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ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS OF

BUDDHIST PLACES OF WORSHIP: An


examination of the Architectural concepts of
Buddhist places of worship in rural and urban settings;
with special reference to
Southern Province.

A Dissertation S u b m i t t e d to the University of M o r a t u w a


A s a Partial Fulfilment of t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s for t h e D e g r e e of
M a s t e r o f S c i e n c e in A r c h i t e c t u r e .

12 W
7.2 <S- \ ( ^4%"

L.K.N. Samanthi
M.Sc. 11-1999
D e p a r t m e n t of Architecture
University of M o r a t u w a
July 1999

71758
T H
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Let m e record h e r e m y heartful gratitude to e a c h a n d e v e r y o n e m a i n t a i n e d below, for


their help to m a k e dissertation s u c c e s s .

- T o Dr. S. M a n a w a d u , S e n i o r Lecturer, Dept. of Architecture, University of M o r a t u w a ,


w h o g a v e m e f r e e d o m to p r e s s u r e a different subject area, with his c o m m e n t s and
criticisms w h i c h i m m e n s e l y to built u p c o n f i d e n c e .

- T o Archt. R a v i n G u n a r a t n e for s h o w i n g m e gravity of topic.

-To Prof. Oliver A b e y n a y a k e , Ven. Rathnapura Rahula Thera, Lecturer Sasni


Amarasekera and Lecturer Yamuna Herath o f Pali and Buddhist University,
H o m a g a m a , for their g u i d a n c e .

- T o m y f r i e n d s S e w w a n d i , T h u s h a n i , S i t h a r a , Mihiri, D i n u s h i , a n d Mr. Thilakasiri w h o


h e l p e d m e for p l a c e s visited.

-To Dushanthi, Ruwini and Attanayake, w h o provided materials.

-Special t h a n k s for P u s h p a n i a n d Nilakshi for their patient help, e n c o u r a g e m e n t and


s p e n d i n g their time.

-To m y parents, m y brother Nilanga a n d his friends G a y a n a n d M o h a n , w h o helped


m e in m a n y w a y s .

- F i n a l l y all t h e p e o p l e w h o w e r e s u p p o r t i v e in t h e p l a c e s v i s i t e d a n d t h e s t a f f o f D e p t .
of Architecture, University of M o r a t u w a .
ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS OF
BUDDHIST PLACES OF WORSHIP: An
examination of architectural concepts of
Buddhist places of worship in rural and urban settings;
with special reference to
Southern Province.

Acknowledgement

List of c o n t e n t s

List of figures

List of plates

Abstract

Introduction

Observation

Intention of s t u d y

Methodology

S c o p e and limitations of s t u d y

CHAPTER ONE

1 Historic d e v e l o p m e n t of the Buddhist p l a c e s of w o r s h i p in


Southern Sri Lanka

1.1 Origin of Buddhist religious c o m p l e x e s


1.1.1 Buddhist S i n h a l e s e Civilisation

ii
Pg. No.

1.1.2 D e v e l o p m e n t o f B u d d h i s m in S o u t h e r n P r o v i n c e ('Rohana') 03

1.2 Historic d e v e l o p m e n t a n d influences of other believes 0 4

1.3 T h e relationship b e t w e e n B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e built e n v i r o n m e n t 0 5


1.3.1 T h e influence of Buddhist philosophy o n t h e Architectural c o n c e p t s 0 6
1.3.2 T h e w a y of Architectural c o n c e p t s affects f r o m t h e built e n v i r o n m e n t 0 7

CHAPTER TWO

2 Architectural and planning c o n c e p t s of B u d d h i s t religious


0 9
places

2.1 R o l e of religious p l a c e s within t h e built e n v i r o n m e n t of s e t t l e m e n t s 0 9


2.1.1 T h e c o n c e p t a n d the principles of m o n a s t e r i e s 0 9

2.1.1.1 A w a y from the settlements 1 0


2.1.1.2 Territorial Identity / S e c l u s i o n 1 0
2.1.1.3 E n d of t h e J o u r n e y / G o a l 1 2

2.2 Planning within the temple precincts 1 4


2.2.1 Essential e l e m e n t s of Buddhist t e m p l e 1 5
2.2.1.1 Shrines a n d sanctuaries / Ritual E l e m e n t s 1 5
(a) Stupa 1 6
(b) Bo-tree 2 0
(c) Image house 2 1
2.2.1.2 Ecclesiastical buildings 2 8
2.2.1.3 Residential buildings 3 0

2.2.2 O t h e r architectural e l e m e n t s of Buddhist t e m p l e 3 2


2.2.3 T h e c o n c e p t s of layout planning 3 3

1V
Pg. No.

2.3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e built f o r m s 3 5
2.3.1 Built to un-built relationship 3 6
2.3.2 C o m p o s i t i o n of t h e built f o r m s 3 9
(a) The boundary 3 9
(b) The entrance 3 9
(c) Path ways 4 0
(d) Ornaments 4 2
(e) Landscaping 4 6

2.4 T y p e s o f m o n a s t e r i e s in s u b s e q u e n t p e r i o d 4 7
2.4.1 Forest monasteries (Hermitages) 4 8
2.4.2 S e c l u d e d m o n a s t e r i e s (Village temples) 5 0

CHAPTER THREE

3 Case studies 5 1
C a s e Study 01 - Kekanadura Ellekanda forest Hermitage 51
C a s e Study 02- Yatagala temple at Galle 64

C a s e Study 0 3- Agrabodhi R a j a m a h a Viharaya at W e l i g a m a 79

Case Study 04- Matara Bodhiya 90

C a s e Study 0 5- Bodimalu Viharaya at W e l i g a m a 99

C a s e Study 06- Welle Bodiya at Tangalle 106

Conclusion

Bibliography

List of r e f e r e n c e s

<

v
LIST OF FIGURS

Fig. N o Page No.

CHAPTER 01

1-1 M a p of ancient Ceylon 2


1-2 M a p of Sri L a n k a with p r e s e n t administrative c e n t r e s of S o u t h e r n 4

CHAPTER 02
2-1 "Chethiyagara" ("Watadageya") (a) - Plan 1 9
(b) - Elevation 1 9
(c) -S e c t i o n 2 0
2-2 "Bodhigara" (a) - Plan 2 0
(b) -S i d e elevation 2 1
(c) -S e c t i o n 2 1
2-3 Image house (a) - Plan 2 6
(b) - Front elevation 2 6
(c) - S i d e elevation 2 6
(d) - S e c t i o n 2 6

CHAPTER 03
3-1 Site plan of the E l l a k a n d a ' h e r m i t a g e 5 2
3-2 L a y o u t plan of t h e ' E l l a k a n d a ' h e r m i t a g e 5 4
3-3 S i t e p l a n o f t h e ' Y a t a g a l a ' t e m p l e in G a l l e 6 5
3-4 L a y o u t p l a n o f t h e ' Y a t a g a l a ' t e m p l e in G a l l e 6 7
3-5 Detailed plan of the I m a g e h o u s e 7 3
3-6 Detailed section of the I m a g e h o u s e 7 4
3-7 -do - 7 4
3-8 Site plan of t h e ' A g r a b o d h i V i h a r a y a ' at W e l i g a m a 8 0
3-9 L a y o u t plan of the 'Agrabodhi Viharaya' at W e l i g a m a 8 1
3-10 Site plan of the 'Matara Bodiya' 9 1
3-11 L a y o u t plan of the 'Matara Bodiya' 9 3
3-12 Site plan of the ' B o d h i m a l u Viharaya' at W e l i g a m a 9 9
3-13 Layout plan of t h e ' B o d h i m a l u V i h a r a y a ' a t W e l i g a m a 1 0 1
3-14 Site plan of t h e ' W e l l e Bodiya'in T a n g a l l e 1 0 7
3-15 L a y o u t p l a n o f t h e ' W e l l e B o d i y a ' in T a n g a l l e 1 0 8

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LIST OF PLATES

Plate No. P a g e No.

C H A P T E R 02
2-1 Sithulpawwa surrounded by the forest 1 1
2-2 S i t h u l p a w w a ... t e r r i t o r i a l i d e n t i t y & a s a g o a l 1 2
2-3 -do- 1 3
2-4 -do- 1 3
2-5 Soft flowing stair w a y - Nilwella Minikirula Viharaya, Dikwella 1 3
2-6 T e m p l e o n t h e s u m m i t of the hillock - K u m a r a Maha Viharaya, 1 4
Dodanduwa
2-7 Stupa - Jayawardhanaramaya, Gintota 1 7
2-8 Stupa - Nawamuniseya, Kathaluwa 1 7
2-9 S t u p a - Nilwella Minikirula Viharaya, Dikwella 1 8
2-10 C o m p l e x of S t u p a - J a y a w a r d h a n a r a m a y a , Gintota 1 8
2-11 Stupa - T h a m b a g a l a forest hermitage 1 8
2-12 E n t r a n c e g a t e w a y to court yard of S t u p a - N a w a m u n i s e e y a , K a t a l u w a 1 9
2-13 B u d d h a statue - W e w r u k a n n a l a Viharaya, Dikwella 2 2
2-14 Buddha statue - Mabotuwana Srisumanarama tampita Viharaya 2 2
2-15 Buddha statue - Samaraseeha Mantheendaramaya, Kahawa 2 3
2-16 Cave temple - Ethkanda Viharaya, Galagoda 2 3
2-17 Cave temple - Situlpawwa Viharaya 2 4
2-18 -do- 2 4
2-19 -do- 2 4
2-20 I m a g e h o u s e - M a b o t u w a n a Sri S u m a n a r a m a t a m p i t a V i h a r a y a 2 5
2-21 Image house - Giniwella M a h a Viharaya 2 7
2-22 I m a g e h o u s e - Sri P a r a m a n a n d a R a j a M a h a Viharaya, Galle 2 7
2-23 Image h o u s e - W e w r u k a n n a l a Temple, Dikwella 2 7
2-24 Image house - Polwatta Gangaramaya. Weligama 2 8
2-25 I m a g e h o u s e - T h a m b a g a l a forest hermitage 2 8
2-26 D a m m a s a l a - Wewrikannala templt, Dikwella 2 9
2-27 D h a m m a s a n a - Sri P a r a m a n a n d a R a j a M a h a V i h a r a y a , G a l l e 3 0
2-28 Chapter h o u s e -T h a m b a g a l a forest hermitage 3 0
2-29 Residential Building - W e u r u k a n n a l a Viharaya, Dikwella 3 1
2-30 Residential Building - Dadalla W a l u k a r a m a y a 3 1

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Plate No. Page No.

2-31 Library - Pitiwella J a y a w a r d h a n a r a m a y a , Gintota 3 2


2-32 Bell t o w e r - K u m a r a M a h a Viharaya, D o d a n d u w a 3 2
2-33 Bell t o w e r - B o r a l a Sri S u n a n d a r a m a y a , W e l i g a m a 3 3
2-34 Stupa at the highest point - Situlpawwa Viharaya 3 4
2-35 Level changes - Nawamuniseya, Kataluwa 3 5
2-36 B a d direction of t h e s t e p s - D e e g a w a l u k a r a m a y a , Dikwella 3 5
2-37 Built to un-built relationship - S i t u l p a w w a V i h a r a y a 3 7
2-38 -do - 3 8
2-39 Built to un-built relationship - D e e g a w l u k a r a m a y a , Dikwella 3 8
2-40 Built to un-built relationship - K u m a r a M a h a V i h a r a y a , D o d a n d u w a 3 8
2-41 Decorated pandol - Dutugemunu Viharaya, B a d d e g a m a 4 0
2-42 Path ways - Galagoda Ethkanda Viharaya 4 1
2-43 -do - 4 1
2-44 T u n n e l - W e w r u k a n n a l a Viharaya, Dicwella 4 2
2-45 Guardian stones - Koggala Temple 4 3
2-46 Guardians - Deegawalukaramaya, Dikwella 4 3
2-47 G u a r d i a n s - Sri P a r a m a n a n d a R a j a M a h a V i h a r a y a , G a l l e 4 3
2-48 Interior wall decorations - D u t u g e m u n u Viharaya, B a d d e g a m a 4 4
2-49 Exterior wall decorations - D e e g a w a l u k a r a m a y a , Dikwella 4 4
2-50 Lighting e l e m e n t - N a w a m u n i s e y a , Kataluwa 4 4
2-51 D e c o r a t e d lighting e l e m e n t - D u t u g e m u n u Viharaya, B a d d e g a m a 4 5
2-52 D e c o r a t e d lighting e l e m e n t - N a w a m u n i s e y a , K a t a l u w a 4 5
2-53 D e c o r a t e d lighting e l e m e n t - T u w a k k u g a l a w a t t a R a j a M a h a Viharaya, 4 5
Galle
2-54 T i m b e r o r n a m e n t s - M a b o t u w a n a Sri S u m a n a r a m a t a m p i t a V i h a r a y a 4 6
2-55 Landscape - Situlpawwa Viharaya 4 6
2-56 'Kuti' - R o h a n a T h a p o w a n a , A p a r e k k a 4 9
2-57 Kuti - T h a m b a g a l a forest H e r m i t a g e 4 9

CHAPTER 03
3-1 Identity of 'seclusion' 5 1
3-2 T h e g a t e w a y in w r o n g p o s i t i o n 5 5
3-3 T h e interior w a l k w a y 5 5
3-4 Sandy walk ways 5 6

VUI
Plate No. Page No.

3-5 Vistas 5 6
3-6 Naturally flowing walk w a y s 5 6
3-7 S t e p s a s linkage of drop o n the g r o u n d 5 7
3-8 'Bodhigara' 5 8
3-9 'Chankamanagara' 5 9
3-10 The cottage and the'chankamanagara' 6 0
3-11 Built to un-built relationship 6 0
3-12 'Chankamanapatha' 6 1
3-13 Meditative m o n k on'chankamanapatha' 6 1
3-14 C a l m n e s s of the e n v i r o n m e n t 6 2
3-15 E l e m e n t s u s e d to meditative activities 6 2
3-16 Traditional e l e m e n t s a s a bell 6 2
3-17 B a d creation of the e n t r a n c e 6 6
3-18 'End of the journey' 6 8
3-19 Naturally created places 6 9
3-20 Historical p o n d 6 9
3-21 Serenity, Tranquillity & c a l m n e s s of the e n v i r o n m e n t 7 0
3-22 W e l l c r e a t e d built to un-built relationship 7 0
3-23 'Stupa' 7 1
3-24 Bo-tree shrine 7 2
3-25 The Image house 7 3
3-26 A frame view 7 5
3-27 'Uposathagara' 7 5
3-28 'Dhammasala' 7 6
3-29 Monks' residential 7 7
3-30 Bell t o w e r 7 7
3-31 Newly adapted Buddha stature 7 8
3-32 ' W a l a k u l u b e m m a ' a s a front 'seclusion' 7 9
3-33 Main entrance 8 2
3-34 Secondary entrance 8 2
3-35 H u g e retaining wall a s a seclusion 8 3
3-36 S e p a r a t e a c c e s s to religious place a n d m o n k s ' residential 8 3
3-37 The Bo-tree shrine 8 4
3-38 O r n a m e n t s of the b o u n d a r y wall o n Bo-tree p r e m i s e s 8 5

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Plate No. Page No.

3-39 Main entrance of the I m a g e h o u s e 8 6


3-40 S e c o n d a r y e n t r a n c e of the I m a g e h o u s e 8 6
3-41 E n t r a n c e s to t h e inner c h a m b e r of t h e I m a g e h o u s e 8 6
3-42 Entrances on s a m e axis 8 7
3-43 Exterior mouldings and o r n a m e n t s 8 7
3-44 interior m o u l d i n g s a n d o r n a m e n t s 8 8
3-45 Monks' residential 8 9
3-46 'Matara Bodiya' on the urban context 9 0
3-47 Main entrance 9 2
3-48 Secondary entrance 9 4
3-49 'Stupa' 9 5
3-50 Bo tree shrine 9 6
3-51 Image house 9 7
3-52 A s s e m b l y hall ( ' D a m m a s a l a ' ) 9 7
3-53 Office building 9 8
3-54 Main e n t r a n c e of the 'Bodimalu Viharaya' 1 0 0
3-55 Bo tree shrine 1 0 2
3-56 'Devala' c o m p l e x close with the B o tree shrine 1 0 3
3-57 Image house & the Stupa 1 0 3
3-58 'Devala' complex 1 0 4
3-59 'Banian'tree 1 0 4
3-60 Main e n t r a n c e of the 'Welle Bodhiya' 1 0 9
3-61 'Stupa' 1 1 0
3-62 Bo tree shrine 1 1 0
3-63 Image house 1 1 1
3-64 'Devala' complex 1 1 1

x
ABSTRACT..

T h e m a n n e e d e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e ' t h r o u g h w a y o f life'. A s a result of that several


b e l i e v e s a n d p h i l o s o p h i e s c a m e in t o p r a c t i c e . Buddhist temples are the places that
e x p r e s s B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y in s y m b o l i c w a y . Thus, these places needed particular
w o r k o f a r c h i t e c t u r e t o a c h i e v e its reality w h i l e c o n v e y i n g its m e s s a g e o f p h i l o s o p h y t o
t h e h u m a n b e i n g . S o , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c o n c e p t s f o u n d in B u d d h i s t t e m p l e s a r e u s e d t o
a c h i e v e t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y in a r c h i t e c t u r a l built f o r m s . Those architectural
c o n c e p t s u s e t o e x p r e s s t h e m e a n i n g o f B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y in t o t h e h u m a n ' s mind
t h r o u g h t h e built e n v i r o n m e n t . S o , t h e B u d d h i s t built e n v i r o n m e n t is c a m e into b e i n g a s
o u t c o m e of several c o n c e p t s .

T h o s e c o n c e p t s a r e s t r e s s e d n e e d of appropriate e n v i r o n m e n t a l qualities. M o s t of rural


a r e a s p r o v i d e s suitable b a c k g r o u n d for a c h i e v e t h e s e c o n c e p t s architecturally through
t h e built e n v i r o n m e n t . But d u e to the u n a v o i d a b l e urbanisation a n d scarcity of lands of
the urban settlements create m o r e restrictions while following t h e s e c o n c e p t s to create
Buddhist temples. It i s s a m e f o r S o u t h e r n P r o v i n c e a n d i t s s u b u r b s a s l i k e a s Western
Province. Deviations are happened according to the religious philosophy while
generating n e w built-up environment. B u t . . . s t i l l it i s f o l l o w e d t h e s a m e architectural
principles and concepts.

xi
Introduction

T h e a n c i e n t history of the h u m a n civilisation h a s e v i d e n c e s a b o u t t h e earliest human


being and his surrounding. I tdisplays their social organisation, intellect and
e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t h e l p to g o v e r n their living m a n n e r . T h e m a n n e e d e d to understand
t h e ' t r u e w a y o f life' a n d t o r e f r a i n f r o m all s u f f e r i n g s . T h u s , t h e y try to find o u t t h e
w a y o f c o m f o r t in t h r e e l e v e l s o f t h a t , p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and spiritually.
According to that the m a n h a d c o m p e l l e d to follow s o m e believes, philosophies ...etc,
to gain comfort. Their less d e v e l o p e d t h o u g h t s could not c a p t u r e t h e reality of s o m e
of p h e n o m e n a s u c h a s sun, m o o n , rain, large t h r e e s ...etc, a n d c o n s i d e r e d as
sacred. T h e y w e r e often venerated according to the m a n ' s o w n interpretation.
S u b s e q u e n t l y t h a t v e n e r a t i o n w a s p e r f o r m e d in s u c h m o r e o r g a n i s e d w a y s . The
earliest f o r m s of religions c a m e i n t o e x i s t e n c e in t h i s m a n n e r . By expressing
p h i l o s o p h i e s in c e r t a i n w a y s , s e v e r a l r e l i g i o n s h a v e c o m e i n t o p r a c t i c e .

H o w e v e r a s for t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e s later, t h e a d v e n t o f L o r d B u d d h a in I n d i a a n d
e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f B u d d h i s m e v e n in S r i L a n k a h a d m a k e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e f o r t h i s
c o n c e p t . L o r d B u d d h a d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e m a n ' s s a l v a t i o n is w i t h i n h i m s e l f , a n d n o t in
any other realm outside his being. According to the Buddhist philosophy and
B u d d h a ' s teaching which h a s stressed himself, the holy relics h a s e n s h r i n e d as
i m a g e of B u d d h a t o k e e p in m i n d .

S u c h p l a c e s w o u l d provide appropriate e n v i r o n m e n t a l quality to perform rituals a n d


finally t o l e a d t o w a r d s t h e d e s t i n a t i o n , w h i l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e ' t r u e w a y o f life.'
T h u s , t h o s e p l a c e s w h e r e inherits t h e d e s i r e d qualitative a s p e c t , essentially a w o r k of
architecture.

A r c h i t e c t u r e is c r e a t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t for a n i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e . S u c h a
w o r k of a r c h i t e c t u r e e x p r e s s e s B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y itself t h r o u g h a s y m b o l i c way,
and named Buddhist temples. When a c h i e v i n g this, t h e s e t of principles and
c o n c e p t s a r e n e c e s s a r y to p r o p e r u s a g e of particular w o r k of architecture. The
examination of s u c h e n v i r o n m e n t i sn e e d e d to identify t h e c o n c e p t s , planning
p r i n c i p l e s , t h e w a y t h e y a r e u s e d , a n d h o w fit w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r environmental
conditions. S u c h a w o r k of a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e m a i n s of t h e a n c i e n t s o c i e t y is g i v i n g a n
idea a b o u t the a b o v e factors, o t h e r t h a n the literary r e m a i n s .

S o far, t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and its c o n t r o l f a c t o r s h a v e c h a n g e d with the


environmental context. B u t s u c h w o r k o f a r c h i t e c t u r e is still r e m a i n a n d continue.
T h i s s t u d y i sa n a t t e m p t to e x a m i n e the usage and changing pattern of the

xii
architectural c o n c e p t s a n d planning principles of Buddhist religious p l a c e s according
to t h e variations of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l context.

Observation

E a c h r e l i g i o n , a t p r e s e n t e x i s t i n g in t h e w o r l d t r i e s t o c o n v e y t h e i r m e s s a g e of
p h i l o s o p h y t o t h e h u m a n b e i n g . It s e e m s s e v e r a l r e l i g i o n s w e r e p r a c t i s i n g t h e i r r i t u a l s
o n variety of religious b a c k g r o u n d s . S o m e a r e playing their rituals in-groups while
others being individual.

When m a i n l y c o n s i d e r i n g a b o u t t h e B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y i t is individual t a s k of
a c h i e v i n g rituals. S o , t h e function of t h e B u d d h i s t e n v i r o n m e n t w o u l d m a k e people,
p u r i t y in m i n d w i t h o u t c o n s t r a i n t s a n d w i t h s e l f - g u i d a n c e . The calm, serene and
t r a n q u i l e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e s s u i t a b l e b a c k g r o u n d f o r it. S o , t h e y n e e d e d particular
w o r k of architecture. According to the a b o v e r e a s o n s the earliest Buddhist temples
h a s l o c a t e d in r u r a l a r e a s o f a w a y f r o m t h e city, w h e r e t h e c o n t e x t r i c h w i t h the
appropriate environmental qualities. So, the devotees h a v e to g o there a s a
'pilgrimage'. But with the time p a s s e d several social a n d environmental changes
m a k e differentiates even such places. T h e city h a s g r o w n t o w a r d s t h e rural a r e a s .
T h e h u m a n settlements placed closer with the temples. The urban areas became
m o r e c r o w d e d w i t h t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , p o p u l a t i o n , . . . e t c . It r e s u l t s w i t h s c a r c i t y o f
lands.

B u t , a s full filling r i t u a l i s t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p e o p l e w h o a r e l i v i n g in u r b a n a r e a s , t h e
t e m p l e s h a v e l o c a t e d e v e n in u r b a n a r e a s . W h e t h e r it i s b e e n o n r u r a l o r urban
context the particular architectural quality of s u c h p l a c e s might b e similar. B u t it i s a
difficult t a s k t o c r e a t e a p p r o p r i a t e r e l i g i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t in u r b a n a r e a s s a m e a s r u r a l
context. A l t h o u g h s o m e a n c i e n t B u d d h i s t s a c r e d p l a c e s still r e f l e c t t h e i r o r i g i n a l i t y ,
m a n y p l a c e s , w h i c h c a m e u p in r e c e n t t i m e , s h o w t h e v i o l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n concepts
a n d principles a n d v a r i o u s n e w f e a t u r e s a d o p t e d into built f o r m s . T h u s , this study
w o u l d h e l p t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e c o n c e p t s a n d p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s c a m e in t o b e i n g
e v e n in u r b a n c o n t e x t , c o m p a r a t i v e l y t h e rural c o n t e x t .

Intention of study

Temples are the places where facilitate t o rituals while reflecting Buddhist
e n v i r o n m e n t in built f o r m s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e n o strict r u l e s o r r e g u l a t i o n s a s t o h o w
t h e y s h o u l d b e built, a s e t of c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n c e p t s which
m a n i f e s t i n g B u d d h i s t i d e a l s c o u l d b e identified. T h e s e h a v e b e e n traditionally u s e d in
Buddhist religious places. But certain c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n taken place d u e to
shadowing various forces and influences. A t p r e s e n t t h e situation is t h e i n c r e a s e of
d e n s e of t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t a n d l a n d is b e c o m i n g s e v e r e l y p a r t i t i o n e d a n d s c a r e .
T h i s h a s left a little c h o i c e in f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e a r e a s f o r t h e t e m p l e s .

O w i n g to this, t h e r e s h o u l d b e n e w l y a d a p t a t i o n of principles or following c o n c e p t s o n


h i d d e n w a y s while reflecting their originality, w h i c h c o u l d reflect r e l i g i o u s n e s s of t h e
t e m p l e s r e g a r d l e s s of the site.

T h u s , intention of this study to a n a l y s e the c a u s e s , a n d r e a s o n s to c h a n g e application


o f c o n c e p t s a n d i d e n t i f y t h e t r e n d o f it. It i s a l s o t o i d e n t i f y t h e c o n c e p t s a n d planning
p r i n c i p l e s a n d a n a l y s e h o w t h e y f o l l o w e d t h e m , e v e n in u r b a n c o n t e x t ; a n d t o identify
deviations.

S u c h a n a t t e m p t w o u l d provide v a l u a b l e s o u r c e of information a n d g u i d e l i n e s for t h e


d e s i g n e r s to h a v e better impression a b o u t the adaptation of c o n c e p t s a n d principles
into the m o d e r n context.

Methodology

This study w o u l d d o with gathering of information's quotations, theories, arguments


m a d e b y s p e c i a l i s e d p e o p l e o n s u b j e c t a r e a . T h e n it i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y w h a t i s
m e a n t b y a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n c e p t a n d p r i n c i p l e s , w h a t a r e t h e c o n c e p t s u s e d in t e m p l e s
a n d h o w t h e y exist. Further m o r e h a v e to identify t h e B u d d h i s t religious architecture
r e l a t e d w i t h its p h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e religion a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f religious
e n v i r o n m e n t a n d there expressive qualities.

T h e n it i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t u d y i n g a b o u t t h e t e m p l e s o n r u r a l c o n t e x t t h r o u g h the
embodied of c o n c e p t s and principles using case studies. And studying the
c o n f e c t i o n s of u r b a n t e m p l e s a n d t h e w a y of following c o n c e p t s a n d principles using
case studies. T h e existing B u d d h i s t t e m p l e s h a v e t a k e n a s e x a m p l e s for case
studies.

Scope and limitations of study

In Sri L a n k a t h e r e a r e f o u r m a j o r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s in e x i s t e n c e . They are


B u d d h i s m , Christianity, Hinduism a n d Islamic. This s t u d y wills m a i n l y concentrates
only t h e built e n v i r o n m e n t of t h e B u d d h i s t religious p l a c e s . T h e a n a l y s e s of i d e o l o g y
of t h e religion is f u n d a m e n t a l l y b a s e d t h e belief a n d rituals o f h u m a n b e i n g s which
a r e d e r i v e d from t h e doctrine of t h e religious leader. Thus the Buddhist built
environment c o m e across those philosophies. S o , it w i l l i n i t i a l l y g o t h r o u g h the

XI'Y
philosophies and rituals of B u d d h i s m a n d their relationship with other religious
environment.

T h i s s t u d y w o u l d limit t o t h e Sri L a n k a n s i t u a t i o n in S o u t h e r n p r o v i n c e , comparatively


studying a b o u t the t e m p l e s o n rural a n d u r b a n situation o n m o d e r n context. The
s e l e c t e d e x a m p l e s a r e not limited to a particular period of time or e r a of Sri L a n k a n
Architecture. C a s e studies h a v e to b e t a k e n a s three e x a m p l e s for e a c h situation,
w h i c h a r e e x i s t i n g in s u b s e q u e n t p e r i o d o f r u r a l a n d u r b a n c o n t e x t . This studies
w o u l d n o t a n a t t e m p t t o g i v e j u d g e m e n t to t h e u r b a n B u d d h i s t t e m p l e s , w h a t is s h o u l d
b e o r h o w fit w i t h t h e m o d e r n architecture.

XV