IIJ'l'li,',j I" nuy juilll willo Ihlt eXCl)pti'lll of l!1o Ju.n1 O\"~f 1lle rll1:1i1hlllUI ah"l-
'ueul" 1'2 - ~B. When \he load i., u,'er lhl' right-lllltld IlllulJnl.'l1t. V~ _ Ll.
Ib) As rcg~rds lhe lru~s in Fill". 7.).'1 il i~ r"ron"nl'mled 1.0 C,j,n. hler tl'e o.:quililo-
r'Unl "f t119t. porlil'll ,,( Ihe 1."tJ~ 10 llll' right "f 'hI' !'t'eUhn, ",hl'n till' Jo~d unily
ill 1.0 th(' I('ft thefi'Qf. It i, (ll,vi""s tlllll in lhi!' (:8~1' the hllf untlt'f ~jlllSid"r.lHiu
will r"m~ill i.lI,.

8.4. INFLUEi\"CR LI:\t.:s .'Ol! STHESSES IX COMI'I.ICATtn


.'RA~IED STRUCTURg;-;

The design of eornpHcat.eJ. frallled structures a"d in particular


of ntultispan stalit:ally detorminate noes mflY ht;> carried OUI using
the I'('pltlc.emtln~ ml'lllod tl~cibt..d in Art. 1j.4, whereby the eompli.
ctltclI truss is f'onvtlrled into a ~imJllt} onc.
IU 8n exam piu let us consider the 1ru!lS represcoll'd in Fig. 77,4/1.
10 llrder to obl,nin tll(> infimmcc line for tho rl;lnctilHl C al tho in~or
Jrlodiato ~upporl when the load trtlvcl:i all,ng ~hl.' upper chord. let us
fllplnc,(,\ till.' SllVPUI'1 C by a vCl'lictll II1Enn.tll'r 6'-{; Wia. 77.4b). At
Lho jOilll G' wc mu,')t thell apllly lIlI l.'xterJwl force X e whkh will be
cqulll to the reactiull C whell Lhe !Ircss ill th<'. sub!lilllt~ har G'...(j
!x.'('l'lOlOS uil

wht'rl'Crolll

!-Ien.' A'i'G i!'O t.he 5tf('~ in b<'lf 6"-6 of llle trus.':! .!!howl1 ill !-'ig. ii.lib
when (he lotld unity lr;n'cls along tIle llpp...r chord and A'~'B is lhc
st.ress ill the Stlllll' bar induced hy tllo force X~ = I.
lIenn' the illnll<'lI{~e lino Cor thl abutment reat.tion X t may he
CJ!,laintld by rlivitlillA:" Ill... ordillaLes ~o th... illfiucllCo lilJu ror stro~~
Nd'~ by (-Nfo'~)'
Ipo/

"
", IPoT
I

to, "
PfK77.(
"


)/
, , W
5 7
"
fO'
"

S 1a---,f
{Cl

'",,,,.J..
[[,;i-~=!IlJiO!01IITI ft[AAL..!l:
I

I" r ,

!fjCI!lill~!II:II!lljl

In"~ I~ I~ "
'

; I
J
Ptg.7$.1
8.4. 11l/lllffJce LifUS ill Compllcltl,d Framed S'nu:lure, 215

TlIe inftuence line IGr the stress Ni. m3}' be eonstrucled using
the eqllilibrium equations regarding joint 6' (Fig. 78.4a and b).
ZX = -Ni...cosa+N,.lcosa=O
};y""" Ni . . sina+Ni1sina+Ni, =0
whorl;l[rom

Substituting Ni. in t.he expressiGD for reaction Xc we obtain


2Nfi.~. lin et
Xe = _
N .
111 Grder to obtain the influonce line for N& .... let us pass section
I I-I I (see Fig. 78.4a) and let us consider the equilibrium of the
left-hand part of the truss assuming that unit load P = i is to the
right (If the section
IM.=A.5d_N....... _,d

=0
wherelrom
Ni.,=5Asincr.
Consequently, the right-hand portion of the inftuence line [or
stress N'e's' msy be obtained by laying off the ordinates 5 sin a =
"" 52 above the loft-hand abutment and by connecting it with
the point of zero ordinate over the right-hand one.
The left-hand part of the influence line will be obtained remem-
boring that the lines always intersect nnder the origin of moments
(poillt 6).
The corre.spollding innUCllGe line for tho simple truss (Fig. iBA.a)
is represcllted in Fig. 78.4d.
Let us determine now the stress induced in bar 6'-6 by a force
X ( = 1 using for that purpose thn c(juilibrium of joint G' (Fig. 7BJic)
IY _ .1\'6"+ 1 + W" s' Silll% = 0
wbere
-N., "'" sV2
- - , - (see Fig. 7B.4d)
Collsequeutly
-N ." = ,'Vi Vi
-1 +2 ---:r- X -'-="2
3

therefore
' 2N;'.~, V2x2
siDa
X,,= 2N A'~'-_--_ 'Vi
- - 3 - N" c'S'
N.
c ~x<!
216

. IIt'.lIce, tlac innuQ.IlCc line for reaction X~ will btl o!ltaincd hy 1lI1l1.
tlplYIrIg' allllll' orcll.~3t.l'S to tho illnuellco line for 'YQ'~' by a couslant
faelor O(I~laJ to 2l<: ,
.Thu COlTeSJ)()lldillg il1nmmco line is rt..'pre&>flle(/ ill Fi .. 784<"
with it~ aid Ih u influence liul':! for ~tro.~.s in all tht' (Jllle;bn.~ or
tIle truss can be ca~ily obtained.

!lA. TlIUSSES WITH SUBDIVIDED PANlil~


Whell th~ method uf mOments is used the stress in any /Ilemher
of a tru.:iS call be cxprcs~d by th(~ formulll

IV
it : JI,-

wllCre ill -= mO'lIent of tho fon'c:! to Ihc right or to lhu left of tIll,
section about the origill of moments
r = lever Ill'm of tho ~tl'l:lfl:-l IV IlhOll~ ,hf) salOl' point.
The nho\'e formula sho ...."::; thlll other ronditions rcmllinillg UIl
changed, the ~tr('SS LV decrease~ proporlionn\1y to tho incrt..'3-"O in
the lo\'er arm r. Accordingly, the iDcrea~ in too height of tlll'
lrll;<S .....hich n.lways Jtl.'\ds to the increase of tht\ lcver arm r wilt entail
a reduction ill tile stresses induced in ilS elcmcnt.o(.
Strnctllr<llly it b muru conv('nicllt whon thc diag<Hlals forrll all
augle c10stl to 115" ....ith the horizontal anti therdUN an incrtlllse
ill the hoight of the truss will load to lengthtming of Ihe palLcl~,
'['hug ill a tWit" with !HlraJ(1.I1 dwrrls the length nf a Illlllol will ui:lulllly
ho vory close t.u Lhe lr~ hcigllt (li'ig. 79Aff.). HOWOVN, pallols of
incfCtlSud I~llglh requil"C! the U~ of heavier noor bc"ms aml stringcr.s
whirh mllY outweigbt Ihe O('olloJUY oht~'lillod through the relltK"tinn
of !dresse." in tbe lnlll:l 11Iemlx>rll.
A rational lVIllItion of Lhe proMe,n n.<$ide~ in the :mhdid",ioll of
111U p,'lnels wiLh tho inlroduction of StlCOntJary IMlI,bcr.:S, rorlltin~
.1tuiliafY killg.po~tt'rl btlnm~, which will trnm;miL the load~ allplied
withill tllo panel Lo tllll join'-s of llw main Lru~~.
Thesc.' auxilillry systoms will jJcrnlit tile instllllnLlOIl of c,ros.~
OOlllnS :at i"ttJrmcdiaw poillls wlticlt provides for iI. eunr;:idernlll\,
f'(,l<llldion ill the wcight of till:' floor elements, TLLe.!!u SyStCll18 wiH
remain idle 3S lung 35 tllU load is outside the pancl which they rt'ill-
fOrt'-e, und will bc<:omo stre....<;O(I only while the load ill within the
limits of that panel. I" Fig, 79Ab Wtl hnve represolllcd a dec.kbrillge
trllS.", the uppor chord of which is reinfOrced liS Jt!sc,i!Jerl ulJove.
'rite bur ab i... always idle, it:! only purpost! being to ensure the sta-
bility of tlw combirwd system,
117

If the king-posls .....ere extended downwards llnd cOIHledcd 10


tho ullI"lCr chorll mellllJcrs we would obl.aill the truss shown in
Fig. 7B.4c. It .....i Jl be readily oh!ler\'eJ that the .stre.ss~ ill till tilt!
Illt'mber.; of t.he latter t.russ 3re idelltical to tho.sc or ti,e truss in
fig. 79.4b. A gradual shortening or all t.he vert.ical mel1loors con-
rll."'lling the auxiliary king-posted beams with the upper dlllrd leads
to Lhe sysl'em fCllrolSCol.cd ill Fi~. 7!J.4d in which the hcamlj coincide

Id)

71'<.171'<.171'1::
,

Ig)

F.g. '19.4

with the upper chord members or lhl! maill t.russ. Jf we now turl.
the king-l'0sle( beams upsifle dowJI wo will oblain tho trlls., SllOWIl
ill Fig. m/if', nud ir i.D the latter the lerlgth of ks becomes nil. we
will linally obtain a dcck-IJridgc truss with suOdiyided pallt'(ll repre-
sented ill Pig. 79.41 which in the ";nglish speaking countrius is oS\lal~
Iy ("alled it .~ubdil.tdtJ Warr.-n lruu.-
+
"I'
ln nu ...~ill. tl'\l~"'-'5 or 11l:1( Iypl' ","Cro lifflt Il!led Ih,' f"mi,,('II( Ilussiall
('ll~ill('er and l'("iE'nti.~t, rmrC5.'!or J,. Proskuryakov or '11' Mo~ow JIlstlLulE' of
Railway En.ll"'"eeriuJf' A bri~il"~ of lhi.~ lYIH! !"as dcsiRned by "ion in 18~;j
ami hiUIt lien,...' ! tho river Ylllll:'el. alllhe slrllSS~ In lhlslrui'\S haYOl11i heen ,luler
minoiJ with th" nlrl of innut'nce lines, 'I'hl) rigid it} lInd thE' I'('d\lCllO wcillht or
this brillgo have I,lllccd it among the topranking r.ngineNing achievement!
or lllat tim(,'.
218 The TrU$~J

The sec,ondary elements represented in Fig. 79.4./ trallsmit the


loads IIIIplied to the upper chord to the main joints of tlte s3IDO
-chord. In other cases these elem6l1ts may transmit the loads applied
to the lower chord to tilt! joints of the upper one or vice versa as for
instance ill Fig. 79.4g.
It should bo noted tll/l.t auxiliary systems similar to that sllown
in Fig. 80.4 cannot be regarded as constituling a ~nuine trussed
beam reinIorcoment, for in addition to \,er\[c31 loads it will transmit
cqu,dly horizontal forces to the joints of the main system.
rll structures, whenl the secondary elements (subverticals and
subdillgonals, as they are frequently called) transmit the load to
the main joint.'l of thp same chord. all the mom
d a bers may he regarded as belonging to three groupS:
1. ~lcmbers belonging Lo the nlain tmss, the
stresfles in whitll are not influenced by the pres-
Cl.lee of auxiliary systems.
2. Mombers belonging entirdy to the auxiliary
systems, tho stresses in which may be obtained
in tbe same mauoer as for all isolated end-SUp-
ported lrussed ooaru.
Fit. 80.# 3. Members bclongilJg simulLaneollsly to the
main and tho auxiliary systems. Stresses in such
members will be obtained by the summation of those porLailJing
to the main and tlte 3.lIxiliarY systems considered separately.
WIllHl the secondary members transmit the load from the upper
chord to the lower one or vice verila, the truss members wHl form
four dis\.inct groups. Three of tbese have been just enumerated
while the fourth is constituted by such members for which the LTI/llterlce
lines change lkpmdin, on wluofher the load trauels alrmg onc or the
other chord as the pa/ormullu Of such nlRmbers is altered by the pre.<;eMe
0/ the St!Condary ones.
The influence lines for the stresses in memoors of the fourth group
will he obtnined as follows: first draw the influence line for the
appropriatl3 member of the main truss both for the case of a load
travelling along the upper chord and along the lower one, disregard.
iog the presence of the secondary element!!. This being done, examine
the effect of the secondary members, for which purpose shift the load
from joint to joint of the auxiliary ~ygtem, noting with care to wbich
momber of the main tross this load is transmitted.

Problem t. Draw tho innulInco lines for tllO stresses in membllr~ 2-9, 5-4'
and #'7 of the throURIl bridge truss with lIubdivJdud pa.nels rl!jlrE'OOlltod in
Fig. 81.(\(1.
SOlu/lflll. Start wi~h the construction of tllO Influence line for stress Vz:j. 1'110
member 23 bolongs to the firsl group and thl.'refore the corresllondillg influene"
9.<1. Tru.,(H u,ith Subdil'ided Panels 2i~'

,. '
D ~'7-
--- '-
2sina I) !r

(~.I >""'::.J>'::'l!~F-+::.J.-',,,
.' 10 12 I '
.... l-,
!i
I~J ".,
" I- g~.! , '
, ,
I , I'
I , "

: '
rt'
,,
'" :

.-.",

."
'"
'"
I,,~-n

'"

Fig.81.<J Fie. 82.'1

and whon the load !hifls to tho sU[Jporb, thp slre!s D 4'1 becOU><:5 nil. The r,orre-
sponding illnUl1llCI! line is rcpruS()uted in Fig. 81.4c.
As f(lr the ~tre~s in bar 5-4' wllic.h belonll"s to the third grO\lp wo 5hnll paSS
a section I-I IInd aSl3umLng tha~ tho load unity is to the right of lhi5 soctiOll,
w{> shall obtain

.....berefrom
A
D~~, --7iiia
'l'hisllquation indicates that n~ long 811 thl! load i~ to the right n[ llCction 1-1
the influence Uno for V". may!\(l ohtlllnod by muUiplying tll~ ofllinates to lhe
:all

influence JjIlt' for tho Illllltmcllt r~actioll A by (--.-'-).


~1lI a
Having lhus olJtaiTlI't1
the l'i~h1-hll11rl portion of thu innUNLC(l line l'equjl'(!d, we may rtrww its I~ft
hand porlioll using the I'ulo thAt tlmy must inh'r~ect. in Iht' \'E'l'ticd p~~~ing
throllll'h Ihe origin of moments And that Wlll'll tlw IOlul r'ac,he~ th' l~ft-hnl\(l
"hul.mollt Ihe "rdmaw to the inn\lpnc.e lille t'"ducc~ lo ~oru. In It,,, r.~* cOJlSlll"n,d
t.1Ll' odgill ,,[ mOIlHmt, ill inli\litel~' distant, thE' tl'USS chol"d~ lloiug parallel.
Tlw illl'lornce lino will lie completed by coJlllN:ting Iloillls 1I11lld c {orl~'~IHJHL!ini:
to jolnts:i allll :i' (Yig, 81.4/). It is intl'ro"ting to note Ihat for the t,,,~s ul
Fig. 81.1,11 wo should C(lnnoe~ points.: mu] b l:<>rl'l""l,ondlng I" joint~ .'1lL,,11 7
(,]jmilloting thor0h~' tho triangle abc which roJlrt'5.mU Il'i: infitHme" li"e for Ih",
'''''ml>er ,~-4' "f (ho auxiliary I!)'~tem (~imit8r to till' I>JlU ShOWl1 ill t'i~, IHA~
for the llwmb"r 4'-7).

Problem 2. Ilequired the infiuene" line for th0 str"ss r 3, t.of tlte throlllo:l,
hdtllo:e t'IIS.~ ~hown in ~ig. 82.fJ'I.
Sob, lion. The verLic,a1l.1110er con5ideratitJ!! heloHging to tllO) fourth gn'"Jl ,,[
Utel1lhcr~, wc m\l~t bE'gin wit,h the const-rucli,)fl of llw infl\l.~nce lines relative to
this lU('[nher for loads travelling along the lIPPll!" and IOWN chords of tit" Utai"
"y,'lt,,'n, rellrC\.'\Ilnteil i" Fig. 82.4b.
For lids PlLrJ~OSl) llll liS jlaSS section I-I and wriU.' Ihat IM ob.,ut point k
for tlw lert-hand purl uf tlw lr,,~ (,qul,ls 7('fII when tilt' load IIn(ty Is to th" right
of Ihis ."Celion

wlwnce
M
V~.=O - a+2d

Ct'""OOlillg tlu. ordinate "~21/ at theleh-hand abutment witb I.h.. T.lm, ordin-
aLo lit lhe rilht-hantl une we shaH obtain the I'ilJhl-hallu p<lrtion of Lho innUonell
lTlle roquln.". Ih II.l{l.--hnn,1 portion will be deL'I\'ed from the rule lllnt tho two
hut's ;llways i"tor~~t und'r the origin of 1lI01ll('nt~ (point k). hI CUSl' Lhe load
t'avt'ltt'.:! ulo"g IllO lower chord tho ~.ompleted infiuonc{' tilll' isohlltirred tradllg
tht' o.:ollu('cting !in.., through the I/Vints ellrr('spontlill~ to jnirrt~ Sand ."i
((o';g, tl2.4r) and, i[ tho loads Wl'rt) "11I'lie<1 tt, thEl uPI"'. chord. thrtmRll the LWo
lloini~ oorrt'6ponoling to jomts 2 aud 1. (I"ig, H2Ad).
TlIC~' two ;nfllLl'nCe Hill'S ~how Ihat whell the load i!l to tile left of jf,ints
J ~Ild 2 or tu IILI> rilIht of jOillt~:; nllt] G, Lhe ~'t,ress in the vertiClll 9~4 [6 iml"1"'ud-
ent of t,ho level of load al'll!kll[ion. But whl'lI tho (oad stands Qve,' jhint$ 3'
"I' S' of thl' lower ehord Ihe sceondnry mt~l1lbers will tralJ~mit it entirely to tIll'
Joint6 of the t1pperoue, which III Ilff,~ct Is L'l:lulvalont to the tran~fcr of the lon<l
!hl'll. Ar.cordingly onlinatNl m-m and n-n will pll'voil at thew ,,,Ollli'll\S,
Nllvt'rtholl'S!l wlwn the lom! moves to joint S all tile !;Iecondary mt~mbor.'l II"eolUl'!'
id I... and it will loo t.he urdinllh~ tI-U in Fig. 82Ac that will give tilt! value of the
slr('S/j V'4'
'rhe;;(' "nlinilte6 will suffice fot' Ihe construction of the infi"",nc,e line flU' till"
IL'USS with ~"h.h\'idlld Jllln\.'I~. The reQuil'od innuI'nc(' lino IW'LI\d~ thll shadtd area
ill Jo'jg. 82.J,e.
Tlou follo"i"ll' l'rohlolll s]lOujd be solvl'd hy thll fl'ad"r Oll IJi~ own.

Pr<>htt!lll. (n) Chock the influence lines pt'rtaining to tI,n through hridgE'
trU5.."t!:l in Jo'igs. 83.4 and 84.1\,
"

IJIJ
,~

Fig. 881

Fig. 81.#
The Tru'so

(b) Draw the i"nuoneo llnes lor strosS05 in the members 01 tb.e same trusses
marked 11)' A "nuble dash.
Hinh. Prinr to the construetion of the influence line for StreSli Vf>9 of the trllsS
In Fig. 81,.4. eliminate all tbe 5E'eondar)' members, thuslinding the Inain system

'"
~ 11}

I :nflllcnce line far II,~ (bpper('l" I....'w/'"


chcr>1 tool/M)
Ib) ~nnm """",,,,,,,,,,,,,.,-;me>-

: IfI(I./JEnce I,I'{' /flr v.ll:!' {iJi/per er-om <1'Ql1frJ}


:I ~ .~7
Id> i__:'-Tm1rnrK::::.r;:.~.{fDrn:rn- .
I ~~
I .,.:
I {n(wC/1ce {lJ1e for lo:'\1f (lrus~' with PllblJwrdffl'
,I jI';fII'le)
,
:

i ~ i
'" ~""':
~
,
Fig .lJ5.1

r",prelll'Jlll'll in Fig. 8~.'ia. Thon uaing the mdhod of joints find the stress VI,
relative to this s)'s\'<'m
ry _ - Vl~-:W~i sin Cl: ""'-0
whl1rl'from
v:...
-2U~. sin Cl:
The 5tre.~5 in bar 8-9 of the main 5)'stem is 'llUS equal t.o that in bar 7-9~or
the Mme system multiplied hy B constant factor (_2sin 0:). The influence lino
/0.4. Thn'$1 Dl';vtloptng Framed Str~cturcl

for the ~tl't'l;.~ U~. i., givl.'n in Fig. 85..1.1>. [t has the shape olan iroscole-s triangle
and its ol'din~t.c at 1he llpax 'lqUllls
I i8 V~ 31/37
4TX=3'.5d""~"O"~-- 4X3.5 x 3 = ---,,-

Thl' influence lino for V~. will havo tho snmo ehap<! and, provIded the !()/ld
travl'js alollll
~lll~ low",r chord, its maximum ordinate wiLl 1.'(IUal (fig. &''l.1c)

31/37 2x1 3
-,,-' V37 <%;7
Oil the othec hand, \\'hl.'n the unit 1000d travdling Illong thu upIX'r chord
It>achl's joint 9 tile equilihrlum of this joint rcqllil'l's that
I;Y_ - Vi.-2U:. sin 0:-1_0
and
,
Vf.= _2C;. sin a.-1--f
Thi.~ influence tiue is shown in Fig. S5.M.
Th(' compariOOIl of the influence lines 01 Fig. 85.4c and d ind(cat.es tlut1 when
the load is eithor to the left or joint 6 or to lhe right of joint 10 the stress is
indeplllldl.'llt of the level of load application.
At the saHIe time any load appliod to tho sccondnry joints of pllnlll~ 6-8
or 8-10 is VanslDltted to the upper chord and may be regllrdod liS acting directly
at the joints 7.9 or 11,
The corre~ponding innuence liue for tho truss with suhdivided pnncls i~
.~hown III FIg. 85 ..'\.""

1OJi. THHUST DEVELOPING FRAMbD STRUCTUIIES


1. TRUSSES WITH INCLlNED SUPI>ORTS
If tIle ..erticaI supporting har representing the roller support
of all ordinllry truss is replaced by an inclined one, the sysl.em 00-
comes a thlUSt developing truss as in addition to vertical reactions
it will be characterized also by horizontal reactions at the abutments.
Let us examil1c the ercheeI truss in Fig. 86.4a. Dl;lnoting by V A
.f! A and VD, H D the vertical and horizontal components of the abuL-
menl 'rf!ll.ctions A and B respectively alld hy x the distance from the
load unity to the left-band abutment wc shall obtain
l/A-lI B =<H
Equating to zero tbe moments of outer fortes about the hinges A
aud B wc get, 011 the othor !laud

VA =-,- 1-",
and VB=T
'"

The two latter equations are exactly th.e same as for an ordinary
simply supported truss or beam and the, corr<'sponding infiuenct'
Lines are represented in Fig. 86.4c and d.
r\~ f'l:'l{ards the innllonoo line for ~he lhrust If i1. 111 ay he rltlrh'cd
lL~ing the relalion cxisling ootwl'cn If alld 1'1/ (Fi:;:. 86.4b)
H-Vnl"OLex
The innlll'ncc line tOl' {-( obtaiucd by lllulli[Jlyilll,! nil the oroillales
IU lIw il1nIJCIll"~ lino [Ut V IJ by col, a is relltl~Sulll('d ill FiK, 80.41'.

19
la'

, ~
H A
,
-___I..fS.._
,

I,; :::
__ :':: (b)~:
Vs Il.._a i
8
"4 , , ~
,,,, I I , HrHA"'H
ICI J~ce ll~for ~
'~!III!!Iiljjl'I"i.
~
Id!
, ,line for
,: Influence ,

, , I !
I InflllflflCl? line for If
I I ,

,
: ' , I

Inf'wence line toro;'


, irn,
.;rr, n;;,;;;:rr"'lIllW

Let 118 now draw the innuenco line for thl' stress in !'OlllC lruS!t
IIlcml!or, t'll)" ill har 5-7..For this purpose Il.'t 111; pa:-s 11 :>eclioli J-I
:md placing t.he load llllity to the right of this sed.ien, let us equate
to T.cro the mOIl)CIIl.! (flbout point k coinciding with joint 6) of all
lhl' extern,,1 furt'f'!'! acling un Ihe Icft~hllnd IlIIrtion of the trllS-Il
IAfIt = V.1xlt-llYIt +U~1hlt =0
wherefrom
10.1. Thrill' Or"tcw"i"f[ PrllI,"rd Strurll1r~

When the unit load is tlpplicd at point p. lying ill the same "erti-
cal with tbe point of intor.it!Ction of lint's A K and BF (point F).
the stress in bar 5-7 becomes niL for the resultant of all the (Ofel'>j
applied to the ldt of ~Iiol\ {-1 pa5.'!"OS througb poinL k nnd thc
momcul.- uquatioll bocomes
'f,i\1J. =US1 /J" = 0
.\ccnrdingly point F. is a neutral point [or the :;Irc~~ U~1' At the
::ll:llIlC lime Lhe torm (1111- fly,,) cntering tho uxprcs.'liolL for L'~1
is equal to the bcntlillg moment in !'OCtion k of a tbrf't'-Itingl'd lln:ll.
'Hen,,!, the c.(ln!<lructlon of the innulJllcO Hnc Ior stress UH Itlny he
clIl'rit'll out in the ~nn1t wny Ill' Lhnt for tho bunding momllnL acUllg
ul'cr SCl't[Oll k of tllC said [lrch. provided nil the ordinatus of I his
latter:lre multipliud by (-~). CO/lscquently, havillg Ini.l off
the ordinate ( - ii) O\'cr the left-hand llbulmenl we must COlIIlCct
this nrdinatc \\;th the ncutrcll point f and tlUHl utend this lille until
liS illterscction with tbe vert.ical passing through joint H. Tile leH
part. of the influence line will be obtained bearing in mind that it
must pass through the zero ordinate at the left-ha lid abutment and
must intersect with the right-band part. in a vertical passing through
t.he origin of moments. The two lines being dra .....n. the positions
of joint 5 should be ma.rked Oil the left. ont: and that of joint; on
the right one, these two points being linally connected to form lite
completed line represented in r~ig. ~6.4/.
l...ct us now cOllsidcr a truss with supports at ditfcreot levels
(Fig. 87,1ia). We shall commcm~c by constructing the innuence
lines for the reactions. For this purpose we may resolve the right.
hOlld reaction n iutll its vertic.al Ilud hori1,ontlll compOllcnt., V1,
and IllJ:lt II point b' situated at the same level as. point A. Dcnot-
ing I\S usual the horiwutal and verlical components of roaction A
Ly l' A and If.... and plllcing the unit load 11 distance.l: fcom Lho IjJ(t
hand support, wo may then write the equilibrium cf.juatiolls o( the
11l0IllCIll.::Ilirst about point b' and then nbout the centre of thc hillgtl A
IM b = V A (1., + If)-l (1, +l:-x) = 0
IM A = -VB(l1 +If )+ 1x=0
whrllf'e

" 'fhe in8uenu line for I'll will pcrllli~ the determination (or reatUoll n tor
(Ill}" po.!ition of a vertical load using the fOMula B =- .VB 'rhe s:.me
lllnt<
"",ul~
mal' Ill.' achieved with ~he aid o( the influence line for H 11 !illt~' D _ 11" .
CO! Cl.

1~-8Ii3
The Tr,u,..,
'"These two expressions are represonkld graphically in Fi~. Si.4c
nnd d whic.h show t.h.at the ver~ical reactions of the truss \':try cSllctly
in lhe AAmc way as dIOse of
'" r a silllply supported beam with
a spa n of I = 11 -;. 1: (Fig. 87 Ab).
iJ'
The horiwllLal projection of
all the force! ading on the truss
snuws that
i 'I'
I ' , :

'~'Y'1- 1":,' 1'


, lnll~t>"fP t,,,, v.. '
I...
'<J ~ :,!.J,: ,
'I~:
,~ :J
,d' :~ib:-}.-- v.
.'. , ' . ,
I

,
,
0
0
0
0
"'.
,,, ,,
,
,0
, ,,, o
o

, (8' :"\'
'"
"- --._-----~----' .-!!..
~\:
o
,~~"",
, ,

~
~1.~/,1:"':'.... : ILi ,cl",: "
:"'.f~I'"
1', : ,r, '.
if) !~b;-~11:; 0"

f'/". ,n.l Pig. aNA

Th~ rdation between Jl and VI' may he foulld b}' eqUltlill:::: ID


1.e1'n the sum of their moments about hinge C (Fig. 87Aa)
I.M c = - Vn1: +11/ = 0
wh'refrom
/1= vJJ:
I
III thi.'l cxpn>'!1<ion VDl: = .M! is the hending moment IIftiug over
soction C o( it ~imply supported beam, spanning (ll I:), wheTl +
the lo"d P jg to the left of thi~ section. Consequently, the thrust.

11 equals II~C which is exactly the samo as in the Cl'IllC o( a thrt'e-
hinged anll with n span of (it -j- 't) aod a rise C'qual to; (Fig. 87.'it').
It ig npP:lrcnt that thl;l in[]uence lino for H oblailled h)' ffi\lltiplying
227

all tlle ontinntcs of the line for VB hy ; will coincide witl. lbllt
for t.he thrust. of an arch 8110WII ill Fig. 87.4/.
The influence line for the stroS,<; in har 24 of t.htl Slime 1.rll5."1 may
ht olJlained pll$.'!ing a. section I-I (Pig. 88.44) and writ.ing that.
T.M ",b011 I. 110illt 3 cqual~ l,()I'O when load P = 1 ill tu tilt! right, \,!r
lids S<'cliun

where[rofll

''f'lcn the Ji~lioll of load P pa~J; t.hrollgb point P (Fig. S8.4tl'.)


t.hp. !llres.<; in bill' 2-4 will reduce 1.0 zero. for in this CAse l"lOinl iJ will
fall on the line of acti(lll of the re."lIltant of V A and IJ A' Kno" i IIg
the position of the neutral point and using the above expl't'SSioll
for L~; the inOl1CIlC<l line is readily drawll. cspccilllly if WIJ ltlkC'
ht'er! of thll analogy C!xisLing between t.he expression", for L z, llllll
for the blmding mOllwnt acting over a corresponding ~clioll of
n thrcc-hingtld I1rch (see Fig. :12.3/). As the first differs from ~hl' latter'
ouly by a constant. factor 1., the influence line relative to the right
port of till) truss may be ohtainl'd hy laying off aD Ordillltl.c.!!.
, d\,er
th/' Illft SlIpport and by connl'Cting it with the projccliOl1 jl{ neutral
point 011 the horizollt:ll, Which giVl's \15 line all (Fig. 88Ab). The
line correspollding' to the ldt part of the truss will be drawn lISillV
till' wcll~knowlI rule that lhe two must intoN!e('.t in a vorticnl Jlassiulj
through t!lll origin of mOments (point .1). The inflllell('e line for D H
obtained in 3. silllilaJ:' wny iloC shown in Fig. 88.4c.
I nnllCnCO lines for \VBb members of af\;h trnsso.'S with parallel dumb
can be oblllined hy projocting Lhe !ltre~~'s nctil1g in all tllo nll;'lDhcl's
c,ut by a section on a normal to tht'_ chords, the method of ffil'mcnls
being illO[k'rativc in t.his lOa~ as the chob inlCrscet at a point illfini-
tcly distant.
FM in!"lancO, the nrdiTlntt.~ lo the innuonce lill(' for Iltrcs"l D~. or
the truS!! represcllted in .~ig. M9.4a CRII lx' found by (!IIUaling tu
7..cro tlte projections of all tho forces ncting to the Il'fl of scclinl1
1-/011 a normal to the dil"l'Ction of tht' rhord members 5-7 alld 4~6"


l~ shollld 1'0 TClflcml'crcd that J/.\ = If" 0:::. J! "nl\ that slr(l..'!.'oes in Ihe hod-
7.nnul <leek lIlembers re1{laln nil M long as tIll) IOlld8 mmnin vel'Ucnl.
228

where rp=augle between the chon\ memJ~I's ftlld the horj],outal


et =angle formed by the diagolJal 5-6 witlt t.he \"crtltnl.

.~',

(en
5
\ 'f-,
~71- ,, ",, ,
" , ,
,
,
,
,
,, ,
,,
v, "
: In{u/('(1(:f' t.ne (or I
,
, 1 'D." I
j-..., I "", '
--'._,.". I ,
,, '
COllfll/Cling line-I
,, r

,'.-,

Fig. 89 Ij

From lhis l1quation wc obtain

D~a = ~OO~,,,(~~-=o.,) (V A cos Ip-H si 11 If)


Dw = t (Q1co.~If'-1I:;illq.o)
eos{o: '1
wiwm Q~ is the shear in n simply SUppol'lC'd beam of Lilo same span.
The tt'rm (Q1 CO!! 'P - IJ sill 'P) being identical with tho expression
of Lite sh~r acting over a CI'O.'SS section o( a three-hinged arch, tht
innuencc line relative to the right part CI( t.lu, truss can be constructed
in the same maUller a!I that for the shcnr in an art"_h (.9C<.' Fill. 33.3dI.
This means that an ordi nate equal to cost,': If' "'lover the lert a butlllellt
must be cOllnected wit.h th~ IIeutral point I dt:termined by projecting
on tlllo! x-ax.is the point of intersection of lilies b'B lInd AF (ill Lhis
pllrticular caso Iillc AF is parallel to the chord membe~ 57 and 4-/j
and Im:::.sos through point B). The lille relative to the Idt part of tht
truslI will bf.! paralll'l to the OOIl pel'Lainiog to its right part due t.o
the parallelism of thu c1\Ords.
TJw completed inflUlmcQ line for stres."i D~$ is represunted III
Fig. 89.1,.1.1 whilll anot.her influence Hue namely that for stresli D Jl
obtainc<l in 1\ simil3r way is reprosentcd in Fig. 89.4'.

2. THnBE-Ur..'GEO T'tUS<;BD ARCHES

Were the right-hand supportin~ bar of t.he truss shown ill


Fig. 87.4a replaced by some Iramed system sueh as syslem CH
C

--


Fig. 90.1

(Fig. \JOA) wc would obll:lin a three-hinged tnu!sed arch, consisLing


t!sscnlially oC two pin-connected truS!lCS with immovable hinge
supports.
Let US t\x;lmin~ a ~binged llrch with supports At the same
level represcntl'd in Fill, 9t.4a_ BeLh vertical reactions and tbrwit
for such systenlll are determined ill exaetly tho S3mc way a!l' in the
CA!'e of .solid ::Itches. TlllIs. for a load uuity situated a disLanec ;t
Crom thc left ablltment, feactiolls 'V A and V 8 will amount to
=-,- and V s =,
l-z Z
VA

whil", tht! thrllst J( will c11llal ?o~~ where All) is the bendinglllolllent
,., TIu rruu~.

r Z 'j

8 , "
~====l7'-
v.
(b) '.

le)

Id' I I In{luet"lCE' lim: fo'- h


L,
f

I I
(eI;~'
11 I I
r ~f y,-,-----I'
If)
0,10/
I I J,,!lflt!fla lw for Lt_ !
7 Q!l-otll!J~r;..r; I
=-"
Fi,. 9/.d
10.4. Thr"" Dt~klpUtK FnulU:d S/rllrluru

Acting over Lhc corresponding t:ro~ .!lCction of 11 :<imj)ly supported


'"
~alO of tbe sam~ ~pall. cllrrying tile MIllC load.
The i1\Ollon(o 1i1lC$ for the vertical reactions ancl the thrust are
shown in Fi:. 91 Jill. r ~/ld d.
As rc:anJ!l' strossei:'! inl.!lI"I'1.! in the sepArate memher!! of tile
Sl'tlli-an>hes it is dellr LIIfIL liS IOlJg as tha 108ft is appJieu directly
to till' !;Cllli-arch Itllclc;r c,o",~iderntion the othur on(l IIllll' hl) flcti-
tiollsly rcphll;l.\(l hy all itH'litwd sUppOl'linl: rod, III uther words,
till' ~ystcm may bu rt'ducmJ tu the case of a ,osinlj,le lruss with snlll)Orls-
at tliffcrcnt level~. whiell has heen just (l.\:tlilliftCd,
Thl' t'onstrurtion of innllC'nc.Q lines for lht! 1:Itrc5..~'" ill 1JI{'.IIt1iCf.5
of ,:,iuch l~ i1:l Illroady r(lillili"r to lhe reader who willl'asil)' rol~
low that of tho innllt"lIee lint' ror 2' ShOWH in rig. !ll..'tl". II remains
to lind Ollt what happens when the l()<ld shirts to the other sel1li-
arch. In lhnt C::lse till} load may Ixl rcsolYed inlo two COtnl}Ol\clIts.
tlte lirsl of which is applied at the crown hinge and till;' ulher ~o
a joilll clirectly ovor lh(l abulment at the oppo!"itc cnd of the IIn'h.
'I'll\! urdinalcs lo lhl innuence line when uuit lond P acts over the
croWtl hin~c fllUl Uw flbulnlOllt am well known And equal U,
(Fig, 91.11CJ and 1.("1"0, rospl,t:'tively, Ar.GOl'dingly, in the ensu of lIar
2-4 wh.. . n t!lll load Lr<t\'ols. flOVlU !tinge C tOWOt'ds the riglll, lhe stI'('SS
wilt var), lioNlrly frolJl !!r \.U 0 io Ilccordonce with the lxprl'.o;,<Jioll
L /.:-; I:: 0
~l -=-,-,- Ye:-;-11
Tbo corresponding i'ln lJrllce line will be ~ presented by Lhl,.! "Lf':I ight
Iinc connectiog Ye with point b as shown in Fi.!!. 91.4/.
Several i.,Ollcnc.c lilies for sll1'sscg in IncmlJcns of diffcrent trussed
arcbes arc repre5<'ntcd ill "'ig. 1)2,4. Two of thc.'iC s)stcnl~ have their
cnd supporls tit different levels. In sYlltoms or the taller t)'P<l it is
more cOIl\'eniellt to re!WI~e the ahutmcnt reactions along n vcrtic_al
and SI line whil,;.h connec,ts tho abutment hinges (Fig. 93.4). 'fhe \'or-
tiCi'll I'cactil)llll V A and Vii will be clolermined from tho well-kllowll
equl\tions
v~ = '-;~ aud Vt,::::lI-T
'rhe compouellts Z .... and Za of tile abut"lell~ reactioll." Wlll.'n
only vertical loads are involved will he given by
Ml,
ZII=ZD=Z=,,-

where h is tht! lever aml Gf CGmpOllcllt Z about the crown hinge C.


The thrust 11 is casily round from
l/ =Zcoso:.
2"

1 11 ,I ,
-----r-"ii1r- :- ~/
"'" If7/lW~ Un,e "{)fl:"
1,1 .
,,
,
: I,
, '
I I
, I t I
I fn(lIimcl [jPt for Gp
I .
,, ,,
I I
''
f,
,
,~

It /
, " '
'bI
"
" ,

,<! 1
'+"'i>\-""~~
- , ~Q I
,,,
" ,,,
,
," "
"
,,
l... _.!!L..:....! '
I I :
; I! I
:,,,rw~,l"nr fIN" : : I

~
~t--/ f,

Fig. 92.4
233

wh(Jrc et is the inclination to the horizont-al of tbe line passing thfOlIgh


the llboLffitlllt hillgtJS A and B.
f---~''----lP<

z
r \~ 8 ,
Gl)_-----
,
V'

1,

Fig. 99.4

'"J

FIg. 9J...4

This cIl8bles us to rewrite the expression. for the thrust as follows


M'l; M'b
H = Zcos/]. = -h- cos a= ---;;:-
cos 0:
As the term co~ a repl'Csents the length of the verticlll insert bel-
weBn the line connecting tbe llbuLment hingi.l~ {Iod the crown hing"
we may denote it by ! whereafter the expression for H will lK'e')Illl'
M'
11=_"_
/
The reader is invited to check the accuracy of the innucnec lint'"
for the tbrust H of the trussed arch represented in Fig. 94.4.
The Truue&

t 1./i. \',\ RIANTS OF' TB USSED ARCHES


Let liS con.~idcr !hll trussed llrcll with elevalc~ tic provided with
lItH' fIxed aud onc roller support ns shown ill Fig. \):').4. This stllt.kaJly
dcu'J"lrllna!;,> arch. mar he obtairll'd by replndng" the LlIclirwd bar
of Ilw right.-haud abutment support hy the tie ub absorbing the thrust.
Thll method of stress Illlaly~is for similar tied archel! is ilhlslratcd
IwrcundCI' using liS an example the structure ropreselll{ld schomatical-
Iy in Fig. VG.tiu. The influOllw lines for reactions V.\ alld VU MC'- of
the usunJ triilllglll<lr Shlll>C WillL ordiua\..cs equnl to unity undcr the
~IIPflorls a.~ shown ill Fig. 96.4b and c. TIll! influence lino for the
{')l'(e It ill tILe tic (cquivalunt to the thrust /I) wHl be readily dOl(ll'-
milled by equating to zero the moments (about crown hinge C) of
nil the rorers to the left uf sectiun I-f wlll1n load unity P is tu the
right then'o[

,.
L:M c = v..1, -[-11/ = u
whcrC'frlJnJ
I" I MllC
J1 ... -'-~--
"'-I !
Whcll till! load is applied to the left uf the section the Clluatiol)
bcc(JnH'~

H'= Vnl = MS
2} I
Al'cMdingly, loh., influence line for the force H may be obtained
by muLtiplying tlle urdinates of th(j bellding moment M~ acting
(lvl'rseC-lion C o( a simply suppOt'Lcd beam by a constant factor
Thi:-; influence line is rcpre."'l'ntcd in ~'ig. 96.4.d.
+.
'I'he influence line for stre:>.s L~ (Fig. 96.11a) may be obtained
IHI~in!(' SUction f.{-If and writing that I:M about point k or all
rorce~ to the l('rL of this section equals zero

'f.M.. . = V.\a . . -//j -.L,.h~~ 0


where[l'om
I
L,= T(V"'u.. . -Hfj
The neutral point correspondillg tu L,. win fall 011 tlle vertical
pm;;;ing through the intergection of lines a.k aud ble. The completed
innuence line for D, is given in Fig. 9().4e.
Fil{ 1)5.4

Ifl f

" ,
Ill:!
1 :1
I :
Il
~ :1

V~ I
,I "
" 11-8
(/J) Ilt'[[llImmII]nrU:~"~,ni~~,~'~in~,~rO~;~v.~=_Ji
, , ,
: !! : :
(,) f~fl~ll

_=m="'CIOIII~(IDIJ!IJJIj]JJJJJJljJJ
1
Id1. 1----- , 11 i

Influeff<:B line for'"


- - - .. 'I
I - ... -
I
I
I
1I
I
Zf I .n:oJlIllJll!IlU :
.~ "
d
"I,
r,)
"""

Fiff. 96'A
The Trusses

The reader is invited to draw the influence Jines for stresses in


other m(\mbers of the structure.
Let us now consider a system consisting of two pin-eonncctlld
trusses and a multihinged arch, two variants of whie-h are sJtown
ill Fig. m.!fI/. and b. It is easily proved that such gystems constitute
lwyie-.lding combinations and remain stntically detnrminate. Methods
oE stress anaJysi.~ for these systems will be shown ulling as an example
the slt'ucture in Fig. D8.4a.
All osual the influence lilies for vertienl reactions V A Ilnd Vu
will be tri:lngnlal' in shape with orrlinates cquaUing unity 8t the

("
Fig. 97./

sUJlPorts (Fig. 98.4& and c). It is ea~y to prove that tho horizontal
components of stresses acting ill all thl! memlwrs of tJle Dlultihinged
anll ASB remain constant th~)llghoUl tJle system fur any givet).set
of vertical loads applied to the trusses AC and CB. For this purpose
consider tho equilibrium of any joint (>:ay. joint n - 1 ill Fig. 98.4d).
Projecting all the forws 011 the horizontal we get

:EX = -N"_11,;(;8 a,,_j + N" cos a" =0


wherefrom

where

and
N"cosa:,,=llll
I"

'"
'" I
ICI .~, r--

(,, ""

If I

i , i-
JI.c:: I
/ z
,/
/

",.

If' fd11 ~~[JIJ"'"'"


",1",
FIt. 98.4 Fig. 99 "
'38
Then-rore
lf n _ l =IJ.. _dl
Nn_ t = IT N = -.!!..- . etc.
oos 0';"_1' n COS: tt" '

Projectillg lhe .';lIllll) fQrct!s all t!Lt! vtlrtical we ohtain


:Y = j{ tall a,,-JJ Lan CI./l-\- V';_l =-0
WhCl'cfrorn
Y"-l = II (tall 0:" -tan an_I)
'Jlll' allOvc oxpre:'lsiolls indieatll that the influence lilLl's for"',stros.scs
ill all thl' sepal'ale links uf tllo arch as well as in all the ver'liCld>;.
ot' ~lJspellsions wilt haye the samtl shave as the infiu('l1ce line for llie
lhrll!'t H.
A.~ for the latwr, it may he obtained by passing section 1-1 (suc
FiU. 9S.4n) aull by equatillg to zero the sum of 1ll01ll11l\L'S l1hUllL
tho crown hin!l'o C or all tho forces llppJicd to the lefl of tlle S/xlioll.
lIw slres.<; N"+l ac~irlU on llinge Shaving heen JlfCviow,ly rm:o(vl~ll
into two COlllpolll'nl~ Hand Illall an+!

I.M c = VA {-+llf =0

lJ=- V.II =_ Mb
21 f
Tlll' Ill'A"l'lLi\'o v{l[uC) of f{ imliealef; lhllt all tlte liJJk~ of t1[O arch
ar(' compre,'l.'le(L The influence line for H if; a trianglo wilh its ape-x
turned downwards rlod situated cLirectly under tJJ() crown hingo
C Wig. 9RAe).
Lot U~ flOW ('OJ1:;truct the influenco ljn~ for slros.", U .... For this
pllrpo."l-l \\'(' sholl pass see-tioll JI-IJ CClllllting to 1,lll"O t.he momcuts
or all tho InrCIl!l aLout point In WltCIl tlu; load unity llet.'! to the right
of this ~('di(J[1

wlll'refrolll

{I" 7_
< Il{/",,-l! (Ym +hlj= -1'
-/itl' < .
[Ar,',,-ff (y",-h)]

Il will bll ob~rv('l1 tbat the term ill IJra(;kel.'ll'(!llrc:;(mts till' !Jt'Il(lillg
IllorlH!J1t acling ovel' sec.liolt K of a IktitiOllS lhl"ee-hingl'd HIx;h or
till: ,"-111110 l'pnll whose cruWr) hinge e(JQrdinal>s llOO equal to f 11IId
i while Ilto~l' of the l'cntroid of section K equal (I,m. am! (Ym. + h).
11.-1. VllrlQ:IlU 0/ rr,,~..,d ;lrc!.,s

This wiU enable us to find the IIOSitioll of the neutral point pertaill-
ing to the inRllellcu line for U~. For 'hi.' purpose we shall tirst local~'
the centroid of section K along tho vertical pnssing through the oti-
"ill of moments m Wig. ~.4a) after which the lincs A K And BS
may be drawn, t.heir intcn'CCtion determining tbe ab~i.ssa ()( tile
neutral point required. The completed influence line for U" is shown
in Fig. 98.4f.
In order 1.0 COIll'trucl the inRuenoo line for dress D~ in OIXl or
the diagQoals let us equate to tero the sum of verLical projeetiOll~
of RIl the foras to the left of !'ection Tl-JI (soo Fig. 98.4a) when
the ullit load is to the right of tltis section
~y = V A-H tiln a"-D,,sin ~=O
",hellc~

D .. =~(V ",-11 tall Cl,,)


..111 I'
The lattor ~qualiotl '!hows llL~t lill' required influence lille Conn
be ohtRi/led through the summation of lhe ordinnt.cs to th~ innlll'nce
line for ~'\" with llle ordinates to the illllucllce line for the th['Il~t
lUll "

If 1ll11ItiJllierl hy ( - ~;~~,,) .
Thc lIcutral Jloint method call hll u!'>tltl for the eonslructiOIl of
D" innuoncc HlIe too. For this pllrpol;ll we mUllt !irst find the pusitioll
of the unit load for which thl! expl'\.'lsiulI (V.\ - l/ tan an) rUdUCl'$
to 1.cru. III this expression V'l /l1'lL1 If call Uc regardl'd as UIO "crLicat
reacUoll and thrust flf:l rlc_titinu~ arch of the sa 1110 span as the nctunl
structure nnd having for coordinate-Cl of the crown llingo f llntl I

(F;. 08.41).
The pollition oC the neutral point will be derh'ed from

D. =~(V
SIll t'
"'-Ht.llna,,) .... O
5110""il1l{ that
v.
7l = tan a"
The Inller eonditioll may be flllrLilod only if tho loft-hnnd 8hlll.-
ment rellCt.jOll A of tIll' thfl,'C-hinged Arch rorlllA with the hori1.01l11I1
nil allg1u tL,. TIll' 1I0\ltral point will btJ ~i1uated at the- intefSlNtiull
of this ronction witb rc<lction B or the fictitious arch. thu lat,ler Ilctill!r
1l1'c.esMrily along n line pos.",illg through tho crown nnrt tho ril(ht:-
hand abutment hinges. The complekd il1[Jllence Iille for fllrclls D n
is represelllcll ill ri!t. 98.4h.
Th~ Truuf"

Let ItS now examine a structure in which tho two tnt~s surmouut
tllo 1JI1111ihingoo arch AS shown in Fig, 99.44. This :I)'stem is geomet-
rICICIl}, ~HaLl\J and stalically detcrmiOl1IU, it."! main PtlcuJiarity resid~
lrl!t io lhe flu:t that it takClS support Ilt four distinct points A', B',
A' anti 8-,
The following prO'dure lJlay be recOlllmelldt.'d for the determina-
tion (If thl' ahu(lRtHH renctiollJl;: the dircction!': of tht> extreme links
<If the IllUltihingod arch should be e:<tcnrlocl uutil their intersection
wHit till' 'Nli<:als dr~,,'n through lhl' c,cnlrcs of tho abutment hing4:S
A' allll il' M the trusse!!, Hero till! 1't,\llCtions arisinl:!' in thl! l\xtreme
liuk.s IlInr he rosolvod along n I'llrtiCIlI and a horiWlltnl direction
illl\l Lwu c;olllJJOMnts 1':1, H,\, flllcll'ij. Jf n. Iospccllvt'ly (Fig. !J9.4a),
A.'3 alrl.\ady shown in t.he bcginuing (If this artich~ If 11 = Ill! = If.
ll:willg denoted by V:.. nnd Vj, tho rt,nctions at the supporls A'
fUlIt /J' 1\11..-1 by VII llnd V 1) t,he lolal \...l I'tical reactions of tllll WllOle
"'ySll'1l1 Wt' IHI"\'

rill' t'tjlUltioll expressing the equilibrium of the 1Il0menL.. alxJut


the point of inll'flleCtion of V JI :llld If 1) gh'es

whC'I"Frotll
,. _ V.
1"11- Jt
+ y,- .41#1><:'
1",\==-,-

where .lIc>:1 is thc moment of all the external loads acting 011 the
slnl(~tllre about Lhe same point.
r t follows that the .~um 01 the l.It:'rltcal components Of reactions V A
(Jmt V~'" is equal to the reacti(i/O of a simply supportl.'d beam.
Tho thrust JI will be cOIl"cnitwtJy determined Ly equating to zero
IILo sum of momenls "hauL th(' cl:!lltrlll hjnge S of all the forces acting
011 Iht, It!ft (or righl) half of thp structure when Ihe (flad unity is
10 the right lnen.'Of
, L
I;Ms = l'11 ~-lff -Ms =0
wllcr{'From
-,,~
lJ~-,-

J1~ Ut'iog the bending moment acting at midspan of n simply sup-


pl,rlcll beam carrying the same load.
COll~quently. the inOllellee lino for the thrust H will have the
,,1l1lpe of nil iS05('.(>lcll triangle repJ'CStllJted ill Fig. 99.4b. The vertic<l!
11.4. l'llrlanb o} Tr""rd Arc/,," 241

reae.Hons v:\ and Vii can be also expressed in terms of the thrust II
V:t=Htantp and V;=Htanlp
It follows that the influence lines for these two reactions will
take the shape of the triangle shown in Fig. 99.4c. TILe reaction
V~ will be deducted from

V.A= V A-V:" = V A-lItalllp


This expression shows tltat the required influence line may he
IIbtained by the summation of the ordinates of two othor iJ,flw;nct-
lines, namely, that for the abutment reaction of an end-supported
beam and tllat [or the thrust If, tho latter being multiplied by
1\ constant factor (-tan cpl. As is well known, the first of thcflC two
influl:'IIce lines is a right triangle with an ordinate equal to unil,y
over tlle left.hand support.
The influenc,e line for V~ could be also obtained by the nClIlral
pQint method. Tho position of tho neutral point is conditioned by
V~=VA-Htancp=O

SILUwillg that the ratio ;1- must be equal to tan lp. The latter condi-
tion will be fulfIlled when the resultant of V A and If (e.g. the lefL-
hand reaction of the fictitious three-hinged arch represented in
Fi.!:'. 99.4d) will be 3t an angle of lp to the Ilorizontal. Thus, the
11osition of tl1e nelltral point relative to the reaction V.A will be
del,ormined hy the intersection oC the abutment reactions A and 8
of the said fictitious arch. It follows that in order to draw the influ-
011('.(l lillo for V~ by the neutral point method, on ordinate equal to
unity should be laid off along the vertical passing through the loft
abutment; this ordinate 3hould be then connected with the neutral
point and extended until the int(lrsection with the vertical passing
through the crown hinge, the ordinate so obtained being flOallr
coullected to a point of zero ordinate at the right.hand support
(Fig. g9.4e).
I( it were required to construct the influonce line for t.ho stress
acting in some chord member of tbe truss, say, member (11 _ 1) n
wc should procood as follows. Having passed section [w} and equating
to l.{'_ro the moment about hinge k of all the forces acting on the l~rt
part or the trusll we obtain
IMk= (V.A + VA) QII-H'y,,-Lnh =0
whcreFrom
ln this exprcssioll M~ is tho bendillg momelltllctillg oyer ~'c-lioll
k of II thrcc-hillgcd arr-h who:ic span I equals that of the i;trnctllr('
invulvcd, whil~ tbo l;{lntroid coonlinatc5 oqual ah. and Yif.. TIlt' (0111-
11[(,I(,t! influence line ohtained by thb method is roPt1.l$t'lltcd in
Fig:, H9.4j,
Let us considcr flOW the CIJlI~tructioll o[ the illnuenc.e linl' for tlK'
~lrc.o.,'l ari,~ing in 0110 or tho web tucmtmrs. say, ill lIll' dillJ!OIWI lm
uf I,'il!. nflAa. As long as the load unity J'I..'mains to tlln - rig-Ill or
!iN'liou I-I, the slrt'SS J)" will bo dctl'ftllincd by Lhl} cquntioll
~y = V'l~D" sin "~If tan If" =0
wlJCrdJ'om

J)" =-.-
, (V A~H tan 1',,)
Sill a

indicating Llllit. the neutral ]Joint will be loc-IlLed in Lhe lino r>i ndion
of a load rtllldcl'illg ~l = tll!t Ip",
As Ilas alreadr beell melltioned, Lhis hOl:Ollles pos~ib'o wlJllll lh~
I'CS1Jllnnt A ot V A and If, ill othnr worrl$, the left-hmul rc:\('lwll
of a l1ctitious thfLt(t.--hiClged arch in Fig. 9tl.4d, i~ illdined tltJ'ouJ,th
an angle!p" 1,0 the horiwntal. Hence the neutral point \yilllHJ dl)ler-
milled by tho intersection of a line plissing through the ItJl't-haml
abutment at nn auglo ql" with the horiwlIl<'l1 anrl 11 line cOlln~)ctillg
the righL-lland abutment with '.he CI'Own hingn. 'Jlw innlllHll'C Iillll
fOl' -"tress D" will he obwincd by laying 01T the ol'dinalfJ ~In -.-'-
r::t
over
the left aLutmcllt and by connecting this ordinate with the projectioll
or the neutl'al point on the x-axis.
To fll)t! that part of the inlluence Hlle nlo.Hve to the Illft pOt'liolt
of the sentistructul't', a Hne parallcl to th.e iirst should ht' (IrawlI
through the 7.1)1'0 point at tlte left ahllLmeut wlleroaftel' the posilioll
of tile joinl::>k 11 lid It shall be marketl l)tl these LWo lines and cOlllleel.ed
Logcthor, That portion of Llle influence lino rorro~ponding to Ihe
dght half of tlu~ ~lrllcllll'll will be ob!.ainccL by ronnC'r[ing Ihe III'dill-
ate at Ihe CI~!Wn hinge with the zel'O point ovel' the ri~ht-Itnlld Hhlll-
ml;'llt. Tho t,:,olllplclecl lille is rt.11lrt.'SCld-eu ill .Fi~, \J0,4R'.
Illfluollce line~ ft\[, any other web l1\c.mher 01' veltil'.al CVlllI('clilljo[
Lho ltlultihillgct!ardl wilh tlle truss can llll obtained in a similarwa)'.
5. SPACE FRAMEWORK

1.5. GENERAl.
Itl <1 1II05t general way oC spcaking tho lerlll .qpru:e jrameWllrk ilHli-
calcs lhree-dimensional through strllctures capable. of resisting
loads ill different Illancs.
Certain of such structures mtly be l'C"dIH.'L'<l, for a given nrrang(:-
moul ol loads. to a combination of plant' slruclures (trllsses). Wllic.b
simplifios greatly tlleir design.
Thus, the llridge truss ~hOWH in I"ig. Lfil1 can be "-,durod to two
wrtic.al plll.no trusses AIJCD nnll JlfNFE WhOll the loads P nre
l'!)"lJIJ1lelrical abO\lt Lhe IOllgitudinAI I\xii'i of the strlletlltt'. l:loWl'vor.
jf lilt.! Sllmll trus.q Wl.'rc IOlldcrl unilatClrlllly, it should bo cOIl~idol'ciJ
n~ l\ space struct\lre, the ltoriwllllll trusses AA/NB and DEFC
tl'nll~llliltiTlg part or the lon.d from OIlC \'crUcal trus.~ to the "ther.
Tile three-dimensional structure of Fig. 1.5b supporting I1 wotQr
lank is ShukJlO"'S hyperlloloid which cannot be reduced to lllly
llumbor of plane struc.tures ond rnu!';~ he designed as n single ullit.
The same applies to ..he Schwotdll'f dome illustrated in Fig. 1.5c.
Tho dHforent menlhers of spoct> frarllcworks are usualJy conll(',c.k'd
together by riveted or welded joints. providing a certain degree
of rigidily. However, computation!! taking into consideratioll this
rigidity become Hcet'dillgly cumbc~mo. and thereforo in acl.lll'll
dl~ign work such strncture.s art alWAys regarded IlS articulation-
cClllnCCtE'd (differing thereby frOm three-dimensional rrnmcd beut.,
ill which nit the joinl.s are IIQ<le and re.garded rigid).
Th> articulations of spaco framed stntcLUl'l'$ mllst allow rotation
8ttlUnd tbl'' mutually perpcllclicular ans thus providing three
dt'J;IfCCS of freedom as compared to tho singlt> one of the pin joinLS
of plane trusses. Aec;ordingly, all the 1n1.'IlIbers of a space struclu('9
nlLctillg at ono joint call rotate 800ut lIlIy line passim; thrt)ugh the
point of intefSC'ction of their axt's, ....hil~t those of a plane Irus,"l /JIlIY
do ,.." only about an axis perpNlIlicular to the plane of tllu trus.....
On the other 11ll.Jul, the anO,llgement of the individual nwmhufS
of a S]lnct\ framework must be such thllt lhey sllould form an Ul1yi(>lcl-
i/lg combinntion just "'s in the c,ase of a pla/IC' onc.
10'
Consequently. a space framework is a geometrically stable
structure. consisting of a number of bars situaLcd in diffel'('nt planes

r
p
/,' ,

(e)
A
I '
"
,,
,
,,
"
,,
,
,,,
, ,

and connected together by so-called universal or bell-and-socket


joints. Whcn such a structuro i~ subjected to a sy,tcm of 10lltlS
acting at the joints. no llexurnl stresses afC induced in any of its
membors which become directly extended or compressed.
Any system of noncoplannr forces in equilibriuTfl must comply
with six statical equilibrium equations which may be grollped
tGgether into
three oquations Gf projections
};z=o
and lhree eq\lations of moments
IM.c=O; ~.MII=O;
2 ..5. Spare Fran~U;(Jrk SUppllrJ. 24'
In statically determinate systems these equations are always
suCflcieot for the computation of all the reactions at the supports
and of all the stresscs in the individual members.
1t must he borne in mind thllt the solution of these equations
becomos the easier, tne smaller the number of unknown!! in each
of them. Therefore, it is advisable to seek such systems of l.'qua
tions in which each contains no more than one unknown (two at
the utmost).

2,5. SPACE FRAMEWORK SUPPORTS


Spat.e frameworks are connected to their foundation or any otber
unyielding system using three dHferent tylWs of supports:
(1) the spherical movable support (Fig, 2.5),
(2) the spherical roller suppor.t (Fig. 3.5),
(3) the spherical fixed support (Fig. 4.5).
The first e.onsists of two :Dat parallel slabs with a ball in lH>_tween.
This lype of support allows rotation about all the three axes x,

la) Cb)

y and =. as well as the displaccm~nt along any direction lying' in


th., xy plnne. Only the displacoment.-; atong the ..-axis (both upward
nn(l downward) are prevented. (The arrangement precluding upward
displac~n1l'l\t is not shown in Fig. 2.5). Thus only one constraint
is imposed by a supporL of that type, a vertical reaction R. being
developed along the direction of this ~constraint. The conventional
schernatic representation of a support .of the first type is shown in
Fig. 2.5b.
The second type of support consists in principle of two rockers,
the upper and the lower, with El ball inserted in their sockets; the
lower rocker bearing on rollers which lie on a slab provided with
Interal ribs. Similar ribs existing' on the lower surfaco of the rocker
make allY lateral displacement of the two impossible.
This t.ype of support permits free rotation about any axis pass-
ing through the centre of the ball and a longitudinal displacement
in a direction perpendicular to the roller axes. It prevents displace-
24.-;

1II1Wt. along t.wo directions. one being perpendicular to the plalle


o[ the roller axes alld the other pnrllUtll to their axes. thus imllosing
two constroinLs 0,1 the body it. carries. Two ~ac1.ioD8. R s !tnd R: or
U, and le (depending 011 thp position of t.he rollers) will develop
at. a support or thQt type. Its conventional rep~suntation is shown
in FIg. 3.5b.
The fIXed l'phtlrical support (Fig. 4.50), occasionally rtlrerrcd
to ~illlply as l'pherical support. consists of a pair of silllilar rockers
willl a balL 11Ilt no rollers, f:0 that the ullpcr rocker ciln only roLaLe
ah\lut allY Dxis passing throllgh the CtJlItro or the ball. Lut cannot
movc in any direction. A support of this type will impose thrctl
COllstl'aint.3, nonce. three roactions R"" Rv and R: may develop.
SchclllllLically Lhls 5upport is represonted in Fig. 4.5b.
Tho minimum number of constraint! necessary to maintain 0 houy
in a fIxed position is always equal to the llumber of equilibrium
cquations. Therefore, in the case unrler consideration this number
"ill ctjllol ~ix alll.! the simplest comhiuation of such constrain Is is
:<hOWll in Fig. 5.5.
The hod)' I is proVided with a fixpd spherical support At ()Oint C
111\(1 a roller suppor~ a.t point B which leaves the body free to rolato
only aoout tbe uxis BC. Tbis lost deJ:tlle of freedom wilJ be
eliminated if a lIlo\'.ble spherica.l support is added at a third point
A, provided poiu1. A does Dot fall on the line BC.
l{ tbe structure proper does not constitute an unyiolding combi-
nation the number of constraints at the supports should be i1lcrcasl'd
(lccordingly. As 00 example. let us consider the hinged qundrnngle
}),1J2B~IJ~ ill Fig. 6.Da. If it were nUllcbed to the ground nl. three.
cor-llors lIsing flS heretofore three sUPllori..'> of the different types
described. it woulrl conserve two degrees of freedom, for its shape
could he altol'cd io its own plane, and furlhermore it I;ould fohl
around one uf the dioionals. The system could be mado immovable
by adding two constraints and efftlCth'el)'. four supports of the roller
type as shown in fie:. 6.5/1 ....i ll provide the required. stahility.
IndL'Od. point B I can move neither along the vertical. nor alollg
the dil\."'Ction B,B: tlue to the constrainLs developed by tllo support
at this same point; at the same t.ime the displacemeut along BIB t
is luade impn:'!sible due to the pregeoCtl oC a borizontal constraint
al point B . Accordingly, joint Ht is fully immobilized. Too joints
1J:, JJ 3 and B. are ('onnected to the first onc and to the ground using
a sufficient num.oor of bars (constraints) to make tbe whole s)"stl'm
completely $lable.
The position of the supports must be judi('iously choscn, for other
wi.'Ic it may Ilappen that one part of the structure will havu redundant
constraints alld will become static.ally indelcrminate. while the other
part will relain one or more degrees of !l'cedom. All example of
i.,s . .spar~ F rtJm~wurk S 247

Pig. 9.~

'0'
Fi;. 4.$

Fi;:. S,S

lO'
Fill G.:; '"
Splice Framework

a faulty distribution of support constraints is given in Fig. 6.56.


The direction of the horizontal constraints at joints B, and B 2 coin-
cides with that of point C. these two constraints become redundant,
whereas both joints B I and B 2 are free to move towards A. This
could be corrected by shifting the constraints marked with ft cros.s
to new positions indicated in dash lines.

3.5. THE FORMATION OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE SPACG


FRAMEWOHK

The simplest unyielding pIano system is constituted by a triangJO'


ACB shown in 'Fig. 7.5a. Let us add joint D using two bars AD
and CD as indicated in Fig. 7.5b. The system obtained will be
ulIstallll'" rot' lriallgle ADC can rotale IlhOlll AC. Tu order to obtllin

(",
Fig. 7.(,

all unyielding combination, a third bar not lying in the plall~ IIf
ADC shouLd be introduced. say bar BD (Fig. 7.5c).
Tho pyramid so obtained is the simplest three-dimensional framod
structure; additional joints, each connectcd to the alrea((y existing
system by thrco separate ooncoplanar bars, may he introduced
to form now structulCs, which will remain stRtically (leterminato
allfl unyielding.
Let us now examine the relation existing in a space nlloework
<18 described above between thc number of joints, the number of Lars
311d the numbllr of eonstraint.~ at the support.s. Let S be the numbL'r
of bars, SQ tIle number of constraints and K the number of articulat-
ed joints. The total number of tno unknown stresses and reactions
will then equal (8 + So) and the total numher of equllibriuffi equa-
tions which may be used to fmd these unknowns is 3K, for at each
joint we may equate to zero th.e x. y and:: projections of all forces
(internal and external) applied to this joint.
3.5. The FQrmoWm 01 St<llically Del~rmi"alc Space Frameu'ork 249

Hence the number or reduuclant members a.nd/IH' support con-


straints t will be gh'cn by
t=S+So-3K (1.5)
When i > 0, the system is statically indllterminate, whon i < 0,
the system is unstahle, llnd only when i = 0 the system may remain
stiltically determinate and form an utlyielding combination.
However, this condition though necessary is 1I0t sufficient, for
the equation
S+So-3K=0
pt'rmils the determination only of the number of bars and support
COTlstrainLs required. but furnishes no information on their mutual
position. The latter must be known in order to determine whethor
the systom is l'itotically determinate or not.
In the case of the simplest structure shown in l<~ig. 7.5e we llave:
S = 6: So = 6; K = Ii, the expression (1.5) showing that in this
case t = (j + 6 - 3 X 4 "" 0 and therefore the requirement stip-
ulated above is satisfied assuming that the constraints at the sup-
ports (Jlot shown in F'ig. 7.5) are the same as in Fig. 5.5. However,
the same results could be obtained for the structure given iaFig. 8.5
which differs from the one just mentioned by the fact that bars AI),
BD and CD lie in one aJJd the same plane, thus making the whole
structure iru;tantaneously uIIstahle, for joint D can move along
a lIorroal to the plane ABC.
Accordingly, having made sura that t = 0, tila stability of the
syst~m Olust be examined by the method of zero load described for
plane :;tructures in Art. 6.4. As will be remembered, this method
consists in the computation of stresses in all the members of thu
system at zero load; when these Slres.<;tJs arc nil, the system is gcm-
metrically stable. but when they are indeterminate and may differ
from 'lero, the system is instantaneously unstable.
In the case of the structure shown in Fig. 7.5e it is easy to prow:
that at zt.'ro load all its members remain idle. Indeed, S(lparatillg
joint D and projecting the stresses NI, N 2 and N 3 acting in ruerubt'r8
AD. BD and CD respoctively on a normal to plane ADC (Fig. 9.5)
we obtaiu J.V 2 cos ~ = O. whercfrom J1i 2 = O. The same reasoning
shows that the stresses in all the other members of the system afll
also nil, which mc-ans that the structure forms an unyielding combi-
nation.
Blit if WlI apply this reasoning to joint D of the syst<lm shown In
Fig. 8.;) we obtain
NI xO+N 2 X O+N~ X 0=0
whieh is an identity satisfied for any values of N Io N~ and N J
The rOlnuining two equilibrium equations which )may be written
for Utis joiot will contaio thrre unkn()wnll whoSt! "alues there(ort:
remain indoterminate. This indicates clearly tbat the system is
inst.antanL-<lus[y unstable.
Let us 1101'1' t'umine the structure nlpnoscnt.cd in Pig. 10.5. Wo
have ill Lhis case
So=8; 8=16; K=8; i=8+16-3x8_0
afld thus tho !jyswm may be slnticaUy clcLellIlillaw. Applying again
tILL' zero load JIltlLbod we shall start by sllparating joiJlt A and by

Plg.8.S Pig. 9.5

prnjecting stresses N" .V 1, N J amI N, on 8 normal to plane A GBzB 1


This leads immediately to tV, = O. Proceeding now to joint E wc
mAy easily prove that all the bars mccting at this joint runlain idle.
Plt~ing consecutively w points D, G. B h B z and B, and considtlr-
iog their equilibrium, wc shall rllld tbat all the other bars of our
structure remain unstre!Seu, which proves that this structul'O is both
stntic.'llly determinate and geometric.ally stable.
The system which wo havl;! jUi'it examined d~s not bulollg to tho
category of simple structures for it is impossible to dismantLe it by
~htl successive elimination of joints, each connected to tho rClnailldor
of ~ho sysl.cm with the nid of three bars only.
Such sysloms are termed complicated and may be oMained by
nlplncillK ono or more bars of a simple system by a con't'sl"lOnding
nlllllher of differentl)" situaled ml"mool'8. }'or in.<;tance, if in Olll"
s)'slolll wo tCplace the diagonal AB: by /l diagonal BIG (shown by
n doth..-d line) we shall be able to take Ihe structure down by elim
ioatill(l' !luccessivoly joints A, E, D and C, oach with three con
lIN'.tin(:: bars. Thus the complicated systom shown in Fig. 10.5 ill
solid linos cau be ubtained by altering the positiun of only one
bar in u simple system.
2~1

In conclusion 1~1- us examiue tllc plalli' tru~'" rcl'l't'$Clllcd in


Fig 11.5, all the joinLs of which are of tho IIni\'crS:'l1 t.YI1U. if we
D

, t,"m"-"~/2le'_..,(1V
fI I /Y; 'IJI

Fit. 10.5 F,t:. 115

aSSIlIllt' tha~ the central triangle of this trusfi i!o' rigidly ctmntlctod
to tht' !:found by means CJ( 6 .!Iupport constraints we till-VC
S=l1; So=6; [(=7; i:= 1-l"'76-3X 7=-4
Th\l!J thu .~)slclTl is Ilnstabll' lInd has (our dogrci's of freedom;
ind{'ed, it. may fold along lines I-I, l/-ll, IIf-lll and IV-IV.

4.5. STlIESS A;\'ALYSIS IN SP.",CI1: FRAMEWORK


The fullowing three lIIothous 31'tl in U~ for stcc::!S dctl'l'lIIinatiOll
in Shtlically determinal.e spaCC framewurks:
(A) I he method of St<ctiOllfi.
(h) \.he method uf bar replacement,
(c) the mtlthod of red'lc.ing the space structure to a seri{'s of plane
01l~".
Wc shall examine each of these methods in tunl.
(0) The m~thod af st'clian$. This method is used for the COmjlUla
tion of stres,..es in l.he members of simple framed strudures and
cOIl'iists essentially in passinG" a section through a certain DllIllber
of lJars in which the stresses are sought. The portion of the struc-
lU~ l'E.'JnOvc(\ is replaced by the internal forces acting along the
SCCLiOlll'd bar.-, the::e forces being then determined wilh thl' aid
of equilibrium equations. In general six eltUations of shtirs lllay
00 ""fltten fot each .section alld therefore the number of unknown
stl'C5.'!es d~hmuincd for a single section mal not exceed six.
Oepe,.nlJil1g on the equilibrium equations used ami till lhu ptllli.
tion of the section itself this method may !.le subdividt:d into:
(1) the mothod of moments,
(2) the method of shears,
(3) the TIIothod of joints.
Spau P""..tll'Ork

III the !irst (I( these thnle methods the equilibrium equations are
(lbtaincd by expre..'<Sing that. the sum of moments of all ext~rnal
forces acting on a oody in equilibrium about some pre~I~lt'd
axis is always nil. As its name implies, this method is "ery similar
to t.he met.hod of moments described in Art. 2.4 for plane structllN'~.
."" an illustration of this method, let us determine streMeS N,
and N: acting in the legs of an elevated tank appearing in Fig. 12.5.
Having passed the section m.-m W~
may equat.e to zero IJl{ o( all t.he
w forces acting OD. t.he upper pottion or
the st.ructure about the axis 1-/. The
stresses NI nnd N: arc rogarded ilS
applied at point A, where their I'osul-
m-"7'-_I--+-'\-\-I_m lant is resolved into a vertical amI
, a hori1.Ontal component. This leads
to tho following equation
f
IM, = Wlf-Qa-(N) +N,) c sin a-=-O
where thc angle a is gi\'Cll hy

tan a=T
Owing to the sylnll\etry of th{'
loading, Nj=N, and therefore
, ,V -N _lVll_Q4
-1- '-2csina.
F", 12,5 The second method is 8nalogolls
to the mcth.od of shears used ill tlw
I.lnnJYl;is of piano struct.ut'Cs, In this case the equilibriulU cqua-
tiolls express that tho sum of projections of an external forces 011
~U1ll0 conveniently chosen axis is nil. TJlis method will be mod"
quite clear if wc consider the cantilever truss represellted in
Fig. 13.5. 10inLs A, 8 and C of this truss are rigidly fixed by mean:"
of si.x lluppor~ constraints (not shown in the drawing). Using expres-
sion (1.5) we find that
t=S+S.-3K=15+6-3 X i=O
and since under l.{'ro load all the bars will remain idle, which lK>-
come!! immediately apparent if joints 1. 2, 9 and 4 are isolated ill
succel:l5ion, the system is statically det.crminate and forms au un-
yielding combination.
In ordcr to det.ermine tho stresses NI and N 2 acting in tbe diago-
md~ let us pass section Rand assumc that the projection Oil the
z-oxis of all forces applied to the right-hand portion of tbo t.russ
253

is nil
~z = -P+(N I +i.V 2)sin ~"""O
Taking the moments of NI and N 2 ahout the x-fods we ohtain
~M" = N la sin (J. -N!ll.sin Cl: =U
811d therefol ()
NI=N:
111 this cnse th~ solution of ~Z=O yield~

NI-N. =2-
2sma
When tile section passed separat~s only ono joint wo obtlliu the
method of joints. The equilibrium equations uscd in thill case do
not differ in principllJ from those u.'!ed in the previous olle.

p
y

FIg. 13.$

Wo shall uso lhis method to determine the stress N a acting in


hllr 1-:1 of the Sllllle truss (scc Fig. 13.5).
Separating jOillt 1 and equating to zero the sum of forces pro-
jected ou the z-axis we obtain
~Z=-P+Nasill~=O
whcrefrom

The method of joints is particularly well suited iu the following


(~ases:

L \Vheu tltree hars m~t at an unloaded joint. In this case as


previousl)' Jlumlioncd (sce Fig. 9.5) aH tltree hars are idle.
254 Spart: Fr(Jmtll'ork

2. When all the bars me-eting ot a joint. with the exception of


onc, lit} in the same plane. If no load is applied 10 such a joint or
H I.his load acts in the said plane, the stress in the member which
is olll-si.le this planc will be nil.
(b) The method of bar replacem.ent. The method can he 3dvanta
(rl.!ously used ror complicated space systems when it is impossible
to pass a set'lion cutting six bfl,rs only, thus making the metllod
or Si.'clions praet.kally inappliCAble. The basic prindple of this
mcthod dorives from thl] fact that any complicated staticall;y deter-
IIlinnltJ sy,sl.t}1\l call be reduced to tl simple one by replacing' one
or' more hal's.
Let U~ take liP the casa of 3 complicated !'iYiltllm which cun be
converted into a simple one by the replacement of one bar only.
l.et X be I.he stress ill the b,u to be replaced_ H~lVjng introduced
the substitute bar. let us consider tho simple structure so obtained
\lItdl'r tlte netion of the gi\-cn set of loads and of the load X applied
~dollg till' direction of t.he bar replaced. Denoting by ~Vl'" .V.T
11lHI .\r_T thl' stresses induced in the sllbstil.llw liar by the loads
..ctllally applied. the force X and by a ]mHI unity acting ill the
ilircClion of X, respectivelJ. we may write
N% = XiV"
Tlw ('omhiJlt'd stress ill the substitute har may Le t.hen eXjlressE'{]
b~'J.Vp-+-XN". As in the I\etllal structure this hat' is ahsent.
we must equale thi.') stress to zero
Np+XNx=O
which lead~ immedilltely La

(2.5)

Once the '-l\hH.' of X is known. the stre::s in anr memher of


tILt.' st'"Uc-tUI>f' will be easilr fOHlld nsing the formula
1,'" =/"'-"P+ N"",X (.':L5~
wlwrc N'q, ~.sl.l\lss iuduced in member k of the simple SLrUc-tllrt.'
hy lhu !Ictual set of load;l fJ
s,,~_ c= stl'ess in the same member inducl'd hy tho load uni-
ty X = 1.
The saillt' pr(!{~odllrc can he followed when the ('.()llversion of Llw
ghl)1! sysLem to n simple one reql1ireil the replacement of sc\'('ral
bnrs. lu t.he lalter (.ase the del.ormination of ~tresse~ ill the buril
whit.:h nre /xoing repla('_ed will require the solution o( several equa-
tions with s<'\'eral unknowns equal in IImnber to that of tbe bal'$
-1,5. Stress Analysis in Space Framework 255

just mentioned. It ,vill be readily seen that in this respect there


is no dilTerence between space frameworks and plane structures
(see Art. 4.4).
[n order (.0 illustrate the use of the above method, let us com-
pute the stresses in the structure shown in Fig. 14.5a Onc.idelltal-

p J J X I P

~.$L ~B ':!l-"?C;<- ~B

ra)
Fig_ 14..';

Iy thcsp stresses could be ohtained direetly by the method ot' see-


tiolls).
As usual let us check Ilrst whether thp system is statically detcI'-
minnLe and stable. [n the ease under consideration S = 12, So = !i
and K .., G, WhCI'cfl'Otll
i=12+6-B X u=o
v'<'llielt shows that at least one of the basic requirements is satislit"d.
The demonstration that under zero load all the hars remain idlt,
will be given later.
Hepladng har 1-8 by Lllr A-:2 (Fig. 14.5b) we obtain n si III plc\
structure for which tJlC stress in the substitute bar lllay be found
by the method of joints.
Starting with joint 1 we 11nd the stress pmdneed in bar 1-:2 by
the load P; passing to joint :-J we see that unde!' the action of Ods
load bar 2-:-J remains idle; separating then joint .'2 wc shall easily
obtain the stress in har A-2.
This being don8 let liS examine the stress arising in the same bars
from the applicatioll or the unit load X.
This slrt'ss may bl' reprcsented by
X-x 7' N~+N:
whct,f' N.~ = stress in bar A-2 induced hy the load IJllily llpplied
at joint: 1
;V~C = st.rw;;s in the same bar ineluced by the sallJe load applied
ai, joint 3.
256 Spacp, Framework

Owing to the symmetry of the structure

.and accordingly
Nx=2N~
As will he readily observed from Fig. 14.5b, the stress N~ is oppo-
site in sign to the stress N p and P times smaller than the latter.
Hence
_ _ 2N
p
Nx=2N~=--p-

Substituting this value in expression (2.5) we obtain


NI' NpP 1
x=- if" =2l{p =T P

Once X is known, the stresses in all the members of the struc-


ture arc found with HO difficulty.
Heturning to the demonstration that under 7,et'0 load all bars
of the structure remain idle we call now state that foT' fJ = 0 the
force X = 0 and accordingly har 1-3 is idle. Separating joint~ 1, 3
and:2 in succession wc shall find immediately that the same applies
to all the other bars.
The method of bar replaeemllllt can be of considerable help \vhen
investigating the geoillotrical stability of the structure.
Determining the stress N x induced in the substitute bar by a
load unity ,ve may meet with two eases:
1. The stress IV", = O. Then X becomes indeterminate being
expressed by ~ which indieates that the system is instantaneously
unstable.
2. The stress N x * 0. Then in the absence of external loads
X = 0, and both terms of the expression

Nk=Nlll'+XN/>.x
reduce to zero indicating that the I'y~tem Iorms an unyielding com-
bination.
(e) The method of reducing the ,~pace structure to a series of plane
ones. This method becomes applicable when the structure is com-
posed of distinct groups of coplanar members. In such cases all
the external loads should be resolved along planes coinciding with
those of the groups of bars just mentioned, whereafter each oI these
(',ophTlar groups may be analY1,Od separately.
ii.5. "ram,/fez DJ Slr~z~ AII'Ilyzilr in Space rrl>mt>lIork 257

Lel us l.'_oTl:-litler, (or lllslancc, the system rclln..:iCHtcd III


Fig. 15.5. Tbl} 11l1mher of snpport consl.rllints Se::"" fl X ;:! "- 10, lhu
1I1II1lher of bars S = 3.') and thl' nllmber or joil1t.') K - 1S, gidl1g
i"....-1O+35-3x 15=0
SCpM<4ling cOllse(;Ulively joints 6. 7. s. 9. 10, J, 2, :-J. 4 llllll 5
i1 is ~lIS}' to Jlnwe that whun P -= 0 aH the bars I"l:.\main idl('.
Acrordingly, the ~lrllcture is hOlh sti\tically del.l~rtlliIlIlL( illHI l,,'Co-
lllotrioJlly ~tabll\, In order to Jhlcl the stress()~ indllcer! hy load P

P
.9

Fig. 1:;'(;

Itlt 111' [(sohc this 10MI into three componcnLc; N,. N':. llUtl :\'~ as in-
dicaled ill Fig. 15.5.
Isolating thcreafter joints 7, <'i, 2 and 3 we find tlWl hars I-S, 2.J
;wd :1-B 3 re-main idle. Similarl)', isolating joi.nts 9. 10, 6 alld ~
Wo slwll pro\'c Lhat t.he. same_ applies tobani .')-10, 10-4. 4-.5 and
5-8 5 , Alone two pli4l1o trusses B~4i-7-B3 and 8 1-]0-6-8 2 wHJ lake
up the entire load. Thf'sc trusses lllay he designed ill tho usu~1 way,
compOllent NI bcing applied to the first one. componCHt N 3 to the
.!'c('.oud, and component N':. being divided between lhc two in ,lny
arbilrllr~r proporl.ion.

5.5. EXAMPLES OF STRESS ANlILYSIS TN SPllCI~ FH;\MEWOnK


Lotus determine thl! strl'.. ."":" in Ltw mQmhers of tIll' n'lltrlll plllld nf tlll' ('Ilnti
lever stl'\!cturl' 1'l'preS('n~ed ill Fig. 11\.5 !,olh hy thl'_ method 01 SCi~I-ioll aud Il~'
r;,.(!lll:illg tbe structure to oil 51ril'.'" of plllno lru>;!;('s.
(n) Mt'thad oj lIuliollZ, Start by I)I.. viIlR thnt all 'he \\'Ih m(llJlbers III th(' pia lit'
truJ!-ii .~--8-12-9 remain il!l('. For this l"wPO!e iStllale JOInt fl; rUllr hal'" 1llC'C1 at
17_853
258 SpdC(! Fra~v.;rJrk

thisjoillt but thr~e (1-9. 2--Yand lO-II) lio in lilt' s..1Ule pl3no. and tlS no e:xtt>rUlIl
loud Is <I"lllil,,'<Ito the joint the stross in har S-Y 111115\ he nil. For tht> Sllme rea;;HD
hars !/-10. lO-n 6-11, 11-7 and 7-12 will rmnalli idle.
Thi" being known. PlI!lS SI.>etiOII n cllttinp: all ~h(! JJlcmhf'fl! of LIle pand ulldt'r
consideration.
-'iA---,

~17L,Lr--\-->""
R
~~;~l __-----J

Fig. 16.5

Oewrmine :-:trl.'SS U2,.1 by equating Lt> tOI"(. Ihe slim of mumt'lI(.S of 811 foref'S
ac,ling On Ihe I('(t part of the truss ab"ut ~he x-axis coinciding with the diroc1ion
of bur 6-10

whcr('from

tll order to determine lItre!s~ D l alltl


project th" JIII"Cl'S IIcLing in Iho len ptIrt of truss on the
2 ill diltgoOllls J.(j and J-IO
;t- and :-Ax(>s

rX=2P+(D\-D:) e(l~a=O

~z,..... D t sin lS+ Dzsin p=o


D 1= -lJz
Illld hy ~ubslillltillg ill l:X WI.1 lind
P
D,---
cos Cl.
to'rollt t.tinngle 10-1,')-3

"
cns 0 ; - S:o=O.li8
s.,'). E~nmpln ol S'rt:f~ A ntl[,Jllr in SI'~t Frnm('Nmrk i5t1

Therefore
2.')
n=
j -12 P
p 25
D! ..... OA8 ---O+12 P

III or,l,'r to JHllrmint' slft'SS(':; L. pml c',. of 1he lower churd elcment~
6_7 lI.nd 10/1 WTlle rAJ~, =0 about :In axis 71 ;IJarallcl to the ",,-pxis but
passing through the rfulfll of joint 3

This heillg known, wt'itt, IM1_O abollt the z-axis pllsslng thr~}ugh the
same IJoIlillt

whtlrefrom
9P t5
1='-. --a p,
.,.
!b) Mtlhnd nf rtduclion IQ plllnt Iru~_\'rs.
::,tart by resnldng the loads along llll) planes of the two inclilll'ol laLeral
trusses. Tho corrE'sponding compnnellts (l"ill. t7.:i) will c1lunl

~ow rOllSil1er th(' lfUJ;S 1-4-/2-11 shown in Fig. 18.5 oml detA:!rmwe stre$
Vi lO Ihe upper chord m('rrtber 2-3. A!I thl'" SlIllle member h.'longs I\I~, 10 tf'US:S

Pig. J7..~ Fig. 1$.5

S-.l-1-8 \~(l Fig. WoO'i), HTllltlter stress U't wdllw.- induCl'i1 in it at tho ~nme Urnl1
OwiILg 1(1 lhe fact that till' \'"rtical pTojl;ctions ul loads P j lin(\ 1'2 are of
f\ppo~it-f' )l.igll
Ui=-U~

ami Lheroiorc the rl'!'ulling swss will be nil.


".
Tile .!;M"~ D,! ill the Jingollal will be oblllil){'() lIy IlrOJ(IoGtlllg all tbe
forc\'s acting OIL till,' I"ft JXlrt of tlll'_ trrl~ 'JlJ a n1.ll"mal to lite c1lonls
~)' = -21'1 . J- n~ cos l; =U

.'\S"L=~!' ilml cose.,.....I).8

"= 25 P

Ob\-j'fU3Iv l!t(' ~tr('ss


"
Dt ill lI,,: cOrrt'Sll'OuJing i1iltgouaJ of the olher Iruss
will E'<lual -

Finally l"lllullllg to 7,1'1'0 !..If about puijlt J giVl'9

wlt"rdrolll
6. KINEMATIC METHOO
OF INFLUENCE LINE
CONSTRUCTION

t .H. GENEHAL

Tl,e killclllalic. method of iUnllcncc line c-ollslrtll'tion fOl' :lIly giv-


I'll function (shear, bending mOIDent. normal fllrt'.e, l'l1.ulmenL
ruflcLiOlI. 5Ln'ss ill n mf'm hor of a truss:) is based 011 1)116 of the JIl0~t
gt.nel'lll principles of thooretical meclHmic-s-tJH.' pruu:ipl'J 01 vir-
IIwl ai,;plac('mflll.~.
III lICcordnllc.e \vith this jlriflcip!J, the total work pe.rformed by any
it-efl '~'ysteTll of foro's along otrlual di.~placemenfs of n, body in equilibri-
IU1/. m.ust hI! nil. Suell. displnctlllwn\.s arc reckoned jnfinill~ly small

\
J
I

, , ,/ --/
---- /

amI thCf{'forc they may he accomplished withollt disturlJillJ; ,lilY


of Lilo existing inh>roaI 01: oXlernal cOlIslrnints. At the S:UllC hUll,'
the illsignificanec of those displnccmenLs permits I.he int['(ullll'liull
uf the following- simplir1t.atiofl$ when plate f slwwn ill Fig. 1.1;
rotntes an inlinitcsimal angle drp a.bout point 0, any vl,twr point fl.
)o{'lIl.ed a dist"nee r from point 0 will shift to (l2 I\long a drclll;u ,,,....-;
hOWf'Vrlr, !<inee the angle of rot<ltion is very sffiHll, wc nHlY eOllsidc,r
thot point a moves along tho tangent to the arc 81l([ not t.he arc
it.St,Jr. noglceting completely the distanc.e (tjaZ_ For tlw SHme reason
we may also neglec.t the diffofllllCO between dIp and tall (dffl) whj{'h
!o!iHlplill()s very conRidcrably the constrnction of the vil'tuftl dis-
plar,ament RTnphs.
2(;2 Kintmlllir Mellwd 'pI (f~Jlu~nu {,Ine COllslrucllofl

The kinematic theory (also culled the strain energy or clastic


energy theory) eD3b1e~ the construction or inDucnc.e lines for all
tYllCS of structures: beams, archos or trusses, statically determinate
or redundant. The methods based on this theory arc particularly
well fit for certain compliCllterl cases where they lead La quicker
nul! more reliaLle rcsulkl~ they arc also very useful for checking
innucncc lin('s constructed IJy other mo_thods.
Hereunder we shall describe only one of the met}LOds derived
from the above theory. This metbod might be termed the instan-
taneous centre of rotation method and is extremely simple and
casy to grasp.

2.(;. DASIC PRINCIPI.ES OF THE KInEMATIC METHOD


Let us consider a plate rigid Iy CQnnccwd to the ground by means
of three constraints represented by three supporting bars (Fig. 2.Ga).
p

a
1
(a)

.'\S~lIll\/J t.hat it is reqnired to construet the innuorl('.(\ line rOl' the


stress in onc of these b8.r~, SflY, bar B. when a uniL load P, remain-
ing nlways parallel to itst'lf (Fig. 2,6b) travels along the plate.
Unlike thl\ stattcal method~. whith require that a ~CtiOIl be
passed :)el'OSS 5C,'eral bars, ~ISlllllly scparating the whole structure
2.6. Basic Pruu.pl"6 of t~ Kt~matlc M~thod 163

or parl thereof from tht'- :::rounJ. lhtl- method dcsr,ribed involves


the elimination of OI1l~ bitr (or J;Ollstraint) unl)' <llld it!'J replace_lllen\.
by l\ fOrC'e X equal to the stress acting therein.
r11 the ease under eonsid<,ralion the system 80 obtal ned c.an rotate
Creely about poinl .-I ~IIHI is maintained in equilibrium by LILO load
P, the force X and tlte I"cadions acting along the relllaining sup-
pOI'l-ing hars.
Let us apply lo this s,\'slelll tllB pl'illciple of \'irtuul displaccmcnts.
A.':' point A is rigidly cOlllwded to the gr'oull(! it will constitute
tlw contre of rotation of the plate. the only possibJo llLoHolI of which
will consist ill a l'otlltion about this point, SuPPOst\ that the plate
has turned clockwise an iniillite.c:,inlal angle dep (Fi~, 2.f:ib) causing
the load point to shift fl"1Jln a to 4j alld the poiut of ltpplieatiolt of
t.he foree X from b to b t
Dt'uoting by 6p thl' c.umpollout of the displac.enwnt a-at directed
nloll,e- the forc_!:' P aud by {j~. thf') component of the displacement b-b l
dirl'dcd along the force X we may wril-c
Pol' + XO;r: =0
whicll expresses tha.t the work perronncd by the exturnal ron'cs
netillg 011 a hotly ill cqlliUhrium remains nil. 'fhe load P beillg
Cunl to unity, we dl'aw immediately from the ahove

X 0= - . -0"- (1.6)

wldc.h reprcsp,nts the equation


'.
for the
required intl\lcnc.e ]jlto ill
its most general form,
Analyr.ing this cx.prc&sion we lUlW that frllm triangle (121111j
(F;g. 3.6)

wh('re aa t = All dq:.


J 1. follow8 that
61' = Aa cos Bdlf'
Aacm~~ lJeing equal 10 the lc\'er Mm oC the load P about
point A, let us denote it by ,r wluch gi\'cS
{,p -= xdq.
Ht'I'calter any di~j)Jacclllent at~t'.olllplisllt'd by some point or the
plate in the direction of the load will be reekoned positive and allY
displacemeTlt l)ct~onrplishcd in the uppol>ile direction-negative.
1t is clear thaL the displacemllnt5 of different. points will dcpl'nd
on the position of load P, this displacement being proportional to
the lever arm x, 01" ill olht.r \...ords, to the distanco of the load point
to the t'ellt~ of rolatioll A.
2M Kt/ll'tllatic Method 0/ It1fllMtl'!' '.itU CO'lSirucfff>l1

Iltlying deLermincd tho displac.ements o[ all the possihl~ poillts


of application of the lu~d P wc lUuy reJlrt'scnt these displae-cmeDl.s
I;rnphically obtaining the so-called diagram oj virtual dlsplacenu.>nts
or tli.~plllct'mmt graph aj the system,
Let. liS examine the term 6..... Using Lhe same reasoning as 3bov~
wc obtain from Fig. 4.l>
6.: = bb, cos V = Ab cos \' dqJ = r dip
A.s both the point of applicdion of the force X and its ~Iircction
rNnaill constant, the fli~placcmellt 6", is a constnnt independent
fmm the position of the load e,
and lllay therefore be "tcgardNI liS
roprc:-:cntiug the I'cale to which the virtual displac.cmcnts have been
dr:l\\'Il.
I nd~'ed, Lhe shape of tho illnuence line will dcpellll solely nil
Lilo numorator 6p of Lilo cxprt'sl'!ion (1.t)) JJUt the determination of

Ak:::..-----L---J,~, ,
Fig. 9.6 Fig. 4.6

nUllH'rie.u1 values or tho ordinales to this line requires that. dll'


Vllbll' of lhc dl!IlOmillalor 6 11 be cxac_tly known.
Thus, the ordinates to the influence line for allY function are equal
tn rhoSt' Of the 1!raph of uirtllal. dil>'plaullU'nts oj the system made pos~
sib/(, by /.he eluninalion aj the correspondiltg constraint divieu.'Cl by
the .W:(JU factor (j;r:.
Tlu~ SC(llJeIlCl' ill which the I;onslrnetioll of the innucnc.e lines
hy Ihe method of the illst:lfltaneous centre of l'Qt.atioll should be
ClHriOl1 nul is IlS follows;
(1) e.lilllillale the ~'ollslraitll corresponding- to th" ,hlHeliofl under
tllll~i\I()l"atioll aUll rl.'plaee it by the force X,
(2) draw the graph of virtllal di~plaremonls for the H\cc]latlislll
ohtuilll:d upon elimination of the said cOTll'trnint,
(H) u()Lcrmine the scale factOr pertaining to this grnph,
(>'J) determine the signs of Lhe ordinates to the illflmmce line.
A" nu illut'tratlon of the oboye. let liS consider thl:\ example of
a c,llItihwer beam appearing ill Fig . .".i.ua for which it is required
III t;oul'!trud the inflnenc.c line for rellction n.
2.6. H(l.~i(: l'nnripll';; of the J(illl'matir ]Het!lod

The diminaf,ioll of the ['ight-hand support leaves the hL'HIrI rn~e


to pivot abollt the I'emaining one (point A), 'which will thl'r'(\fOfL>
constitute the centre of rotalion of the sy,<;Lem, If t1l0 henm is llll'll!)(1
cormterl'loekwise through all angle dtp about this centre tht""

r--"-'-- P=J

FiK' ;),r;

disJllaeements of all tlw points will be r'ep['esented by a straight


line intersecling thl' beam axis at A (where the displaeeHlcnl is
nil). The ol'dinatL~s La this line will he reckoned positive to LlIL' Idt
of A (all tl10 points bciTlg displaced downwards, e,g" along tlw
(lit'Cdion of foree P) and negative tu the ['ight of it.
The displacement Ox is positive and equal to the ordinate (:01:-
respondill~' to point B. 1 in our drawing we put Ox = 1, expre:;sioll
(1.6) will give

x-~~-~
-bx-t-
01J ---,_0
P

In order to obtain the influence line for readion B all that ,'ellwius
tu be done is to change the sign of all the ordinalel:l to the displaeL>-
lllent graph as shown in Fig. 5.6c.
lu the following nrtieles wo shall consider moT"O cOTllplicated
case.",
2(-\6 Kinematic :Method of Influence Lin~ Constrndion

3.6. HEPLACEMENT OF CONSTRAIKTS BY CORRESPONDING


FOnCES
As already stated, the construction of an influence line for any
Junction st.arts wit.h the elimination of tlH! corresponding constraint
'whit'h must be replaced by a ron~().

le) It)

Fig. GJJ Fig. 7. G

LPi. us consider in detail some of the more typical cases o[ ('on-


str"int elimination.
(a) R liminahon of the constraint corresponding to the vertical re-
flction. In this case the lixed support should be represented by two
-COJlcurrent bars one of which is horizontal and the other vertical

Fig. 8. 6

HS shown in Fig. 6.6a. The vert.ieal supporting bar is then eliminat-


ed and replaced _by forces X = V A directed t.owards the hinges as
shown in Fig. l3.lib, which corresponds to a positive reaction induc-
ing a eompressive stress in the eliminated bar.
(b) Elimination of the constraint corresponding to a thrust. In this
case the hori7.0ntal bar is removed (Fig-. 7.6) and replae-ed by
i'orccs X = If A again directed towards the hinges, this direetion
coinciding with the direction of the thrust reckoned positive.
(c) Elimination of constraints corresponding to .~tre.~'.,>l'.~' in truss
members. It is the member for which the influence line is required
that should be t'emoved. The forces X should be directed away from
LlIL' joints thus indicating that tcnsile I:ltresses are reckoned po:oi-
live (Fig. 8'{-)).
.1.6. /tr/,lotfmtIl1 of CO>llflralnh by Corrt'srolldinf! P<lrf:C~ 267

(d) Elimination of tOnstraints correspQnding to shroring foues. AllY


crllS3 section of a bt!am, an arrh, or 1\ bent capable of r<.'sisting the
action of a bending mOment, a shearing or a normal forct: may 1('
schematically rcplacpd by a connection con:-;isting or thrtc bars a,'l
indicated in Fig. g.li/,.
The mutual po~iLioll of thcso bars may bt varicd at will but
thu)' must always Qll!>ure the rigidity of the c-onncc.tinll whic_h irn~

0
M/ C ..... 1.1 M/ (l J ....... M
IN
N
l- N N , ,.
, -\
c 10' (c)
"0 1:-'

Fig. 96

plies tbat t.hesc three- (Jars may never have a common l)oint of
intnrscl'tion.
In the arrangement appearing in Fig. 9.Gb the force acting in tho
\'~rtical bar is ~~qunl to the shear. which follows from t.he equili~
brillm of vertical components o( all forces acLing to the 1L,f[ (01' to
the ri~ht) of section I~I

whence
X_Q
COIl&'_quently, the construt"tion of the influence Iille [or the ~llI'ar
acting over .sCt~tion CC reduces to the construction of that Tor the
stress X ip the vcrlica I ha r.
Upon removal of the vertical bnr the two parts of the beam will
have a mobile connection represented schematicolly in Fig. 9.6c.
(c) EliminaliOlt of the conslraint co,'m;pondinK U> it normal force.
Adopting for till) t',onnection bars a pattern roprcsl.mted ill Fig. to,Ha
and projecting l.lll the forces acting to the left (or to the right) ()f
section I-Ion n horizontal we obtflill

where(rom
X=N
[(im?malir Afl'llwd "/ InfluI!IlCI! fA,/.(' ('on.<lrucliorl

In other words, the stress in the horizontal bar is equal to dw


normal 10re8 N acLing- in the member under consideration,
UpOll removal of the horizontal bar HlC two par-L.. of the member'
will have a mobile eonnection represented sehernaticaHy ill
Fig. 1O.Gb.
(f) Elimination of the constmint corresponding to a bending moment.
Tlw connecting bars may be placed as indicated in Fig'. 11.60.,

0
__ q I "~ ! "U

" V ~M N I~
- +-
""
r"" 'If!---
!/
N (01

"I "- X
! Q
" I 1--
,/

Fig. w.e Fig.11.1i'

Passiug section I-I and equating to Zl'l'O ~M ahout point f( at the


inter.seetion or the vertical rod with the OHC coinciding with the
Il(JUl.ru( axis of the member we obtain

whcrcfmItl
X=~
,
If r--~1. the force X In Uw connecting I'od will he Ilumerically
equal to thl' momcnl:
X=~=M
. I

lllld thllS, inslnad of constrllcting tho influence line for the ]wJlding
moment acting o Vet' till' cros:,; sedion Wl' may construct the iJlfJuenc('
line for till' strcss X in(l\leed in the lower bar of Fig. 1LI). Upon
elimillatioll o[ Lhis har the COIIll(wtion between the Lwo parts of t1w
member will ronHi.~t of two bars intor,<;eding in its neutral axi,,,
which is eqllivalcnt to a hing-l' . Sdwrnatically this eonrlecLion i:o>
I'opresl'llted in Fig. l1.f\lJ, '
All the abovc shows that tlw COllHtrnction o[ inl1l1ence lillf'H for
the usual stl'C<!S functions mav he reduced to the COl\stl'llctiOH of
thOSl\ for a normal force acting in a hal',
/j.6. CON~TRUCTlON OF THE DISPLACE,\mNT GHAPHS

The virtual displaccmellt graph determiuos completely the shape


of the influence linos, their ordinates dirrerin~ by a constant factor
only. For this reason it may bc said that when tllO displacenwnt
graph is comploted the maitl bulk of work has been dOl\o. Lot u"
examine the COllst['llCtioll of displacemcnt graphs in the case of onc,
two <lnd four hingc-conTloeted plates.
(al Displaceml'nt gmph for a single plate. i\SSlLllll1 that plate I
with onc iJxed point 0 is acted upon by onc moving IOlld P "cc 1
r~\

Fig. 12.fJ

Hnd a fn::od force X, the diroetion of the former TIlay be arhitrary.


Let plate I tUl'n an angle drp about point 0 in a clockwise t!ir(,'dioll
(on the choic,e of direction see Art. !'i.G).
The .'r-axis of the graph may be dlOSCll at will oxeepting paral-
lels to the direction of force P. 'rhus, in Fig. 12.6b the x-axis is
llormal to the line of action of force P while in Fig. 12.t\c it has
been chosen horizontal. The axis of ordinates mUi>t be ahvays tllken
para Ill' I to force P. The p8l'tinent poin Ls 0 f the system will be deno t-
crI on the graphs by the same letllll's \vith a prime index.
The displacement of point m along tho direction of P will cqll<\l
(soo Art. 2.G)
81'=xdrp
whel'r) ,r is tlte distance of the line of nctioll of the rOI'Ce to the centre
or totllLioll (always measHred along a normal to this line, regardless
or t.ho dimction <ldopted for the x-<lxis o( the graph).
270 Kinl'Malk J'(rlhod of IllflUl'''c~ Lint CtHulnul.on

Till' :lbove expression show~ dearly that in the case under C.(),l-
fiidcralioll the clisplnc-t!mcl\t graph will form a straight (ille inter-
s('ct.ing the x-a:..:is at point 0' whcro ;r reduces 10 zero.
To th(\ right of point 0' the ordinates of tho ~raph are positive.
as tho direction of the di!lp(Acement 6p coincides with the direction

IIIJillJJllilllijjjJ]Jl>7r "lJ:lf8 (;fof11

Fig. 13.6

of lilt' forr.e P, whilo to thE' left or t,rus same point the ordinateS
will be llegative. for this portion or the plate will mo\'e in an 0Ppo-
sile I]in.'cliofl.
The scale fne!,or \yill be obtninl:'d rCIlll'mbering I.hl1t

o:<= rd'l1
It fllllows (hat for x= r
t\t ---.,.{),..
In other words. tIll' sc-alt: factor is equal to the clispla....clIlent. graph
ortJillnto ffl('a~nrcrl a distonc.c r from I)oint 0' (Fig. 12.Gb antl c).
(b) Displacement graph for tu:o pin-connected plates. Let, llS {'(In-
st.ruct lllll displllcemcnt graph for two plat('~ .r and 11 flxcd at.
points at and O2 And COllncc.ted to onc anot.her by mean!'! of hinge .l
loc.fllt~d ill lillc \... nh poinl'l 0, and O2 (Fig. lB. H). AR. we kno\y, :-5uch
11 syslelll will be instnnt:lneollsly unstable, hinge 1 heing able tu
sUSl::lin inlinilt'!l;illl:ll di~placeJllents along a normal to line 0,-0 2 ,
its motion involving inflTlitcl.r small rotatiolls of plate I aLouL
1.,R. Cons/rllciill/! of thl! Di6plfU:emctlt Grapht 1H

point Oj and of plntt' 11 about point Oz. HnvinR' choscn the x-axis.
oC thc displaccJn(,llt graph :md having fOlmd lohe projection~ o(
0 1 O2 and hinge J on this axis we may procecd with the construcLiOll
of the graph iU;ctr. which will C-OIl!'list of HntlS Oil' and Oi)' inter-
secting at point l' (Fig. B.Gb).
'fhe scnle fncl.or can be found nssnming either that the displun'-
ml!llt of point 1. ,-=Olnlllon to both plates. i~ (.8used by the rotation
of plat.e I about point Dj, or by the rotation of plate If about pojnl
0=, In the first cn:w the scale factor will be given by the length of'
the illSel'l bet.ween the line bounding the grnph a.nd the x-axi.c;,
meAsured along- 11 parallel to the rlirccHoll or [or(.(\ P a distonee ,"'
from point Oi, allll in the sueond by thc length of a similar inSf't't
but measured a disl.ll11ce r2, from point Oz. J[ Hlcasurcd correctly,
both ~ca.lc faC-tOl:li will bc cxactly the some.
Thus far we have admiU.ed thAI. plates / 'lnd f[ llrc lhed to lhc
ground at. points 0, and 0,. which rcmain immobile. thcreby impli-
c.1ting t.he presence of a third unmoved platc eon~tiLutcd by the
ground itself,
(n this respect it is quite important to note that from the view-
point of theoretie.11 meclJanics all o( these three plate!': ;If(' pcr[ect-
Iy equivalent. Tltl!refore. it is ab~lllt('ly immaterial which or th('
tl,rce will be rel'koned immovable and }la chango whatsoever will
occur in the outlhw of the disp!ncclllclll graph wherl the Jab",1
"imlllobilc" is shHtl\d from one plale 1,0 Hrlolher.
Indeed, if it were assumed thHt phlle 11 is tlte immovable one,
line 7'-0 2 shoulrl be adopted as t.ho axis of the disJllac.erncnl graph
nnn. nothing except l:he hatching of the graph arca weuld alter as
ShOWll ill Fig. 13.6c.
'fhc importanl'e of the abo\"c remark resides in the filet that. in
Il numher oE C;lSes thc construction of I.he virtualllisplacemcnt grapl,
may In: l'.ollsiderobly simplilied by an appropriate choice of that
pnrt or the structurc whic-h will be rec.tolled immovilble.
(c) Displacemfflt graph {or a system IIf four plates. Let us consider
a system of plates 1. IT , III and J V connected by means of hingl's
1. Z. 3 and 4- (Fi~. 14.6a). such systems being frequently encouotl....
red in practice. If we assume thnt plato I is the imltlOvable, poinls 1
and 4 will lie on the axis of t.he graph (points l' and 4' in Fig. 14.fib).
Imparting to platc 1I an inflOitcsimal rotat.ion about point 1 ill
Il clockwise dircc,tion we shall obt~in a disploc.cmcnt graph repn....
st!nleo by the line .1'-2'.
In order to complete the displacemcllt graph for plate III the
displacement of (lllly one extra point. is required as t.he displac.e~'
ment of point 2 is fl.lrcady known (point 2'). It is very convenil'nl
to adopt as such the instant3neOlls centre of rotation (ot.herwise
called the instantancous centre of 1.e,"o velocity) of th.is plate with
KI~m(lIic Atrl1wd of Inllucl'lt'<" I~inr COIllJlruG//(m

rcferctlce to plale I, [or Oil lite graph this point will necessllrily
lie Oil the axis uf zero displacc.mclIt.s. In orde-l' to lind this centre
Itlt us eXU>_lld thl) lille 1-2 until iLs inltlrsectioll with the lille :J-4
at point 01'
I t is t'asy to provo that point 0, constilul-es tilt' required ccntrtl
of rotalioll. Indeed. licLiLiou:sly enlnrgillg' pLalE' /If until indu-
:'lion o[ point al' aud lixing this poillt we oLlllin two lllstantnne-
.'Il.':lly unstable systems [ormed: the lirsL, by plnLl\.-; 11 and 111,

...
....... --..., ,
0, \
,, ,
-'
\

,, ,,,
I ,

to!

J'
Src h
0/

"
Ftg 1<1.6

e:lclt ha\cillg ulle lb:cd puiuL (poilll."l .1 and all respcctively) Klltl
hiJlj{l'-COllllccLcd lit point 2. and the second by platf:!..'l HI amI 1\"
)1\l\(1 at POillls 0J and 4 and hilt{;e-collllcclerl at. point 3, I~adl or
tll('."ll' two Sy:'!tClilS is in every rcS)lCr,t similar to the Sy~tl'lH o(
Fig. 13.60..
,\S thiug thc point 0 1 doe:'! Ilot prcvent, inflllite.'1imal disrlac,e~
UI/'ul.'l of plale.<t fJ, III and IV with respect to pJalC -' reckoned
illJlllOYahlc, it is clear that this POillL is in eiloct the instantancous
t't'lltrl' o[ t'oLat.ioll of pia Le 11.1, It follows llull: t.he projecLioll o[
point 0 1 on the lIxis of the gt'aph will provide tlte oxtra poin!' re-
quircd and thereforo line 2'-0'-3' will c.onstilule the displac.omcl1t
l!l'nph for the "late IJI. Hepoaling' the same reasoning for plate IV
Wt' [oOhalllilld thnt lino 4'-3'-0' fOl'llls the displace-mont graph (01' the
laLler,
Thus the broken line 1'~2'-3'-4' constitutes the entire displaeewcnt
gtaph o[ the systl'm forml'd by four hinge-connected plates.
If, IOI' instance, plate IY were regarded as the rofererwe one, line
3'-4' wOHld eotlstitnte the axis of the g'1'aph from which all the
dispJacollwnts should be measured, The instantaneons celltl'e of
rot,lI,ion o[ plnle If would be located a.t point 02 formed by the
inLersef'tioll of lines .1-4 and 2-3. 011 the displaeement graph the
corresponding point should lie on tlw axis of the graph (line /1'-4'),
its disp];wcnwnt being nil. POilll.S ]'. 2' and O2 JIlust also lie Oil
onc and tltl' same straight line, for all the three helonl{ to plate /1.

S.Ii. DETEIHIlNATION 01<' THE SCALE FACTOR

As already known (Art. 2.6), the displaeemellt irl the direction


u[ the foree X equals
ox=rd<p
whCl"eas the displaeement of any point of the plate along the
(Jir'oction parallel to the load P amounts to
bp = X dlp
II follows that for x= r
ox=op
Thus, the sca1e factor may be obtained by measuring the ordinate
10 the displacl!mmt graph lIt a distance r from the projection of the
cenlre of rotation, where r is the lever arm of the force X about this
ceJllrr'. On the graph distance r must be always measured along
H normal to the direction of the mobile load, l'egardh'ss of the angle
formed by the axis of the graph and the direction of the load (see
I 'lg.
"~ 1')_.le.
(' )
Exumpll's of scale factor determination, whon the Systl'Tll con-
sists of 0110 or two plates, \\'(~re given in Arl. 4.U.
Tltele aTe several ways of obtaining the value of the scale factor
when three or more plates are in\'olved. It is obvious that regardless
of the procedure ndopted we must always obtain the same rosull.s,
hill rwve(theloss for the sake of clarity we shall denote by 6 Jx ,
oz,,,, ole., the values at the scale factors detl~rmined ill JiffereHt
ways.
Assume tlw.t in Fig. 15.0a plate I is rtxed in which case Hlle 1'-4'
in Fig. 15.Gb will constitute the axis of the graph. The displace-
menL Ob; will bo conditioned solely by the motion of hinl-{o 2, point
S heJonp:iHg' to plate I which is regarded as immovable,
Assume that the entire force X is applied to plate iI in which
ease the COI'I'l'sponding lever arm will equal r J The scale factor
18-85J
27!i Kin~malic llIelhod of In!lutnre Lint! CO/lslrudifJ/I

6 lx will then be equal to ordinate to line 1'+2' measured n distance rl


either to the left or to the right of point 1'.
If, on the other hand, the force X were applied to plate Ill, the-
lever arm r'l should be measured from point 0 1 amI the scale factor
0,

I 100u
I
I la
I I"
(c' I I 8;~
>- I
8"
,
I I
"
18Jx aj. +8,;;
FIg. 15.1J

Oz." would he given by t.he ordinate to the line 2'-3' mea:-:;url'd a


distance r2 from point 0 1.
Let us determine the scale factor 83,~ assuming thnt plate IV is
rendered immovable. In this case both points 2 Ilnd ;J \vill acquire
a certain displacement and therefore the required senle factor will
be represented by the algebraic sum
03X = csx +63x
where 6 3x is the displacement of point 2 and 63x trwt of point 5.
7.6. Exam/,/f, of lnflutnre Line Con81rllc/ion 275

In ordel' to determine6~x let foree X act solely on plate III. In that


case the lever arm equals r~ and the insert between the axi5l
of the graph (line 3'-4' in this case) and the line corresJlonding to
the displacement of plate III (line 2'-3') measured a distance r 3
from point .1' will represent 6'3:1:. It must he reekoiled positive, for
point 2 moves along the direction of the force X. Afll'or8 3x itf5 valuo
will be found by applying force X to plate I, the lever arm in
that case equalling r 4
The insert between the graph axis and line 1'-4' (representing
the displacement of plate f with reference to plate IV) measlll'cd
a distance r" from point 4' will yield the value required. This displace-
ment is negative and thereforo the value of 83" will be found by
subtracting the length of 63>: from that of 6~x' A comparison of the
three scale factors obtained appears in Fig. i5.6c. If all the Opel'i\-
hons were carried out correctly all the seaIe factors ohtained will
be in f5trict coincidence.

6.6. THE SIGN CONVENTION

The correct det.ermination of signs will be greatly simplified


if the rotations of the plates were such as to ensure in every case
a pOf;itive displacement along the line of action of the force X,
for in thi.c; case the scale factor 6", will he always positive.
This will be fulfilled if the motion imparted to the plates coin-
cides with the direction of X. All the ordinates to the inflllenee
line in that case will he opposite in sign as compared with the ordi-
nates to the displacement graph, since X is equal in amount and
opposit.e in sign to ~P [see expression (L6)l.
"
If t.he load P is directed downwards (in whic.h case positive dis-
placements 6 p are laid of[ below the graph axis and the negative
ones above the axis), those of the ordinates t.o t.he influence line
which are above the x-axis will be positive, and those below the
same axis negative. Vice versa, when the load is directed upwards,
positivo influence line ordinates will be helow the x-axis and negn-
tive ones above it.

7.6. EXAMLPES OF INFLUENCE LINE CONSTRUCTION


Problem 1. Hcquil'cd the iJlfluence line for reaction at B of a mullispan sta-
tically determinate beam shl)wn in Fig. H1.6a.
Solution. Eliminato tho. constrai'!-t at the. sup~ort!J a~d replace it h} a fo~ce
X. Impart an upward motIOn to pomt 1 COInCiding In dll'cctlOn and sIgn With
force X and construct the displac,ement graph for plate/which will be represent-
ed by the line O'A]'2' of Fig. iB.fib. Line 2'-9'-4' will correspond to the dis-
placements of plato / / and line 11' -5'-6' to those of plate Il/. The lever arm nf X
18"
271i Kinematic lllelhod of Influence Line Con.~trurtioTl

uhou! point 0 is {'qual to 1. The value of scale fador Ox will be given by the ordi-
uat,e to the displac.emellt graph at point 1. If tlH' latter is adopted fol' unity the
influence lino will merge with the displacem{'nt grajlh.

(",
A
0

;:-:;;
I I
B
, r J 11
C
, III 5
D
5

'bI 0'

Fig_ 16.6

The ordinates at points 2,1 and (j will be fOlmd from the similitllde of tri-
angles

Po~iti\'(' hrdinates ar{' abovo the x-axis. nogative oneslJclow. The ~amo infJn-
enco liue was obtained previously using statics (s(j() Fig. 57.2r).

l'rolllem 2. Hequired the illfluence lhw for the shear in c.ross wetion m-n
of tile hOHn! represented in Fig. 17,6a.
Solution, Introduce a movable connection as shown in Fig. 17.lib hetwoen the
two Piu'ts of tho beam separated by section m-n and two force,s X = Om1\ replac-
ing tho vertical constraint at this cross section. Select a graph axis, ,say, line
1'-.J.l' and mark on it all tho fIxed points of tho lJCum (points 1,3, 9 and 11).
Impnl't it dodtwise rotation to plate I about point A and a similar rotation to
piaLI' 11 Il.hOllt point B. The two displacement~ will he represented in the graph
h~' the lines 2'-tr-m' and n'-9'-10', respectively, theS!! two lines being parallel
a~ hoth llill't!l of the ileam am l'otaterl tlmlllgh the same infmHesimal angle dq;.
!\-tal'k points {j' uTHlf,' on tho eoncsponding lint'_s of t.he grallh,
Line }'-2' will c,onst.itute the graph fo!' plate Ill, line 5'~1I' [or v1ate IV
and liTle 10'-11' that for plate V, the wholo graph consisting of the bl'okenline
l' -2'-5' -11' -1 0' -11' .
In ol'lIer to detol'[oine tlw ~:,ale faeto]' il%Tlffie that pllite T is fixed. Then
6" will IX' equal to m'n' whic,h will be regarded il~ Imity
ox=m'n' ~"" 1
It is madiLy seen that b x is the SlIm of ('~ Ilnd b:. The 5anw influence lin{' lwtl
heen ohtained jlrevioTls]y using statics (.~we Fig. 55.2CJ.
7.6. Examples of rnllll""r~ Line CrJl/strllcfio/l '1.77

Problem 3. Hequired the influence line {or the stress U lG of a deek-bl'idgl'


truss of Fig. IS.lia.

1 , , ;'
(C)
fi! {If I
c
t
"
I
{
If" I I
8
I I I" "!1lJ.
,
A
" 11 B

'"
}
%
" (bJ

""
,'----- ----.T -~ i' x;Q"",

- ~
, - ~,
,
I1T'h 7'
2' V I~I
, IIlnTn Hl
le,
J'
,
~I
" ,'D' n'
" ,,,,,,"
, . ,,-1.
S m'
Fig, 17.6

Solniion. I10place llJlpel' chord memher 4-(j by the stress X = U.a, It should
he noted that the elimination of bat' 4-6 does not entail that of the c,orrespomlillg
stringer.

Stringers

cJ.1
I"

l' 12'
0' n'
IS)

s'
"
Fig.lS.(j

The force X will cause a cloc_kwise rotation of plate I and COll!lt~'rc,I{H'k\viS(l


{lJl{\ nf plate 11. TIle corresponding displacement gt'aphs will be represented hy
278

IillO.~ 1'-5' and 5'-12' (Fig. is.Ob). ProJocting on lhe5e lines Iloints 4' and 6'
we nhtaifl the dbplaccment of joints 4. lI.nd (j 01 the upper chonl.
The scale factor is found assuming that plate f is rendered iuunobill:!. plate / /
"otatiog aoout point S. Tho lever arm r of stress X llbout this point oquals
h"", '" DJ and. accordingly, tho 5c.lIle 'lldor will be given b)' tile insert between
IiJle~J'-5' and .5'J2' Illllasured \'ortic<lLlyadistanoo of -4mfrom point S' lassum
ill plate, 1 lixod, line 1'-5' lK-c.omes tbe j:traph axis). I{nowing the value of
tills inSl'rt and reckoning it equal to unity, It is easy to determine tho inDuence
line "rdi1tate Yo at tho abutment A. Ind~d, from the similitude of triangles.
110:.>1- 3. Tho same illl1u~!U:e line had been obtained provlousl}' (sefl..iFig. 71.4).

Prublem/1. fil)l(l/il'O,j the inl1ueucu lino rOl' the stress in diagunal 5-6 of a
[,!trough bridge truss ~hOWIl in .Fig.19.t'.
Soluliun. Eliminate the dingonal unbar consideration and replace it 1ly two
lorcos X =D~8' The system will be thllS hllllslormed into two plah':s I IIll;) 1/

"il\>!..;l'"'

(b.l

".
Fig. 19.6

(hat.ehed on thtl dJ'awing) COllIlcc,ttld loll une another by two bars 5-7 nnd 4-a the
uirecLiolls ()[ wldeh Illlll['sect at point K.
Let plate If he fixed. Hs displac,Qwents llOingin thatco~ nil, the corrospond~
illg displaceilll;nt graph 6'-12' will morge with the x-axis (fo'ig. 19.Gb) alld the
Instantaneous 1:IHltl'l! 01 rotation of plate I will be at point K. The fOl'r.(' X
will ilJlpurt a rlockwi:;e I'Otalion to pInto / about tlliscentl"e, line K'-4' rep~senL
ing its displa~ment grnph while tho IinQs 4'-6' <lnd S'7' will reprl'Sl'nt that o(
hars 'Ni and 5-7.
7.6 examples 01 Iltflutncf: Liru Conslruetion 279

.'\ctlwlly it is lIoL the plALe / I but the ground. i .1' . poinLs 1 alld 12. thaL ~hOlllcl
lie 1'C'garded AS fixed. Tberdore trafe line 1'-12' and adopt it a~ Lhe fUl~1 81is of
th(' t:r&ph.
The l'nf.iro displaccm(,nt graph will Lhl'll he reprcsonlod by tbe broken line
"-4'-G'-1;:'. thc sign cOIl\'ention stipulahm in the provious sKtien remaining
ill force,
TherenhN' pwCt'cd with the rlctermin.otion of the scale factor. A.!Suming that
pinto TT i~ imlUobile_ and that fO('co X acts on plate I, the lever Ilrm T of this
101'('1' n11(,"t point K will equal 20.6 mptrcs (see Problem 2 in Art, 7 A), The ill5l'rt
hl!twOO'1l Lhe Itraph axis 6'-12' and the line representing tho dlsplllcemt'nt o(
plllL<> I Cline l ' -I') mcasnrod at a di!!tance of 20.6 ID from point K' will provide
tI,O valll!' ..., ~x = t.
lJl'illg Ltlll l'illlililudc of Lri~l1glcs obtain ordinllt.e tl untieI' tho left-hand
Almllllont

W/U:rl,rrOtll

III =2~~6 = 0.87/l


1'110 inflnence bile thus obtnlnod coincide.'! fully with thnt of Fig. HV.4 ton-
titrUfwd IIsing statics.

Prohlem J. H....quued the 1I1f1uence lino for the bendiult lIloml'nt lifting ovor
cro;;,~.<:()Ctlllll f( of a parabohc tJlloo-hlng<ld spalldrel arch of Fig. :W.Ca .
, .1 , .< 7
m
I
IJ
(a)
)J)
!O
1/
11

.' ~I

~
15

)V
IG

(b) ,

z'
"
" /J'
"
8' 7

Ftg, 20.6

Solr~ll()n. flltrmluce all extra llinge ut cross sootion [( which l&Ods to the
formal inn of fUlH' phHes T, Jr, III !\lId TV connected together h)' mellus of four
hinges 9. K, 1J and 17.
280 [(inmwtic klethod oj influ.ence Line COllstruc/ion

Cllllstruct tho displaeemfHlt gl'aph of this syS[.eIIl of plates using the imlilJll.a-
noous ecnt,r(' of rotation of plato 1 If with reference to plate [ (point m) wlliclt will
be l'epn'slJuted by the brokoll lille 9'-K'-13'-17' (Fig. :W.tib).
Poinls l' and 8' are plotted on tho graph u-'Lis. Points 2' and 3' arc l,hen
marked on Lho displacement graph for Plate I1, Jloint 4' on that for plalp 111,
and points 5',6' and 7' 011 that fo/' plate J V. COlllllWUng all thcSl)!lOints togl'lh('l"
the displacement graph of all thl) panel points of the deck will he oblaiupd.
Itl urder to dotcHmillo tho scale factor lIx 1)lato If lllld let fOI'(;(1 X act Oil
plate I JI causing it to rota to with reference to v1ate J I about till) hinge K.
Thl' lever Mm of fone X may be taken equal to 1 metl't'.
The ~al(l factor Ox will be given by the length or the seglll(lll. hetweeu l.Iw
graph llxis 9'-K' and the line representing Uw ilisplal'('ment of plllte i i l (!in('o
i('~].'J') measured one metre away from point J(',
Knowing the vaLuo of this SC'gmolll the Ol'diua!,{' to HI(' influence line fOJ'
the IHJrlding moment lit the ahutmellt hinge !i will 110 found hum

wlwrofrom
Yo"",oxX/<= 1Xk- 7
All the other ordinates to the illl1uenc.e line will hl' rO;H!ily found t.l,onalll'l'.
7. RETAINING WALLS AND EARTH
PRESSURE CDMPUTATIDN

1.7. CENERAL

Helaining walls are structures intended to prevent the slidtng dIJwrr.


of slopes too steep to remain standing on their own. Fig'. 1.7 shows
[wo different types of retaining walls and a sheet pile-wall whieh
in TlUrnerOllS cases may serve the sallle purpose.
The retaining wall shown in Fig. 1.7a is a massive eOllslrllclioll,
its main dimensions band h being of the same order. Walls of I,his.

, A ,,",'
,, ,
A
, ,
,
0
E, ''
,
,
c
"
",,Q,
'
,
,
",
D'
E ,
, !a!,, E,
, 1;',
t,
G ,
:
E,
f,

,,
E, f,
,- E,
t ,D
It B
'j I
--- b
(" (8)

Fig. 1.7
a, PlU17m
(c)

type al'e usually huilt of ruhble or flIass concrete. They are sllujf'ctcd'
to their dead weight Q, the aetive and passive pressure of the ('al,th
El lll1d E 2 developed over the roar and front faces AB and CD and
the reaction CB voting over the foundation. Retaining walls of-
H1ueh lighLer construction showlI in Fig. 1.7b arc usually built of
reillforced cone-reLe and consist of a foundaLion slab CD Ilnd a ver-
tieal wall AB. The fore-es acting on a wall of this type consist of'
the dead weight Qb Qz, ... , etc., of the weight G of thl] column
of earth resting on the foundation slab, the active and passive-
preflsure of Lhe earLh Eh E z , _ _, Ilnd the reactive forces distri-
buted over the lower surface of Lhe fOllndation slab. The reduced
...'{eight of thefle walls renders it possible to make use of prc[ahl'iea-
tion tl]chniquefl.
:J!'l;! Rejalnlng Wall" alllI Earth PU$$url" Ca/TlfltdatiDn

Sheet pilewalls arc built up of separate wooden, reinforced COII-


'Crutc, or st.eel sheet piles which artl sunk into the ground sido b}'
.. idc using spooio.l equipment. The dead weight. of shoet piles llnd
the vertical reaction applied t.o their points artl so small that t.bey
lire always neglected. Ae_cordingly, the only rorees that must be
eOllsidered are the ne.livo and tlu.! passi\'e pressures o[ the earth
El. E1.' E 3 , " etc., which must balance each other.
In all computlltions pertaining Lo retaining Willis the depth of
the structure in the direction normal to the surface of the drawin"
wiJ( be always taken equal to onc metre. The design of retai[Jin~
wlllls and of shoot piling must Le always preceded by the deterHli-
lllltioll of the toads and forces acting on these sLructul'CS induding
tho earth pressure E. \Vithout committin" any serious error, both
the ae-tive and the passive earth pressufCS may be computed on the
.l.lsslIlIIpLion that the earth constitutes u granular material.

2.7. PHYSICAL PHOPERTIES OF GRANULAH MATEHIALS

Gnlllular materials COIlSiSl at very small solid rounded particles


~lIld thererore the only iuternal stresses that. (;3n develop in such
materials are friction and compression. Dry sand and grains of Cerc-
.llls in large quantities constitute granular materials which arC! liS
dose as possible to the definition given above. III t.he actual design
-of rotaining walls cohesivo soils art:! frequenlly met with but the
fOfcus of cohe.~ion are usually neglected and lhe soil is regarded as
.a granular mm;~.
In ortIer to dotermine the pressure excrLed by 0 granular mate
dill Oil a retain"lflg wall the following physical properties of this
Illllterial lllust bo known:
t. Its weight per cubic metre -y usually given in tonS. This \wight
vurivs from 1.6 tons per cubic metre for dry sand to 2.0 lons per
-cuhic metro for water :mturaLcd materials.
2. Its porosil.y TJ given in pcr cent and representillg the ratio of
.:111 the inwJl,rranular voids to the total volumo of the material. 'i"or
-compacted sand '1 :::::: 30 per cent, for loose sand it is close to 50 per
'ConL nlld for dry clay it may vary from 25 La 40 pel' cent.
;$. The wl'ighL of the maLerial suspended in woter YIJ also given
in tons per cubic metre. As oue cubic metro of the material con
!,(!illfll1 per C(lIIl or voids, the loss in weight due to iLs immersion will
hll O(IUal to the weight of lhe water displaced or, ill other words. t.o

where Yoo is the deDsif.y of the water.


2,7. Pltv~iclll ProjlerHu of Granular Ma/erlall 283

CVllscquen tly
Yo=Y-Yw (1-t~) (1.7)
4. The ~Ilgll' of repose cp which is the steepest nngla to the Iwri-
'Zolltnl ut wWe.h 3 heap of this material will stand 011 its own
(Fig. 2.i). This angle is c.harllclcristic of the fric.Hon developed

fa)
Fig. 2.7

uetweeJl the particles nt the surface of the granular material (all


forces of cohesion heing neglected).
The JllNgnitude of the angle of ropose qJ depends greatly all the
degree of humidity of the material. Thus
for dry sand q>~= 30-35~
fpf humid !aud q> = 40"
rOf wel sand tp = 25~
for dl'y clay ip - 4()..Jj5'"
fOF wet clay lfl = 20-25'"
5. The angle of jnternnl friction p characterizing Lite frictioll
beLw{,c!l I-he inner particles of 0. large volume of Ule /Ilalcrinl. The
Illll!!'llilude of this 311g1e can be determined experilllentally using
a device schematically reprt>i1ented in Fig. 2.7b. 'l'hill devkc con-
sists of a metal cylinder separated horizontally in two parls (.1 and
2), a plunger die 3 and a dial indicator 4. The lower p:lrt of tLte
cylinder (part 1) is fixed whilst t.he upper oDe (part 2) C,HI move
horizontally under t.he action of a force T. The specimen of the
granular lII.. terial 5 contained in the cylinder is l$ubjeclcd to a
constant vertical pressure N, trallsmitted through the plunger die
4, :lnd to a gradually incrc<lsing shearing force T. Tho ma~l\ilul]e
of this force is registered at the precise moment WhOl1 ~ho Slate or-
limit eqllilibrium is reached, in other words, at the moment when
the flrSl. sigil of sliding of tho upper part of the cylindt\r along the
pIano a-li is detected by the dial indicator 4.
At this moment the compressiYe stress er acting nc-I'oss section
ab is equal to ~ while the shearing stress 't equals ~:, F hcillg
tho orea of the cross scclioll ab.
284 Retaining Walls and Earth Pre.~sllrl' Computation

When thl:' stllte of limit equilibrium is reached, the msulting'


stress p is deviated from the normal to the plane along which the
slidiug occurs by an angle equal lo the angle of internal friction
given hy
tanp"'''''-
,
G

whCl'efrom
T=otan p
'rlw U.S.S.R. Building Codes usually stipulate the follovl'ing
values fo!' the angle of the internal friction:
for fino sHnd p = 20-30 0
for modiulll sund />= 30-!iO
fo[' ['0111'80 sand, gravel
Hnt! rounded pebb1e3 p = IrO_'J:l
U

for sandy loam P= 13_3()O


for o)'{linat'y" loalJl r= 10-:10"

The value of tlte angle of inLel'llal friction in sandy soils lIlay


he c.onsidered appt'oximately equal to ils angle of repose 'P. Lo .
I' ~ lp.
G. The aUl{11:' of fliction between the material alld the faeo of the-
walll5, which depends mainly on the condition of the sutface alon~
which the contact occurs. When the surface is very smooth l5 almost
equals 0, and for very eOluse surfaees l5 may approach the angle
of ittternal friction p. In actual design work l5 is frequently taken
equal lo zero. Olherwise it may be expl'eSSt'd as a fraetion of tho
augle of internal friction
3
l5~~rup to - P ,
7. The eohesion C whieh is usually expressed in kg pel' sq em
01' in tOilS per sq rn. In dry granular materials, sueh as sand or
graill, C is practieally nil. In other llsual soils the cohesion will
amount only to a fraction of a ton pet "qnat'o metre and therefore
it may be safely negleeted. A device similar to the one dosc.ribed
ahove can he llsed for the determination of the c.ohesion C which
is related 10 the normal and shearing :;tresses hy Coulomb':; fOI'-
nllda
T=C+O tan p

3.7, ACTIVE PRESSURE OF GRANULAR l'IIATERJALS


The active pressure of a granu.lar material is the force whic.h it.
will develop on SOTlle slll'face when the latter moves over a vOI'y
small distance away.
,1.7. Adil'B Pre;;sure of Cranrdllr ,VII/erillls :!85

As the surface AB of Fig. 3.7a shi[ts La a !lew position AIB I a


vart of the granular material contained in the wedge ABC slnl!,.S
rtlovinq dowll\vards. The surfllce which separatcs Lhe moving pad
from the olle remaining immovable is called the cleavage or slip
plane (surface) and its projection on the pIano of the dnn'ling-
the cle'avage or slip line. The paths of the partielcs containcd in
the wedge ABC arc very intricaLe and depend both on the chllra-
ctl'l' and the magnitude of the displacement of the sllrfacl' AB. The
C

,
(0) I
'-'---~

re)

Fig. S.7

(Jircctions of the pressures E and n exerted hy the gl'anular mate-


rial cannot he determined ,vith certainty, fot, the state of limit
-equilibriuTll will never he reached simultaneously at all poinls
along the ~mrfaces concerned alld therefore tho stress will not be
deviated everywhore from the normal hy all angle equal to the
angle of friction.
The correct det.ermination of the pressU!'e developed by the eflrth
against some surface is therefore extremely eomplicated and has
as yet not found a comprehensive solution. The simplified wl'dge
theory given hy Coulomh (1736-180G) is based on the following
assumptionI'.;
1. The curved eleavilge surface is replaced by a plane wherohy
its Ill'ojl'dion all the plane of thCl drawing becomes a straight
line JJe.
2. The granulat materials contained within the wedge are con-
sirlerell solid.
;:1. The wedge itseH is ill a stat.e of unstable equilihriuJIl, Le.,
in a state preceding' im rnodiately its sliding dOWll. The ];ltt:et' assump-
tion permits to determine the directions of the resultant pres-
281; Ucltflnlng Walls alld enrill f>r~s~ur~ Computatton

SUn'S EandR. When the surface AB moves ~way, the wClige ADC
~tnrts sliding down and the forces of friction which develop alollg
the surfaces AB and BC within the mnterial will he also directed
downwards. H t.he limit. equilibrium is rcachE'd l'IimuHaneollsly at
every point. nlong tho surfnce A8 the resultant stress will be deviat-
ed everywhere from the normal to this surfflCO by flU anglC! cqUfll
to the nogic of friction l) and therefore the rcsultl'lnt pressurt will
also make an angle () with the normal U. Similarly the pressure R
will be deviateu from tILe normal V by an angle equal to tlte angle
or internal friction p.
Let us determine the pressure E q developed against the surface
AB (Fig. 3.7b) when an arbitmry surcharge is applied to the sur-
(nee (I[ the earth.
As!'lIlne that G = dead weight of the wedge ABC (G = Mea,
A BCy)
Q = resultant of the sure.harge acting on t.he wedge
GIJ = resultant of the force-s G tlnd Q; G'I = G+Q.
Knowing the magnitude of Gq and the dirl'C.tion!l or the prt'$.,>un.'s
EL and R wo may construct the triangle of forceJ'l abc.
The angles of this triangle are
Labc~ll-p; Lcab~90o-.-b=,/>
L acb~ 18O"-(1l-p +'1
From this triangle we ohtain

wherefrom
E-G sin (i}-pl (2-)
q- 0 Sih(O+'t p) .-

This expression cannot be used as yet for the determination of


the active pressure E q for il contains the 3nglctt made by the ch'av-
age plane with the horizontal which remains unknown 'lS well
ns the dead weight of tho wedge G and the magnitude of lhe StIr
charge Q. both depending on the angle just mentioned.
Whcn the angle '0 made by the cleavage planc with tile horizon-
tal varies it entails a corresponding varialion in the value of the
pl'essure E , this variation, if ropresented gro.phlcally, having
1
the shape 0 a c.ur\'c shown in Fig. 3.7c. When il' =p, sin (il' - p) =
+
= 0 und EIJ = 0; for {l- = 90 8 the deavage plane BC will
coincide with tho back of the wall AB and both H/i and the result-
Dill Gq will olso reduce to zero.
H is obvions thnt the maximum value of t.he active pressuro
E q will correspond to some intermediate \'alue of ~ = '0 0
4]. Gmphicld f)l'f~rm;lltlf;oll Qf A/orimu". Active Pr~uu.r" 2f>7

\Vhen desiguil.g <l retaining w/l1I 111is maximUIll vahw of the-


active pressure should be takcn into consideration, ror if the strength
and stability of tho wnll are insured under these most advt"r.it' ('on
ditions, the wall will remain standing for any other direclion of thOt
c1e~l\'age plane. The value of the nuglt! "'0
corresponding to the ma:..i-
mum o[ E q may be determined from the equation
dB,
"""Ja = 0
The sign of the ~ccond derivative shows that the pressure thus oh-
tnined by Coulomb's wedge theory is indeed the maximum onc. IT...
octual pracLicCl the maximum a.ctive pressure developed hy tll()
earth against the back of a retaining wall may be somewhat small-
er than E q mn% determined as abovo. However, in cerUlin C<lses whclI
the displacement of the wall becomes extremely small (ror instmlee.
when the wnll is founded on solid rock) the preS8\.lrc il. will sustain
may exceed substantially the maximum pressure computed on I.he-
basis of the aforesaid theory.
\Vhcn the surface of the earth is of irregular shape, the equation
~ = 0 IIlny be solved only by graphical methods. Ir the surfaCQ
is plane. dil'<'ct computation becomes possible.

4.7. GIIAPHICAL DETEHMINATION OF MAXllItU.M ACTIVE


PRESSURE
Lot us determine the direction of the cleavage plane correspondiHg'
to t.he maximum prCSSllte developed against the hock of a retainill/.t
wnll AB whcll the sul'face of the eart.h is irregulllr in sbape but
no ~urcharge is applied thereto. Adopting 11II oblique system of
coordinates JIBD wc shall first construct the graph of the varialioll
of the active pre!!Surc En in terms of the direction of the cJeavag('
plane (Fig. 4.7). For this purpose let us measure to some scale tJH~
dead weight of the wedges along the nxis BD and the pressun'S
En along the axis BH. It may be shown that the length of the lillc-
KnF" wiLL rt>pl'(l5lent the amount of the pressure corresponding lo
thc direction of cleavage line BCn . Indccd, the weight Gn of the
corresponding ABCII will equal
G~::o 'Y '< (area of triangle AHC n )
Assume that BF n represents to sca.le this weight. The line FnK n
parallel to the axis of coordinates .aH will meet tho line Ben at.
point K n .
The angles of the triangleBFn{(n arc l!qual to
L KnBFn =o6'n-P
L KnF..B =(1.= (OO~-e) .Lp_(p "H~,)=90o-e_6=",
2{:1B Ul'taining Wall' and Earth Pr('~sur(' COmplJtlltion

Let liS no\Vcoustruct the Lriauglo of forces abc ill which the my
(I.b = Gn = BF.. alld the 1<lY tU; = E n - Comparin~ tile lrianglt"'s
obr llnd F"flK n we remark immcdillLely thut they 11I"t' idenlical
.lIld t1wrerore
E n = KnFn
Thus. in order to determine the prp..5Sure dO"clopr.d by (I granu-
hll' Jntltcrial againsL the face AB for allY given direclion of lhtl den,,-
:Il.{C Jlhlllc BC.. we must lily off along the axis BD tilt' dead wt'ight
or the wl'dge ABCIl {represented by Lhe length BF..} and then traee
l!trough L1lc point F.. a line p.\rallel to the olher axis BII unt.il its

C C, c., 0
Cn ~".,
C,
.,
a

c
en
H
a, ,I 2, 3, n, 5 'm b
Scole fVr 6 and E

Pig. 4. 7

iuter:iCction with the corni'spondillg cll'avagc Hne Belt. at ruinl K".


Tlw Icngth or tho line K .. Jl n IHcn~ured to scnli;< will rcpl'l'S<lllt lIll'
UHllotuiLude uf the pressure Er>'
11 we repeat the constructi(Jn just described for It number of ('UII-
vCllicntly chosen direction.s or: lhe cleavage planes BC" lJC 3 etc.,
we shall lind a series of poilllS K" K 3 , etc., Conll(lcLing the!'.c lloillL~
by l\ smooth curvc we 811;111 ohtain tlw required grap" sJlowill~ lh'
vllrintiou or Ell in tenus of the llnglc (t exactly in the snllll:l way as
the gmph sc.hcmal.il.ally repl'esellted in Fig. 3.7c. In order to lilld
lhe maxilllum of It" wc may rlow I race a t<lllgellt. to t.he C\II"Ve paral-
It~1 to the axis BD and through t.he point of taIJgt,lll(:y K w~ mu.',\.
trace the linl' RF parallel tl) the oLher coordinate lIxis EH. The
length or Lhis liue (always measured to scale) will gh~ liS the maxi-
mUlll value o[ the active prl,>~sllre E which will bll developed
against the hacko[the wnllAB while the line BKe will indicate the
inclination o[ the c1e:lVugc plIlIlC.
Tilt! graphic~l method de.~rihed above rClllllill!" valid when
.(j snrcharge is applicd to the surf;lce or the earth. I.. thAt c<\Se lht
1.7. Graphical Ddcrmflllll/Q/l o} Mazimum Adl~ PrUIu.rt 289

dt:ild wt'ight of carh wedge should be increased by the amount of


111(' load which it carries.
Probll"ll). Delennine graphically tba maximum active pressuro dov('loged by
a granulllr milt~rilll against tbe surfaee AB (Fig. 5.7). pro'dded p =- 40, -= 5"
Itnd l' - I.G tOll~ per cubic wetre.
Solutio".
1. 8t,ut with trac_ing the coordinatt> au! BD and EH.
2, Adollt a number of l'ieavllge plane directions givon by BC t BC 2. etc.
For lhis pllrpo~ divide the Hne A Cl'! into five segmen~ 6flch ono metre long and
S!lecl )KIITlI';' Ct.. Ci ... , GIO equally at onc metre IDtl'rvals.

S, 10
:
IS
: .
20 Ut
H Scale {or G ond E

3. CompuU>. the dead weight. of the wedges. For the wedgf' ABCI Ulis weight
61I UlIls
Cl""" ~ X 5.3Sx I X 1.6=:4.28 tons
Tho wClghLo; of the other wedgl"! abulling to the line AC li will he ellllctl)' the
~lIme.

The weight fir till' wedge C~Ct. and of all the olhor wedg('~ ahulling to the
h,wholltal CliC jO will be equal to
I
Ga -Gli =;rX7.SX I XL6=6.24 tons

4: Sel out to scale along the axi~ BD the dead wl'lghls of the wCldB"{)~
Gl G2, . , GIO "'hich are 8.9 foil OWl!
lIF j =C j =4.28 tons BF e ... Ce =27.6!i tons
BF 2=G2=8.56 tons DF7 =G7 ,,-33.88 hms
BF a=G 3=t2.B4 tons 1]F8 = G8 -=40.12 tons
nF4=C~;<ot7,12 tons 8F II =G o-46.36 tllOS
BF !>-Gli - 21.40 tons 8F lo =G IO =52.60 tons
290 RetairtiTlg ~V,db /ll/ll Earth I'reSSll-rf' CDtttpulllti/l1l

5. Through the points F I , F.., .., F,o trace tbe lines FIK" PtK! . .
" ., F,oK ID pilrallel to tha uis iJlI.
6, Cunnect the points B, K I , . . " KID by 8 smooth CllP'~' lhu~ oblaiDing
the graph !!howing the variation of till.' pr~sure E developer! against the sur
faee AB.
7. Trace the lino TT tangent tll the graph and parallel to the UIS HD.
8. Conn~l. the point of tangency K and the foot of the wall B b~' a ~trlllght
lino BKe which will constitute the c1ea\'age lino.
!). Through tho same point of tangency trace a line Kf parallel to the axis
B H lInd mellSure to se.ale the length of thb fine which will repr('f'{'nt thil DJu:im!lnl
active prel;'5Ure developed against the surface AB
e--KF=13 luns

5.7. PONCEL~T'S METHOD

III all C;lses when the !jurfuce uf the granular !ll~lCrial and the
surfMt'c AB are jllane, tho dt1tcrminalioll of the TrlaXitnllffi aclive
prc:'J!:itll'(1 may be carried out by a graphical method <1cvi~ed by
hlllColet.
Withoul l'lItering into tho theoretical dernon.<;l.ration of this
nw~hod (based equally on Coulomb's wedge theory) Wt' shrill describf'
he!'l'Ullllcr the proGcdure to be followed when a 1I1liforrnly dist.l'ib-
uLeb surcharge q acts 011 th~ surface of the earth.
Start with rerlac.in~ this surcharge hy all equhlllent. layer of
ea"Lh, the Ihic-kness of .....hich is given by
ho =.!!....
y
This being done, the positiou of the cleavage plane corresponding
lo the maximum of the acti\'C pressure E q is dcLermiucd as follows.
The line AB is eontinllerl until its intersection at point Al with
~hc uppcr surface of the cqui,'alent layer (Fig, 6.7). 'fhE'rl'afler:
(1) thruugh the point n
trace a line BL I making an angle fl with
tho horizonlal and meeting the upper surL'l.ce of the equivalent
layer at L,;
(2) through the point Al trace the line AI''11 making an aog-II:'
(p,.6) with the surface AIB nntil its intersection with the line
8!~, lit point M;
(:-~) using Oil' line BL I a:'J a diameter, trace a scmicirc.le;
(4) at point ~\f erect n pel'pendicular lo the line BL I unlit it~
inLel'section at point N with the semicircle just mentioned;
(5) from point B swing an arc with a radius equal to.8N (',ut.ting
the line B /.." at point 0 (BN = BO);
(G) from point 0 traco tille GCI parallel to Atl'!'! Hlllil its in~er
section at point Cl with AIL l :
(7) the line BC I connecting the foot of the wall with poilll C t
constitutes ~he projection OH the paper of the cleavago plalle.
This being done, procl'ed witb the determination of the mag-ni-
tude of the preMllre E q developed against the surface AB;
(/:) from point 0 trl'l.ce an are using GCI as radius until its inler-
section wiLh line BL I at point P;

Hvlt()ll(.a{ line

------ --- --
--- -- N

FI,. &.1

(9) conned poillL<J Cl Ilnd P by a straight line thUj obllliwlIg tllll


tria.nJ.;:le OCjP;
(to) through point C draw the line cns parallel lo HL,.
TJu ar~a 0/ tN trapnoid PRSO multiplW by ] and by tJ.~ dm-
.sity (1/ tJu granular mauriat y will gwe tM magnituth oj E q ....'" d~
~IoJNd against. th~ surfau AB.
H lho surcharge q were uil. il would suffice to lake h o = 0 ;11
\\'hich case toe line A1C.L I of Fig. 6.7 would coincide wit.h the
line IlCL all,] thp point Cl would coincide wilh the point C. Tile
direclioll of the cleavage plane will ~mllin unchanged, all ror the
rangnitude of t.!le maximum flretlSuro il will he given by Hie aren
or I.riangle POC (see Fig. ;.7) multiplied by 1 and by y
E =-Y X (area of triangle POC)
I'rllblem. noquir~c1 to determIne gr:aphiully the aetive r.rc5:iure de\'clope,l
1I!:_illSL the b~ek 0' the wall AO (Frg. 7.7), provided h = a mOLrt'3. p" <IN,
~ = :;~, t _ 20~, tI': = tO~, l' "'" 1.6 I,OIlS pllr,cubie motre.
to'
Sill"ttvn. I. DeI.CnDinc at; just eJ(pl~iuod [ha puSil iOll of the points A, ,If,
N, 0, C, P,
2, Determine the pOSitiOD of the cleavage pl/lne BC,
i:!. :lfcasurc to SGale the bllse and the- height of the trlllu!tl~ POC equlIl. "'''PI'\"'-
tinlly. 10 3.1i metres IInd 3.08 llletr'c~.

Fig. 7.7

<\. C(\Il1Jml(' Ihe llrea of the triangle POC

F_ ~ 3.1i x3.08=5.24 sq\l!lre m<:tres

5. D<.>tt'.rmillc tllC magnitudt' of the ~letl'e Ilrl'Uuro rerl"irad


b'=1.6x:J.24=8.38 tont;

11.7. ME'l'1I0D OF DiRECT COMPUTATION OF THE EARTH


l'HESSUHi';

III on!('r to comput~ directly thE" earth pressuflJ wc must fir.-t


r('ell1te- COlllomh's formulfl (2.7) to the following Form
E, -Cf (a)
when' C is a ctwtaill ractor independent, of {loo ThercnHer using the
(')illre.'!-~ion d:~Q providing for the maximum of E" determine the
Jlosilioll or the dCllvage plane (angle 6- 0 ), Havillg fOllnd this angle,
:<Ilbstitnte Us vrlh.1e in the expression of E q thus ohtaining tile maxi-
mum pressure rcqllirl!'rl
C.l. ,utthed cl Dinet Cemputet/un uf /h~ Bar/It Prr.....r" 293

Due to purely ffiatlHlrnaticlll difficulties, this method wny hl'


npplicd only in some particular cases.
Let us Lake up the most simple case wll>n it is required lo find
the jJre!SUft> exerted against a smooth vertical surface AB showl! ill
Fig. $.7 (ll = 0 ancl B = 0), wheo the surface of the granular JJlllSS
il; horizonllll and loaded with a lUliformly distributed surchalg-e q
lOnS per square metrlJ.
LC't BC reprcscnt the direclion of some cleavage plane. In tl1I\t
c,(I~e the dead weight of the wedge ABC will be given h)' G =
A

= 0.,) AllAC1 .y <HId Lb.e fljsultant of tlte sllrcharJ,!(' ae-ting on


'.his wedgt' hy Q = A C1 .q. The resultant of G alld Q will be
Gq=G+Q =-}AB.AC .y+ACq=-} AC.)' (AB+ 2 f)
Substitutillg ill this expres~ion h (01" AB, by h cott) for AC anti
110 fOl'f (Whcle 11 0 is the thickness of tile equivalent layer) wc
obtaill
Cq =+ "rh(h+ 211 0 ) cot t}
Rever~ing to the expression (2.7)and replacing '$=9(f'~t-c3 l)y
OO~, the Iractiollrd part of this expression becomes equal to
!Iin(" pI sin ('It-p) =t.[lJl(~~p)
si" (-I) : ; p) cos (" p)
Aftet' the Ilhove tnlflsformations, the expression (2.7) becomes
Eq = 4- "rh (h+ 2~) cot t}. tan (fJ-p) = C t ({})
Whl?'l'C

C =.;- yh (h+ 2h o); f ('fr) =cot fJ tan (tl-- p)


29/, R~tai.dnl! Wall. and Earllt f>r~uun CompUlat/<>TI

The anglE'. of the cleavage ]Jlane and the hOl'i~ontal will be deter-
millt'd using the equation

~; = 0 or ddll-!CI (-fr)J-

=c [ -sln~tJotall(\t-p)+cot\}CQS!("
I 1 p) ] = 0
Reducing both tC['IIlS in brackets to the same denomiuator and
dividing- the equutiun by
c
we obtain
Sill tl--cos {} = sill ("6--1') cos ("-p)

sin 2t'J-= sin 2 ({)-p)


The roots of this equation are
a~n 90"+ (-1)" la-e)
whorf) = 0, t, 2, 3, .. _
It
If n = 0, we ohtain 1'} = tt - pleading 1.0 p = O. This solution

rials for which we always have p O. '*


i~ incompatible with the physical proporties of the granular mate-

Whcll n == 1, we obtain {} = 9(f - (f} - p) leading to ao =


= 45"+-r'
Fnr \:dlll!S of n greaLtlf than one we obtain again a sel'ies of solu-
tions ineompatible with the tllrffiS of the problem. Therefore, the
ouly root of tbe equation to be retained wrresponds Lo n = i in
which ('Hse the angle formed by the cleavage plane with the horizon
eqllfll.;l
{}o=-4J"+ ~ (3.7)
Substituting this value of {}-o in tile expression of the pressure
wo.olJtnin
E q __ {:. f (fro) =C ('.ot (1.0) tall ({l-~-p) = C cot (45" +7) X
X tan (45_ n
Heplacing in this expression cot (45" +t)
by tan (45- ~) and
slIhslHuting its value for C we finally obtain
Eq =7'1'h(h+2ho)ta1l 1 (/lso _t)
(4.7)
6.7. M""od 0/ Dlr~d C"mputal/(l" o/IM Earlh. Prtll.. r~ 295

If the surface AJJ had a batter (e + 0) and were rough (6 + 0)


llllll the sur(aco of the earth sloped toward!; the wall (Fig. 9.7),
the lIIagnitnde 01 the active pressure would be given by the foLlow-
Ing formula
Eq = ~ Vh (h+2ho K 'l)K (5.7)
wlll'ru
JIfj=!L ,
K _ COY.l COY.I Cl
q - cos(e a)
K sill (p-a}
1 - Cf,S {e Cl) (6.7)

K 0-- V/~';~"~"~''J'~'=~~I'~.'
fOS(t-rO)lln(p 0.) J
K [ COlI (p E)]' ,
- (I+KoJ(l)c(lU cos(e+6)
The posiLioll or the cleavage plane .....ouldjbe det.enuil1oo IJ}'
. r,=Kohl (7.7)
where hi = cus. ~ (sec Fi~. 9.7)-
The determillalion of the point of application of the active pres-
sure requin!s that the distrihutiOI1 or the unit pressures along the
surfllce of the wall be known.
In order to obtain this distri-
but ion let us first consider tile
\"l"lriation o( the acLive pressure E q
in terms of the depthy (Fig. to. 7a). q
FM this purpose we may use
expression (5.7) replacing in the
b,tter h by the ordinate y, thus a
obtaining
Eq,=+yy(y+2~'l)K
This el:pression permits us to
oonstruct the lll'll.plt just mentioned
(shown in Fig. 10.7b) which
represents the increase of the 8
pressure Eq~ with the increase FIg. 9.7
of the depth of the foot of the
w",ll. It is eastly 50011 that this graph is n conic psrabola.
Wllen tile depth. y is increased by dy the active pressure E qV is
increased by dEq/l' This increment dE qv is distributed over nn
eleJllllIltary area, the vertical projeclioll of which is equal to dg
multiplied by 1 {as the depth ()f the structure in the direction nor
loal to the surface nf the drawing i~ considered equal to nnity) .

fawl pr~lSUre

'"' '7't
Fl6. 10.'1

1'hu1l. the unit p~urc referred to the .vcrUcal projpction of the


'iurfac.e it acts upon equals
dE,.
p,.=t1V
or, in other words, iL equals the first d<,rjvative of the resultant
prc.ssure in terms of /I.
Differentiating E qll as indicated we obtain
Pqll=y(y+hoKq)K (8.7)
This expression shows that the unit preSSUNl v/tries olong the SLlr-
faCt! AB linearly. In order to construct the corresponding graph
it will suffice therefore to dotermine the unit pressure!:' at any t.Wll
points. say, at A and at B (Fig. 10.7c)
PA=yhoKqK; PB=y(h+h.J(q)K
Let us now detenninc the vertical distance from the centroid
of this graph to the foot of the wall, using for this purpose the
well-known expression giving the position of the ('elltft' of gr:nily
of a trapezoid
h 2P A +Pa (9.7)
Zo=3' p.. +P B
If wc now trace a horizollLallino through the cclltroirl of tlte graJlh
until iWl intersection at point 0 wit.b the rear face of the wall AB
we sball. find the point of application of the acti\'(' pressure E q
6.7. iH~thod oJ Dtu~t Computation of tht Earth Prtnurt 297

(Fig. 10.7a). The direction along which the pressure E'1 acts will
forln with the normal to the surface AB an angle equal to the angle
of iriction 6.
Tbufl. t}u; magnitude oj the active pressure developed by a gramtlllr
mattrial against some surface may be raleulated using expression
(5.7); Us point of application wLll be situated at the same level a~~ the
rmtrold of the nntt preullre graph, the position of the point may be
cakulo.ted using expnssion (9.7), fInd the direction of the active pres-
Slat will forJn an angle 6 with the normal to the surface IIndt~r ('ollw,d-
tration.
The lUngnil,ude of the ll(',f,i'ic pressure mny also be detl:.'rulilllld
with the aid of the unit pressure graph. Indeed, from P", = dJ/I'LI! f!J
it followl! that dEq~ = Pqvdy. Upon integration of both pill'\." of
this ctjlul\.ion we ohtnin

The right.hand part of this equation represents the aren or the


IHlit pressure graph Fig. (10.7c). In other words

The laUer expressioll is more convenient for aclllal COffi()llt:llioll


than the eXJlrcssiol1 (5.7).

l'roblem.lt i~ I'l3quired to eomru\a lloo aeth-e llrCSSUrB. deVeloped against t,he


IDw~r part BC of the rear b.CD 0 a r9tRining wall AB (Fig. 11.7) if p ... 35 0 ,
6 _ 8 (J. ~ 20, e = 100. Y = 1.6 tons per cubic metre and q - 0.8 tOil PCI'
~qul'lre metre. All the dhTll~nsions Mo indicated in the figure.
So/utlon. llsing formulu (6.7) detmmino he as well as the hclou of the K
group

K . / gill 43 " / 0.682 V2 "') (;5


~-V coSlsoXlI.263-V 0.95txO.263- 01 _ _ 1.

. [ (1+I.B5xO.
Ii. '""-
00,25' ]' 1 (0.906)"
2B3)coS1(l' C()!I1So= 1.431lXO.984 ll.95t-
ll. ,
34
This being done, determillO Ihl! vlllu" of the unit Pf~U~ at points D
lu,,1 C using lormuttl (8.7)
PB_L6l2.11+0.5XO.IM)O.4;{4..-2.u6 ton~ pllr sq m
Pc""t.6(6.5+0.5xO.94)O.434_'.84 tong PIll 811 m
Theroafler comrUle the In'ea of the graph corraponding to the lower
porlilm 0{ tbe "si face BC, this ....,8. representing thf. In.golhuln "I the

active p~ure required


1
1i-2'(2.06+4.8Io)4-13.8 tons

rsi<:lnThe19.7)ordlllate:of
l tbo contraill of tho grnllb will be giv~n by the expres-

4. 2X2.06+4.84
:C-T X 2.06+4..8' I. 73imetrl!S

The point of applic.lotion 01 E will lie .t Lhe int~.Uon of the horiwD.ul


pa~.nl: thrOUih Ibis eenlrold.nd the JIlC9 of the .....11 AC. The direelion of e
'",ilI form an Ingll! 6 = S- with the normal U to Ihls ilUrfilee.

7.7. PARTiCULAR I CASESIOF PRESSURE COMPUTATION

(a) Pressure developed by an unsurcharged granuktr m4krial


(Fij;!'. 12.7). Subgtituting h. = 0 in tile llxpreSl'Jions (5.7). (tU).
(8.7) nnd (9.7) \\'e obtain
t
E""'TyhIK (11.7)

P,=yyK; P,,=O; PB=yhK; I (12.7)


:0-3
7.7. Port/.tular Clf"tt, 01 Pru,tlrl ComputoHo,.

The diret;tioll of the cleavage plane will remain unaJtered as the


faclor Ko is independent of the intensity of the surcharge q acting
on the 5urrace of tile ear~h.
(b) Pressure developed agaLnst a wrtical SIWXJl.h sur/ace by a uni-
formly surch4rged granular material IuwJng a horwmtal surJ~.
This case was already considered above (see expre..""ion (4.7)1.
D

8 P,
F'K. 12.1 Fig. lJ.7

11l:!l"'6under we shall u.. .e the more :;:eneral expressions (S.7) and


(6.;) lor the same case. Putting e = 6 _ et = 0 (Fig. 13.7) in the
C'_'tpfCssions (5.7) and (6.7) we obtain
A=sin(p-a) sinp' K.",COS8eoSGL_1
I eos tt-a) ," eo! (t a.)
K _ .. /siu{p+Olcos(8-a)
0- V eO!l~+blsin{p-a)
/{ "'" [ eos{p_t)]2 t _ Cu.~'(' _ l-sll1~jl _
(i+K OKt lc03t C08(8+0) (i+'linp)~ (I+sinp)~-
I-sin!" ta' (45~
=1+slnp= 11 -z'"')
With these values (If the K faetors, the expressions (5.7), (8.7)
llnd (9.7) become
E,,=-}Vh(h+2ho)tan (45-1')
l
(U)
PI/IJ=y(y+h.)tan' (45--t) '\
I
p.-v"'an' (45-t) 1 (1:t7)

PB=l(h+ho)tanl(45-~) J
h h+311 0
:O-3'~ (14.1)
3lXl R"<lllItnt 1V<lIl6 gild Earth Pruw.rt Cl1mpUfll.tl,1I

Th.e position of 'he eleavage plane will be determined by laying off


hfretofonl the length r. along the .:r-uis (see expression (i.i)J
fUJ
where
zt=Koh,,-tXh
The liru' poiDt D with the fout o( the wall reple-
COJlu~till~
:sollls the cleavage line required. The angle 6-0 made hy this line

Pig_H.7 Ftr15.7

with Ihe horizonlal is equal to


0
6- 0 _90_ L ABD_ 90"- 180 - L.8AD
Z
_ 90"
- -
o
18O"-(90 +JI)
2
45+'"2
which coincides wilh Ha value given by the eltprt>Ssion (3.7) found
previously.
(c) The same case as ill (b) but wtthout surcharge (Fig. t4.7). Sub-
.!'titolinK in tbe e:rpressions obtained Above no
= 0 wE' obtaill
E=~ yh2 Ian 2 (45_f) (15.7)
P._yytan 2 (45-t); P,,=O; P.e=yhtau 2 (4S"-f) (t6.7)

z,'""3'
The position of the cleavage plane remains the same as in CilStl'
(b) when a uniform load was acting on the surface of the earth.
i. c.,
.A
,'o .... 'tv
,-..
+2'P
30'
(d) Prasun d~ww~ 4gaHlst a polllgcmally shapJ ;ur/act'
(Fig. 15.7).
The pressure E q de\'cloped again!!\. the upper partion AB 01 the
polygonal sluface ABS, will he determined as heretofore using for-
"1Ilbs (5.7) tbrOllgh (10.7).
'fhe Ilre5Sul-e developM ngainst t.he lower portion BB. lhll)' be
colI\putt"d approximately assuming that this pressure will he the
SSlIllC DS that acting on an equivalent portion of il phlne s\lrfacc
A:8fJ l III order lo comllut.e this pressure. lrate lhrou'lll point. B
111(' lille BD lHll'/llIel to the surface 01 the earth and cOlIsider the
\\'ciglll of the oVforlnying !lortioll of the muterial as a ulliformly
flilll,ributt'd surcharge of intensity q = oyhiJ. The derlh 01 this tRYot'
h" will btl laket. equlll to the sum of the thickness of the lnyor h~,
till' \'crl.it'al projection of AA' equal to h" and the vertical l)rojcr~
tiOIl (Jf A IJ cqnal to h. Computing as usual the {arLonl of the K
-group sl1ld slIbstituting them in the usual rormulas in which 1"(.\
h1\llcr of the wall is taken equal to 1 we obLain
E;- f yh' (h' +2h;K.l K
+
P;l'=jI (y h~K.) K
P'a=jlh;KqK
PR, .,. 'I (h' + h;K.) K
, Jr.' h' +3h:'K q
%,="3 h'+2Jl;;k"
The unit pressure araph (or tho Ca&' under consideration ill repre-
sented in Fig. 15.7b.
Fig. 16.7a represents a more complicated case which mny ho met
with in the design of reinforced concrete retaining walls provided
with n spur.
The pressure developed against a wllll of this type will be deter--
mined separately for each of the plane surfaces constituting its rear
face. Thus, the I)ressures exerted ag3.inst the portions AB and CO
will be compuU>d using expressions (12.7) In which the ordinAtes
.IIs AlId Ye (corresponding to points Band C, respectively) will be
takcn equ.al to h and the ordinll.w Ht> of the point 0 equal to (h+
+ hi)' The factors of the K group will be computed using formu-
las (6.7) in whkh a = ~ = 0; the unit pressure graph for both Pllft...
will be .ghcn by one common straight line ab (Fig. 16.7b).
Tbe magnitude of the pressures de\'eloped against AB And CD
will be provided by the corresponding areas ef the above graph
t
E1=ZhP"
t
E2 ="2 h\(Pc +P,,)
31>:.! Re/at"t", WaU. and E~rlh Pr~~,ure CampulaJ.lo"

The horizontal surface BC is !!uhjected to the action of a verti-


~l load G equal to the dead weight of the material contained in
the prism ABCC. and equa.l to
G_hby
There is no load applied to the horizontal surface EO.
As for the portion PH it should be subdivided into t.wo IM.rts
FG Aod GH. point G being determined by the intersection with

Fig. 16.7

the: face of the woll of l\ line parellel to the cleRvage plane Ilnd
pll~illg through point D. The position of the cleavage Jllan~ ill deler-
milll'd llsing' formula (7.7)
zo=FK=CFKo
The fac:tor K. tlIlteriog this expression will be computed usiug
formulag (6.7) putting IX = 0 and t =a - ~h p. 8. The portion PO
will he subjeeLed to the pressure developed by t.he Layer hI (Fig. 16.7)
alone. lhi!'l pressure being independent of the weight of the overlay-
ing InllteriaJ. Tho eorrespondinq- uflit pressure graph will be rellre-
SOllte<! hy a straill'ht line cd. the slope of which is stcepar than that
of lifle ob. At point G the uuit pressure will be computed uIOing
formula (12.'i) for YG = k z The pre.'l.'Jure Rcting on tbe portion
of the wull considC'red will equal
t
E3 =T h t PO
7,1. Pt"l/r~l"r CUt', 01 /'rr"urr r.omp~llltio..

As for the pressure sustained by the wall below G it is [Ilrt"ady


dept!lluent Oil t.he weight of the whole granular ma!S. Thereforo.
when UJli~ pressures aro determined at points G :Llld H we must 3dol1t
Ya"",h+h1+!l,; Ytl=h-i-hl+k,+11-a
Th~ corrt"spondillg graph win COllsist of 11 straight line et paral
lel to cd and intersecting t.he gl'nph axis at. point u. The resultAnt.
rlrt"~<lure sustained hy portion CH will therefore be

E.={-hs(pa+p n )
(e) Preuurl' th,;eloPfil by waler IJQturaUd earth (Fig. I j. 7). III the
case under r..ousideration the rear fnee or the wall AB IIIl1y be rt'gard

Pig. 17.7

ed as subjert.ed St"pnratcly to the hydrostatic prtlSSurc W alld to


tlU'_ prcsslUe or t.he earth whose wt!ight is reduced by 1I1C nmoullt of
.....ater expelled.
'fhe hydrost:llic p~urt' lV ellll be round Wling e"(pressiol\~ (6.7)
through (10.7) on the as.... umption that
p=o:=6=O and ho-O
We obtaifl
K __'_
=,
W="!'1,JP-'-
2 cos~

The indeterrnillate value of factor Ko indicates that the hydros~lI L-


ic pressure is completely independent of the ptJsitioll of the c1eavago
.surface.
RoferNd to the vertical projeclion of lhe rear farc of the wall.
Lhe hydrostat.ic pressure at point.B will equal
w=yDH--
<
cos l:
l'he point of application of W will Le at the same leveL with
the cenLroid of the uuit pressure graph
. II
:'=T
In L11ll computations relative,to the acliv(' pressure of the earth
1t_"oH. it.~ weight per Nlbir. metre mll~t be tllk(!u equal to Yo instead

Flf. 18,7

of y fsee E'XpreSSiOll (1.7)J owing to the presence or water. III that


case expressiolU' (11.7) alld (12.7) will give
,
E=7'V()h~K

P~=YoyK
PB1=O
PB=yrfiK
Zo=T
The total pressure sustained by tllll wall will be thus composed
by the hydrostatic pressure Wand the earth prl:'~ure E computed
wult due l'tlgard to the alteratioll of its weight per cubic mcl.re
e!lul>e(] by the water.
(f) Pressure aerted by a layer of impervious SQil surmounted by
water (Fig. 18.7).
Pressure computations are very approximate in this case and arc
carried out asst1rning that the water acts on the upper part of the
wall siLull.ted llbove the surface of the soil alone. whilo the lower
part of the wall is subjected to the pressllre of t.he earth on which
the water act'! llS a !':urcharge.
The hydrostatic pressure W will be computed AS heretofore and
will a mount to
,
lV=Z'VB(H-h)' cose
,
8,7, PaJ$i!'~ Preuurr 0/ Granular Malerials JU5

H;s point of aJlpliclItion being given hy


, Tf-h
z~=-,-

The 'ertic.lll l)re,~Surc dc\elopcd by the taYN' of water OIl the


surface of the earth amounts to
q=yu(11-h)
the del'th ho of t!le- cquh'3lellt lnyel' of CiHth heing
hI) -= l'l! (lf~h)
Y
:\.~ tho sUI'Fncc I)F tllC earth is aSSUill('<! horizontal (a ",,0)
K =CU5~C05Ct=1
q C05 1,e <x)
The valtl[\ of the llctLVt' pf(!SSUrU Eq , thll values or the 11lliL
pressures a"d t1w point of application of E q may be now found
using clrpre~1'ioJ1s (;i,7) Lo (9.7)

E'l-~+Yh(h+2ho)K
P'l~=Y(Y+}IfJ)K
Pr' yhoK
PI! y (h + hu)](
_ h 21'111+1'/1
"l)'''':r' PIh+P lt

~.7. PASSIVE J'HES8UIIF; OF' GHANUJ.AH MATERIALS

Tlle tel'Hl passive pri'ssnre refers to the r('sultant Jll'e~ure duve!


oped by a gmnular material agaills~ somo SUrfllCC ""hell the latter
l<hiIls U\'cr a very small di~tll11{'oo towafd~ this mlllcria!.
Tire magnitude of lhe pll.s.~ive pn'ssur(' lIlay bo dotel'llliJlcu llsillf!
"he SlUM wedge tlwvt"y or COlllomb (scc Art. 3.7), all the il.s.'iUmp-
tions ffifl(]e in tlte (h'\'t'loprnent. of this theory rem/lining v:did.
When the slll'fllCC All of Fig. 1\l.7a III fOl'Cnd towards the gr;lnubr
malerill! <\ wedge AIlC ili forme-d again, this W("]b't" bclwvillg as H
solid body MId slidiu~ upwilrc!s ::l!Ollg the Sllrf3ce All nnd till> dea-
vllge prnn~' BC. The forces of fricLion whiclt develoll within the
wedge along the two slll'faccs just Illonlioned arc dircclCl1 upward:;.
It will be rellwllILued that in the case of lhe llclil-e pressure lhc
weul-re IIIO\'<:'S r1ownwards, and the {orlJl's of (riction lwl in tlw slImc
20-8~3
306 Rctalllfllg WallR arld Earth PrC$$1.lrc Ctl>rlputatlorl

direction. When a state of limit equilibrium is reached the passive


pressure E~ (which is the resultant of the normal earth pressure
aod of the forces of friction) will bo deviated clockwise from the
normal U to the surface of tho wall by alt angle &. Similarly, the
resultant pressure R q is deviated from the normal V to the cleavage
plane BC counterclockwistl through an angle p equal to the flngle

n,
la) (0)

Fig. 19.7

of internal friction of the material. The resultant of the two pres-


sures E~ and R q will be equal to the dead weight G" of the wedge
ABC.
Thl;! triangle of forces abc' for the case of the passive pressure
is represented in Fig. t9.7b. For comparison the tl'iangle of forces
corresponding to the case of active jltcssure is represented in the
same figure in dash lines. It is clearly soon thaL for one and the
Silmo position of the cleavage plane the pas~ive pressure is {~ollJ.,id
ernbly greater than th.e active pressure.
From the triilngle abc' wc can detormine the magnitude of tbe
passivo pressure Eq
(17.7)
where
'$'=90_8+0
ComparJng expressions (t7.7) Ilnd (2.7), wc come to the conclu-
!>ion thllt the magnitude of the passive pressure can he computed
using' the expression for the active pressure, proVided tue angles
p /lnd 6 are replaced by (-p) and (-6). which is ellsily understood
if we remember that the forces of friction act in the two cases in
opposite directions.
''''
The anglo 'I} of the clc-avll~e plane BC with the horiwll~lll will
be Itqllil1 lIclcrmiltcd using t.he expression
de'
'ii- O
The sign of the second lIerh'alivc illdicates that the value o[ t.he
p8!':!!iv8 pre.'lSUTe obtained with t.he aid of the ubove expression
eurrC'!lponds to a minimum.
'rhe Renctal expressioms (or the cOlnPlllAtion of the passive pr~~
sure obtained by replacing p Iltld 6 in expressions (5.7) .... nd (G.7)
by (-p) and (-6) are
E~ =i Vh(h + 2h,K'1) A-' (18.7)
P~,=,,(h+lttlKq) K' (19.7)
The factor!' of the K group clllcrjnl!C these t'xprcl'SiulIs arc
K,_l!inl-p-al
1- cos to: a)
K _ coseC05a
a- (~OSle a)

K,_ .. /5ill(P+Mc<lSlt 0.)


1 (20.7)
.- V cos(t
/\"=( tt;-Ko"i)
COS{r+t)
(Oh
J'
SjJill(p+a)
I
c~(;~)'
I
'JllI:l ordinate of tbe lJoint ur applic8tiun uf the passive prc!!Sure
will be deriwd from
Z=~. 2Pj,+Plt (21.7)
:s PA+PU
lu ('{\!le the tE'fl.f fMe of the wall ill vertical and smooth Mid the
surf(l.ce of the c.lltlh is horiwnlal. the lnagllitude of the pnssi\'~
prf!s,!mre can be calculated usiJlg formwll.!i {4.7}. (13.7) /lilt! (14.7)
aHC!t rC!plllcing in these furmulas p by (_p)
E~ = ~ "h(h + 2h.) tan l (45 G
, ~) (22.7)

P~q=l'(y+Jt.)talll(4!',<>+~) 1
Jl~=Yhetllnl(45-)+n ) (23.7)

Pil=y(h+ho)tltllt
h
(45~+t)
hHih~
! 7
J~ = 3"' h+~ho (24. )
20'
In the above expross;olls h. is liS lIslIal tlle Uucknt!SS of tIIO layer
of earth llQuivall:'l1L to the surcharge of inlellsity 1].
The currcsponding position (If th\l cleavage plane will ho ob-
tailled l)y tr:10ing Lhrougll Lho lop of
o I.ho wl\lI A n'ig. 20.7) LllO I\xis
x' making nn angle -fl wilil tIlt'
IwrizoOLlll am!. by laying off ,,!(Hl:::
lid!" line '" length AD' =.r~ =
... KDh=h. The line HO' will rUl'-
resent the projection of tlm 1:1(,3vage
t,lf slip I,lane on the plane of the
drawing. Por the s.lkc nf COmlJarisoll
if' Wtl gh'c again in till! samo rtguttl
I,htl positillll of the clcl\vl'lge plallcBD
B eorrcsponding 10 tho CUSts o( artjve
presl'ure.
The lritlugle .4BD' IlCtmilll Um
dl'turminalioll or Ihe allJrlc it'
fl1CIllLod by tht! c1e.. va~e plall" BD' with the horizon
..
v =4"0
:l-TP <," ')
~.

In f':onclusion it is worth mentioning 'hat nil tlH~gf;lphkal II1c~h


nds p~frnitting the dl'tCfnlinllliOIl uf ~he lIcLivo Ilfl!SSUfC remain


",
-<

o
Rpplieahlo to t1lt~ case of the' pall."iVll pressure, Ilrovidl..,(\ the allgl~
p and cS nre repb.ced e'vcrywhcre by (-f.) lInt! (-6).
Problem. It. i~ required t,o dclenoloo R:nl'hM-~lIy lhe pa~iv(\ l'1l'!>!Ilre devl:o!-
Ofl('(! .gain5l. t.he surbceAP orFilt. 21.7, Hit. - ,; en, p "--- ~OG.lI - r.,-, f; - 2(1-,
Cl - lo,y - LG 10n'5 ppr ~.ubie melrt>.
S...tllll4... I. St.art. whh determining the putitioll or poinl.1l A, M, N, 0, D,
C and Pin 11. 'l\"ay ouc:tl}> ~i[llil.r to Ih. onc 1151."'- d ....\'c l_ Fig. (;.7) but. re-
plachl$t fc'fe,.,.....hcre Ihe aJlRl~ 1I and ,. by -lIlnd -po
2. Doh;nl1inc the po.;ition ,,r tlltl r.)(!IV'Jl: plloe HDC.
3. M('~sur. tAl :;cal.. the b/lsc .nd l!to bel~hl of thollriangle OPC, .... hich Ire
equlll, re:!p('ethely. to Il.O IU and 10.7 m.
4. Compute Uw ~rca of triauil:le OPC
1
1"-TII.OxtO.7-=511.H5 Sll m

5. 0 . . \('1111;110 Ilm paS3ive pressoN OXilrled 1I.g.imlt the surr;lCO AD


E'=t.6x5B.85_!I~.2 tons

6. CoDlfllrD tIll' \'1I.lull of the ))SMive pn'Slluro t1lUS uhlllinoo wIth thllt
of llu! act \'01 pr~ssllrc computed [or an identlc.,1 ealo in Art. 5.7.
E' IM.2 112
7f':a.3l:I- .
8. STRAIN ENERGY THEORY
AND BENERAL METHODS
OF DISPLACEMENT COMPUTATION

1.8. GENERAL
The stress analysis or redundant structures l'tquires that use
should be made of displacement equat.ions in adlliLion to the usual
equilibrium oquations. It Lecomes therefore nCccS&lry to delermiue
the deforrnlltioll~ and strains in differont parts of the structure.
Moroover, the deflections or stalicdly determinate structures must
he also frequently determined, such SLrucLufllS having to fulfil ccr~
tain requiremllllts concerning both their strength and thoir rigid-
ity, in order to avoill excessh'c dcformatiolLs under service loads.
For this reason the study of val'iulls methods of strain ~nd deflection
eompullltiou for clastic systems acquit!!! the greatest irnporlnnce
in the tht'Ory of structures.
This chllpter will be devoted to the study of general mothod~
permitting the detcrmil1ation of tilt! strains aud deflections of
"lItious framed structures. arches, rigid frames, otc. \\'e shall start
with rcdcwing certain questions concerning the work accomplished
by the exll"mal f(U'{:es and the potential or strain 6nl"rgy nccumu-
lated in various elastic systems during their deformation.

5.8. '.';OIIK or t'XTERX.\L FOncl::S

During tile loading of any system its elements aro put into mo-
tiOll, :acquiring certain velocities and accelef"3.tions. 11. is clcllr that
the rate of growth of the deformations will increase proportionally
to the rate of loading. alld if the latter becomes "ery small, tlie
momentum acquired by the system when passing from one state to
another will become quite negligihLl!. Hereafter th~ latter type
of IOllding will be referroo to FlS ltaticalloadiTlg.
In order to d.elcrmine the work of any eJ:ternal load P Il(lplied
gradually tu any elastic systom (Fig. 1.8) we shall mnke use of
MaxweU's lldnciple of superpositioll. provided. the material fol-
lows Hooktls law. Consequently, the dispLacements suffered by
differenL poinls o( an elM lie. syslcm will be ill direct proportion
2.8. Work of R:J;/~r"d Foroes 'H
to the loads which have caused them. In its most general form this
may be expressed by the following equation
6~u.P (1.8)
In this cxpres.'iion II is the doformation sustoined by the system
along the line of Rction of force P, and a. is a factor depending on
the ml\terial itself. on the pattern and the dimensions of the struc-
tItre and orl the point of application of the load P.
Let force P increase by dP; this will immediately cause a cor-
responding increase of 6 by d6. The work performed by the load

Ptg. 1.8

P alollj;\' the ilisplacement d6, neglecting as usuul the infinitesimals


of the higher orders, will he
dA~(P+dP) d;- P d;

Replacing dll by its value adP (1.8) we obtain


dA = P dJj. =a.P dP
Integrating this expression from zero to the final value of tho
external load, we obtain the expression of the work accompli~hcd
by this load during HI> statical application
p
uP'
A=a. So PdP=T
As /1=a.P, this may be equally written
1
A=2" P/1
It should be lloted that the direction of the displacement caused
by a load P may differ [rom that of the load. As the work accom-
plished by 3 load is always expressed by the product of 3 force by
the length o( the displactlment measured along the line of action
of this force, the dU/placement /1 will always represent the projection
of the total displacement of the load point on the direction of t}w load.
Thus, lor instance, if a load P acts at an angle r.
to the axis of a
312 Str/ll" T?rttrCII TUDfll "rId ltltthod' 0/ Dt'pl/lNl,r!t'1l1 Comp"lolUln

I.eMlt Wig. 2.8), the displacemeut A will be gin:ll by Llle lelll:th


of UU,l Iille ab, tltis IClIgUI being equal to t.he projection of the tOlal
duflocliun aa. on the line of action or load P.
TIle work accompli.'lhed by It couple or moment. 3l? can be found
in the samu way provided the displaccmellt a corrwponds lo thot

~==---I 0,

Fir. 2.8

typo of loading. It will be readily seell that in this casu ~ must


rl'pru.'Wnt thll angular rotntion of the cross section to whir." the
nforcsoid momunt is llflplied.

~m ,.
"
Fi:.1.8

'fl.us, the work acC()mplis)led by a mOlllent m llop(llied stntiClllly


to lhe beam of Fig. 3.8 will be e:iven by
t
A-,lll~
wlllH'1,l {t is t.he augular rotation (in radians) of the cross sectiOll lo
which the momcnt ~ is directly applied. Thus, Jlu. IOOrk accom-
pllsh.t-d by any ~.r~rrlQl force appUtd gradually to an d4Stic 'yskm will
iN ulway;o; giIXIl by lullf tM product of this torce by lhe kngth of t.k
dilplacemmt n~asured in th~ directloll of this force. The It'tfll for~e
31lplies in tbis cn5e to allY extorllll.l action including momCIl\s,
distribullld loads, etc.
A., for the term displacement, it will mean Lhe deformation cor-
responding to the type of action whose work is lM>ing studiod. Thus,
it linear displacement will correspond to a concolltrated loa.d P,
an angular rotation to tl moment m~ and thll llrea of the displaooment
graph of a loaded strctc.h to distributed louds.
Wlum a system of loads Is gradually applied to a structure, Jh~ work
accomplished by rach of these load., will equal half the product of ib'
2.8. Work 0/ Erlrr""l Fora~ 313

magniturk by till' dil1placemp.Tll clJrresportding to this load bat CGUSNt


by r/.ll the load.~ in qlu.~tion. 'Jhu!1, in tho casllllf the beam of Fig. 4.1;1
which carries two concentrflted loads PI and P z alld which i~ suh-
jected l:It the some timo to the lIcLion of two moments rol, Rlld IDl t
the work of tILe Qxtt.lrnal force:; will eqmJt
A = P1t>1....;.- 1'2-\2 ---'_ ~R,tt,_ ~262
2 . 2 '2 2

Tlw nt'gativll sigil of the last term of litis equlltion inJir.n.tos that
the fLlLgu[flr rolalion of till' CfOSS section to whidl IllUlIll'llt ml~

.r
m
r
(l ,., _-6-=~
, t
./--- ..!---
rn,

""l'
I N
H
Q

f-----1
a
N

S-'6 j
d'

Fit. 1.S fig. ,'j.8

i!1 avplioo is opposite in direction to tho said mUffll:loL Thus.


A = 1: I'~{j,i + 1: 1)Jf~(J! (2.8)'

The work llcrformed by the oxternal forces along tho displRce-


mellls caused by these forces can he equally expressed ill terms
of the stre,c;scs (bending moments, normal forces and shears) which
are developed in the cross sections of the slructure ullder cOnsid-
erntion. Let us take the bar repl'l~sentcd in Fig. 5.8 and let us con
sidl'lr an infinitely f:mal1 lcugLh dx bounded by two planos normal
to t.he bar axis. The whole bar will comprise fill infinite number
of such sections. If all the loads act in the plane of the bar axis,
the eIl'Ill(lnt dx will be subjected to Il normal force /ll. a belHling
moment M' and a shearillg force Q.
For a lIar as a whole thl'se actions constit\lte internal forces while-
for the element ckt they may be regarded as external loads whose
work will then be expressed by the products of N, M and Q by the
cerrcspondiTlg displacements sustained by the said demeDt.
Horeunder Jet liS study separately the work pl'rformed by each,
of those Rctions.
An element dx subjected solely tu a normal force N appear>i in
Fig. 6.8., If we admit that its left extremity is held fast, the right
hand ono will move along the direction of force N towards the
,314 Strain Enugv Theury alld 1If~lhlH1s ,,/ DlIpla~me"t C"mputa!ifm

righ.t over a longth equal to


.. _ Nd'l:
U",- EF

where EP is the tensile or compressive rigidity of the har under


-consideration.
The work performed by the stress N along the displacement t..",
will be therefore expressed by
f 1 N dz
dA,\'=:rNt..'>:=TNET
An element dx acted upon solely by a bending moment is repre-
sented in Fig. 7.8. Once again let us assumo that its Ieft.-hand o:-:tre-

%~----r-' ,,
'N
,,
------1--;-"-
,
aI---d'"",-+-.--"l
Fig. C.8 FIg. 'l.S

mHy remains fixed in which case the angular rotation of tno right-
hand one will bo given by
.. Mdx
U&= El

.EI being the nexnral rigidity of tue b.'lr section under cODsidora-
lion. During its statical application the hending moment will
therefore accomplish tho work given hy
f 1 M dJ:
dAM =TM6o=TM"""""ET

Let us further cnmine the elemout dx of Fig. 8.& acted lIPOU


by a shearing force Q. If we fix again the left end face (Fig. 8.8b)
'we must apply to the right-haud face transversal stresses -rdF of
~'hich the shearing force Q is the resultant. In the case of pure hend
ing these transversal stresses will be give.n by Zhuravsky's formula
QS
-rdF= J/} dF
'where dP is the area of a horizontal elementary strip situated a
(Jistance y from the neutral axis, while S is the statical moment
2.8. Work 0/ Ezf<>rnlill Forcu

of that part. of thc cross secLion above (or below) this strip about
the sam!! axis (Fig. 8.Bc). The magnitude of the mutual displace-
ment of two identical strips, one belonging to the left ond face
and tile other to the right one, will be equal to the displacement
y.
,.
---- frdF

~Q
Q I
f-_.-

d< di--
(a) (bl (C)
FfK8.8

.... dz of the right end (the leCt ona lJeing assumed fixed) and will
therefore be given by tbe expression
,
1'dz=7Jd:r
where l' is tbe angle of shear.
AClnce, the work of Dn elementary trl'msvcrsal stress '[ dF along
the displac-ement y d% will be given by

,
..!..dP"dx
'
Integrating this expression over the whole area of the cross
sec-.lion F we obtain tbe work of all tbtl shearing stresses acting
across this section
~ I , ( " Tld~ r QI 8 1 dz
dA q = J 2: Tyd:r df = ,) """iG dF = J J1bl"2GdF=
p p p
Qldz(" S I , Q1dz
= 2IJ)'J J bY dF = 11 2GF
p

In this expression GP is the tMlnsversal rigidity 01 the cross


section cOru5ide~d, while" = :I~~ dF is Dondimensional factor
p
depending solei}' on the shape and sizc of the cross scelion.
Denoting 11 ~~ by 6~, the elementary work d.4 q will be ex
pressed by
In this expression .1, m3Y bo regarded as the lllulual \'ct~ical
llbsplaccmcnt of the two cro~ sections bounding the element dr
(see rig. B.Sb). For rectangular cross sections the value of factor
Tj will be obtained replacing in tbe corresponding tlJ:pression F

bA' Itnd S by ~ 4" - yl


by bh. J bY12' (b' ) which luads to 1'\ = 1.2. For a

drcular SCGlion the !aIDe procedure will yield 1') = ~ whilst for

I~.!'hnped section the approximAte "alue of 11 = "


H- or for
1)lJ adoflted. Ftp being the cross scelion of the web. If the elCI1l6nts
undf'r consideration are Deted upon Simultaneously by Cl normlll
'. IllAy

sire!.'! N, a bendin[l: moment il1 and a shear Q. the work oceom-


pli!lhcd by {'nch of these actions along the displaccmcllts ClI.ustld by the
twu utller DlIe!! will remain nil. COllSCtluently, tllo total work will
be expressed by
dA ",..v = I (NNd~+~1~+QOdZ
dA +dA M +dA Q"2 ElT " 1 GF '1 )

Intograting the expressioll of dA ovor the whole length 1 uf each


bnr con!ltitllting the structure nnd SUffim i ag u~) the result.!, we obtnin
thu following expression which permits the computation of the
work of external forces expre1lSed in terms of tho internal onos 10r
the whole structure
, , ,

whicb
A ---'-("~"f~

1111\)'
2 ~ J El + ...
, j'

00 writlen as follows
.
.~N!!.!!!.+"'QQdZ)
,} F.F ... j GF 'I ,
(3,8)

In the expression (3.8) tllO IOtlers Af, N. and Q represent tIle inter
nal forces 3.cting ovar n cross section situated a distance z froUl
., "
,.Jl6 (mglO 0' dcoor'mates, Wu. ..,rros ,\Idol
"U a th e . Ndz llll d Odz
El' EF BC 11
are tho etJm'sp<onding displllcomelllS of t110 clement d;,; of the bar.
The aoovo two expressions permit the computation of the work
8l;complishtld by the Joad~ in terms of the internal stresses devtll-
oped under the Hction of these londs. Expression (4.8) wows that
tho work or the exterllal 101\d~ will be always po.~itivll.
3.8. Slrat" I~"crgy

3.8, STHAIN ENEnGY


During the loadillg of a body the l:lxternal {MU'S 'CC()lI1fllish
.a certain amount of work part or whieh may he mllu to overc.omo
the inte_l'llal frkl.ioll. to altor 1.1\(~ l,cmperaturll or the rnagneLic
properties of thtl mlltetial, de. 111 tlte materials lJ.'!ultlly consid-
ered as el:lstic this part or the work i~ negligible and therefofP.- wo
mllY allmit thal all '.hC'. work uf external Iorcc~ is tran$rol'ull'd ill
tklt case inlo potential or "t.rain {\Ilergy. The laLter is aCGlllllulat-
,cd in tll(.' hod}' uuder cOllsider.:ltioll during the period of inereHfl-
ing strains and d(lformatiuns callS<ld by Ihc!;(1 rorces. Whcn the
body is unlond\ld, this &llel'gy is n~slitutcd as work accomplished
by lhe internal st.re~seil. Ai> no enel'gy is elVer lost, we lllay say lhat
all tlLe work A IlcGomplished hy the extl:lrll1l1 rOr{~{\S is tl'lln.~forJlH)(1
illto stl'ain onergy If' or, ill other \\'oJ'(!f;, that
A=W
SubstHuting ill this cqllatioll the value of A givell hy llw
expressiou (4.8) we obtaiu
, ,
W -~~~, '<'~
- ... J 2EJ T~ J (5.8)
o " 0
The analysis [)f L1lis exprc!\Sion leads to the following cOllclusion~:
1. 'rho strain elll:'r~y is always positive, for the above I:'xproliSioll
'Colltains tho values of thl:l internal forces !rI, Nand Q in the second
powt:r.
2. The strain energy is oxpres.sod hy II homogoneous rUIlC_lion or
the stresses or strains in Lht,) s(lC.ond power, the strains being directly
proportiollill to the Stl'CSS{'5.
3. The straill energy ,l\;CullluJatcd under the action of 11 certain
syslem of fOrCt\5 is 1I0t cqUld to the SUU! or
strain ellergics dUll Lo
<t!ach of Lhesc fOI'Ct's scjlaratcly nud therefore tbe principle of supcr-
position is rlO longcr valid. This follows from 111(\ fact I,hat t1w st.rnin
energy is a fOllction of Lhe second power of the stre..~s ,M, N ,lIltl
Q alld l.haL Lho sq\laro of a sum is never cl]unl to tlw Slllll of t.he
sqoaru~.

4. Tho slt'lIin energy Ilcculllulated in 1'1 hody i~ illl!epllll1lollt of


ltw scqm'lIcl' ill which Ihe l:Ixtol'naL forces are applil!d, tlte final
>'nllles of the stresses Af, Nand Q being illdependent of this ~qllollce.
'COIl&lqU('Utly, '.he :slraill energy Ilepcmls only Oil the flllal litate
~'Jr an elastic hody.
Stalelll(HII. ;3 elln Le C(lllfirnwd hy lho following example. LeL
liS eonshlCI' L1U'Cll differenL ways of load application tu the l)lllstic
bar slwwlI ill filt. U.&, viz.:
(1) loading by a single force PI (l'''ig. 0.8b).
(2) luading by II singlo force Pt (Fig. 9.&).
(~l simultaneous loading by boUt forces Pt and P a (Fig. 9.8d).
Tho strain energy accumulated in the rust two cases as given by
OXPf\!ssiOIl (5.8) alnounts to

W P:l W
1=2FF;
.!l'. 1-ZEF

In tho third cast' it will be given by


W ..... (Pl+P2)t I.". PlI +~+I~lP21
a 2EJI 2EF 2EF El'
Comparing lV 3 with the sum (W l +
W~) wc note that the sum
of strain ~nergics due to each of the forces separately is not equal
, I/, , I

F"
TTIW (cl
I
P,
(bl (cl
., (.,
P,
P,
Fie. 9.8

1.11 tho straiu (lnergy due to the simultaneous action of the same
forco.'I. Indeed
w -W
3- t
+W +P1Pzl
'--er
For It beUer understanding of the above equation lot us imagine
that ot first load PI is increased gradually from zero to its linal
valuo aud then remains constant while load P a slowly reaches its
full value in the same way. It is clear that tlte application of load
P'l will eause the end of the bar to move downwards an amount
~~ , and that during that time the load PI (assumed consLanl) will
PIPil
perform the work equal to"'"JJF'
Thll!l, tbe last term of the expreslsion for W 3 gh1(l!l the value of
tho work performed by the load PI when its point of application is
shiIled by force P,: (or vico versa, if the sequence of lORding is in-
verted).
Tho above example shows clearly thnt the principle of superpo
sitioll does nol, apply to the COnlJlutation of the strain energy nccu-
8.8. Slr4;'" ElW'trll ~t9

mulated ill all elas~ie body for otherwise the terms of the oquatiol1.
taking cart! of the work accomplished by one part of ti,e loads along
the displacement caused by tile other part of the loads, would be
conlplotely lost.
Prroblem l. Required to dett!rrnlne Ibe str.in energy IICCwnulaled bYolllllnd-
!IUpporled btam of reet.angulu &I'OM SlCtlou (Its width aud lkpth equalling:

m:\
(a) f~-:---,-------t
,
I !'f ymp" I

~m
IbI

: Q graph I

icJ
ffiIIIIlIIillIl ':'
b .ntl A. respectiv@ly). tho beam being IGllded by. couplo Wl aeting al its de"t-
band ll3:lremily(Fig. 10.&).
$01,,11011. Draw the bl!nding moment ,nd the shearing force dl.~.ms as

..
M""'T~ and Qs-,
.
shown in Fi,. 1O.8b and, (norroal slre!MS in this particul.r ease hamg nil).
The magllltude or these stNl5..oes in any ero!loS !eIltion will be given by

Introducing 11,.- vallJe!I iD the u:presslon for tho strain flM'rgy (5.11) Yo'to
obtaIn
"
l;"Jr1tl:s: I,"Qltl:s: gt (' I,
W-j~+J2GJP~=~j:s:h+
,
... TI r.) tlz:. ""{"
+2lfGF 21t "') ""21
m+ GF ""("SE; + (ff
")

Let us oompuo MW the magnltudes of lho .trdn energies due. on '.he one
hsnd. la IlIe she.rlng fol't('s and, on the Olher. to the bending mOlllont._. For
this purpo'll let us replaco G. F, J and I] by their v.lues correllpOndlng to emS/!:
section or reetangular !hapc
F_bh, J_I,,.s and 1]-1.2

"
.320 Strain Energy Thf'Ol'Y and MrtllOrf, 01 TJ"plac"",rut Computatlo"

'rltls leads to
OR' ( / , 1.2 ) ")/'/ [ 3 (" )']
LV=2T iJE:t +(i;/'jEbh = e/;"~ l+:r T
TIlt' :!ot'\.'ur,,1 tt'rru in hrackHs !'t'I'I1.'8('utj! till' 11.ll,tivt' \'01 Ir".' M tllo sbain l'Ul'l'gy
,ltll' Lu the shoarillll f"r""s. This turm is dir~l'tly IIl'ul'urLlo1l8L 10 the rat,,, .!f
wJU!rc h is tllll depth ~r the l'I'OSS ~CtlOll and I is I,Lte Spllll of tho btam.
I[lmcu, lhl'lnfltwnce of Lilo sboMing forces will lIN[1 rapldi~' with till) <1,)l'n~",;c
..f tllis ratio. When tlll' ratio
m"t l
i.~ I'qmll to +
, (beams with n llrenlel" raU" ~re !'CIlium

H fll1l0W~ thnt in th" CU>;l' 'mder cun~irlluatj"!l th{' str'"in ''Ilorgr r1rL(\ to the
.,.h"arin~ forc('.. . cvnstil,ull''; aa"ut 3 Jler ('('lit uf tlll' tut"l un"'lO' aocum,t!alerl.
111 1111' cm,(! "f h<'llm! lIlot wltl, ill actllal prllc1.iclI for which the ral ill -T i~ lI'.'lI"lly
much ~mull(',', 1,1,0 i,,01l<'lIcu ul tilt, slu'M'ing fO:<.'5 1011oom''5 quite Mgligihle.

t>roblclu2. I\el[uirt'll W d,'t(mlliulJ thQ str"in mwrgy ac.eoullu!l1[.l'd in the truss


()I Fir{_ 11.11. !Ill tllO l,l,nut'nl$ ut this truS.'! lIavill~ t[w samco c,ru"-S ~,lion F.

1 6

~--;b---*c-_*_--"iB,~.l
J ~ 7

1.._'''"""'_-1-._"''"""'_+_"''00.-+-"'""'-~
0

SQI,di~n. A~ tllo honding fIlnUl'l'HI~ 1111'1 shC'aring fOrl:l'S I'lJJllain nil ill all tho
b.11'S of tho trlJ~ aroll as lhe norm,l! s~r('.<~_~ N (,nu tll(\ l"igidjlJ('~ EF l"l'main con-
st;mt O\,'r lhe whole length of I-'ac.h hl,r, cxprl1ssion (5.8\ ll"h'ing till) oUluurrL 01
tho Slrain <:IlCfl\'Y aC-l'uffi'llatc,l he<;olll'~
,
."N2~ ;\'21 t6.8)
II ="U~/" J (/:r=~ 'lEF
,
In this UIJreSSlOn N- l"tnl dirl'd str'ns in each vf lire barE cau~d hj' lhe
S~'Sto'lU of 10llds llPI'IiE"l1
1 _ l"nl\'th of the b",.
:.s. Tlitonm 0/ /IN:il'lHdl IVDrh (ThtDrem 0/ Belfll) 32t

Tho silrn l: SltoWll that the summation of the energieJ! ,\Just be (,a1fil'd ov!:r
all thl) I~f'!! of tlto tnl~. Of course. tbO!ll btIrs ....bich rllmain idle may be neglect.-
~. llt~ product NSI rPIDnining .Iwafs ull ~-ben N - O.
III th(' GI!Ie nl tn'....~ .and aimilar strueturu strain ~ergy cornputation.
bould lit! carried oul in to>bular fOIlD till indicated hereunder.
Tllf/I, 1.8

Oar No. ,. m

J-Z; C-R ,
-~p ~pt
4
5 125 pt
4

24; /-fi -~f'


3 ,
~pt 5 ,
12'" J"-

J.J;:J..() 2P ~/'2 4 tf,,02


0-7; 7-11
2-3; /;-1 0 0 3

2-&; 6(j _!!..p ~1'1 5 ~PI


"
,., P
" &i
J" G
311
f-,Jn

The Ja~t column or the Tabl" c,mtains l,he Vllluf'.! of N 1 l for ellch bllr "I lhe
lru@~. Summing U\' all these Hllul.-s "nt! di\'iding the result by 'J.EFJE bllinl!

*;;
exprc~ in tons)lCl" ~q m and F in sq m) wo Mall ol,taln the valu(! ,)f Icstr"ilt
l'iK"fIlY ~CfUDlllllllt'd in th.e ",hole of the truu

w_ (z 1;'5 p2+ 2 1;5 P2+tl.lpl X4+0X 2+2; P2+6P2) 2~,f'''83

4.8. THEOREM OF RECIPROCAL WORKS (THEOR~.I Of" 8~TTYI


Lt>t us consider two di[erent stales of the same elastic S)'stom
in eqnilibrium and let us a.5Sume that in the lirst slate the systcm
is acted upon by a single stnticall)' l'Ipplit'd load P, and in the Stl-
c;flnd hy a SlatiCAlly applied load PI (l"ig. t2.8).
W~ shall dCllOt.c by j .... the deOeetion susLnin~d by any point
of the system. the first of the index letlers m. indic.ating th.~ dircc
ti()ll uf the deRcction and t.hc socond 1l the number of the load which
has caused this dC'f1ection. Thus, .1.,u will indicllt.e the ck~tlOrt
nlrJng the line "j at:.!iQ/t oj lood m ClJl~ by tJu: Wad Tl. When the hod)'
is acted upon by a mOment, 6"", will roprescnt an angular rota-
tion ~:tpl'I,.'.ssed ill radinns. TJle action 11 mtty consist alSl) of sevC'nl
concentratud loads. momcnl!l or combinations of distrihute,l load.s .

-Th,j compUl.i\tioll of ~tres...<oS Pi has not llCen include,l in I,he 81>0\'0 T~hlo.

21_8~3
822 Slral" EauKII TMtiry ami Mttlt....b of Displaununt Conl1,wlat/(1fI

JII tile case under consideration the various displnccmen~ .1~...


ore:
.1. 11 = deflection along the direction of load PI due to the same
load
.1 u = deflection along the direction of load PI duo lo the. load P1.
.1!1 -=- del1cction along Ule direuion of load P1. due to the load PI
~~ = deflN:lion 3.lon:;: the direction of load 1'2 duo to the .'!ame
load.
These rour dofleetiolls are deorly shown in Fig. 12.$.
L<ll All he tho work poriormcd by lood PI IlI,)ng tho din!clion
of this ~'\1lI0 101111 (in other words, lhl;l work corrcl'l)lolulillg lo

(aJ~
,,
J,,<
I ~"
Staft! 1

f<4 u
,,
I '+
,, ,, ,,
,, ,, ,,
,, ,,
, , , P,
,
Stau"

'" ,
4" '"
Fir. n.s

state I). Lulalso A zz be the work performed by the load P2 along the
dcfluctions com~sponding to slate ll.
J~x:pl'\'ssiofl (2.8) leads to the following values of the worl, oor-
respolldin~ la each of these !ltates, provided the loads are applied
il'9dually
- P~~::;
A =~--,-

This work could also be expressed in terms of the int('rnal


rOfl"eS aClillg in the Ll:!llm (set! expression (4.8)1

Il
I I I ,
1 _ .... ~Midz+I:(' ,Vfdz+~~ (?,dz
rl!_~~ 21U ~"""2RF ~2CFt)
I I I (7.8)
r1=.- ~ ~ J~i.~" T! ~ ,~~.~r + Z S~~~., 11
u 0 0 I
Let us assume that the .same sy.slem is ]Olltled in tho following
sequence: firitl, lond PI (t'ig, '13.8) is i'lcroa~d gradually froln zero
lo its fillol vldue; the IlencctiollS sustained by t.he_ syswm ond the
stres...c;es devdoped in that. calla will 00 eXllctly the &'I1I1e as t!lose
corresponding La state I of Fig. J2.8a, In particular. lILo Ilcncclioll
Ull{h~r load PI will equnl.<..\u and the work performed by this load
during its applicllLion will I\ffiount lo A u = P1i'U, Afltr (Ito.l let
ItI:HL P2 increASI;l in lht.' samo Wlly. This win cll~ail Lilo dc\'clolllllCllt
()( adctitioJUtI slrrSSl:lS and dcflcI'tinns, lhese 5tn'sscs autl tleneclions
bf,illg cquol to lhose susll\illed by the g)'slem in 1l1ate II of Fig. t2}~b;
p.
P,

,.."_"_::-----1:.,-
_,- --
-.>::::--
flITJ'U: ('.JIYe due
.------
~a-=-~=-~- t --*
.Ju--
El aN le eurvf
~,
to P, 'md P2 dut to P,

thlL" tbe >tdtlitiOltla( d('flL,,\ioll at Lhl' point III allp!ica~ioll o( load PI


willl.'qunl ~\I~' As LLw load PI llill not \'ury during the t1(lpIiCoLion oC
lua~1 P.,. it will travel downwnNt~ n dist.allce equnl to thl,\ ntldilional
dc'necHon .11~ performing L1w work An = PI.1I~; at the same tim&
lond P.,. will perform tlte wnrk Az:!; = 1'2:2:. It follow5thnt thu total
work ac~olTlplishc<l during the IO:ldill/o: u( tho s}'slem first by load
PI nnll next hy load P.,. will equal
A = JI tiT'A IV A !2=~
J'l \1l+p,+P2;\r-
L

1-'12----z-= (8.8)

;\1 thD Sllme time the work pc..rMl1Ied by 10;)d5 PI tlnd P, may
be expl'essed (SeA Eq, 2.8) by half Lhe product of ~ach of Lho.~ loads
hy the lotal dllfiectioll alon!" the dirootion of this load (Fig. VI.S).
A= PI(.lI}+~d + P:(J.212....L..\~1

l::qlltltiUg tilt' ahow 1\1:0 eXIl~iolls we obtain


",.12 11 + P" + P~2:=
I 2
11:
P. f.111+.\!2l + P: (.1:\ +At:!)
2 2
wherefrllln

".
324 S/rtt/" f;.urglj TlIt!J/JrrJ Ilnd Mtthods of nlsplltufl'lNd C""I/ll.IlaJ'Oll

Tile product Pt.1. n I"l'proscnls the work Aa performed by load


PI (,:orresponding lo stale t nf Pig. i2.8a) along the deflecHoll
call~d by load P2 following the direction of lnad PI (stale 11 of

Ftt. 11.R

Fig, 12.8/1). In lh~ :samu Wtly P Z.1 21 rcpn'50nt" th(' work A ZI per-
formt.'fll.y load p! or state IJ along thudcflcctioll foHowing' thl' Iille
or actif'n of this lond ca\l~d by loael 1', of sLaw I.
Collscquonliy

'I'lu, Sllllle \'~811H would ho n!Jtilin<o<l if tho body lIrlller COlIsidl'ra


lion WI'l'l' (lct{)d UPOIl hy lHl)' uumhcr of conCClItrntcd 01' fli.~lrjh~
ulud I":lds or monwnts.
Thus, l!~ work pl!r/ol"rned by lM fictions Ilj slale J along I/w dl'fl"c~
lions cflW'lt>d by flit: fIctions c(Jrr('~pondillg to state Ills I'fjufll I'! tJu work
pcrlorml'd b/l the actions 11/ slaU I1 along the deflccliOru dll.t' to th"
Qctions 0/ stuit' /. all the dejll'ctiO/l.S being measllred ilt lhr direction
Dj the saul odwm.
Let us e-"pn'ss now the work At: in terms of the bcnfl.ng mOlllcllt.~,
normal ~lrcsses and shears devc1ol'<'d in the first nod ill the second
s~aU!,
From l'AjlfCssiun t8.8) Wt' obtnill
A I1 = A-A Il -A"1 (1U.H)
lIere A rCI)rllM'lIL.'1 ~he totAl wurk produced lJy loads 1'1 and
P1 alont; the displacement..'1 due lO ~h('se same load"_ Ui!illg eXI!(1'<\-
SiOl1 (1,.8), this work may he expres.'1cd by
, , ,
A=-~~IMI-j .\J!\1d:r+>SINI, N 1)'l<lz ,~\ {Ql+Q!11dz ('11.8)
~ cl , 2F./ 2l::F
, , ......\ 2GP '1
,
In this expression M . N. alln 01 are rl'spectively I,he hellrlillg
mOllllJuls, the normal .'llr('~('s and the shears dlwl'luI'ud in Lho'l
m~mhl<r,<; of the sy!.'tcm llHdor cl1nsideration (lite t.o the 1l11plic<lliMI
or !t)(1(1 PI' while M~, IV: :lnt! Q2 lire those due to Iho lIflplicllUon
or June! P~.
5.$. Th~~m 0/ n~lproe,d DUplllum~,.I,

The 511111S (.1'. :-M,,). (NI + N:.) and (Q.+Q~) rupresent the
tOlal t'Csl.l1tant sl~s.ses ill cro~ sections due to the CClmbioed Rclion
of both load!l PI ond Pt.
Illt-rodu('ing the value of.4 give.n by oxprcs:sion (11.8) inlo exp~s
S\l)1l (10.8) alld u!:Iing the \'a1ues of /1 11 lIod A ~2 deri..-ed fro to equa-
tiOn (7.8) we obtain
,
1 _ ",{'{.lI 1+,u:)2 Mj NJ d:r+
111-~J
, '1.l'.'J

, , ,
~~. &1 ,tl,dx "'\' V Ntdz "'\'Q Q:dz
I
"I:=~,}J> I EJ +~jl I-U-+~,} l----cr'l (12.8)
, " ,
In this expression ('I\ch of t.be terms pre<;ecloo by the inltlgral llign
may be ron~idcrt'd as the product of a total stress (say. the bendillg
lIlomont At l ) due to t.he actions of stale 1 and the total st.rnins of
thu elclllcllt dJ. !lay, .,~)z. due to the AcUons of ::ILatc [I.

5.8. THEOHEM OF nECll'ROCAL OISPL.\CEMENTS (THEO",,:.\!


OF MAXWELL)

Let us take up 011~ again two diffel'ellt 8Lntcs of 011(' 1lI1l1 the
!!aTlH) sysl.em, Lhe first Iltate corresponding to the npplicntiotl of 11
uuit load PI and the second to that or a ullit lUrid P~ (fig. 15)S).
Hortlltflcr we shall use the sign 6 to indicate tho disp!IIC(lllltlllls
(lStraill1l, fllllj:u]ar rotatiulIs or dencctlons) cau~d by unit IOtld:l
p.- 1 or unit mOlnt!llts jV} = 1, in ord!!r to distinguish them from
lho<:tl due to loatl:l or mOments of arbitrnry ma~nitlldcs which shalt
be d('llo1l,d by .1. Thus. 5 2l will indicaLu the displacemollt dHu lo
the unit load PI uloll(( Lho direction of load P: whiht 611 will indi-
cale Lhe t1isplacclllt!nt along lobe line of action of load PI due to the
application of 10aLl UI,ity P'l'
Tu the precediujt article Wc have show.l that
P.6 1: = PJ. 21
As PI CC< P,= I t this cXprl!l!SiOll bi.'tome8
= bt l al"
GCllcralizillg we lrlay writo for allY 11nity fictions
o5 mn =6"m (Lt8)
Tho tfxpre-"Sion \.htl~ ubt:lined is the algebraic expression of
MartDt"Il'6 thnJrt'm which row as follows: in any dastlc SflsU'm the
~l(fW 1

~="'~p~;J"
, , , ,
Stole II I
I

~-)~,
- lfn ~
n,_ 15.S

d~pl~m~nl$ caustd by a. load lutttg ul(JII~ /Ju line uf aclton 0/ another


lll(ld unity au a1WiJ!lI tq/Ull to tk dL~plaamml dIU to this smmd food
wItty aloug IN lint' of tulwn 01 the first 0I1r.
Equation (13.8) will oh"ious!y remain "rile CYI!II wllen londs PI
.and 1'2 havl' arbill:lry hut ('quaL \-alu('s. In thi8- case tIle said expres-
sion will bc-co/lle
"\IS:.a SI (14.8)
An illustratioll of 1IlnK,well's thl!orl,ll\l is afforded by the example
of Fig. 1u.8. III sLnlo I the boam with a IJUiltin cnd is ltctRu upon
by SI unit load PI while in tJw ~ocond 0110 by II unit lllUOII:'.nt jJf/.
Tile rotation 1;" duo to tlLe unit lond P j mu~t be lllllllllricaHy
oqllol lo the doflt'Clioll 1/1 due tu the mOnJent W, i,t'., 6" = Yl-
Lf.'t us compute. now the '-a)uE'-s or~ .. and of YI u!iut: 0111,;. (If tllO
prooodurcs developed ill tilt' treatiscs on the strength of matt:rials.
In !Stale I Wig_ iQ.Ra)
0.. = )., (-Pla+ P;Z) = -i~ (l-1-)
and in sLale IJ \Fi:::. 16.Bb)
Yl= ~J( -!)} ~ +m (l-;."]= -~j (1-;)
Siu('c ID"I-J'= 1
O,,=--;,(/-f) and Yl-=-;, (l--r)
which connrJllS llml
:121

Tho strain.!! and displacenlcnts caused by nondiml!n.!'ional unit


loads P = f and momtlnt.~ m
= 1 differ in their dimension
frum ~he usual strains and deflections.
Indeed, tile dimension of a diilplllcemenc ca\l!lCU by 11. unit
load is given by the ratio of 3 displacement to the action which
has caused it. Thus. in the previous pX3.mple the angle of rottllioll
(tG produced by a nondimensioual load unity P = 1 (which is en-
tirel)l dilleronl Irom a load equal 1.0 1 ton or 1 kg) will be el:preS!Cd

(a) Stalq 1 P'I

a
--
[

(6) SllJtrt /1

~: -: - ,~;;------f2
Fi,. 16. 8

in ka- l Silllilarly the dllOcetio" produced by the unit moment


lm = 1 will also be expressed in cm per kg-cm or kg-I; in other
word!, it.s dimonsionality wiU be 6n&11y the same as tbat of all
an:uJ3f rotatiou due to a :unit load.

6.8..\On'HODS OF DISPLACEMENT COMPUTATION

Let us conf:ider two different. staws of one nnd the Sllme system.
J[J it., first ~Ultc the system is Mtl!d upon by any number of loads
and Illoment.'l who:"e values may be chosen at wiJI (Fig. f 7.8a) and
in the second stato by OIlC single load unity p~ (Fig. 17.Sb).
Let us compute the work A 21 produced by the load unity Pt along
the displacement 621 due to aH the actions of state I
This Slllne work is expr(!!.~ iD terms of the illlcrrlnl strcsst'g
lIsiug formulas (9.8) aud (12.8) bornes
, , ,
j
IIt =1: I.'J M~ ~~-=-+:EI.'N
EJ
j"ldz+"~Q- G'l dr.
~!/'["iT"'" ,) 2 GP 1]
(15.8)
0 0
(The dashes plDc~d over M t , N! llnd Q: inoicIle that thn~ streSSCS
are due to a load unity.)
Thus the displacement caused by any combination of loads 1113.)'
be 6l:prossed in terms of the stresses develolX'd by tho said comLi-
nntiolt cllld by those due to a load unit)', The line of action or lids
(0/ Af'tunl :UJU: {SCOW I J

~"III~
,I,
,
I

Fit. 11.8

load unity must coincide with the direction of the displact<Dlent


under consideratioll.
When a linear dlsptac.elllcnt. is required (say. a denection ilL ::lny
point of 1110 systom) tIle load unity mUlIt be a concentrated llondi-
mOll.!:iioll/t1 load acting at this particulllr point. If, on the other
haud, it is required to fInd thc angular nHntion of 11 cerlaill cross
.section, the uflit action JOust be a nondimonsiona[ collt'eulrtlwd
JnODlilllt applied to this .section.
Hereafter we s!ltlll refer to that stalO when 11 single load unity
is applied to tho s>,stern as the imagiruuy or unity stale, while the
(';8!'e whon the MOle system is acted upon by tho combination of
action!! eHcctively applied will be referred to as: the rNl or actual
state. In the 1!arne way the term unit groph or un.it diagram will
refer to tho graphs of the !ltres~S devl'lopl'u ullrlcr tht! action of 11
".,

lotld unity, these stresses being denoted by M, iYaDd Q.Wllill'


tho diagrams of stresses due to the actiof13 effectively applied will
be termed actU4l or flal graphs Illld the corresponding stresses will
be d~ignated by .Mp, N p and Qp.
In certain ca..;es it heromes more convenient to u~ aJphabclicar
indir<'s in expression (15.S) inskad of tbe numerical OIlCS (501)': m
and 11, or p and k). The expl1'ssion becomes in tMs case
, , ,
.1 1>lI, =Z\'KT
,
.~'~d,r+'SN
J m.~
,
IQ
~",d!+,tQ-
EF
.
J IQ Q"d.o:
GP 11

whero 0",,, is the disp!RC-emont aJOIlg t]lC line of action of load


(l Q.... .S"J

unity P'" due to the actions applied in relllHy and b~lollgill{; le>
tht;! group n.
Whcn the crO$.'l ~cti(loS of all the members remain CouJltant, the
eXJ)l"'ssion lB.8 may be rewritten as rollows
, , ,
.1"", -,,:E ;, ~ M,..I\,.. dz+ I;1' ~ N...N.. dz+Z G~ ~ QmQII dz (tHI}
The

three 8xpreasiolUl

(15.8), (16.8) and (17.8) are frequelltly
referred to as the Ctn~ral displattment tquaiions or lI!olir's rqualiQIU.
For t.htl c.amputat.ion of displacements wilh t.he help of th~
expressions the following sequence will be adopt.ed:
1. ill the flrst plaoo delermine the stresses M n , N" and Q" due
to the aJlP]i('d load!! for an arhitrary cross section in terms of its
abscissa x.
2. Apply a unity action at the cross section whose dellection or
lIngular rotlltiOIl is required, a COllcentrllwu load c;orl1lsponding
to a dcnectioll or any other translntion <lIld 1i moment to an ongular
rotation.
3. Computo the stresses ft7"" Nm. and (j", due to this ulllt nction
for the same cros.~ section sHual.<!d a distance. from the origin of
coordintl.t('s.
4. Introduce the values of tllo stressell Ill... N.. and Q.. AS well
as thoSt' of ltJ .... N ... and (j,.. in one of the three expression. (15.8),
(l6.S) or (17.8) aud iutegn.le along all tho elements of the t'ntire
structUN!. When the displacemcnt ~ ..... thus obtained is po..itive..
it.! direction coincides with that adopted for the unit actiou and
when it is ncgath'c, it is opposite to th6 onc adopted for the
unit a(:tion.
In the design of the redundant structure it is sometimes required
to nnd the mutuol displacement of two preselectcd points. In that
ca~ /I. system of two unit loacls of opposite direction should be
applied along UIO direction of tlll.l displllc,llment roquirod, tlu,'so
:'130 SIr",,, I:nu!lY 'l'''~r.'l and ,lfelhod& "/ Di'plaumenl Camp"l"ll"n

Illlil lauds being rO(llaced by unit mome/IW:; when the dispklcl'lllent


in quc.<::tiofl is an angular rotation. Thus, if it were required, fat
instnnce, to lind the increnS(l in the dilltallcc between points C aud
D of the portal frame appearing in Fig. 18.Ba" unit loads acting along
tlw [ilic CD r-;llOUld 00 applied to hoth of these points as indicated
in Fig. 18.8b. All the cumpulations will be carrlld Ollt thorca[t{'r
"
,
'#
"
D
, , , .,"","'0
DJ
,,
,,

r c a
l'i
'c
ri5
IT
",'-' , " , "
.~,
(m (b) IC)
Fig. 18.8

using Mohr's formula in the sequence mentioned abovo, keeping


in mind that the stresses Mill' IV", and <1", will be t.hose developed
undm' tho simult.ancuos action of both load unities jusL mentioned.
If tho displacement obtained is positive, its direction coincides
with thu one adopted for Lhe load unitics, in other words, the dis-
tance between points C a.nd D will increase. If, on the contrary, the
displacement obtained were negative, It would mean tha.t points C
and D are brought closer together,
The relativc arlgulnr rotation of two eta':'il sccl,ion!'; (If some struc-
tut'e may bll calculated in exactly the same way, In tile example
just lllolltionod two unit 1ll0ments should be applil.d ill that case
to points C and D, thesc moments acting in opposite directions
as showII in Fig. 18.8c, As for the computations Lhemsclves, they
will not differ in auy respect from those just described for the case
of a linear translation.
ln the lllajority of cascs, ouly one lerm of Mohr':; formula has
to 00 retained. Thus, if the structure works mainly in hellding
(thi" heing generally the case for rectilinear beams, portal and
huilllillg frallleil as well as for flat arches) it will suffice to use only
the term containing hending momonLs. Similarly whell the members
of the stl'ltctUtO wot'k mainly in direct tension or COU1p('es~ion, as
is the rase for all the hinged syslems. both terms depending on the
bonding' moments and shoal'S may be lIeglcr,led without any apllre-
6.8. M~/ItQd~ DJ Di~pllJCllmenl ClI1f!PUtlJtiCl'l 33\

eiahle rcrtmtioll in the nc~ufflcy of the results olJlllirwd. I n all


Un'lt follows, with the f:lx{,l:'plion of a fow specified CIlSt'!'i. 1IJ(' .~half
a.lways neglect the infiue7U'e of normal ,~tresscs and shRanion the lkf/t,C-
timt of rectill/tear beams and rigid frame,~.
If Lhe clcment Ulldl'f consideration is a curved buc' whosl' radius
or ('UrV"I,llre is at leas!. t.en lirnes as great as the clepl,h or its noss
~clioll. Mohr's formula for reetilinCflr bars may blJ lIslJd. !Jro\'idl'd
the le[l~lh of the straight clement. dx is replnced by tlU) lenglh or
the Ilrc.h w;. The influenc.", o[ normal SLI'CSSCS and shoRrs lUay he>
11.~\1al1y llt!gleclcd.

rroblcm I. DeU.>rIlli"e tho donec_~ion of nn en,l-slll'porlod bQllm ()[ CQn.~tanl


<Cr<lSS ~~clion acted "pOll by II conc~ntraled load P n at mi<1sp,~u (t'i~.19.8,,).
/\11 th(! tllr(lI) wnn~ of ~]ohr's [onnulll !!hould he used.
Solution. rh" imaginary stat,e of this hOI,m will cfltre5pcIIld to lho lIpplJca-
Ij(}n 01 a cOIlCl'ulratl'd load ullity in tho dirrn~H(>1l ,,[ tiro ddll"ctinn n.>qlllrfd
(Fig. 19.8b). 'I'll<! normal stres..."('." will rOllls;n ,wllsUntly nil Illrd lherefort'
,
"s-,
.\lohr's formuln will become

ll~-
O'm" .... 2: 7JI MmM/I dz+I GF .\ Qn.O" d.z:.,.~\~"
It Q
TA",n
,
"
ll.;.",,_1: 1
EJ r-
J M",Mlld.z:

is Ill!' d"necLion in puto belldill~ (I. l'. dU(l soll'ly 10 llll) h~ndinll" trlOlt\')I!~)
whll~t
,
Q
lIm",=:I: "
GF r-
J Q,nQ" d:r

b the llart of thl' t(,ta] deflection caused 1lOloh' by the siJeadng forces.
rolr all Ilw UOSIJ sections of the b~am to the Jl'rt of point C IILe i)~noJing
moments Mn and ,U", and tho shcmring force!! On lInd Om ltro given loy
P" I - 1
M<lQOT Mm~TJ:

P"
Q11-2 -Q 1
I>l-~

Tlw corresjl(mding gnpllS are giv('n in Fig, 19.81', d, ~ nn,] f. lntroduci,,~


lhnsc H,lues ,,,to the expressions givin~ the two dif[cfo;nt par~ of Llw lowl
delleclion, we obtain
Ti,e beatll beinl: s)'nlmetrieal abwt a vertiClll uis. we lIIar
intcgrilt.e
olll( along out! haU or !I.a ll!ng~b, $I)', the II'll UOt. The loUI dcD<--<lior;
.....i1 be gi\'"t'D by
JI Q P".l' p.. T}l
'O'...,,""'O'_+O'..."-48V+ 4GP

(0)
---
, ---- , ' ...

,, ,
,,, ,
Un,t rIots

, r"-/
lbi
J;.. c,
,, +.
,

\
le)
,,
, ,
,,
,I
I ill l!
I '! \ /'f:

i:~:
Id'

,,
l1lll1lllrrrmn::orrrm' p.

,,
,
fUUllOJJ!llllJ~
,
IfI :, ,' .
i 1III1I1W'IIIII~ '. 'COP" 1,
,,,
,
I'! ill e! l~ 2 j

Pig. 19. a
\\"hen the value of this ,ll,nl,<:lio/l is positivI'. its directi"" will cOlIlci'lo w,th
tha~ \>1 the lnarlurlil)' (if 8 llrlr"l i\'o \'allll.' were ohtainrd, it "-<l1Ilrt indic'lW that
the h01l1D is dl.'nl,<;l<~d ill the opposite dlroction),
Let liS now ,l('t<:rrni"o the relRUve importance of I..nh pnrt-~ of 11".. tulal
donecli"n, 11", ll"'~ dUl' to the bending moml'nt and the other dH" to Ih" 5Iu,ars.
IA't tho cros.~S(!{'tional diUlen~ion~ of the beam be 1J and h with h - 0.1 I.

Ht-plac_lUg ill tll(' aboyo exprl!J!."ioll J, F, 11 ami G l>~' the following ,'sluos
Ith3 bl 3 bt
J=~=12,OOO' F .... bk .... 1ij, '1,,01.2 and G_O.I,E

~~" 12 x 1.2 x 1>'/'/3 x 111 :J


7-12,000 X ," X UJ.~ul-= 100
m"
It follows that Ihe denection produced hy the shear.~ amountsl-'! BileI' cent onb'
of that part of the defleetion produced by the bending moment~.
l1'l~ influence of
I
the ~hear., will ,Iecreaw together with tho mtio +' ",,,I for

h - 2f1 Wc )mve already

It is obvious Ihnt in the great majol'ity of cases lhe U:rtO j.~" 101l~' be
...
cnmplelE'ly l1('gll'"t(>ll by p,omparison with t\lQ tllrm c\~: Thus wt' ohtain
Ill.' well-known cxpn'ssioll
?of P,,{3
"'m" ... "'..... -48EJ
".nhl('m 2. Complll.o tIll' vprliOlll clefle<'lion <\c of point C of n unirormly loa<l-
(,11 I>(>"m built-ill lIt its ldL ..,nd (Fig. 20.8a).
Solu!lan. The hl'ndin~ m'lmcnt curve r1uo t\l tl,o Ilnlfo'mly distrihutl~l load
i. rrJlr(L~ntcd in Fig. 20 b, Th!.' m"gnitude of th,} bending rnj)mt,n~ <It "11)' C"(lSS
81,,,,lon 8. dish"co:r from Iherighl,hand elld oflhe boalll equals _ '1~ . Tlui.imllgi-
Ilary ~tate will c,orre~pOlld tn the application of a conr-entrllled 10ao1 utlity al
point C, its rlil'ection coinciding with that of the denl'ction re'111irl',l. i.e., l>I'inlj:
verLienl (Fig. 20.S.l. The diagram of the bending moments M") iluluCl'd h}' 1,11("
I""d unity p ... B l'npN:lS!lAtl'd ill tOig. 20.8d. It is .lear that till, moment will
dilTer f"om zero onl)' III the CI"O~S sec,lioos of tho bc-~m ~jtu~ted to tIlt' tdt IJf
p"int C (at ~ ~ '" <, whc-I'C its Ilmounl, will he givpn hl' Mm - _ (~_{)
I)
Nej{lecting the ~heafs and int.egrating thl' term depending on ~hc hl'lIdiug
1I\Olllent..~ from Ttc l (.4T",remaininl:: constant I)' Hil L.O IIIl' righl, or ~i'climl Ci
Q

"
.
f
raj
~---~

x~ grJph

,
Ill%

Ihl

I'm"
~
/

(,;0)

1ffillIDIDnnm..._ _
Id)
Pig. 20. ,~

__,J'__ ;\
((i I I"

,--------~.
(({I I

Fig. 21. 8
6.8. Jlclhoas of {}Is/ll"cf'menl COIll/lIlI<lllc71

\..)p l'rnlllcm a. J)eterullne the maximum tr~lll~l:>ti"n or point A IIrlonging Ul the


a.'Cj~ oI a l'urn,d h'wm 1I~ \l'dl a.~ tlHlllugu!ur rotation of t!J~ l:I'(I,~~ Sl>rt'OIl
rfeut,raJ
pa~~ing throul,ln thi~ ~me point (fiK. 2UI"j.
Soj~tto". TI"l il\.!lu~lIl\e or the sb~drs aud llorulo~1 forces beIng uel:JilClbl~ ,tUU
the dirl"Ctioll of the tran~latioll l'l.'mllining unknowu,wu ~llllllC<JlIlpute:;ejJllrllh~
Iy its horiwntllLI and vertical c.ompunents iudllcQd by 1,110) 1J('llding moments.
Th~ t"tnl ..-:<1.", "f [,Ill! displHccmenl will be found lhere8fLer JIl lh,' u~"llL WllY
T!w lIlagnitude of the bending moment induce,l at any >;ectioll by tile 10;ld J'
Is givcn h)'
lI-f p ."PR sin qJ

(n order I'l dotl'I1HillQ tllo hOriWlltal COIIIIIOfWllt'..\,p of the tot.a! dlspla('('ul('lIt


Let us apply lit pOint A ;1 hodumtal lo:.d uniLy liS indlcall'ditl ~'ig_ 21.~b.
'J'llo v"luo of lho b""dillg mt>ll1<'ut induced in lhi~ caSll h)' the load u"it), ",ill.
<;,o"stituto for HUy sectloll
Af l = t ,R sinql_Rsin qJ
Rememhering Ihat d., .. n ,ftp, :\Iollr's formula. (1&.81 hOCOTllt>S
<P"":t - :t

.
~ MpMjds (' pnsin'l'RsilllfRdrp
~'1'- j El - J El -
-' n
e.
pn 3 PH'
-- El jS11l2~I'JfJ'_ Rl
(!f..2----'-
sin Z,,')1t rrPIf~
D-'t.Er

Tho value of tho di~pl>1,,(>ml!-nt thus obtained being po~itIVC, Its direelioll will
coincide ~'ilh that odopted for the Ivad Itnity in FIg. 2\.811.
Let us compul-t no\\' the nrticul di~)llac,l'lD('nt 1~j:I (If thiS ~llmo point A.
For this pllrJl<l'lO ...e l!hall upply 11 v{'rlic,,1 hlad \lnitr as iT"llra.tl><1 in t'ig. 21.8c.
In that C""l' tl'e bending momOllts induced by r.tm 100ld unity hc<:ofTIl'
J12~ -1.H (1- cos 'l')- - a (t-COsqol
USI"g OllCll again exprcssion (1(;.8) Wll obl-ain

_ .....~ " Ml'M2ds_\,RI'!ji"'Pl-R.(!-ro~l(')IRd'1'


- ""
~21' - j El - J El
,..0 "
Thi~ i1isplacl'ment bl'lng nE'gath'l', point A must Ir:ln'l ;n a dirL'~liou
()1)JlO~ito to the ono sell!dpd for thl' IOlll] unity, i.t'., upw:ml.... Tht, toLal
(\lsl'!M"Jmcn(. of "oint ~1 will be gi\'cn by

V .~lp+L\2,,- ~ /(rt.?R3)' ( 1.IJHJ)~ Jlf3 .. /;r-


~A""
i
V 2ET +- - EJ -ET V 1"+1,
The angular rotation A,p of cross ~clion A will h<J obtained npplyin~ to the
1",i,] &ros.o l;OOtion en imaginnry unit moment j\4, (Fill, 21.8d). In that caS<' the
hending moments indueed in the beam wlll r('/'lain

_ ,~]]IIT]]LITlJ~q COflSl:lllt 8l1(I equol tt> unity. C'ln~qucnlly, tho


angula,' rotation of cro.'lS section A will ho giwm by
C
a _~"M"M3d' ~
Asp -
.-. J F.J
""j'"'PRSill'fh,.Rd'
El -

ThE'. IlirNltion of lliis rotation will c,oindde


with that of tlit' unit moment, which meam that
RJ

Lho crO$ Sl.'cUon wiU turn cOllnt.erdockwise.

Problem t;. Determino t1l0 :onilu!or rotation 01


the freo ,)nd C of II k"Ull fra"", ltpPCllring in
Fig. 22.8 Fig. 22.8.
So/ut/fm. Apply to Sl'Clioll C of Lhl' kn~ frnmo
a unit moml'nt M tPnlHnl In turn thi ... ~tion in
thl.' ,1irNltion of the rolati'm rcqulrOll. In thllt ClII1e t le normal forcl'S and the
she~r.~ lhro\\ghou~ the structure will It'11lain eon~t.QntJ" nil llnd Mohr',,- lor,
" ...101 'I'll! r,mnpt'ioo ooe l('rm onl)' dl']K'ud.ing on tILl) l)(lnitin~ ",nnH~>ll.$ ,ncon if
il wero dcsirud IQ account for 0.\1 Lhe stre~5 induced III the structure.
t;lrJte Imagif1(lry .lo/(
Mm
H.

, C

,
, C ,.M
,
<0 El
,, fa) (tJ}

Fig. 2.1.8

Draw the t\\'o bending momenl e,"r\"('.~. Ont' for the distl'ibllted loa(l~ q effec-
lively apI'Jie'! and one for the imaginarv unilmonu'lIt M. 1'loe_<e two r.un'e~ nN'
Il"i\'cn In ~ig. 1..'\.8,. and b. l'csl'ertive!>': Analytlcal!y tI,, \',II""s or till' lxonding
m"m"tlL' for I"llh C:I;:e-s will he gin" hy:
lur Iht' upright
q1l2 _
llf
n_ -T Md M,,, __ l
7.$. T~",pcrll.tu,.t! $,,.,,Ins

(or the lJorhoJlla.1 bearu


""
M.--'Izl -
and M __ l
T
!1I1"l(!ucioll theose valul."!l in CJ.:~iOD (16.8) c oblJlill

(f-6",.. -

J~ 7
I 'l.1 1 q41 *
2q.1
EJ dz+ "2' Itl dz + 3EJ /,

7.~. TEMPEIlATURE STnAI~S

f,lohl"s formula (\G.8)


, lUuy oc
, wrilwlI liS follows
,
A~-I"SM.4.+tSN.A.. +I
Q ~
SQ.A,.
0
(l8.8)

\\"11('ro Oi. n = J~;~.t = muLu.1lll.lIgular roLalion 01 the two cnd (:lces


of clement dJ; induced by UIC applied 10:lds
~zn = N:;z = mutual linear displacement of the sarne
(aces along tbe AXis of the dernellL
6,... = Q~~z l'l-= LhlM mutnal displacoment in the dirccLiou
Ilorlllal to the axis of the mt'mbcr (see
Art. 2.8).
In lids tr:lllscription Mollr's formula lIlay he utilized uot only
whell the displac('ment.s Il. n d,," 1\1Id 6 .. n of all element dx arc
inotlced by streSie!! tlll.'mselvcs due to Il. systom of external IOHus.
I,ut also in the even!. the stmins uro dllC to n chango in ternpel'a-
!,mt!. COll.'Se_qUClltly. this &xprf'ssion lnuy serve for the solution or
IH'oblenls connected with thermal expallsions ltlld contractions,
Assume that the tentper-oltuN o[ the top flbres o[ elemellt d.z has
b~.l raist'd by t. lino thnt o( the bottom ones by t:. (Fig. 24.8). As-
HUIU' IIlso th~ L wit hill the body ils('1f the temperalure \'arie! Iiut.!arly.
The expan~ioll of the t()P fibres of tbe element dx will equlll al,d%
IInd that of the bottom flbrel5 at'Jfi.% where et is the codfu:ient of
thermal eX'palision. In the CAse of 11 symmetrical cross S<'eLion the
lxpmu;ion at mid height ,"ill equal bdf the sum of !be e.'_pans-ions
o( the eX'LrCIllC r.br~
.. lJ.(ll+I:)d
u",,= 2 %

'Ihe mutual angular rotation of tllO tWQ cross sections bound-


ing this clement will be given hy
.. ... _(1(11- 12)d
U,n=<->q-l- h %

2~_853
As the rise of temperature will lead to no vortical displaeemclIl.S
of the element d:e: Lhtl term &~ .. will romain nil.
Introducing the above values into {ormuln (t8.8) wc shall (Jbtai.l
the I'xpression pcrmitLillg direct c.ompntatioll of strains and rill-
flocUous arising fWIn lcmpernturo chnngtl!:l"
, ,
( A".1=Iarl~t: SM.. . dx+L%.fSiV... dz J (HL8)
o 0
(.. thi., e.'cpressi(lll tho sign 1: iodicalc5 tbat. the summatiolL must
be carried over all the rnembers of the system.

dx. f4f'dx.
~- - - / . /. - - 7
~r-"
~
\., z ~
~
, 0"
Z
,,
d, / ~,
, ,
"
,,
~/.
,,
'~ '=.d
a'~dA"

21.8

(t is nbvious that only those members which have been submit--


wd w a temperaturo cha',ge must be taken into CfHlsit!l'rtll.iOIl.
For recLilinear Of polygonal bars of constant cross section the ('or~
~l1mltling intl'grals nlaY be comlluted a~ the areas hounded by
the diagrams of unit stresses. which permits t.o reduce the nbO\tl
('xrns.~iOll to the fnllowing [urm which i!l e:dromoly convellient
for prarlic:ll d~iJ:;n
t,-I......
~"'l = :Eo; ~ ~''J + ...'" a --r-
tl+l zQ
~ (20.8)

I-Iere Oii flud 0;= inc'licate tilt! MellS ooundec'l b~' I.he M nnd N
curn'S. Whell tho truss section is Ilonsymmetrical "bo\ll its neuLntl
1.+'" I _I
axi~ the l\!rlll be replaced b~' t~+y wherey iJ<
lflllSl
u>
Llle

lli"lnnce of the lower fihro to the gravity axis.


+
-This npre5iliOfl will be valid 1>I.ly if the chang... in tomper~lllre and thp
I,,,ighl of Ih" cr(>~s :'\('Cllon do not vary within lho Icol!th l'lI each particular
Ill~mh...r (ormlng Ill(> S(TlIClurB.
7.S. Ttlfl~rd",rll Slral,u 339

The sign~ of all Lho terms appoaring' ill the :lbovc formula will be
ohtained :IS follows: when the strains of elemcnl d.z; illdtlced both
by the variation in tf'mperatllre aud by the load unity arc of tIte
s..1mo di~tion the forre.o;:jlOoding k'tm or t114~ cqultnoll will be
posiLh'o; if it were oLhl'rwi:!e, tbe L.ctm would be rll~gilLi\~.
In thu wOlputlltion of thermal di~ptaCt'nH'nls lJ~ !o1rouu and
dP/lt.dIQ/U produCf!d by the warinj! force'S may no longer Ix 'k'gkcttd
for their rdQliue /.."Qlul! nw.1I k 'lw-le Qpprillbk.

Problem. TlcquinlI ~h& vcrtiCJlI di51,h,cernen1 of pnint C of lhe kl1t~, !rume


1l1'1'MI'inl: ill \-'Jg. 22.1l, Wht'll the lndou.' lNl)I't'fOLUfll rises br IIl c.C, IIII~ outduor
temperdurc l'''lUnlning con~tllut (Fig. 25.8/J}.

~
1 ~1
-
, +i '0
IO C

T ,al
a

0
f~
(6) , ,
Fie. 2~.S

Svl"tlun. Apply 11 IUIIIl ullit} along tbe llirceUnu (If tlw displact'nlenl requi-
red And drllw the eorn,lSI)OlllHnJ,: M 81ld N cu,vu (Fig. 25-'~/.I ~nd r). Tlou Il~a~
bounded h~' ~h('!lIJ ClJrvc~ will amount lo

.."
n_=l./J_a

g--~+jl(j-I.s..1
M _

Ut U5 al:'<l rlllnpute the terms dopelldlng Ilircc:~h on till' INIl\H'rlllure


chlnge
'1+t:;_U+IO_ 5
2 2
1,,-lzl=10-101_10
It sholll.1 he ob...."'ed that tbo la."! t<'nn I'l'llfCl/('nlillg llJll wtlll change
in t\lmperlllure mU.~1 be a1wlys tlllen in ab!olult' value rl'gaf(Ilt"!'1: of its sign.
It llllOuJrl 1Ilfo be nott',1 Ihat 811 inert'll&" in Ih\.' hllloor ltnlJll'rlll'"'(l leads \<1
lIn Ilxt.<:nsill[l of tho inner fibres o( till) kn<l8 "'lme while tht' Hnit 1".,1 ~O\ll"
In Fig. 25.8 e8ust'! tbeir contraction. COrtSt'II1lelltly, L1HI~ 1l.'l'IlI 01 lhu ollulltiOn
which accounts fUf 1110 1Jt'llr)ing mOlllcnls wHl Ill' Mgat;\'{!. Tht ~1Il0 wilt apply
22
to the tl'nll &ccOWl\ing fur the normal !lreSS(l5. for an in(J'I'aile ill 1.C00po:taturc

6",l--Saa- 15cx

.
If!ad5 10 811 utension of 1.he upright ....hile the load unit" adol'te,] enUil, iU
eonll'~ctlon. Gon5l:-quently

T'

8.8. DISI'T.ACEMENT COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES

In It IHlIllher nf C.Il5e!S displacement comput-ations lllny be sim


plified \'cr-y cOl\Sid~tnbly by the introduction o[ a special tC!C.llIlique
_~ ,~ I

[or lh~ calcull:ltion of the intt'gro.ls IJolonging to the type ~ Ji,,,M,,dx-.


,
We Shall mOllO "hi! tcchniq\le the graph multiplication method
for it is hnlled <)11 tl\o rllct th.o.t tbo expro.'lSion IJrecedcrl by the sign
of tbc illh:gral I;olltl'\in., lIIe product uf two ordinates to the ;fi",
nod M" CIlf\'l!S. This techniquo will apply. pro\'jdetl :It least olle
of the cun'ts (say. th"t uf .11...) reduoes to a strnightline. The other
diagram Inay be hounded by any cur~'e or broken Hne. The ordi-
nale to any straight line may be always expressed by 1ft". =
= z t.:l.n ; the ID.caning of z Dod ex ht-ing clearly shown in
'Fig. 26.8.
Introducing this value of Kt", into the integral \lnder cOlIside-
ration, we outail1
, , ,
\ MItlM... dz=tanex ~zM"dz=ztana Szan"
t I
where .i\f"dL = dQ" rl.'prl'scllts the differential of the areft Q"
bouuded by thl: M" CIIr\"C (Pig. 26.8), ,
COn~(l'lelltly, t!le e."ptcSsion ~:rdP.n repffiSents the stntical
mOnlOl1\ o[ the graph Mea about the 0-0' axis (Fig, 2(;.8).
m well
It
,
knQwl1 \hnl this :oltatical momenL may be expressed by

SzdQ" = Qn Z..


" TIlt ~tJIf> 'l"C_hnlqu~ ,\"ill
, ,
appl)' tA 'imilar inl.C(l:rl'b

~ l~ItlNn dz llnd S(j",QIl dz



8.8. Dupl<tmi!nl Compllltll/on Ttrltnl'l"U 341

~he ~Illroid.
,
%e representing abscissa of the graJlIl It follows that

~M...M"dz=%gtallaQ", but sim-.e %cLaIlCX-Ye we obtllin finally


,
~MmA1l1dx-QftYe (21.8)
,
Hence, the product of the multiplicat!QIl .,/ two graplL~. om' /J/ which
at If:(Mt u; botwded by 11 straight lirn:. equals the area bounded by the
graph 0/ arbitrary ol~Ili'le multiplied by the ordinate Yr tu thrJ first

I ".
~
0'

, 'd.<
Mm graph ,,, ,,
,,
Y, M~
- ---ii[-- __
, ---- ---_=:: .. 0
,
"
Fig. 26.8

graph mea.~ured along tJu urrtical panlng Jhrough Ute rrmlroid of the
Ift:ofld olle. This produd will he reckoned positive when the grnph
of arbitrary outline Bud the ordinate to tho rN-tiliupnr grnph are
both of the same sigil lInd negative when the two aro or opposite
sign. This proct"duro has been suggested ill 1925 by Pror. A. Vere-
shchtljl'ill wben Ill' wos still 11 8tuden~ of the ;\{()S("ow Raihvny Trons-
port Insti~ute and lherefore in tho U.S.S.R. this method is known
lllso as Vtrt'Shchngin'. method.
It should bo lIoted that the left part of expression (21.8) diRE'rs
from Mohr's integral by tho ab!>ellce of the f",cwr ~J' Hence the
result of the graph multiplication c.nrried out by Vel'e'<hchagin's
method mllst be later divided by EJ.
It should be always kept in mind that the ordinat/! Y~ must be
measured on the graph bounded by a straight tiTW. If both of tile
grnl,hs were bounded by straight lines the ordinate y, <:ould be
m~a~ured on any olle of the two. Thus, if it were rcquir'(1d lo rind
the product of t!le grnphs for .\1, and M" of Fig. 27.& one could
tlitlll~r muhiply the area Cb boulldcd by thc lIf j ~ur"'l!, by the urili-
!late y" measun'd all)llg the \'crtical ptl!'8ing lhrQugh lhe cclllroid

O
-- , ,
Q;J --,
T ~I- ....

(b)
,
:
,
\

'~d
---7---
- .... _~. 1
1 '-""-_

Fir. 27.8

o( I_his llrea to the /If" curvt', or else Olll:l could multiply the area
a", bounilt'd by the /If, curve, by the urdinate Ni measured lo lhe
lift Cllr\'C along the vertical passing through the!h t(:ntroid.
When R lrapezoidal graph has to be nlUltiplied by another graph
(If Ihe g.'Hlli' shape, it is collyenient. lQ suhdivide olle of the two
into Iwn lrilttlg-Ios as indiClllod in Fig. 27.8b Md to multiply there~
After ~ht :trl!ll of ench of lhese lrinngh.s hy the urdinat.c to tht'
otht'r gl1lph lnE'asllred along thll vertical pllsRing through the c,cu-
troid or l,!adl or these trillngle.'l.
TIIIIS, in Ihe CII.!1C just llll;'ntioned wc would ohtaill
8.8. Dhplfltl"unt COntPlllldllH! TtcllnlqJl~S

The same procedure uould be followed if each of the two w:rllphs


""
cunsisted vf twv triangles of opposite Sigl\ (Fig. 27.&). One of the
two grtllJhs could be replaced by lwo triangles ADC and ABD the
ordinalcs Lo which would remain of the same sign along tIle whole
length of the j:!raph. 'I he introduction 01 two additional tri3nflM
CDK alld AKD would have 110 errcct Oil the linal r05ul1.5 for their
ordin3tes are eqWl.1 in value ~nd opposite in sign.
Multiplying the graphs of Fig. 27.& we would obtain
.1 YO
2 + (-"2
") cl
(-lIb)="2 hi
Y"+2 Yb
Wilen onc of tho grdph."1 is bounded by a conie parahola, t}lI~ nren
of this gr3ph should be subdivided into two triangles nnd a parll-
bolic SC):Cment. It will he remembered that a parabolic grnph is

(O)~t /CJ~J
~~t:
,,
,
,,' I : I
, " ,
IQ) ~z /d}~J
Q,

peculiar to lIle uniformly distributed loads 30d that the ordinate


to the centra of the pilrabolic gegmellt is always llquaJ to !/i
It mAl" hJlppell that both l:raphs are irregular in ,,!Jape but one
of the two is bo1ll1ded by n broken linc. In this ca~ bot}. graphs
should Le subdivided into a number of portions so that in each 01
them at least one of 1.he grllophs should be bounded by Cl straight
line. Thus, if it were lIecessAry to multiply the two graphs repre-
scnled ill Fig. 28.& and b. both should be subdivided into two
parL!l. thE' relfolt of their Dlultiplica.1.ion being given by Ul(! sum
Q.y. + nd':.
Ontl could Also subdivide t!lese graphs ill three portions liS indi
Gnted in Fig. 28.& and d. In thAt case the result of their multipli-
GAlion ""(IllId be given by n'YI + Qt.Y: + QJY3'
Vcrcshchagin's method requires the rapid evaluation of graph
areas of different shnpe And the determination of the position of
their cenlroid. Tnble 2.8 represents the nreas and the een1.l"oid
positions for various graphs and is intonded to fncili1.l:lte these
complllAtiolls.
3t,4 $tra/fl R"er/W Theorv and M~thod. <)f f)1.(llaUI1l~llj COmflUlallorl

T4bl~ 28

""m
.Area
No. Shal'" M the graph

"

..,l I, r
hi .,, .,,
L .

, ,
~
hi 21
-,
{~
T

, ., ,
;~
hi 31

~
4" T

" '.
T'~ laiW5/Klroldll
...
hi
T ,-I .",
lll~
-~ ...
lJ
5 p-pg<ro:kOft"k
{-
...
rttk i

~~
In-(/ldepm!
:
i
'

6
-'T
t l'
""Cl'mc
,
-,-
2h1
"
8"
<] III!~"'"

Table 3.8 gives the values of i\fohr's iJlle~rllls S


/''vT1,lflld;x com-
puted for vurious graphs of different outline. This table will be
of considemble help in the computalion of displacemellts.
Vereshcbagin's method is particularly well tiL for the compula-
tion of the deflections of beams and framod structures. the different
spans or members of which do not vary in their l'igidity. Should
this rigidity vary along an element, the product El would IHIY(\
9.8. E",ampl~" (>/ Di.'plarl'ml'nt Compulation

to remain uoder Lhc illlegr1l1 sign which would make Vel'cshch<\-


gill'S method inapplicahlt'. It wOllid then bccnme ner,{'~sary to cal-
culate analytically Mohr's iJltcgrnls or, if IHI approximate solu-
tion were deemed .9ufflCienl. all the member.:: of the structure cuuld
be rlctitiuusly replaced by othBr Olles whose rigidity would vary
by increments.
TIlt, deneetions of hinged strnctllrcs are computed using ouly
that term of Mohr's equation which lakes into account the normal
stresses. It will he rememhered that hending mome.llts and !lhellfS
remain Jlil ill all the memhers of this class of structures. COIlS('
quelltly, i\lohr's formula ream,cs to
,
t.I -:E~V N"dx
mn - J' m EF

Tlte integrals must be calclliated separately for the whole length
of each member of the structure whl;!reafter all of tho values of these-
integrals must be summed up. In the great majority of cases t11l~
normal sLt~lles j"It N n , tlle cross-sectional area F and Young's
modulllS E will remain COllSlflnl within the limits of each member
in which case the nbove expressioil hecomes

fi
1nl>
=1:N,,,N,,~ .J~_~
Er' ~ <=- ~
NmN n I
El'
(22.8)

'rhus the computation of the deflections oC" trusses aud silfliLur


structures reduces t(j the summing up of tlle products N~:" l calcu
Jated sepllrah,ly for ('aell bar. These comp"LaliOllg should be car-
ried oul in tabular form.

9.8. EXAMPLES OF DISPLACEMEXT COMPUTATION USING


VEnESHCHACIN'S METHOD
Problem 1. Require<.! the deilection of point C of lilt! he~m appearing ill
FIg. 19.8.:. TI,o effecl of botb bl!nding roomenl;J and 5hl,$I'$ Slllltlld bo account-
ed for. \ _" ,~" "i ," ')
Solution, The imaiiinu'1'tatll 01 the hrn,m liS well as thlt graphs or t,ho strl'S-
ws induce"- by the loall P" and by lhe unit 101111. Pp> are .opr~'nted in Fig. to,Hb,
t, d, ~ allrl /. Using Verellhchllgin's method wo hnd
2 F"l I j 2 1 2'1 P" j t P"ls Pllr,1
t>.mll""'-El-:r ;r-rS'4"+ GF '2'2'2- 4SEJ+ 4G1'
'I'his result coinddes exactly wilh tho one obtained in Art. 6.8 h~' dinlC.t
integration.
Problem 2. I\rqll.irod the horitnntal r1ispl8C(1lllcnt of ['oint C of Lhll porllll
frame shown In Fig. 29.&. The mom(lnlS of in('rtill of all the members of the
\'nlue of Muhr's lotegrals S M'~ 11... d.i< {the

.\1"1 lI't~Ph
J.f gr~ph
h ..-'--"':-}, ".,g=J
.... 7
11
0'

~h, - ,
1I'1},2 IIl l
U (2h o+f'bl

h,e--------..... Ihi
+"'2(2h 5 +11 0)

"
' 0--t 1
::j
h * h:d2h l +"3)
I
6 12 (I,:;,;, + h,h o)+
+ 11 3h o+ h~h~J

,~"
I I
{fhz (2c z- c l) G 12 (-clh~+ '2 ho1-

,- -clho+'z1I~l

i,'(In'c pora/xJlo 111 h z


--r:r- 'f.
l'2 \3/1~+ho)
r,b------_
(;..; i ..~-d./../

--==--Jr, -,-
If ll
zz I" 3h
1"2'" \ o +h~)

C;",,' t-_"'1~",1 Llhz If


,- "3 (h~+h6)
~
.Cmic jIOriJoo!iJ .J. -&- hz (2k' -+ ).) ~ (h~k+4,h' +ho")

.r" '~t"--l,1
r-t--l .
-

O~4 I--~'
G;n'c pnro/dl1 ~~~~-~
f'b=-.
I~ "hP\'
- .,
Ih,
T(1r,-e,) I 'ft"J
..."
Wit,
-3- I~l l2hij ,-1..')

I
,
~~(-tc,+cd ~ , -,-
Wilt
b "': (,I,;' ;-:lh,l

I lh (3hI +11)~ If'


-[2(-Il,c,+
r. """'iT T(h3+h~1 *(11'" -;-tihlto+
+h~CI)+h,fC4- +11,;"')
-h'hl

if' .
+,12lcl('!+r~,- 12
Il,
(-3r l + <'2) 3(-('1+('11 .!..{-r,k'
r, f.
r
-OYs-clcdl -f ' .. ,h.+rtJ.')

lf,
T:T(- :x.. +e,1 -,-
1M2
-,-
Iltl'
~ la(3k'+
+'-')1 12:'\
li~ ll~
12 (:k,-tt)
w
1121'
-,- ~ f!i (3;" +k')..l.

+12'1

If
3{-c3+ c,1 -,-
lff:
!-11J' :~ I!ll/r' +;.')+

" .J.&"

{1-c,k+4..th' + ~~ 15 (3k +).H if'


1S'Slk+AJ ...... i-1 2 U:'+2H' +
+c,).) +12.:1 +8:1 +k): +i..k' +2: X
xi/r'+).',+
,2" (k+i.)+
+ 3.2:;' J
Ffillmc MU indic.INI in tile $me Iigure. Young', modulo.!! E Te!Ullining eonmnt.
throughout.
.<;"I..tlolI. Th~ IlC<ltling moment di"gram corresponding: tAl the IColual IOllding
is given ill Fig. 2!1.8b. The imAginary loatlillg elln~i~t5 of <lilt' horizontul loail
uuily acting lit point C. 'rho Jrrcsflondiug bending momont ,raph ia Ifiven
in t'ig. 29.l:lr. 'fh' signs" the IIImding
p )z V, ffiOlllcnls '!.ptaring in th~se II:rll.i'h~ Illlly 1Iu
omitted If eslred for Ihest> graphs are 1I1\\'OY5
drawn 011 Ihe sido 01 the euendl'd fibres.
The displacemont or polll! C "'-ill beobt/lined
by mul1iplylng .11 the ordinall!S 10 the
J, ~.<:: bending m\lOttlll gl'llph t.rJtluspo:mding LO Ihlt

a
(a'

~a5Pl @....;111azpl
QJPr(llPP
1'1

~

.. I
.; , I
-:

QS!
(c)

@
~I
(c' Id'

Fill. 29.~

~dulJl I~ding h}' tho onlioltlt"s to the V_ph due 10 the f1rliti<>".q load unity.
Using Vllff'Shebagin's muthod ud taking into account the d ill\'r('nt rigttlili.,! or
thr c:ohlllln ~ntl or the r!'M.'\ heam we find
The dlsplaucment Lhus found will be negative for the Mp and M g,'Aphs are
situAted on dilTerellL sides of each memher of the fl'RIlW thus iudicJltiug lhal
the lJen,ling moments},f~ luu1 M M'l' of opposite signs. Ill'nee lho ad.. :,l di~l'lllCl"
ml'ut, uf ]loinl C will IIGClJr in a direction opposit(l to th(l uUI) ild(>l't(~(\ for tho
loud unilr, I.e., towards the right.
,
J{ !:'rablem 3. Requir",1 tll" dl,nection .1l., and tb" l\llgular rot<>U,," l!.~ ur the
Jlf.'am with a huilt-in end 1l1'I'9aring in }'ig. 30.8a. theSl' two displacem"nl...~ I'l'ing
due rllSpec.tivdy tu lhe nppIJclIion of a concentrated load P and of a UlOHll.'lIl
9Jl. The bending moment grapJls corresponding to thl' actual loading are illdic,at-
,~d iu Fig. ilO.!!/>.
Solution.. AJlply alollg tho dire<:::tiong 01 the displacemi!uts tequirl.'d a uuiL
load (~'ig. 30.8~) nnd 11 unit momont (Flg. 30.Bd) lIud trace the c<lrr",~polldillg
bending mOlllcul dillwam~ (t'ig. 30.& and dj. Thl' dent>etions Hud angular ,'oLa-
lions will be cOUlput~d using Mvhr's lormula tOgl."thl.'r with Verl'sbchagin's
m'1thud. Thn.up graph will be fi~t multiplied by thl.' liT,Il"I'Ollh 8:11111hen h)' till'
M2 grllph.

Ai '"" )'J [O.5Fl x 0.5/ X -} X f X 0.5/ + e51 X


Pt'
X (-2 X 0.::11'1 X 0.51+2 X 0.2PI X I-O.:lPI X 1 +0.21'1 X 0.5t) ] - 30EI

tl2-J
'( O..'lPIXO,5IX2"X
, t -O.2PlxO.5lXT')1'/:
x1 -"Of.'J

)fPrnblcm 4, Bequired the hori?ontal disl,lacmnlmt I>f point, D hclongiug to


1)le structure repre~nt{1I1 in Fig. a1.Ba.
Solllflo.... Tlu,) bendin~ UlOment graph c,orrl'$p<lnding 10 1.110 actual IOllding
,!,pe8rS In }'ig. 31.8/>. Let us apply II JO<ld l1nit~ along the direction of the dis-
I' 1ICl!,nent requirl'd. Thl' graph of the hending moments induCl!d by thi~ load
;~ given in Fig. 31.&:, i\lllltipJ~'ing tho two graplts one hy another using Vt'rl.'sli-
.,hagin'll method and rememh{",illg thal the .separate membl'r.s of 1.111' ~tr\lrtllre
~Il'e of dilll'Tont rigidity, we obtain

The arlla of llle Mp graph pertaining to element cn is oounded by a CQn-


C;,\Vl' pUllbolic curv", and therefore it!! area i!! equal to oue third of tho I'rodllct
(If its base lengt.h by the Tnllxlmum ordinate. I.e.,
1 qat qa3
QCD-g'Z,a""T
TbI' centroid of this graph is situated a distance
"4 as mea~llred from )1'<Iint

- gra\lh {'(jURis
C (500 Table 2.8). I'Tencu the correspondlng ordinato to the M '"T'
o
8