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Anupam Thakur Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Anupam Thakur
Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Intro- An overview of CNC machines There are hundreds of jobs out there that you
Intro- An overview of CNC machines
There are hundreds of jobs out there that you may be surprised to learn about.
When you are looking for the perfect career for yourself, you should look in
unexpected places and consider various paths so that you can find something
truly interesting, such as CNC Machining.
With the increased activity in the American manufacturing industry comes an
increase in job opportunities. Employers are projected to add more than 40,000
jobs for skilled CNC Machining technicians over the next seven years*, making
this a prime time to explore this exciting, rewarding career path!
What is CNC Machining?
Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) Machining is a method used to perform
a wide range of manufacturing tasks, which are all carried out by computerized
devices. With the help of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided
Machining (CAM) in the late 1970s, CNC machines replaced the old-school
manual machines.
The new CNC machines were able to be controlled by programming language to
carry out a wider variety of tasks with greater accuracy. These machines also
allow for a more automated control, which improves productivity.
Why is CNC Machining necessary?
CNC machine operators work in a wide variety of fields. People from all different
pursuits, such as hobbyists and even military groups, take advantage of the cost
savings accrued by using CNC machines to turn raw materials into final products. The machines
savings accrued by using CNC machines to turn raw materials into final
products. The machines are faster, more efficient and safer, too.
CNC Computer Numerical Control machines are widely used in manufacturing
industry. Traditional machines such as vertical millers, centre lathes, shaping
machines, routers etc…. operated by a trained engineer have, in many cases,
been replaced by computer control machines.
ADVANTAGES
1. CNC machines can be used continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
and only need to be switched off for occasional maintenance.
2. CNC machines are programmed with a design which can then be
manufactured hundreds or even thousands of times. Each manufactured
product will be exactly the same.
3. Less skilled/trained people can operate CNCs unlike manual lathes / milling
machines etc. which need skilled engineers.
4. CNC machines can be updated by improving the software used to drive the
machines.
5. Training in the use of CNCs is available through the use of ‘virtual software’.
This is software that allows the operator to practice using the CNC machine
on the screen of a computer. The software is similar to a computer game.
6. CNC machines can be programmed by advanced design software such as
Pro/DESKTOP ® , enabling the manufacture of products that cannot be made
by manual machines, even those used by skilled designers / engineers.
7. Modern design software allows the designer to simulate the manufacture of
his/her idea. There is no need to make a prototype or a model. This saves
time and money.
8. One person can supervise many CNC machines as once they are
programmed they can usually be left to work by themselves. Sometimes only
the cutting tools need replacing occasionally.
9. A skilled engineer can make the same component many times. However, if
each component is carefully studied, each one will vary slightly. A CNC
machine will manufacture each component as an exact match.
DISADVANTAGES
1. CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines, although costs are slowly coming
1. CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines,
although costs are slowly coming down.
2. The CNC machine operator only needs basic training and skills, enough to
supervise several machines. In years gone by, engineers needed years of
training to operate centre lathes, milling machines and other manually
operated machines. This means many of the old skills are been lost.
3. Less workers are required to operate CNC machines compared to manually
operated machines. Investment in CNC machines can lead to
unemployment.
4. Many countries no longer teach pupils / students how to use manually
operated lathes / milling machines etc… Pupils / students no longer develop
the detailed skills required by engineers of the past. These include
mathematical and engineering skills.
CNC WORK – AN INTRODUCTION
In Industry it is not efficient or profitable to make everyday products by hand. On
a CNC machine it is possible to make hundreds or even thousands of the same
item in a day. First a design is drawn using design software, then it is processed
by the computer and manufactured using the CNC machine. The machine
featured below is the BOXFORD DUET. This is a small CNC machine and can be
used to machine woods, plastics and aluminium. In industry, CNC machines can
be extremely large. The Duet is one of the smaller CNCs and is ideal for use in
schools.
Have a look at the photograph on the right. Can you imagine how long it would
take a skilled worker to ‘carve’ this shape out of wood or a soft material – it
would probably take a full day. We will be going through its manufacture, one
step at a time using a CNC machine (next page). How long do you think
step at a time using a CNC machine (next page). How long do you think
manufacturing this product with a CNC machine will take ?
The VICE: This holds the material to be cut or shaped. Material must be held
securely otherwise it may ‘fly’ out of the vice when the CNC begins to machine.
Normally the vice will be like a clamp that holds the material in the correct
position.
The GUARD: The guard protects the person using the CNC. When the CNC is
machining the material small pieces can be ‘shoot’ off the material at high
speed. This could be dangerous if a piece hit the person operating the machine.
The guard completely encloses the the dangerous areas of the CNC.
The CHUCK: This holds the material that is to be shaped. The material must be
placed in it very carefully so that when the CNC is working the material is not
thrown out at high speed.
The MOTOR: The motor is enclosed inside the machine. This is the part that
rotates the chuck at high speed.
The LATHE BED: The base of the machine. Usually a CNC is bolted down so that
it cannot move through the vibration of the machine when it is working.
The CUTTING TOOL: This is usually made from high quality steel and it is the
part that actually cuts the material to be shaped.
1. Draw a small CNC machine and label the most important parts. 2.List the safety
1. Draw a small CNC machine and label the most important parts.
2.List the safety factors that people must be aware of before they operate a
CNC or similar machine.
WHAT DOES CNC MEAN ?
CNC means Computer Numerical Control. This means a computer converts the
design produced by Computer Aided Design software (CAD), into numbers. The
numbers can be considered to be the coordinates of a graph and they control
the movement of the cutter. In this way the computer controls the cutting and
shaping of the material.
The way coordinates are used can be seen opposite. The X, Y and Z axis control
the movement of the cutter on a 3D CNC machine. This allows materials to be
machined in three directions (3D manufacture).
The plastic block shown below has been shaped on a CNC machine. It
started as a cube.
The design (produced on CAD, Computer Aided Design software) has been
converted into coordinates. The cutter is instructed to go from one
coordinate to another. A simple plastic block such as this may have a
thousand coordinates.
For example, point ‘A’ on the plastic block has coordinates 18, 8, 23 (see
diagram). The block is composed of thousands of coordinates and the cutter
goes from the first set of coordinates to the second set to the third set and
so on, until it has completed the thousand coordinates. As the cutter is
spinning at high speed, and travels through all the sets of coordinates, it cuts
and shapes the block, as it goes along.
CNC MACHINE – INPUT, PROCESS, OUTPUT
A CNC production facility needs three pieces of equipment:
A Computer:
The computer is used to draw the design. CAD – Computer Aided Design
software is used for this purpose. However, the design is only a picture and the
CNC machine cannot use this to manufacture the product. The computer
software must also convert the drawing into numbers (coordinates) that the
CNC machine can use when it starts to cut and shape the material.
An Interface: A computer cannot be directly connected to a CNC machine. The computer is
An Interface:
A computer cannot be directly connected to a CNC machine. The computer is
connected to an interface. Modern CNC machines have a ‘built in’ or integral
interface, which appears part of the CNC machine. This circuit converts the
signals from the computer to a form that the CNC machine understands. Older
CNC machines have a separate ‘box’ called the interface. The signals are in the
form of digital signals when they are sent to the CNC machine.
CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Machine:
The signals from the interface control the motors on the CNC machine. The
signals determine the way the vice moves. The vice moves in three directions X,
Y and Z. (Horizontally, vertically and depth). The signals also control the speed
of the cutting tool.
The whole process of designing and making an item on the CNC machine can
be split into three aspects INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT. The diagram below
explains this system.
CLASSIFICATION OF CNC MACHINE TOOL
(1) Based on the motion type ‘ Point-to-point & Contouring systems:
There are two main types of machine tools and the control systems required for
use with them differ because of the basic differences in the functions of the
machines to be controlled. They are known as point-to-point and contouring
controls.
Point-to-point systems: Some machine tools for example drilling, boring and tapping machines etc, require the
Point-to-point systems:
Some machine tools for example drilling, boring and tapping machines etc,
require the cutter and the work piece to be placed at a certain fixed relative
positions at which they must remain while the cutter does its work. These
machines are known as point-to-point machines as shown in figure 22.1 (a) and
the control equipment for use with them are known as point-to-point control
equipment. Feed rates need not to be programmed. In theses machine tools,
each axis is driven separately. In a point-to-point control system, the
dimensional information that must be given to the machine tool will be a series
of required position of the two slides. Servo systems can be used to move the
slides and no attempt is made to move the slide until the cutter has been
retracted back.
Contouring systems (Continuous path systems):
Other type of machine tools involves motion of work piece with respect to the
cutter while cutting operation is taking place. These machine tools include
milling, routing machines etc. and are known as contouring machines as shown
in figure 22.1 (b) and the controls required for their control are known as
contouring control.
Contouring machines can also be used as point-to-point machines, but it will be
uneconomical to use them unless the work piece also requires having a
contouring operation to be performed on it. These machines require
simultaneous control of axes. In contouring machines, relative positions of the
work piece and the tool should be continuously controlled. The control system
must be able to accept information regarding velocities and positions of the
machines slides. Feed rates should be programmed.
(a) Point-to-point system
(b) Contouring system (c) Contouring systems (2) Based on the control loops ‘ Open loop
(b) Contouring system
(c) Contouring systems
(2) Based on the control loops ‘ Open loop & Closed loop systems
Open loop systems:
Programmed instructions are fed into the controller through an input device.
These instructions are then converted to electrical pulses (signals) by the
controller and sent to the servo amplifier to energize the servo motors. The
primary drawback of the open-loop system is that there is no feedback system
to check whether the program position and velocity has been achieved. If the
system performance is affected by load, temperature, humidity, or lubrication
then the actual output could deviate from the desired output. For these reasons
the open -loop system is generally used in point-to-point systems where the
accuracy requirements are not critical. Very few continuous-path systems utilize
open-loop control.
(a) Open loop control system (b) Closed loop control system (c) Open loop system Closed
(a) Open loop control system
(b) Closed loop
control system
(c) Open loop system
Closed loop systems:
The closed-loop system has a feedback subsystem to monitor the actual output
and correct any discrepancy from the programmed input. These systems use
position and velocity feedback. The feedback system could be either analog or
digital. The analog systems measure the variation of physical variables such as
position and velocity in terms of voltage levels. Digital systems monitor output
variations by means of electrical pulses. To control the dynamic behavior and
the final position of the machine slides, a variety of position transducers are
employed. Majority of CNC systems operate on servo mechanism, a closed loop
principle. If a discrepancy is revealed between where the machine element
should be and where it actually is, the sensing device signals the driving unit to
make an adjustment, bringing the movable component to the required location.
Closed-loop systems are very powerful and accurate because they are capable
of monitoring operating conditions through feedback subsystems and
automatically compensating for any variations in real-time.
(d) Closed loop system (3) Based on the number of axes ‘ 2, 3, 4
(d) Closed loop system
(3) Based on the number of axes ‘ 2, 3, 4 & 5 axes CNC machines.
2& 3 axes CNC machines:
CNC lathes will be coming under 2 axes machines. There will be two axes along
which motion takes place. The saddle will be moving longitudinally on the bed
(Z-axis) and the cross slide moves transversely on the saddle (along X-axis). In
3-axes machines, there will be one more axis, perpendicular to the above two
axes. By the simultaneous control of all the 3 axes, complex surfaces can be
machined.
4 & 5 axes CNC machines:
4 and 5 axes CNC machines provide multi-axis machining capabilities beyond
the standard 3-axis CNC tool path movements. A 5-axis milling centre includes
the three X, Y, Z axes, the A axis which is rotary tilting of the spindle and the B-
axis, which can be a rotary index table.
Importance of higher axes machining :
Reduced cycle time by machining complex components using a single setup. In
addition to time savings, improved accuracy can also be achieved as
positioning errors between setups are eliminated.
Improved surface finish and tool life by tilting the tool to maintain optimum
tool to part contact all the times.
Improved access to under cuts and deep pockets. By tilting the tool, the tool
can be made normal to the work surface and the errors may be reduced as
the major component of cutting force will be along the tool axis.
Higher axes machining has been widely used for machining sculptures surfaces
in aerospace and automobile industry.
Turning centre :

Traditional centre lathes have horizontal beds. The saddle moves longitudinally and the cross slide moves transversely. Although the tools can be clearly seen, the operator must lean over the tool post to position them accurately. Concentration of chips may be creating a heat source and there may be temperature gradients in the machine tool. Keeping the above points in view, developments in the structure of the turning centers lead to the positioning the saddle and the cross slide behind the spindle on a slant bed as shown in the figure 22.4. Chips fall freely because of slant bed configuration which is more ergonomically acceptable from operator’s point of view.

(4) Based on the power supply ‘ Electric, Hydraulic & Pneumatic systems:

Mechanical power unit refers to a device which transforms some form of energy to mechanical power which may be used for driving slides, saddles or gantries forming a part of machine tool. The input power may be of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic.

Electric systems:

Electric motors may be used for controlling both positioning and contouring machines. They may be either a.c. or d.c. motor and the torque and direction of rotation need to be controlled. The speed of a d.c. motor can be controlled by varying either the field or the armature supply. The clutch-controlled motor can either be an a.c. or d.c. motor. They are generally used for small machine tools because of heat losses in the clutches. Split field motors are the simplest form of motors and can be controlled in a manner according to the machine tool. These are small and generally run at high maximum speeds and so require reduction gears of high ratio. Separately excited motors are used with control systems for driving the slides of large machine tools.

Hydraulic systems:

These hydraulic systems may be used with positioning and contouring machine tools of all sizes. These systems may be either in the form of rams or motors. Hydraulic motors are smaller than electric motors of equivalent power. There are several types of hydraulic motors. The advantage of using hydraulic motors is that they can be very small and have considerable torque. This means that they may be incorporated in servo systems which require having a rapid response.

Precision in NC Positioning

For accurate machining or other processing performed by an NC system, the positioning system must
For accurate machining or other processing performed by an NC system, the
positioning system must possess a high degree of precision. Three measures
of precision can be defined for an NC positioning system: (I) control resolution.
(2) accuracy, and (3) repeatability. These terms are most readily explained by
considering a single axis of the positioning system, as depicted in Figure.
Control resolution refers to the control system’s ability to
A portion of a linear positioning system axis, with definition of control
resolution. accuracy, and repeatability.
divide the total range of the axis movement into closely spaced points that can
be distinguished by the Men Control resolution is defined as the distance
separating two adjacent addressable points in the axis movement. Addressable
points are locations along the axis to which the worktable can be specifically
directed to go. It is desirable for control resolution to be as small as possible.
This depends on limitations imposed by: (1) the electromechanical components
of the positioning system and/or (2) the number of bits used by the controller to
define the axis coordinate location.
ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF NC POSITIONING SYSTEMS
The NC positioning system converts the coordinate axis values in the NC part
program into relative positions of the tool and work part during processing. Let
us consider the simple positioning system shown in Figure. The system
consists of a cutting tool and a worktable on which a work part is fixtured. The
table is designed to move the part relative to the tool. The worktable moves
linearly by means of a rotating leadscrew, which is driven by a stepping motor or
servomotor. For simplicity, we show only one axis in our sketch. To provide x-y
capability: the system shown would be piggybacked on top of a second axis
perpendicular to the first. The leadscrew has a certain pitch p (in/thread,
mm/thread). Thus, the table moves a distance equal to the pitch for each revolution. The
mm/thread). Thus, the table moves a distance equal to the pitch for each
revolution. The velocity of the worktable, which corresponds to the feed rate in a
machining operation, is determined by the rotational speed to the leadscrew,
Motor and lead screw arrangement in an NC positioning system.
There are two types of positioning systems used in NC systems: (a) open loop
and (b) closed loop, as shown in Figure. An open-loop system operates without
verifying that the actual position achieved in the move is the same as the desired
position. A closedloop control system uses feedback measurements to confirm
that the final position of the worktable is the location specified in the program.
Open-loop systems cost less than closedloop systems and are appropriate
when the force resisting the actuating motion is minimal. Closed-loop systems
are normally specified for machines that perform continuous path operations
such as milling or turning, in which there are significant forces resisting the
forward motion of the Cutting tool
Two types of motion control in NC: (a) open loop and (b) closed loop.
Closed-Loop Positioning Systems A closed-loop NC system, illustrated in fig. uses servomotors and feedback measurements
Closed-Loop Positioning Systems
A closed-loop NC system, illustrated in fig. uses servomotors and feedback
measurements to ensure that the worktable is moved to the desired position. A
common feedback sensor used for NC (and also for industrial robots) is the
optical encoder, shown in Figure. An optical encoder consists of a light source
and a photo detector on either side of a disk. The disk contains slots uniformly
spaced around the outside of its face. These slots allow the light source to
shine through and energize the photo detector. The disk is connected, either
directly or through a gear box, to a rotating shaft whose angular position and
velocity are to be measured. As the shaft rotates, the slots cause the light
source to be seen by the photocell as a series of flashes. The flashes are
converted into an equal number of electrical pulses. By counting the pulses and
computing the frequency of the pulse train, worktable position and velocity can
be determined.
The equations that define the operation of a closed-loop NC positioning system
are similar to those for an open-loop system. In the basic optical encoder, the
angle between slots in the disk must satisfy the following requirement:
Optical encoder: (a) apparatus and (b) series of pulses emitted to measure
rotation of disk
Basic Components of an NC System
An NC system consist of three basic components: (i) a program of instructions
(ii) Machine Control Unit, and (iii) processing equipment.
The program of instruction is detailed step by step command that direct the

action of processing equipment. In machine tool applications, the program of instruction is called a part program.

Additional instructions are usually included, such as spindle speed, feed rate, cutting tool selection. and other functions The program is coded on a suitable medium for submission to the machine control unit For many years the common medium was 1-inch wide punched tape using a standard format that could he interpreted by the machine control unit. Today punched tape has been replaced by newer storage technologies in modern machine shops. These include magnetic tape, diskettes, and electronic transfer of part program from a computer. In modern NC technology, the machine controt unit (MCU) consists or a microcomputer and related control hardware that stores the program of instructions and executes it by converting each command into mechanical actions of the processing equipment, one command at a time. The related hardware of the MCU includes components to interface with the processing equipment and reedbuck control elements. The MCU also includes one or more reading devices for entering part programs into memory. The type of readers depends on the storage media used for part programs in the machine shop (eg. punched tape reader. magnetic tape reader, floppy disk drive). The MCU also includes control system software, calculation algorithms and translation software to convert the NC part program into a usable format for the MCU), Because the MCU is a computer, the term computer numerical control (CNC) is used to distinguish this type of NC from its technological predecessors that were based entirely on hard-Wired electronics. Today, virtually all new MCUs are based on computer technology; hence when we refer to NC in this chapter and elsewhere, we mean CNC.

The third basic component of an NC system is the processing equipment that performs useful work. It accomplishes the processing steps to transform the starting workpiece into a completed part, operation is directed by the MCU, which in turn is driven by instruction, contained in the pun program. In the most common example of NC, machining, the processing equipment consist of the worktable and spindle as well as the motors and controls to drive them.

Basic components of an NC system. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF A NUMERICAL CONTROLLED MACHINE The
Basic components of an NC system.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF A NUMERICAL CONTROLLED MACHINE
The CNC machine differs from a conventional manual machine in several
respects. The principle of operation of a numerical controlled machine can be
explained with the help of Fig. The figure shows a vertical milling machine. For
carrying out an operation like end milling the spindle head is to be positioned in
Z- axis and the table in X and Y coordinate axes. The feed movement is to be
realized by the individual or simultaneous movement of X and Y axes. Thus the
milling machine requires three slide movements, which are usually referred as
axes feed drives. A special feature of a CNC machine is that a separate motor
called a servomotor individually drives each axis. AC servomotors are the
preferred choice for this purpose today. DC servomotors were widely used
earlier. The slides are driven by the servomotors through recirculating ball screw
and nut assemblies. The use of re-circulating ball screw reduces friction,
backlash and wear. The low friction reduces the torque required at the motor
and the lost motion through torsional deflection of the screw. The use of ball
screws also improves the dynamic response of the system. In some modern
designs, particularly in the case of high-speed machines, linear motors are used
in the place of servomotor ball screw combination.

Ball Screw Mechanism

In order to carry out the milling operation on the workpiece the coordinate information (X, and Y coordinates) of the starting point and the ending point has to be coded in the NC program. Similarly, the information regarding the direction of rotation and speed of the spindle, use of coolant, and the feed rate is also coded suitably. The CNC controller decodes the positioning information coded in the NC program and the slide is moved to the programmed position at the required feed rate. Each slide is fitted with a feedback transducer, which continuously monitors the slide position and compares with the programmed position as well as the feedrate. The feedback transducer is mounted either on the slide or on the servomotor and measures the displacement or position of the slide. For example, let us assume that a hole is to be drilled at the location X = 100.0 and Y = 150.0. The corresponding block of the program is read by the control system and the necessary inputs are sent to the X and Y-axis servomotors. These motors drive the respective slides to the commanded position. When the distance information from the feedback devices equals the programmed values, the slide movement stops. The input is then given to the Z- axis servomotor to perform the drilling operation. The system switches on the motor driving the spindle carrying the drill and commands the Z-axis servomotor to move at the programmed feedrate into the workpiece till the programmed depth is reached. The Z-axis feedback transducer ensures the correct depth and feedrate. The drill is then withdrawn to the desired height and the machine starts the positioning movements to the next location of the drill. This procedure thus ensures production of accurate workpieces.

The feedback transducer used may be analog (synchro resolver) or digital (encoders). Another classification of feedback transducer is based on their nature of measurementabsolute or incremental. They are also classified as linear or rotary depending upon their construction. Linear feedback devices include optical scales, inductosyn etc. Rotary feedback devices are mounted either on the ball screw or on the motor shaft and measure the slide position indirectly. Rotary encoders, optical scales, and synchro resolvers are the commonly used rotary feed back devices. The measured and the targeted positions are compared and the servo system ensures that the correct positioning is achieved to make this error (difference between targeted and measured positions) zero. The resolution of axis feed drive is usually one micrometre. Since positioning is done electronically, it is possible to achieve accuracy and repeatability of the order of 5-10 micrometres even under heavy- duty cutting conditions. Two servo loops are incorporated in feed drive – one for

the position and the other for the feed. In addition to this, the selection of
the position and the other for the feed. In addition to this, the selection of
spindle speed is also under servo control. The principle of operation of the servo
system used in a CNC Machine tool is described below.
Closed Loop System
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2nd Block (MAE Department) MAHARAJA AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PSP Area, Plot No. 1, Sector-22, Rohini,

 

Delhi-110086

 

INDIA

 

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Anupam Thakur Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Anupam Thakur
Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Manual Part Programming Programming Fundamentals Machining involves an important aspect of relative movement between
Manual Part Programming
Programming Fundamentals
Machining involves an important aspect of relative movement between cutting
tool and work piece. In machine tools this is accomplished by either moving the
tool with respect to work piece or vice versa. In order to define relative motion of
two objects, reference directions are required to be defined. These reference
directions depend on type of machine tool and are defined by considering an
imaginary coordinate system on the machine tool. A program defining motion of
tool / work piece in this coordinate system is known as a part program. Lathe
and Milling machines are taken for case study but other machine tools like CNC
grinding; CNC Hobbing, CNC filament winding machine, etc. can also be dealt
with in the same manner.
Reference Points
Part programming requires establishment of some reference points. Three
reference points are either set by manufacturer or user.
a) Machine Origin The machine origin is a fixed point set by the machine tool
builder. Usually it cannot be changed. Any tool movement is measured from this
point. The controller always remembers tool distance from the machine origin.
b) Program Origin It is also called home position of the tool. Program origin is
point from where the tool starts for its motion while executing a program and
returns back at the end of the cycle. This can be any point within the workspace
of the tool which is sufficiently away from the part. In case of CNC lathe it is a
point where tool change is carried out.
c) Part Origin The part origin can be set at any point inside the machine’s
c) Part Origin The part origin can be set at any point inside the machine’s
electronic grid system. Establishing the part origin is also known as zero shift,
work shift, floating zero or datum. Usually part origin needs to be defined for
each new setup. Zero shifting allows the relocation of the part.
Sometimes the part accuracy is affected by the location of the part origin. Figure
shows the reference points on a lathe and milling machine.
Reference points and axis on a lathe
Reference points and axis on a Milling Machine
Axis Designation
An object in space can have six degrees of freedom with respect to an
imaginary Cartesian coordinate system. Three of them are liner movements and
other three are rotary. Machining of simple part does not require all degrees of
freedom. With the increase in degrees of freedom, complexity of hardware and
programming increases. Number of degree of freedom defines axis of machine.
Axes interpolation means simultaneous movement of two or more different
axes to generate required contour. For typical lathe machine degree of freedom
is 2 and so it called 2 axis machines. For typical milling machine degree of
freedom is , which means that two axes can be interpolated at a time and third
remains independent. Typical direction for the lathe and milling machine is as
shown in figure. Setting up of Origin In case of CNC machine tool rotation of
shown in figure.
Setting up of Origin In case of CNC machine tool rotation of the reference axis
is not possible. Origin can set by selecting three reference planes X, Y and Z.
Planes can be set by touching tool on the surfaces of the work piece and setting
that surfaces as X=x, Y=y and Z=z.
Coding Systems
The programmer and the operator must use a coding system to represent
information, which the controller can interpret and execute. A frequently used
coding system is the Binary-Coded Decimal or BCD system. This system is also
known as the EIA Code set because it was developed by Electronics Industries
Association. The newer coding system is ASCII and it has become the ISO code
set because of its wide acceptance.
CNC Code Syntax
The CNC machine uses a set of rules to enter, edit, receive and output data.
These rules are known as CNC Syntax, Programming format, or tape format.
The format specifies the order and arrangement of information entered. This is
an area where controls differ widely. There are rules for the maximum and
minimum numerical values and word lengths and can be entered, and the
arrangement of the characters and word is important. The most common CNC
format is the word address format and the other two formats are fixed
sequential block address format and tab sequential format, which are obsolete.
The instruction block consists of one or more words. A word consists of an
address followed by numerals. For the address, one of the letters from A to Z is
used. The address defines the meaning of the number that follows. In other
words, the address determines what the number stands for. For example it may
be an instruction to move the tool along the X axis, or to select a particular tool.
Most controllers allow suppressing the leading zeros when entering data. This is known as leading
Most controllers allow suppressing the leading zeros when entering data. This
is known as leading zero suppression. When this method is used, the machine
control reads the numbers from right to left, allowing the zeros to the left of the
significant digit to be omitted. Some controls allow entering data without using
the trailing zeros. Consequently it is called trailing zero suppression. The
machine control reads from left to right, and zeros to the right of the significant
digit may be omitted.
Types of CNC codes
Preparatory codes The term “preparatory” in NC means that it “prepares” the
control system to be ready for implementing the information that follows in the
next block of instructions. A preparatory function is designated in a program by
the word address G followed by two digits. Preparatory functions are also called
G-codes and they specify the control mode of the operation.
Miscellaneous codes Miscellaneous functions use the address letter M
followed by two digits. They perform a group of instructions such as coolant
on/off, spindle on/off, tool change, program stop, or program end. They are
often referred to as machine functions or M-functions. Some of the M codes are
given below.
M00 Unconditional stop
M02 End of program
M03 Spindle clockwise
M04 Spindle counterclockwise
M05 Spindle stop
M06 Tool change (see Note below) M30 End of program
In principle, all codes are either modal or non-modal. Modal code stays in effect
until cancelled by another code in the same group. The control remembers
modal codes. This gives the programmer an opportunity to save programming time. Non-modal code stays
modal codes. This gives the programmer an opportunity to save programming
time. Non-modal code stays in effect only for the block in which it is
programmed. Afterwards, its function is turned off automatically. For instance
G04 is a non-modal code to program a dwell. After one second, which is say, the
programmed dwell time in one particular case, this function is cancelled. To
perform dwell in the next blocks, this code has to be reprogrammed. The control
does not memorize the non-modal code, so it is called as one shot codes. One-
shot commands are non-modal. Commands known as “canned cycles” (a
controller’s internal set of preprogrammed subroutines for generating
commonly machined features such as internal pockets and drilled holes) are
non-modal and only function during the call.
On some older controllers, cutter positioning (axis) commands (e.g., G00, G01,
G02, G03, & G04) are non-modal requiring a new positioning command to be
entered each time the cutter (or axis) is moved to another location.
Command
G-
group
code
Function and Command
Statement
Illustration
G00
Rapid traverse
G00 Xx Yy Zz
G01
Linear interpolation
G01 Xx Yy Zz Ff
Tool
motion Circular Interpolation in clock-wise direction G02 G02 Xx Yy Ii Jj G02 Xx Zz
motion
Circular Interpolation in
clock-wise direction
G02
G02 Xx Yy Ii Jj
G02 Xx Zz Ii Kk
G02 Yy Zz Jj Kk
Circular interpolation in
counter- clockwise
direction
G03
G03 Xx Yy Ii Jj
G03 Xx Zz Ii Kk
G03 Yy Zz Jj Kk
Command
G-code
group
Function and Command
Statement
Illustration
G00
Rapid traverse
G00 Xx Zz
G01
Linear interpolation
G01 Xx Zz
Tool
motion
G02 Circular Interpolation in clock-wise direction G02 Xx Zz Ii Kk (or) G02 Xx Zz
G02
Circular Interpolation in
clock-wise direction
G02 Xx Zz Ii Kk
(or)
G02 Xx Zz Rr
G03
Circular interpolation in
counter- clockwise
direction
G03 Xx Zz Ii Kk
(or)
G03 Yy Zz Rr
Illustrative Example Program
A contour illustrated in figure is to be machined using a CNC milling machine.
The details of the codes and programs used are given below.
Example:
O5678
Program number
N02 G21
Metric programming
N03 M03
Spindle start clockwise with 1000rpm
S1000
N04 G00 X0
Rapid motion towards (0,0)
Y0
N05 G00 Z-
Rapid motion towards Z=-10 plane
10.0
N06 G01 Linear interpolation X50.0 N07 G01 Linear interpolation Y20.0 N08 G02 X25.0 Y45.0 Circular
N06 G01
Linear interpolation
X50.0
N07 G01
Linear interpolation
Y20.0
N08 G02
X25.0 Y45.0
Circular interpolation clockwise(cw)
R25.0
N09 G03 X-
25.0
Y45.0
Circular interpolation counter clockwise(ccw)
R25.0
N10 G02 X-
50.0 Y20.0
Circular interpolation clockwise(cw)
R25.0
N11 G01 Y0.0
Linear interpolation
N12 G01
Linear interpolation
X0.0
N13 G00
Rapid motion towards Z=10 plane
Z10.0
N14 M05
Spindle stop and program end
M09
In the previous section, fundamentals of programming as well basic motion
commands for milling and turning have been discussed. This section gives an
overview of G codes used for changing the programming mode, applying
transformations etc.
Programming modes
Programming mode should be specified when it needs to be changed from
absolute to incremental and vice versa. There are two programming modes,
absolute and incremental and is discussed below.
Absolute programming (G90)
In absolute programming, all measurements are made from the part origin
established by the programmer and set up by the operator. Any programmed
coordinate has the absolute value in respect to the absolute coordinate system
zero point. The machine control uses the part origin as the reference point in
order to position the tool during program execution.
Relative programming (G91) In incremental programming, the tool movement is measured from the last tool
Relative programming (G91)
In incremental programming, the tool movement is measured from the last tool
position. The programmed movement is based on the change in position
between two successive points. The coordinate value is always incremented
according to the preceding tool location. The programmer enters the relative
distance between current location and the next point .
Spindle control
The spindle speed is programmed by the letter ‘S’ followed by four digit number,
such as S1000. There are two ways to define speed.
1. Revolutions per minute (RPM)
2. Constant surface speed
The spindle speed in revolutions per minute is also known as constant rpm or
direct rpm. The change in tool position does not affect the rpm commanded. It
means that the spindle RPM will remain constant until another RPM is
programmed. Constant surface speed is almost exclusively used on lathes. The
RPM changes according to diameter being cut. The smaller the diameter, the
more RPM is achieved; the bigger the diameter, the less RPM is commanded.
This is changed automatically by the machine speed control unit while the tool is
changing positions. This is the reason that, this spindle speed mode is known as
diameter speed.
Loops and Unconditional jump (G25)
The unconditional jump is used to repeat a set of statements a number of
times. Example: N10 In the above example, the program statements from N70 to N100 are
times.
Example: N10
In the above example, the program statements from N70 to N100 are repeated
once when the statement N160 is executed. Usually the G25 is used after a
mirror statement. Illustrative example geometry and its program are given
below
Example:
Illustrative example for programming loops
Mirroring
The mirroring command is used when features of components shares symmetry about one or more
The mirroring command is used when features of components shares
symmetry about one or more axes and are also dimensionally identical. By using
this code components can be machined using a single set of data and length of
programs can be reduced.
G10
Cancellation of mirroring image
G11
Mirror image on X axis
G12
Mirror image on Y axis
G13
Mirror image on Z axis
Example:
Illustrative Example for mirroring
Tool selection
Tool selection is accomplished using ‘T’ function followed by a four digit
number where, first two digits are used to call the particular tool and last two
digits are used to represent tool offset in the program. The tool offset is used to
correct the values entered in the coordinate system preset block. This can be

done quickly on the machine without actually changing the values in the program. Using the tool offsets, it is easy to set up the tools and to make adjustments

Feed rate control

Cutting operations may be programmed using two basic feed rate modes:

1. Feed rate per spindle revolution

2. Feed rate per time

The feed rate per spindle revolution depends on the RPM programmed.

Tool radius Compensation

The programmed point on the part is the command point. It is the destination point of the tool. The point on the tool that is used for programming is the tool reference point. These points may or may not coincide, depending on the type of tool used and machining operation being performed. When drilling, tapping, reaming, countersinking or boring on the machining center, the tool is programmed to the position of the hole or bore center – this is the command point.

When milling a contour, the tool radius center is used as the reference point on the tool while writing the program, but the part is actually cut by the point on the cutter periphery. This point is at ‘r’ distance from the tool center. This means that the programmer should shift the tool center away from the part in order to perform the cutting by the tool cutting edge. The shift amount depends upon the part geometry and tool radius. This technique is known as tool radius compensation or cutter radius compensation.

In case of machining with a single point cutting tool, the nose radius of the tool tip is required to be accounted for, as programs are being written assuming zero nose radius. The tool nose radius center is not only the reference point that can be used for programming contours. On the tool there is a point known as imaginary tool tip, which is at the intersection of the lines tangent to the tool nose radius.

Cutter compensation allows programming the geometry and not the toolpath. It also allows adjusting the size of the part, based on the tool radius used to cut part. This is useful when cutter of the proper diameter is not found.

Cutter diameter compensation The information on the diameter of the tool, which the control system
Cutter diameter compensation
The information on the diameter of the tool, which the control system uses to
calculate the required compensation, must be input into the control unit’s
memory before the operation. Tool diameter compensation is activated by the
relevant preparatory functions (G codes)
Compensation for tool radius can be of either right or left side compensation.
This can be determined by direction of tool motion. If you are on the tool path
facing direction of tool path and if tool is on your left and work piece is on your
right side then use G41 (left side compensation). For, reverse use other code
G42 (Right side compensation). Both the codes are modal in nature and remain
active in the program until it is cancelled by using another code, G40.
Offset Direction = Left (G41)
Offset Direction = Right (G42)
Offset Direction = Off (G40)
Canned Cycles A canned cycle is a preprogrammed sequence of events / motions of tool
Canned Cycles
A canned cycle is a preprogrammed sequence of events / motions of tool /
spindle stored in memory of controller. Every canned cycle has a format.
Canned cycle is modal in nature and remains activated until cancelled. Canned
cycles are a great resource to make manual programming easier. Often
underutilized, canned cycles save time and effort.
Machining a Rectangular pocket
This cycle assumes the cutter is initially placed over the center of the pocket
and at some clearance distance (typically 0.100 inch) above the top of the
pocket. Then the cycle will take over from that point, plunging the cutter down to
the “peck depth” and feeding the cutter around the pocket in ever increasing
increments until the final size is attained. The process is repeated until the
desired total depth is attained. Then the cutter is returned to the center of the
pocket at the clearance height
Pocket machining
The overall length and width of the pocket, rather than the distance of cutter
motion, are programmed into this cycle.
The syntax is : G87 Xx Yy Zz Ii Jj Kk Bb Cc Dd Hh Ll Ss
(This g code is entirely controller specific and the syntax may vary between controller to
(This g code is entirely controller specific and the syntax may vary between
controller to controller).
Description:
x,y-Center of the part
z – Distance of the reference plane from top of part
i – Pocket depth
j,k – Half dimensions of the target geometry (pocket)
b
– Step depth
c
– Step over
d
– Distance of the reference plane from top of part
h
– Feed for finish pass
l
– Finishing allowance
s
– Speed
For machining a circular pocket, the same syntax with code G88 is used.
Turning Cycles
The G80 command will make the tool move in a series of rectangular paths
cutting material axially until the tool tip reaches target point P1 where the cycle
ends as shown in figure 31.5. Cutting movements will be at the cutting feed rate.
All other movements will be at rapid traverse rate.
Turning cycle (Straight cutting)
The syntax is G80 Xx Zz Ff
Roughing Cycle
In roughing cycle, the final finishing cycle profile is used to perform the roughing
operation for the higher material removal rate. The syntax for the roughing cycle is given
operation for the higher material removal rate. The syntax for the roughing cycle
is given below.
G81 Pp Qq Uu Ww Dd Ff Ss
Canned Cycles – Multiple Cut
A canned cycle is a single command that executes a whole machining operation
that requires repetitive tool motions. The cycle typically consists of a few
blocks with data defining the area to be machined and so me cutting
parameters. The coordinates of individual tool motions are determined
automatically by the machine controller and the motions are executed. An
operation that may require tens or even hundreds of blocks of program can be
written in just a few blocks. Canned cycles in Fanuc.
G71 Stock removal in turning
G72 Stock removal in facing
G73 Pattern repeat
G70 Finish turning
G74 Axial drilling
G75 Radial grooving
G76 Threading
Turning cycle – G71
This cycle generates a part shape from a cylindrical raw material, with cuts
along the axis. The cycle definition has the part shape, depth of cut, finish
allowance and couple of other parameters.
Tool path
Format G71 U(d)_ R_ G71 P(s)_ Q(e)_ U(u)_ W_ F_ Ns _ _ U(d) =
Format
G71 U(d)_ R_
G71 P(s)_ Q(e)_ U(u)_ W_ F_
Ns
_
_
U(d)
=
Depth of cut, radius value
R
=
Retract amount, radius value
P
=
Number of the first block of the shape
Q
=
Number of the last block of the shape
U(u)
=
Finishing allowance in X, diameter value
W
=
Finishing allowance in Z
F
=
Feed rate
The blocks after the second G71 block define the part contour A to B. Parameter
P has the number of the first block Ns and Q has the last block Ne.
Example G00 X49.0 Z5.0 G71 U3.0 R0.5 G71 P10 Q20 U1.0 W0.5 F0.2 N10 G00
Example
G00 X49.0 Z5.0
G71 U3.0 R0.5
G71 P10 Q20 U1.0 W0.5 F0.2
N10 G00 X15.0 Z4.0
G01 Z-5.0
G02 X25.0 Z-10.0 R5.0
G03 X39.0 Z-17.0 R7.0
G01 Z-20.0
N20 G00 X49.0
G00 Z5.0
The tool path defining the shape (between the blocks defined by P and Q) must
start and end beyond the raw material. In this example the start and end points
are points P1 and P2 respectively, 2 mm. away from the raw material. Note the
use of block numbers in the program example. Block numbers are optional,
need not be used in every block.
Contour definition and signs of finish allowances:
In the cycle, the area that is being machined decides: 1. The signs of the
In the cycle, the area that is being machined decides:
1. The signs of the finishing allowances U and W, and
2. The way the part profile is defined
In each of the cases shown above, the tool is positioned at point P before calling
the cycle and the part profile is defined from point A to B. The signs of the finish
allowances U and W are as follows.
Case 1 (Outside-Right) : U +, W +
Case 2 (Outside-Left) : U +, W –
Case 3 (Inside-Right) : U -, W +
Case 4 (Inside-Left) : U -, W –
Facing cycle G72
This cycle generates a part shape from a cylindrical raw material, with cuts
perpendicular to the axis. The cycle definition has the part shape, depth of cut,
finish allowance and couple of other parameters.
Tool path Format G72 W(d)_ R_ G72 P(s)_ Q(e)_ U(u)_ W_ F_ Ns _ _
Tool path
Format
G72 W(d)_ R_
G72 P(s)_ Q(e)_ U(u)_ W_ F_
Ns
_
_
W (d)
=
Depth of cut
R
=
Retract amount, radius value
P
=
Number of the first block of the shape
Q
=
Number of the last block of the shape
U
(u)
=
Finishing allowance in X, diameter value
W
=
Finishing allowance in Z
F
=
Feed rate
The blocks after the second G72 block define the part contour A to B. Parameter
P has the number of the first block Ns and Q has the last block Ne.
Example G00 X49.0 Z-20.0 G72 W3.0 R0.5 G72 P10 Q20 U1.0 W0.5 F0.2 N10 G00
Example
G00 X49.0 Z-20.0
G72 W3.0 R0.5
G72 P10 Q20 U1.0 W0.5 F0.2
N10 G00 X49.0 Z-20.0
G01 X39.0
Z-17.0
G02 X25.0 Z-10.0 R7.0
G03 X15.0 Z-5.0 R5.0
N20 G01 Z4.0
G00 X49.0
In this example the start and end points are points P2 and P1 respectively, 2
mm. away from the raw material. Note that these are the reverse of the points in
the G71 turning cycle.
Contour definition and signs of finish allowances:
In the cycle, the area that is being machined decides: 3. The signs of the
In
the cycle, the area that is being machined decides:
3.
The signs of the finishing allowances U and W, and
4.
The way the part profile is defined
In each of the cases shown above, the tool is positioned at point P before calling
the cycle and the part profile is defined from point A to B. The signs of the finish
allowances
U and W are as follows.
Case 1 (Outside-Right) : U +, W +
Case 2 (Outside-Left) : U +, W –
Case 3 (Inside-Right) : U -, W +
Case 4 (Inside-Left) : U -, W –
Pattern repeat cycle G73
This cycle generates a part shape from raw material that is the same shape as
the final part with cuts parallel to the along the part shape. It is used when the
raw material is a casting or forging. The cycle definition has the part shape,
depth of material to be removed, number of cuts and finish allowance.
Tool path Format G73 U(i)_ W(k)_ R_ G73 Ps_ Qe_ U(u)_ W(w)_ F_ _ _
Tool path
Format
G73 U(i)_ W(k)_ R_
G73 Ps_ Qe_ U(u)_ W(w)_ F_
_
_
U
(i)
=
Relief in the X axes direction
W
(k)
=
Relief in the Z axis direction
R
=
Number of cuts
P
=
Number of first block of the shape
Q
=
Number of the last block of the shape
U
(u)
=
Finishing allowance in X
W
(w) =
Finishing allowance in Z
F
=
Feed rate
Example —– —– G00 X60.0 Z10.0 G73 U5.0 W5.0 R3 G73 P10 Q20 U0.5 W0.5
Example
—–
—–
G00 X60.0 Z10.0
G73 U5.0 W5.0 R3
G73 P10 Q20 U0.5 W0.5 F0.2
N10 G00 X15.0 Z4.0
G01 Z-5.0
G02 X25.0 Z-10.0 R5.0
G03 X39.0 Z-17.0 R7.0
G01 Z-20.0
N20 G00 X49.0
G00 Z5.0
—–
—–
The tool path defining the shape (between the blocks defined by P and Q) must
start and end beyond the raw material. In this example the start and end points
start and end beyond the raw material. In this example the start and end points
are points A and B respectively, 2 mm. away from the raw material. Contour
definition and signs of finish allowances:
These are the same as in the G71 cycle.
Finish turning cycle G70
This cycle does a single finish pass along a contour that has typically already
been rough turned with a G71, G72 or G73 cycle. Nose radius compensation is
automatically activated in G70.
Tool path
Format
_
_
_
_
G70 P(s)_ Q(e)_ U_ W_
P = Number of first block of the shape Q = Number of the last
P =
Number of first block of the shape
Q
=
Number of the last block of the shape
U
=
Finishing allowance in X
W
=
Finishing allowance in Z
If U or W are zero they can be omitted.
Example
—–
—–
G00 X49.0 Z5.0
(ROUGH TURN CONTOUR)
G71 U3.0 R0.5
G71 P10 Q60 U1.0 W0.5 F0.2
N10 G00 X15.0 Z4.0
N20 G01 Z-5.0
N30 G02 X25.0 Z-10.0 R5.0
N40 G03 X39.0 Z-17.0 R7.0
N50 G01 Z-20.0
N60 G00 X49.0 G00 X200.0 Z150.0 M05 M09 T0202 (TOOL CHANGE) (FINISH TURN CONTOUR) G96
N60 G00 X49.0
G00 X200.0 Z150.0 M05
M09
T0202 (TOOL CHANGE)
(FINISH TURN CONTOUR)
G96 S200 M03
G50 S2500
X49.0 Z5.0 M08
G70 P20 Q60 F0.15
—–
—–
Axial drilling / grooving cycle – G74
This cycle does a peck drilling operation to drill a hole along the axis. The cycle
can actually be used to drill multiple axial holes at various positions on the
radius, on a machine with a C-axis and live tools. The explanation here is
restricted to drilling a single axial hole.
G74 R_
G74 Z_ Q_ F_ R = Retract amount at each peck Z = Z coordinate
G74 Z_ Q_ F_
R
=
Retract amount at each peck
Z
=
Z coordinate of hole bottom
Q
=
Peck depth, in microns
F
=
Feed rate
To drill the hole in a single pass (without pecking), set Q equal to the depth of
the hole.
Example
—–
—–
G00 X0 Z 2.0
G74 R0.5
G74 Z-30.0 Q6000 F0.15
G00 X50.0
—–
—–
Radial drilling / grooving cycle – G75
This cycle does a peck drilling operation for grooving or drilling perpendicular to the axis.
This cycle does a peck drilling operation for grooving or drilling perpendicular to
the axis. The cycle can actually be used to cut multiple grooves, or (on a
machine with a C-axis and live tools) drill multiple radial holes at various
positions along the length,. The explanation here is restricted to cutting a single
groove.
Tool path
G75 R_
G75 X_ P_ F_
R
=
Retract amount after each peck, radial distance
X
=
X coordinate of groove bottom
P
=
Peck depth, radial distance in microns
F
=
Feed rate
Example
—– G00 X54.0 Z-20.0 G75 R0.5 G75 X30.0 P3000 F0.1 G00 X100.0 Z50.0 —– Threading
—–
G00 X54.0 Z-20.0
G75 R0.5
G75 X30.0 P3000 F0.1
G00 X100.0 Z50.0
—–
Threading Cycle- G76
N5 G76 P010060 Q100 R0.05
N6 G76 X30 Z-20 P1024 Q200 F2
First block of the G76 Threading cycle
G76 : G code for threading cycle. P : P actually consists of multiple values
G76 : G code for threading cycle.
P :
P actually consists of multiple values which control the thread
behavior,
01
: Number of spring passes or spring cuts.
00
: Thread run out at 45 degree
60
: Flank angle or Infeed angle
Q
:
Depth of normal cut ( these values are given in hundreds, so the
depth
of cut will be 0.1 ).
R
:
Depth of Last or Finish cut
Second block of the G76 Threading cycle
G76
:
G code of the threading cycle.
X
:
The end value in x-axis.
Z
:
The end value in z-axis.
P
:
Thread depth ( as radius value ).
Q
:
Depth of first cut.
F
:
Thread Pitch
R
:
Thread Taper
Example
—–
—–
G00 X34.0 Z2.0
G76 P020060 Q100 R0
G76 X30.0 Z-39.0 R0 P1200 Q0.5 F2.0

G00 X100.0 Z50.0

—–

Typical G and M codes

G codes

G codes on a machine are decided by its controller’s programming format.

Machines of of G codes.

different makes with the same controller will have the same set

Sample list of G codes:

G00 Rapid traverse

G01 Linear interpolation (feed)

G02 Circular interpolation CW

G03 Circular interpolation CCW

G04 Dwell

G20 Inch unit

G21 Metric unit

G28 Automatic zero return (returns to a fixed position, typically for tool change)

G30 2nd reference point return

G32 Thread cutting (single motion)

G40 Tool nose radius compensation cancel

G41 Tool nose radius compensation left

G42 Tool nose radius compensation right

G50 Limiting spindle speed setting

G70 Finishing cycle

G71 Stock removal in turning

G72 Stock removal in facing

G73 Pattern repeating

G74 Peck drilling on Z axis / Face grooving

G75 Peck drilling on X axis / Grooving

G76 Threading cycle

G90 Single cut turning cycle

G92 Single cut threading cycle

G94 Single cut facing cycle

G98 Feed per minute

G99 Feed per revolution

G96 Constant surface speed

G97 Constant spindle speed

M-codes

Most M codes activate machine functions like the coolant, spindle, etc. These are decided by the machine manufacturer, and depend on the features that are available on the machine. E.g., a machine with a tailstock will have M codes for tailstock in/out. A few (like M00, M01, M02, M98, etc.in the list below) are fixed and based on the controller.

Sample list of M codes:

M00 Program stop

M01 Optional program stop

M02 Program end

M03 Spindle ON clock wise (CW)

M04 Spindle ON counter clock wise (CCW)

M05 Spindle stop

M06 Tool change

M08 Coolant ON

M09 Coolant OFF

M30 End of program and reset to start

M98 Sub program call

M99 Sub program end

Full sample program

This is a sample program for a part with multiple operations – Rough turning, Finish turning, Grooving and Threading. It shows how a full program is put together. The blocks just before a tool change typically have a number of codes specific to a particular machine, specifically the type of its tool changer and its tool change position. They may appear odd and unfamiliar, and may be ignored for the purpose of understanding this program. The program has been generated by a CAD/CAM software that automatically considers the tool nose radius during contouring. Coordinates in finish turning are calculated with nose radius compensation, and will therefore not match the part coordinates.

Raw material : 80 dia. Bar, 2 mm. extra material for facing. % O1234 T0000
Raw material : 80 dia. Bar, 2 mm. extra material for facing.
%
O1234
T0000
G0 X150.0 Z200.0
N1 T0101 (PCLNL 2525M12 R0.8)
G50 S3000
G96 S247 M03
(ROUGH FACE)
G0 X90 Z4. M07
X84.
G72 W3 R0.5
G72 P25 Q40 U0 W0.2 F0.3
N25 G0 Z0
N30 G01 X80 Z0
N35 X0
N40 Z2
G0 X90

(ROUGH TURN)

Z2.2

X84.

G71 U3. R0.5

G71 P45 Q95 U0.4 W0.2 F0.3

N45 G00 X26.

N50 G01 X26. Z0.2

N55 Z0.

N60 X30. Z-2.

N65 Z-38.

N70 Z-40.

N75 X60. Z-55.

N80 G03 X70. Z-60. I0. K-5.

N85 G01 Z-115.

N90 X80.

N95 X84. Z-115.

G0 X90.

M09

M05

T0000

G0 X150.0 Z200.0

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Phone 9650 368 720

 

Address Room No.: 247 2nd Block (MAE Department) MAHARAJA AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PSP Area, Plot No. 1, Sector-22, Rohini,

 

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Anupam Thakur Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Anupam Thakur
Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Functions and Components of CIM System Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
Functions and Components of CIM System
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) encompasses the entire range of
product development and manufacturing activities with all the functions being
carried out with the help of dedicated software packages. The data required for
various functions are passed from one application software to another in a
seamless manner. For example, the product data is created during design. This
data has to be transferred from the modeling software to manufacturing
software without any loss of data. CIM uses a common database wherever
feasible and communication technologies to integrate design, manufacturing
and associated business functions that combine the automated segments of a
factory or a manufacturing facility. CIM reduces the human component of
manufacturing and thereby relieves the process of its slow, expensive and error-
prone component. CIM stands for a holistic and methodological approach to the
activities of the manufacturing enterprise in order to achieve vast improvement
in its performance.
This methodological approach is applied to all activities from the design of the
product to customer support in an integrated way, using various methods,
means and techniques in order to achieve production improvement, cost
reduction, fulfillment of scheduled delivery dates, quality improvement and total
flexibility in the manufacturing system. CIM requires all those associated with a
company to involve totally in the process of product development and
manufacture. In such a holistic approach, economic, social and human aspects
have the same importance as technical aspects.
CIM also encompasses the whole lot of enabling technologies including total quality management, business process
CIM also encompasses the whole lot of enabling technologies including total
quality management, business process reengineering, concurrent engineering,
workflow automation, enterprise resource planning and flexible manufacturing.
A distinct feature of manufacturing today is mass customization. This implies
that though the products are manufactured in large quantities, products must
incorporate An overview of CIM is presented in this chapter. A brief account of
the evolution of CIM is included. The major functions carried out in a
manufacturing plant are surveyed and the different levels of integration are
identified. customer-specific changes to satisfy the diverse requirements of the
customers. This requires extremely high flexibility in the manufacturing system.
Challenges in Manufacturing
Manufacturing industries strive to reduce the cost of the product continuously
to remain competitive in the face of global competition. In addition, there is the
need to improve the quality and performance levels on a continuing basis.
Another important requirement is on time delivery. In the context of global
outsourcing and long supply chains cutting across several international borders,
the task of continuously reducing delivery times is really an arduous task. CIM
has several software tools to address the above needs. Manufacturing
engineers are required to achieve the following objectives to be competitive in a
global context.
Reduction in inventory
Lower the cost of the product
Reduce waste
Improve quality
Increase flexibility in manufacturing to achieve immediate and rapid

response to:

Product changesresponse to: Production changes Process change Equipment change Change of personnel CIM technology is an enabling

Production changesresponse to: Product changes Process change Equipment change Change of personnel CIM technology is an enabling

Process changeresponse to: Product changes Production changes Equipment change Change of personnel CIM technology is an enabling

Equipment changeto: Product changes Production changes Process change Change of personnel CIM technology is an enabling technology

Change of personnelchanges Production changes Process change Equipment change CIM technology is an enabling technology to meet the

CIM technology is an enabling technology to meet the above challenges to the manufacturing. The advances in automation have enabled industries to develop islands of automation. Examples are flexible manufacturing cells, robotized work cells, flexible inspection cells etc. One of the objectives of CIM is to achieve the consolidation and integration of these islands of automation. This requires sharing of information among different applications or sections of a factory, accessing incompatible and heterogeneous data and devices. The ultimate objective is to meet the competition by improved customer satisfaction through reduction in cost, improvement in quality and reduction in product development time.

CIM makes full use of the capabilities of the digital computer to improve manufacturing. Two of them are:

1. Variable and Programmable automation

2. Real time optimization

The computer has the capability to accomplish the above for hardware components of manufacturing (the manufacturing machinery and equipment) and software component of manufacturing (the application software, the information flow, database and so on). The capabilities of the computer are thus exploited not only for the various bits and pieces of manufacturing activity but also for the entire system of manufacturing. Computers have the tremendous potential needed to integrate the entire manufacturing system and thereby evolve the computer integrated manufacturing system.

CIM HARDWARE AND CIM SOFTWARE

CIM hardware comprises the following:

1. Manufacturing equipment such as CNC machines or computerized work

centres, robotic work cells, DNC/FMS systems, work handling and tool

handling devices, storage devices, sensors, shop floor data collection

devices, inspection machines etc.

2. Computers, controllers, CAD/CAM systems, workstations / terminals, data

entry terminals, bar code readers, RFID tags, printers, plotters and other

peripheral devices, modems, cables, connectors etc.,

CIM software comprises computer programs to carry out the following functions:

Management Information Systemcomputer programs to carry out the following functions: Sales Marketing Finance Database Management Modeling and

Salesout the following functions: Management Information System Marketing Finance Database Management Modeling and Design

Marketingthe following functions: Management Information System Sales Finance Database Management Modeling and Design Analysis

Financefunctions: Management Information System Sales Marketing Database Management Modeling and Design Analysis Simulation

Database ManagementManagement Information System Sales Marketing Finance Modeling and Design Analysis Simulation Communications

Modeling and DesignSystem Sales Marketing Finance Database Management Analysis Simulation Communications Monitoring Production

AnalysisMarketing Finance Database Management Modeling and Design Simulation Communications Monitoring Production Control

SimulationFinance Database Management Modeling and Design Analysis Communications Monitoring Production Control Manufacturing

CommunicationsDatabase Management Modeling and Design Analysis Simulation Monitoring Production Control Manufacturing Area Control Job

MonitoringModeling and Design Analysis Simulation Communications Production Control Manufacturing Area Control Job Tracking

Production Controland Design Analysis Simulation Communications Monitoring Manufacturing Area Control Job Tracking Inventory Control

Manufacturing Area ControlSimulation Communications Monitoring Production Control Job Tracking Inventory Control Shop Floor Data Collection

Job TrackingMonitoring Production Control Manufacturing Area Control Inventory Control Shop Floor Data Collection Order Entry

Inventory ControlProduction Control Manufacturing Area Control Job Tracking Shop Floor Data Collection Order Entry Materials Handling

Shop Floor Data CollectionManufacturing Area Control Job Tracking Inventory Control Order Entry Materials Handling Device Drivers Process

Order EntryArea Control Job Tracking Inventory Control Shop Floor Data Collection Materials Handling Device Drivers Process Planning

Materials HandlingArea Control Job Tracking Inventory Control Shop Floor Data Collection Order Entry Device Drivers Process Planning

Device DriversArea Control Job Tracking Inventory Control Shop Floor Data Collection Order Entry Materials Handling Process Planning

Process PlanningArea Control Job Tracking Inventory Control Shop Floor Data Collection Order Entry Materials Handling Device Drivers

Manufacturing Facilities Planning Work Flow Automation Business Process Engineering Network Management Quality
Manufacturing Facilities Planning
Work Flow Automation
Business Process Engineering
Network Management
Quality Management
NATURE AND ROLE OF THE ELEMENTS OF CIM SYSTEM
Nine major elements of a CIM system are in Fig. They are:
Marketing
Product Design
Planning
Purchase
Manufacturing Engineering
Factory Automation Hardware
Warehousing
Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Finance
Information Management
1. Marketing: The need for a product is identified by the marketing division.
The specifications of the product, the projection of manufacturing quantities

and the strategy for marketing the product are also decided by the marketing department. Marketing also works out the manufacturing costs to assess the economic viability of the product.

2. Product Design: The design department of the company establishes the initial database for production of a proposed product. In a CIM system this is accomplished through activities such as geometric modeling and computer aided design while considering the product requirements and concepts generated by the creativity of the design engineer. Configuration management is an important activity in many designs. Complex designs are usually carried out by several teams working simultaneously, located often in different parts of the world. The design process is constrained by the costs that will be incurred in actual production and by the capabilities of the available production equipment and processes. The design process creates the database required to manufacture the part.

3. Planning: The planning department takes the database established by the design department and enriches it with production data and information to produce a plan for the production of the product. Planning involves several subsystems dealing with materials, facility, process, tools, manpower, capacity, scheduling, outsourcing, assembly, inspection, logistics etc. In a CIM system, this planning process should be constrained by the production costs and by the production equipment and process capability, in order to generate and optimized plan.

4. Purchase: The purchase departments is responsible for placing the purchase orders and follow up, ensure quality in the production process of the vendor, receive the items, arrange for inspection and supply the items to the stores or arrange timely delivery depending on the production schedule for eventual supply to manufacture and assembly.

5. Manufacturing Engineering: Manufacturing Engineering is the activity of carrying out the production of the product, involving further enrichment of the database with performance data and information about the production equipment and processes. In CIM, this requires activities like CNC programming, simulation and computer aided scheduling of the production activity. This should include online dynamic scheduling and control based on the real time performance of the equipment and processes to assure continuous production activity. Often, the need to meet fluctuating market demand requires the manufacturing system flexible and agile.

6. Factory Automation Hardware: Factory automation equipment further enriches the database with equipment and process
6. Factory Automation Hardware: Factory automation equipment further
enriches the database with equipment and process data, resident either in
the operator or the equipment to carry out the production process. In CIM
system this consists of computer controlled process machinery such as
CNC machine tools, flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), Computer
controlled robots, material handling systems, computer controlled assembly
systems, flexibly automated inspection systems and so on.
7. Warehousing: Warehousing is the function involving storage and retrieval of
raw materials, components, finished goods as well as shipment of items. In
today’s complex outsourcing scenario and the need for just-in-time supply of
components and subsystems, logistics and supply chain management
assume great importance.
8. Finance: Finance deals with the resources pertaining to money. Planning of
investment, working capital, and cash flow control, realization of receipts,
accounting and allocation of funds are the major tasks of the finance
departments.
9. Information Management: Information Management is perhaps one of the
crucial tasks in CIM. This involves master production scheduling, database
management, communication, manufacturing systems integration and
management information systems.
DATABASE REQUIREMENTS OF CIM:
A major challenge facing the implementation of CIM is to establish the type of

data needed to bridge the mechanical design and manufacturing functions. Following is the list of varied tasks one might expect to accomplish in a CIM environment.

1. Designing assemblies and performing tolerance analysis on those

assemblies.

2. Preparing production drawings of assemblies, individual parts, tooling,

fixtures and other manufacturing facilities.

Creating analytical models of parts for structural, kinematical and thermalparts, tooling, fixtures and other manufacturing facilities. analysis (FEM, MeM etc). 1. Calculating weights, volumes,

analysis (FEM, MeM etc).

1. Calculating weights, volumes, centres of gravity and other mass properties

and costs of manufacturing (cost estimation).

2. Classifying existing parts according to shape, function, and the process by

which they are manufactured and retrieving these parts from the parts

library on demand (Group technology and coding).

3. Preparing part lists and bill of materials (BOM).

Preparing process plans for individual part manufacture and assembly3. Preparing part lists and bill of materials (BOM). (Variant or Generative). Programming CNC machines for

(Variant or Generative).

Programming CNC machines for processing complete parts (CAM).part manufacture and assembly (Variant or Generative). 1. Designing work cells and programming the movement of

1. Designing work cells and programming the movement of components in

those cells using work handling devices like robots, conveyors, AGV’s/

RGV’s, etc. (Cellular manufacture).

2. Controlling engineering changes and maintaining associativity between

design and manufacturing (PDM, VPDM, concurrent associativity etc).

3. Preparing programs to handle components or manipulate production

equipment (like welding torches or robots).

Preparing inspection programs including programs for CNC co-ordinateproduction equipment (like welding torches or robots). measuring machines [CNC CMM’s]. The exchange of graphic

measuring machines [CNC CMM’s].

The exchange of graphic information has been advanced with increasing acceptance of Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) and STEP.

There are several classifications of data.

1. Physical data: These are data stored in the computer’s storage device. The

volume of data required by a manufacturing company is so large that

secondary storage devices such as hard discs, tapes, CD-ROMs, and other

digital storage devices of several gigabyte capacities will be used.

2. Logical data: This indicates how a user views the physical data. The

distinction between the physical data and the corresponding logical view is

that the user conceptualizes certain meaningful relationships among the

physical data elements. For example, we may have a set of items and

quantities recorded in files. The logical view or interpretation of these sets of

data can be that the items represent components available in stores and

that the quantities recorded correspond to their inventory.

iii. Data independence: Database management systems (DBMS) are used by the users to manage the physical data. DBMS makes a distinction between the two namely, the user and the physical data. Changes in the organization of physical data and or in the storage device parameters are absorbed by DBMS and therefore do not affect the user or more accurately, the application program. This flexibility is absent in the traditional file systems.

OBJECTIVES OF DATABASE

A database serves the following objectives:

Reduce or eliminate redundant dataOF DATABASE A database serves the following objectives: Integrate existing data Provide security Share data among

Integrate existing datathe following objectives: Reduce or eliminate redundant data Provide security Share data among users Incorporate changes

Provide securityReduce or eliminate redundant data Integrate existing data Share data among users Incorporate changes quickly and

Share data among usersredundant data Integrate existing data Provide security Incorporate changes quickly and effectively Exercise

Incorporate changes quickly and effectivelyexisting data Provide security Share data among users Exercise effective control over data Simplify the method

Exercise effective control over datadata among users Incorporate changes quickly and effectively Simplify the method of using data Reduce the

Simplify the method of using dataquickly and effectively Exercise effective control over data Reduce the cost of storage and retrieval of

Reduce the cost of storage and retrieval of dataeffectively Exercise effective control over data Simplify the method of using data Improve accuracy and integrity

Improve accuracy and integrity of dataExercise effective control over data Simplify the method of using data Reduce the cost of storage

File processing system

A file processing system helps people keep track of files as they move throughout the various departments of a business. The purpose of this sort of system is to keep things organized, generally in alphabetical, numerical or chronological order. Companies that have effective file processing systems have ways to find those files in an orderly manner, rather than having staff members rifling through papers in order to find what they are looking for.

Whether a company uses paper files, cloud storage or a combination, keeping a consistent system in place is vital for the efficient handling of requests for information. Many companies have gone to a “paperless” environment in which files end up in hard drives, cloud storage or other places. Just as with a traditional filing cabinet, though, it is just as important to keep track of all files in a shared or personal drive. Most storage applications make it simple to set up and name file folders so that those in charge of storing data can put the right file in the right folder. Even without the sound of the drawers rolling open and the cold metal sensation of filing cabinets, it is still possible to keep files properly organized.

In a daily life, we come across various needs to store data. It can be maintaining daily household bills, bank account details, salary details, payment details, student information, student reports, books in the library etc. How it will be recorded at one place, so that we can get it back when required? It should be recorded in such a way that

1. Should be able to get the data any point in time latter

2. Should be able to add details to it whenever required

3. Should be able to modify stored information, as needed

4. Should also be able to delete them

In traditional approach, before to computer, all informations were stored in papers. When we need information, we used to search through the papers. If we know particular date or category of information we are searching, we go to that particular session in the papers. When we want update or delete some data, we search for it and modify them or strike off them. If the data is limited, then all these tasks are easy. Imagine library information or information about a student in School, or baking system! How do we search for single required data in papers? It is a never ending task! Yes, Computers solved our problems.

When computers came, all these jobs become easy. But initial days, these

records were stored in the form of files. The way we stored in files is similar to papers, in the form of flat files – to be simpler, in notepad. Yes, the informations where all in the notepads with each fields of information separated by space, tab comma, semicolon or any other symbol. All the files were grouped based on their categories; file used to have only related informations and each file is named properly. As we can see in the above sample file has Student information. Student files for each class were bundled inside different folders to identify it quickly.

Now, if we want to see a specific Student detail from a file, what do we do? We know which file will have the data, we open that file and search for his details. Fine, here we see the files; we can open it and search for it. But imagine we want to display student details in a UI. Now how will we open a file, read or update it? There different programs like C, C++, COBOL etc which helps to do this task. Using these programming languages, we can search for files, open them, search for the data inside them, and go to specific line in the file, add/update/delete specific information.

File Organization and relation analysis:

It is used to determine an efficient file organization for each base relation. For example, if we want to retrieve student records in alphabetical order of name, sorting the file by student name is a good file organization. However, if we want to retrieve all students whose marks is in a certain range, a file ordered by student name would not be a good file organization. Some file organizations are efficient for bulk loading data into the database but inefficient for retrieve and other activities.

The objective of this selection is to choose an optimal file organization for each relation.

Types of File Organization

In order to make effective selection of file organizations and indexes, here we present the details different types of file Organization. These are:

Heap File Organizationand indexes, here we present the details different types of file Organization. These are: Hash File

Hash File Organizationand indexes, here we present the details different types of file Organization. These are: Heap File

Indexed Sequential Access Methods (ISAM) File OrganizationB+- tree File Organization Cluster File Organization Heap (unordered) File Organization An unordered file, sometimes

B+- tree File OrganizationIndexed Sequential Access Methods (ISAM) File Organization Cluster File Organization Heap (unordered) File Organization An

Cluster File OrganizationMethods (ISAM) File Organization B+- tree File Organization Heap (unordered) File Organization An unordered file,

Heap (unordered) File Organization

An unordered file, sometimes called a heap file, is the simplest type of file organization.

Records are placed in file in the same order as they are inserted. A new record is inserted in the last page of the file; if there is insufficient space in the last page,

a new page is added to the file. This makes insertion very efficient. However, as

a heap file has no particular ordering with respect to field values, a linear search must be performed to access a record. A linear search involves reading pages from the file until the required is found. This makes retrievals from heap files that have more than a few pages relatively slow, unless the retrieval involves a large proportion of the records in the file.

To delete a record, the required page first has to be retrieved, the record marked as deleted, and the page written back to disk. The space with deleted records is not reused. Consequently, performance progressively deteriorates as deletion occurs. This means that heap files have to be periodically reorganized by the Database Administrator (DBA) to reclaim the unused space of deleted records.

Heap files are one of the best organizations for bulk loading data into a table, as records are inserted at the end of the sequence; there is no overhead of calculating what page the record should go on.

Pros of Heap storage

Heap is a good storage structure in the following situations:

When data is being bulk-loaded into the relation.

The relation is only a few pages long. In this case, the time to locate any tuple is Short, even if the entire relation has been searched serially.

When every tuple in the relation has to be retrieved (in any order) every time the relation is accessed. For example, retrieve the name of all the students.

Cons of Heap storage

Heap files are inappropriate when only selected tuples of a relation are to be accessed.

Hash File Organization

In a hash file, records are not stored sequentially in a file instead a hash function is used to calculate the address of the page in which the record is to be stored.

The field on which hash function is calculated is called as Hash field and if that field acts as the key of the relation then it is called as Hash key. Records are randomly distributed in the file so it is also called as Random or Direct files. Commonly some arithmetic function is applied to the hash field so that records will be evenly distributed throughout the file.

Pros of Hash file organization

Hash is a good storage structure in the following situations:

When tuples are retrieve based on an exact match on the hash field value, particularly if the access order is random. For example, if the STUDENT relation is hashed on Name then retrieval of the tuple with Name equal to “Rahat Bhatia” is efficient.

Cons of Hash file organization

Hash is not a good storage structure in the following situations:

When tuples are retrieved based on a range of values for the hash field. For example, retrieve all students whose name begins with the “R”.

When tuples are retrieved based on a range of values for the hash field. For example, if STUDENT relation has hash filed Roll Number and the query is to retrieve all students with roll numbers in the range of 3000-5000.

When tuples re retrieved based on a field other than the hash field. For example, if the STUDENT relation is hashed on Roll Number, then hashing cannot be used to search for a tuple based on the Class attribute.

When tuples are retrieved based on only part of the hash field. For example, if the STUDENT relation is hashed on Roll Number and Class, then hashing cannot be used to search for a tuple based on the class attribute alone.

When the hash field frequently updated. When a hash field updated, the DBMS must deleted the entire tuple and possible relocate it to a new address (if the has function results in a new address). Thus, frequent updating of the hash field impacts performance.

Secondary indexes

Secondary indexes provide a mechanism for specifying a’1additional key for a base relation that can be used to retrieve data more efficiently. For example, the STUDENT relation may be hashed on the Name the primary index. However, there may be frequent access to this relation based on the Roll Number attribute. In this case, we may decide to add Roll Number as a secondary index.

There is an overhead involved in the maintenance and use of secondary indexes that has to be balanced against the performance improvement gained when retrieving data. This overhead includes:

adding an index record to every secondary index whenever a tuple is insertedgained when retrieving data. This overhead includes: into the relation; updating a secondary index when the

into the relation;

updating a secondary index when the corresponding tuple in the relation isindex whenever a tuple is inserted into the relation; updated; The increase in disk space needed

updated;

The increase in disk space needed to store the secondary index;when the corresponding tuple in the relation is updated; Possible performance degradation during query optimization,

Possible performance degradation during query optimization, as the queryincrease in disk space needed to store the secondary index; optimizer may consider all secondary indexes

optimizer may consider all secondary indexes before selecting an optimal

execution strategy.

Indexes Sequential Access Method (ISAM)

In an ISAM system, data is organized into records which are composed of fixed length fields. Records are stored sequentially. A secondary set of hash tables known as indexes contain “pointers” into the tables, allowing individual records to be retrieved without having to search the entire data set.

It is a data structure that allows the DBMS to locate particular records in a file more quickly and thereby speed response to user queries. An index in a database is similar to an index in a book. It is an auxiliary structure associated

with a file that can be referred to when searching for an item of information, just like searching the index of a book, in which we look up a keyword to get a list of one or more pages the keyword appears on. An index obviates the need to scan sequentially through the file each time we want to find the item. In the case of database indexes, the required item will be one or more records in a file. As in the book index analogy, the index is ordered, and each index entry contains the item required and one or more locations (record identifiers) where the item can be found.

While indexes are not strictly necessary to use the DBMS, they can have a significant impact on performance. As with the book index, we could find the desired keyword by looking through the entire book, but this would be tedious and time-consuming. Having an index at the back of the book on alphabetical order to keYW0fd allows us to go directly to the page or pages we want.

An index structure is associated with a particular search key and contains record consisting of the key value and the address of the logical record in the file contains records consisting of the key value of the address of the logical

record in the file containing the key value. The file containing the logical records

is called the data file and the file containing the index records is called the index

file. The value in the index file are ordered according to the indexing field, which

is usually based on a single attribute.

A sorted data file with a primary index is called an indexed sequential file. This

structure is a compromise between a purely sequential file and a purely random

file, in that records can be processed sequentially or individually accessed using

a search key value that accesses the record via the index. An indexed sequential file is a more versatile structure, which normally has.

primary storage area;file is a more versatile structure, which normally has. A separate index or indexes; A An

A

separate index or indexes;structure, which normally has. primary storage area; A A An overflow area. When to use ISAM

A

An overflow area.has. primary storage area; A separate index or indexes; A When to use ISAM is a

When to use

ISAM is a more versatile storage structure than hash and it proved better when retrievals are based on exact key match, pattern matching, range of values, and part key specification.

When not to use

However, the ISAM index is static, created when the file is created. Thus, the performance
However, the ISAM index is static, created when the file is created. Thus, the
performance of an ISAM file deteriorates as the relation is updated. Updates
also cause an ISAM file to lose the access key sequence, so that retrievals in
order of the access key will become slower.
These two problems are overcome by the B+-tree file organization. However,
unlike B+- tree, concurrent access to the index can be easily managed because
the index is static.
B+-tree
A B+-tree is a data structure to store vast amounts of information. Typically B+-
trees are used to store amounts of data that will not fit in main system memory.
To do this, secondary storage (usually disk) is used to store the leaf nodes of
the tree. Only the internal nodes of the tree are stored in computer memory. In a
B+-tree the leaf nodes are the only ones that actually store data items. All other
nodes are called index nodes or i-nodes and simply store “guide” values which
allow us to traverse the tree structure from the root down and arrive at the leaf
node containing the data item we seek as shown in figure. Because disk I/O is
very slow in comparison to memory access these leaf nodes store more than
one data item each.
Pros of B+-tree
Again, B+-tree is a more versatile storage structure than hashing. It supports
retrievals based on exact key match, pattern matching, range of values, and part
key specification. The B+-tree index is dynamic, growing as the relation grows.
Thus, unlike ISAM, the performance of a B+-tree file does not deteriorate as the
relation is updated. The B+-tree also maintains the order of the access key even’
when the file is updated, so retrieval of tuples in the order of the access key is
more efficient than ISAM.
Cons of B+-tree However, if the relation is not frequently updated, the ISAM structure may
Cons of B+-tree
However, if the relation is not frequently updated, the ISAM structure may be
more efficient as it has one less level of index than the B+-tree, whose leaf
nodes contain pointers to the actual tuples rather than the tuples themselves.
Clustered tables
Some DBMSs, such as Oracle, support clustered and non-clustered tables.
Clusters are group of one or more tables physically stored together because
they share common columns and are often used together. With related records
being physically stored together, disk access time is improved. The related
columns of the table in a cluster are called the cluster key. The cluster key is
stored only once, and so clusters store a set of tables more efficiently than if the
tables were stored individually.
Let us consider a case of emp and dept tables whose instances are shown in
table. Both the tables have deptno as a common column. In Oracle these tables
may be clustered together as shown in figure with deptno as a cluster key which
is stored only once to improve the efficiency of the system.
Illustrates how the EMP and Dept tables would be stored if we clustered the tables
Illustrates how the EMP and Dept tables would be stored if we clustered the
tables based on the column Deptno. When these two tables are clustered, each
unique Deptno value is stored only once, in the cluster key. To each Deptno
value are attached the column from both these tables.
The choice of whether to use a clustered or non-clustered table depends on the
analysis of the transactions undertaken previously, but the choice can have an
impact on performance.
Oracle supports two types of clusters: indexed clusters and hash clusters.
Indexed Clusters
In an index cluster, records with the same cluster key are stored together. Oracle
suggests using indexed clusters when:
Queries retrieve records over a range of cluster key value;
Clustered tables may grow unpredictable.
Cluster can improve performance of retrieval, depending on the data distribution
and what SQL operations are most often performed on the data. In particular,
tables that are joined in a query benefit from the use of clusters because the
records common to the joined tables are retrieved with the same I/O operation.
Hash Clusters
Hash clusters also cluster table data in a manner similar to index clusters.
However, a record is stored in a hash cluster based on the result of applying a
hash function to the record’s cluster key value. All records with the same hash
key value are stored together on disk.

The choice of whether to use a clustered or non-clustered table depends on the analysis of the transactions undertaken previously, but the choice can have an impact· on performance

Guidelines for the use of Cluster tables

The following guidelines may be helpful when deciding about the cluster tables:

Consider clustering tables when tables are often accessed in joinmay be helpful when deciding about the cluster tables: statements. Do not cluster tables if they

statements.

Do not cluster tables if they are joined only occasionally or their commontables when tables are often accessed in join statements. column values are modified frequently. (Modifying a

column values are modified frequently. (Modifying a row’s cluster key value

takes longer than modifying the value in an unclustered table, because

Oracle may have to migrate the modified row to another block to maintain

the cluster.)

Do not cluster table if a full search of one of the tables is often required. (Athe modified row to another block to maintain the cluster.) full search of a clustered table

full search of a clustered table can take longer than a full search of an

unclustered table. Oracle is likely to read more blocks because the tables are

stored together.)

Consider clustering tables involved in a one-to-many (1: M) relationship if ato read more blocks because the tables are stored together.) row is often selected from the

row is often selected from the parent table and then the corresponding rows

from the child table. (Child rows are stored in the same data block(s) as the

parent row, so they are likely to be in memory when selected, requiring

Oracle to perform less I/O.)

Do not cluster tables of the data from all tables with the same cluster keymemory when selected, requiring Oracle to perform less I/O.) value exceeds more than one or two

value exceeds more than one or two Oracle blocks. (To access a row in a

clustered table. Oracle reads all blocks containing rows with that value. If

these rows occupy multiple blocks, accessing a single row could require

more reads than accessing the same row in an unclustered table.)

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Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present would be: Accessing all
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Accessing all of your current information assets, including legacy and
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Comparative sales figures between one week and the next
Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions
The consequences of different decision alternatives, given past experience
in a context that is described
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Functions and Components of CIM System

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Anupam Thakur Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Anupam Thakur
Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Tooling for CNC machine Cutting tools come in a range of sizes, materials, and geometry
Tooling for CNC machine
Cutting tools come in a range of sizes, materials, and geometry types.
It is generally more efficient to use a combination of different tool paths and
tools to achieve a detailed model rather than assuming that a small tool with a
smaller step over is the only way. Often, a larger tool can achieve better finish
results.
In end milling, the cutter generally rotates on an axis vertical to the work piece.
Cutting teeth are located on both the end face of the cutter and the periphery of
the cutter body.
A ball nose end mill, also known as a spherical end mill or ball end mill, has a
semi sphere at the tool end. Ball nose end mills are used on work pieces with
complex surfaces.
Choosing flat end mill vs. a ball end mill will determine the characteristics of the
tooling marks (or lack thereof) on your model. Most jobs will benefit from
strategic use of multiple size and shape tools for milling different features. End
Mills are often used for roughing and 2D cutting and V-Bit and Ball Nose cutters
are often used for finishing operations.
End geometry There are up-cut, down-cut, compression cut end mills with varying numbers of flutes.
End geometry
There are up-cut, down-cut, compression cut end mills with varying numbers of
flutes. End mills are intended to cut horizontally.
Up-cut, down-cut and compression cut determine the way the chips (cut
material) are ejected and the smoothness of the surface. With an up-cut end
mill, the chips will be ejected upward and the bottom of the material will be
smooth. The down-cut end mill is the reverse by puching the chips downward
and the top of the material is smooth. The compression end mill creates a
smooth surface on top and bottom, which is perfect for pre-laminated woods.
End mills come in a variety of shapes. The most common are flat end mills and
ball end mills. Flat end mills will cut flat areas with no scallops. However, they
leave a terrace-like scallop on non-flat surfaces. Ball end mills will leave smaller
scallops for the same stepover value on sloped surfaces, but they will also leave
scallops on flat areas.
Models can be tooled with a combination of flat and ball end mills. If only one
tool will be used for all surfaces a ball end geometry will give a more consistent
overall feel and smooth result.
Flat end mills can be Center Cutting and Non Center Cutting: Center cutting
square endmills are essential for plunge milling. Non-center cutting mills are
used only for side milling.
When choosing a ball end mill always chooses the largest size available. For the same
When choosing a ball end mill always chooses the largest size available. For the
same stepover, a larger tool will leave smaller scallops, thus giving a smoother
result. For a generally smooth model with some areas of fine detail, a large tool
should be used for the overall job and a smaller tool should be used only to
clean out detailed areas.
Larger tools cut more cleanly, have larger clearance, and stay sharp longer. The
velocity of the cutting edge on a larger tool is higher for the same spindle speed.
Step Over
Step Over is the distance the tool moves over between subsequent passes.
The step over value (along with tool size) will determine whether the model has
a smooth finish, or tooling marks are visible. It will also directly impact cutting
time. Models with a smaller step over take longer to cut.
Stepdown The length of the cutting area within the tool determines how deep the material
Stepdown
The length of the cutting area within the tool determines how deep the material
can be cut in one operation –this is called the maximum stepdown. This
stepdown value will only be used to its maximum when the material that is being
cut is soft; for harder materials a smaller value is often required, setting the
toolpaths to mill away layers of materials in separate passes.
Flute geometry
While the number, direction and type of flutes that a cutting tool has can vary
widely, the tools most commonly used have two flutes and are up-cut spirals.
Some projects may benefit from other types of flute geometry. Contour cutting
MDF or plywood sheets would benefit from down-cut spirals as the tool would
push the material against the CNC machine table as it cuts rather than lift it.
Number of Flutes
Single Flute – Allows for larger chiploads in softer materials
Double Flute – Allows for better part finish in harder materials
Multiple Flutes – Allows for an even better part finish in harder materials
As the number of cutting edges increases, your feed rate should increase to
prevent burning and premature tool dulling. More flutes reduce chip load and
improves surface finish if feed rate remains the same. The most common flute
numbers for general milling operations are two (better space for chip ejection) and four (better
numbers for general milling operations are two (better space for chip ejection)
and four (better surface finish).
Examples of applications using end mills:
Tool Materials
Material: end mills are made either out of cobalt steel alloys (known as high
speed steel, or HSS), or from tungsten carbide in a cobalt lattice (colloquially
shortened to “carbide”). The latter option is considerably harder, more rigid, and
more resistant. Carbide tools can be run at speeds 2 to 2.5 times faster than
HSS tools. When using carbide tools ensure that your machine tool is rigid with
a solid spindle and that holders have little or no runout. Due to the brittle nature
of carbide and the speeds at which carbide tools are typically run, rigidity is
critical to prevent tool breakage.
Coatings: carbide cutters may be further coated with ceramics such as titanium
aluminum nitride (TiAlN, aka AlTiN), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbon
nitride (TiCN), and so on. Of these, the bluish-gray TiAlN coating is most
common one, and by the virtue of reducing friction and improving hardness, it
boosts the speed of metal cutting by up to 20%. It extends tool life.
Other types of tools used:
Carbide Drill bits to drill PCB
Carbide PCB Engraving V Bits
Diamond dental Bits to engrave PCB Angle plate An angle plate is a work holding
Diamond dental Bits to engrave PCB
Angle plate
An angle plate is a work holding device used as a fixture in metalworking.
The angle plate is made from high quality material (generally spheroidal cast
iron) that has been stabilized to prevent further movement or distortion. Slotted
holes or T bolt slots are machined into the surfaces to enable the secure
attachment or clamping of work pieces to the plate, and also of the plate to the
worktable.
Angle plates also may be used to hold the work piece square to the table during
marking out operations.
Adjustable angle plates are also available for work pieces that need to be
inclined, usually towards a milling cutter.
Angle plates are used to measure and hold various work piece whilst being
worked upon.
Work Holding Devices
Work holding is the generic term for any device used to firmly hold your work
piece while machining it. There are two components to work holding:
– The actual work holding device, such as a milling vise.
– The method of locating and securing that work holding device to your
machine. This includes the ubiquitous T-Slots but goes on to include modular
fixture plates, 4th axis solutions, and much more.
We’ll go through the various methods of locating the work holding devices and
then follow up with a description of your choices for work holding devices.
Positioning for Work holding Devices
T-Slots
T-Slots are the most common method of positioning and holding down your work holding solution…
T-Slots are the most common method of positioning and holding down your
work holding solution…
T-Slots are by far the most common way of positioning and holding down your
Work holding solution. They are simple, robust, and they work. To attach
something to a T-Slotted table, use T-Slot nuts and suitable studs or other
fasteners that fit the nuts
While they are common, they have some disadvantages relative to other
solutions. Aside from the fact that T-Slots can collect chips and other debris,
their biggest disadvantage is that it’s hard to get your vise or other Work holding
fixture back onto the table in exactly the same place and orientation. This can
result in extra work every time a machine needs to be set up with new
workholding for a new job. Over time, the cost of that inefficiency can be quite
large.
Just imagine, what if instead of having a tool changer and a tool table you had
to dial in each tool every time it was used? Wouldn’t that be a huge productivity
block in your machining workflow? Well, setup time can be a big productivity
block too, and T-Slots are not helpful for that.
There are some solutions that’ve been tried to make them a little better:
Truing the Slots
We can check the T-Slots of machine to make sure the run parallel to axis
motion by sweeping them with a Dial Test Indicator (DTI). If they don’t, we can
mill them true. A lot of folks hate the idea of intentionally milling their table, but
if the T-Slots aren’t true and you need them to be, it’s hard to see what choice
you have. But there is a choice that involves using something other than T-Slots
as we will see shortly.
Keyed Vises and Fixtures
If your T-Slots are true, you can install keys on the bottom of vises or fixture
plates that line up with the T-Slots. You can also install keys in the T-Slots
plates that line up with the T-Slots. You can also install keys in the T-Slots that
line up the edge of a plate or vise base. Doing so can save you quite a lot of time
tramming vises and such, and it isn’t hard to do, so it is definitely worth
considering.
The trouble is, these kinds of solutions will help with one dimension (typically
the short dimension of the table is the Y dimension and is aligned perpendicular
to the slots), but we still have the problem of positioning along the axis of the T-
Slot.
Fortunately, there is a better way in the form of Fixture Sub-Plates (also called
Tooling Plates).
Fixture Sub-Plates, Tooling Plates, and Modular Fixturing
Fixture Sub-Plates (also called Tooling Plates) are plates that are installed on
top of a T-Slot table to provide a new way to position and secure Work holding.
A typical Tooling Plate looks like this:
A typical Tooling Plate
Tooling Plates typically use a grid of holes that alternate between holes for
precision dowel pins for positioning and threaded holes for fasteners. If this grid
is precisely positioning (or even if it isn’t and the positions are precisely known)
you have a very repeatable way to install Workholding on the plate. The dowel
pins provide precision location that is repeatable to perhaps half a thousandth.
Imagine being able to drop a vise mounted on its own fixture plate with dowel
pins and fastener holes onto a Tooling Plate and have it be repeatable to half
thousandth. If all your fixtures can drop onto the Tooling Plate you can change
the machine over to a new Workholding configuration very quickly indeed. The
savings in time adds up to pay off the cost of such a system very quickly.
With an air ratchet in hand, a vise can be installed on one of these plates within
a minute or two. A CNC Machine can be reconfigured in 5 or 10 minutes for a
completely different job. And the skills required of the machine operators, as

well as the potential for mistakes, are greatly reduced if the fixtures don’t have to be carefully dialed in each time. There are advantages for the creation of modular g-code too, because it can rely on the positioning grid of the Tooling Plate.

If accuracy of more than half a thousandth is required, it is often better to use

probing together with selected g-code parameterization to correct for the remaining error. You could try to dial things in more precisely by hand, but a probing solution can rely on things being nearly right to determine the last little bit of error correction that needs to be applied in the g-code itself. For example, it’s possible to apply rotation to the g-code based on a probes results to tram (that’s aligning things to the axis motion) very precisely an almost right situation.

Tooling Plates are typically made of either Cast Iron or Aluminum, though there are steel ones available too. They can be purchased or made from scratch. For more on how they’re made, be sure to visit our Fixture Plate page.

Modular Fixturing

One other thing Tooling Plates help facilitate is Modular Fixturing. Once we have

a fixed grid to rely on, we can purchase ready-made fixturing components that

will fit the grid. This can save quite a lot of cost versus having to fabricate

everything to some custom arrangement.

Ball Locks and Other Quick Change Tooling Plate Solutions

By now I hope you’re seeing how much Setup Time could be saved by using Tooling Plates. What could be better? Why there are at least two different ways to improve on the theme: quick change tooling plates and pallets.

With a Quick Change system, the time required to deal with the dowel pins and fasteners is reduced through some kind of integrated solution that allows precise position and locking very quickly. One such is the Jergens Ball Lock system

Ball Locks are a Quick Release system for Tooling Plates With this system, you get
Ball Locks are a Quick Release system for Tooling Plates
With this system, you get precise positioning and secure holding with 4 Ball
Locks. Just align the plate to the sub-plate (which has the Receiver Bushings
and is mounted to the table), drop the Ball Lock Shanks into the hole, twist the
bolt on top of the Ball Lock Shank, and you are done. Twisting four bolts and no
fooling around with dowel pins or extra fasteners is really quick and easy.
Jergens talks about 30 second fixture change times which is very fast indeed.
Pallets
The next step up are Pallets. Think of them as power operated Tooling Plates
whereas everything else we’ve talked about has been hand operated. A typical
machine with Pallets allows you to be setting one or more Pallets up while the
machine is working on another. A Pallet change operation cycles the old Pallet
outside of the machine’s milling area and brings the new one in. This minimizes
the time the machine has to be offline and allows Setup to be done in parallel
with machining.
Some machines have what are called “Pallet Pools”, which allow multiple pallets
to be set up in advance and scheduled to run. A Pallet Pool can allow a machine
to run unattended for quite a long time and can be a useful building block for
total automation.
Pallets are typically only seen on Horizontal Machining Centers and some high
end Vertical Machining Centers. They’re definitely a full-on production feature
that is fairly expensive, so the cost has to be justified by the need ot keep the
machines churning out parts constantly.
4th Axis, Trunion Fixtures, Tombstones, and Tool Columns
Sometimes it is helpful to be able to apply another dimension to our thinking–in
this case a 4th Axis. In CNC, a 4th Axis is commonly a rotary axis that is aligned
to spin along an axis parallel to one of the machine’s other 3 axes. On
to spin along an axis parallel to one of the machine’s other 3 axes. On Vertical
Mills, the 4th Axis is frequently parallel to X or Y, and is laid down. On a
Horizontal Mill, the 4th Axis is also parallel to X or Y, but it is standing up. Both
methods work great, but the horizontal mill’s standing 4th axis frequently has
more clearance available since the work is never trapped between the table and
the axis.
From a Workholding standpoint, a 4th Axis can be used to bring new
orientations into play for two purposes:
1. It allows access to more sides of the part so machining can continue without
having to flip parts around by hand.
2. It allows access to more parts which may be arrayed around the 4th Axis.
To find out more about these uses for Work holding, check out our excellent
series on 4th Axis Basics.
Work holding Solutions
Having seen how we’re going to position and attach our Work holding Solutions
to our milling machine, let’s delve into what types of Work holding are available.
Milling Vice
A pair of milling vises sits side by side on a machine table
It’s not too much of a stretch to say that the most popular Work holding Solution
today is the Milling Vise. While there are many manufacturer’s of such vises, the
poster child is Kurt who shipped their first “Kurt Vise” in the 1950’s.
What Makes a Good Milling Vise?
A good vise is well made, typically of cast iron. It operates smoothly, repeatedly,
and with a wedge mechanism that pulls the movable jaw down onto the bed so
the part is not lifted due to deflection as the jaws are tightened. Don’t scrimp
the part is not lifted due to deflection as the jaws are tightened. Don’t scrimp on
your milling vises because they’re most likely the Work holding Solution you’ll
turn to most often.
Clean the Table and Tram the Vise
Before putting any vise on your machine table, be sure to clean the table of
chips. You don’t want to trap a chip between the vise or table. If you have a T-
Slot table you’re mounting the vise to, you’ll probably want to tram the vise as
well. This is the procedure of using an indicator to sweep a vise jaw (you want
the fixed jaw, not the movable jaw) so you can adjust the vise position until the
sweep shows the vise jaw is parallel to the axis as it moves.
Learning to tram (or “square”) a vise is one of those basic skills every machinist
must learn early on.
Vise Parallels and Jaw Steps
Having the vise properly installed and trammed, the next question is proper use.
Most of the time we’ll want to sit the work piece fairly high in the jaws. This is
done both to provide access to the work piece and because it provides more
repeatability the less of the workpiece is gripped–there’s just less area for a trip
or other irregularity to influence what’s going on.
We set the work piece high in the jaws typically either by using a set of Vise
Parallels or because we have jaws installed in the vise that have a step
machined fairly high on the jaw. We may either machine the step ourselves (in
the case of soft jaws) or purchase jaws with a step already machined.
Clamping Outside the Jaws and Other Jaw Tricks
There are a lot of Vise Jaw tricks but one of the first to be aware of is that you
can mount the jaws either inside or outside the normal jaw mounting locations.
Mounting outside allows larger plates to be gripped in the vise easily
By mounting the jaws in the outside position, quite a large workpiece can be accommodated
By mounting the jaws in the outside position, quite a large workpiece can be
accommodated
Increasing rigidity is always important. For this operation, two 2-4-6 blocks are
used as a vise jaw extension to help support the plate on end better
Using Multiple Vises, Jaws that Span Vises, and Grinding Matching Vises
There’s an old saying that if you want to make full use of your machine you need
to use every square inch on the table. Most machine tables can accommodate
multiple vises, and it is very common to install multiple vises on a mill table. Our
photo above of side by side vises shows one such setup. It’s not uncommon to
see four or even six vises on a larger milling machine. The more the merrier so
long as travels will accommodate it because the more vises you have, the more
parts you can machine before the machining has to stop so the operator can
load new work pieces.
When you have multiple vises on a machine, it is convenient if they match in all
the key dimensions to within a decent tolerance. That way if you are duplicating
a setup and get the vises in a different order, all will be well. Most vise
manufacturers will match vises for you or it’s a fairly simple operation with a
surface grinder to match a pair of vises.
Another trick that’s possible with two vises is to use jaws that span both vises
for handling really long parts:
Spanning two vises with a single set of jaws
Double MillingVise Having spread three or four vises across your mill table, you’ve pretty well
Double MillingVise
Having spread three or four vises across your mill table, you’ve pretty well taken
advantage of the X-Axis. But, there’s an opportunity to take better advantage of
the Y-Axis by using Double Vises:
A typical double station vise is like 2 vises in one
A typical double station vise is like 2 vises in one: you can put two work pieces
instead of one. With judicious use of double vises you can really multiply the
number of parts that can be worked at the same time on your mill’s table.
Vises to Hold Other Work holding Solutions
Between using multiple vises, double station vises, moving the jaws around, and
even using jaws that span multiple vises, quite a lot is possible using just vises.
In fact, you can even use the vises to hold other Work holding gadgets. It’s a very
common trick to drop a sine vise into a milling vise to get jaws working the other
direction:
Use a sine vise to hold a part at 90 degrees from where the milling vise jaws
run
You can also create small plate fixtures that are designed to sit in a vise,
creating what is often called a “vise pallet” since the individual plate fixtures can
be swapped out of the vises much like pallets.
Vise Pallets are just small plate fixtures designed to be held in the jaws of
Vise Pallets are just small plate fixtures designed to be held in the jaws of a
milling vise
In general, solutions like Vise Pallets are created to enable vises to be left on the
machine in shops where the flexibility and simplicity of vise work holding is ideal
for most of their jobs. Soft Jaws and Custom Hard Jaws Multiply the Vise’s
Work holding Flexibility. Soft Jaws on milling vises are a very popular form of
work holding. The idea is to create aluminum vise jaws (since aluminum is
softer than ferrous materials that’s where the name comes from) that are
customized for particular jobs. Sometimes a more durable material is
advantageous, in which case we have Hard Jaws.
Here are some examples:
Use soft jaws to locate and hold a larger round part. A “V” is often seen, but it
won’t support the part as well as the soft jaws
As mentioned above, we don’t want to grip the whole height of the part in
As mentioned above, we don’t want to grip the whole height of the part in the
jaws. A particularly thin grip can be had with dovetail jaws. The little red
circle points to the dovetail which locks the workpiece in from slipping
upward under heavy machining. These are Carvesmart quick change jaws.
Here’s a common setup. The part is machined from a block on the left (those
are the same Carvesmart dovetail jaws). Then the part is flipped in a set of
custom soft jaws on the right that are the mirror image of the part. A Face
mill then takes off the little bit of flat stock left from the original material
(that’s already happened in this photo).
Lang Innovations makes these neat jaws that make it easy to set the
workpiece in the vise at a precise angle when needed. The pins can be
individually pushed in to create angles and other holding patterns too
Quick Change Jaws I hope you’re getting the idea that Milling Vises with Custom Jaws
Quick Change Jaws
I hope you’re getting the idea that Milling Vises with Custom Jaws can be a
powerful workholding solution. So powerful, in fact, that a lot of work is done
solely with this style of Workholding. Shops spend a lot of time creating Custom
Jaws and often box them up in storage to use for other jobs or in case a
customer reorders a part. Even though the vises spend most of their time on the
table, we still have a Setup Time bottleneck in the time it takes to change vise
jaws. Maybe you saw this coming, but there are a variety of Quick Change Vise
Jaws available too. The Carvesmart jaws we pictured are one variety, but there
are many more. Judicious use of an air ratchet and socket head cap screws can
also speed the job of changing jaws.
Plates, Plate Fixtures, and Clamps
As useful as vises are, they have a sweet spot for part size. They have a difficult
time with really large plate work, though as mentioned you can move the jaws to
the outside positions for medium-sized plates. And, they can also be less than
optimal for very small parts. Sure, you can fit multiple parts in a set of Soft
Jaws, but the space between adjacent vises and the space required for the vise
mechanism makes it hard to fully fill the table with as many small parts as you
might otherwise be able to.
It’s hard to achieve this dense packing of smaller parts with a vise, but a plate
fixture makes it easy. This one uses Mitee Bite Pit Bull clamps. The effect is not
unlike tiny milling vises designed to fit each part just right.
When its time to machine large plates or a great many small parts, it’s usually
time to pull the vises off the table and use a workholding solution based on
clamps.
Step Clamps
The most common type of clamps are called step clamps because they have little steps
The most common type of clamps are called step clamps because they have
little steps machined on them. They’re commonly used with T-Slots, although
you can also use bolt them into a Tooling Plate. Here are some typical Step
Clamps:
Step Clamp holding down plate, step block supporting end of clamp, and bolt
goes through T-Slot Nut
A typical Step Clamp Set
Pictured is a typical Step Clamp Set. It can be handy to stock up on a an extra
set so you’ve got more clamping parts to work with. By stacking the Step Blocks
and using longer bolts, you can clamp workpieces that are quite tall. When
using step clamps, keep the bolt close to the workpiece rather than the step
block. Also, it can be helpful to angle the clamp down on the part by raising it up
a step or two from level. You may also want to put a shim of soft material
between the clamp and the workpiece if you want to avoid marring the
workpiece. Soda can makes a great shim for this purpose if you slice out some
strips with your snips.
Toe Clamps
Step Clamps grip the top of the workpiece, which is sometimes inconvenient
because you might need to machine the area being gripped. Toe Clamps grip the
side of the workpiece to give you full access to the top of the workpiece. There
are a wide variety of different styles available:
This toe clamp moves the clamp down a ramp when tightened to press against the
This toe clamp moves the clamp down a ramp when tightened to press against
the workpiece
Some workpieces can be very difficult to hold because they’re too thin or
because their shaped so there’s just no way to clamp on. Some solutions for
these situations are in the form of Double Sided Tape, Glue, Wax, and Low
Melting Point Alloys.
The Glue needs to be something that will release when needed. For example,
Super Glue releases at a particular temperature just like LocTite. The fumes
from it are toxic, so take care to release with plenty of ventilation. Double sided
tape can work great, especially for really thin materials.
Wax and Low Melting Point Alloys (typically Bismuth alloys) can be used to
embed the workpiece and create grippable area. When the machining is done,
one can melt the wax or alloy away and save for reuse.
Vacuum Fixtures
Need to apply uniform pressure to hold a part down? Maybe a vacuum fixture is
the answer. Sea level air pressure is 14.7 lbs per square inch. A vacuum fixture
pumps a vacuum under the part so that air is pressing down on every square
inch of the top with 14.7 lbs of pressure. That can create considerable holding
force if there is enough surface area regardless of the shape of the top or how
thin the material may be. We have a nice article on how to create your own
vacuum fixtures that’s very popular. For more in-depth information on vacuum
workholding visit our Vacuum Table Page and our DIY Vacuum Table Page.
Perhaps the biggest disadvantage of vacuum fixtures is their hold-down force is
limited by surface area–that means small parts can pop off relatively easily.
When cutting forces exceed the hold-down force a vacuum table can pull, the
part pops off and is generally ruined. This is a common problem for vacuum
table users, especially for smaller parts that don’t have much surface area. Until
now, fixing the problem has been hit or miss, but our G-Wizard Calculator software now
now, fixing the problem has been hit or miss, but our G-Wizard Calculator
software now has the ability to limit cutting forces to what your vacuum table
can handle. For more information, check out our article on this special feature.
Chucks and Collets: For Round Parts
While we typically think of machining round parts on lathes, there are many
times when you may need to mill them as well. If you’ve got a Mill-Turn machine,
it may not be necessary to put them on a mill, but if you don’t, or if you just need
to work on some round parts on the mill, you can use the same workholding
solutions Lathes use. Just bolt or clamp them down to your mill table. For
example, use a 3 jaw chuck or a bank of collet chucks.
Lathe Chucks are particularly common on 4th Axes because we often start from
round stock.
Every now and then we put round parts on the mill because it’s just downright
faster. Consider this setup for machining round parts
Expanding Mandrels, Arbors, and Studs
Toe Clamps are one solution to keeping the workholding away from the milling,
but we can do even better using expanding mandrels, arbors, or studs. The idea
is to put an expanding cylinder in a hole on the underside of the workpiece and
expand it to lock the workpiece in place. Once that’s done, you can access the
workpiece from every direction except the bottom without encountering the
workholding (do remember where the mandrels are though so you don’t have
one in the middle of a pocket waiting to be hit).
Here is a fixture using expanding studs
Turn the bolt opens the expanding stud so it can clamp the workpiece. There are
Turn the bolt opens the expanding stud so it can clamp the workpiece.
There are a wide variety of these kinds of gizmos available for your workholding
needs. They’re particularly common for lathes, but as we mentioned, you can
use lathe workholding all day long provided you find a way to mount it to your
table.
5-Axis Workholding
5-Axis workholding, like most things 5-axis, is a whole other world. I won’t go
into any detail here other than to say you need different kinds of workholding
when you can access a part from virtually any direction. It becomes more
challenging in this kind of workholding that the workholder not get in the way of
milling the part.
Rotary table
A rotary table is a precision work positioning device used in metalworking. It
enables the operator to drill or cut work at exact intervals around a fixed (usually
horizontal or vertical) axis. Some rotary tables allow the use of index plates for
indexing operations, and some can also be fitted with dividing plates that enable
regular work positioning at divisions for which indexing plates are not available.
A rotary fixture used in this fashion is more appropriately called a dividing head
(indexing head).
The table shown is a manually operated type. Powered tables under the control
of CNC machines are now available, and provide a fourth axis to CNC milling
machines. Rotary tables are made with a solid base, which has provision for
clamping onto another table or fixture. The actual table is a precision-machined
disc to which the work piece is clamped (T slots are generally provided for this

purpose). This disc can rotate freely, for indexing, or under the control of a worm (handwheel), with the worm wheel portion being made part of the actual table. High precision tables are driven by backlash compensating duplex worms.

The ratio between worm and table is generally 40:1, 72:1 or 90:1 but may be any ratio that can be easily divided exactly into 360°. This is for ease of use when indexing plates are available. A graduated dial and, often, a vernier scale enable the operator to position the table, and thus the work affixed to it with great accuracy.

A through hole is usually machined into the table. Most commonly, this hole is

machined to admit a Morse taper center or fixture.

Use

Rotary tables are most commonly mounted “flat”, with the table rotating around

a vertical axis, in the same plane as the cutter of a vertical milling machine. An

alternate setup is to mount the rotary table on its end (or mount it “flat” on a 90°

angle plate), so that it rotates about a horizontal axis. In this configuration a tailstock can also be used, thus holding the workpiece “between centers.”

With the table mounted on a secondary table, the workpiece is accurately centered on the rotary table’s axis, which in turn is centered on the cutting tool’s axis. All three axes are thus coaxial. From this point, the secondary table can be offset in either the X or Y direction to set the cutter the desired distance from the workpiece’s center. This allows concentric machining operations on the workpiece. Placing the workpiece eccentrically a set distance from the center permits more complex curves to be cut. As with other setups on a vertical mill, the milling operation can be either drilling a series of concentric, and possibly equidistant holes, or face or end milling either circular or semicircular shapes and contours.

A rotary table can be used:

To machine spanner flats on a boltshapes and contours. A rotary table can be used: To drill equidistant holes on a circular

To drill equidistant holes on a circular flangerotary table can be used: To machine spanner flats on a bolt To cut a round

To cut a round piece with a protruding tangon a bolt To drill equidistant holes on a circular flange To create large-diameter holes, via

To create large-diameter holes, via milling in a circular toolpath, on smallcircular flange To cut a round piece with a protruding tang milling machines that don’t have

milling machines that don’t have the power to drive large twist drills

(>0.500/>13 mm)

To mill helixes To cut complex curves (with proper setup) to cut straight lines at
To mill helixes
To cut complex curves (with proper setup)
to cut straight lines at any angle
to cut arcs
with the addition of a compound table on top of the rotary table, the user can
move the center of rotation to anywhere on the part being cut. This enables
an arc to be cut at any place on the part.
to cut circular pieces
Additionally, if converted to stepper motor operation, with a CNC milling
machine and a tailstock, a rotary table allows many parts to be made on a mill
that otherwise would require a lathe.
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Phone 9650 368 720

 

Address Room No.: 247 2nd Block (MAE Department) MAHARAJA AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PSP Area, Plot No. 1, Sector-22, Rohini,

 

Delhi-110086

 

INDIA

 

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Anupam Thakur Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Anupam Thakur
Assistant Profesor (M.A.I.T.), M.E.(Thapar University), B.Tech(M.A.E.)
Planning and Scheduling Functions in CIM System AGGREGATE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND THE MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE
Planning and Scheduling Functions in CIM
System
AGGREGATE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND THE MASTER PRODUCTION
SCHEDULE
Aggregate planning is a high-level corporate planning activity. The aggregate
production plan indicates production output levels for the major product lines of
the company.
Activities in a PPC system
The aggregate plan must be coordinated with the plans of the sales and
marketing departments. Because the aggregate production plan includes products that are currently in production, it
marketing departments. Because the aggregate production plan includes
products that are currently in production, it must also consider the present and
future inventory levels of those products and their component parts. Because
new products currently being developed will also be included in the aggregate
plan. the marketing plans and promotions for current products and new
products must be reconciled against the total capacity resources available to
the company.
MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE (MPS)
The production quantities of the major product lines listed in the aggregate plan
must he converted into a very specific schedule of individual products, known
as the master production schedule (MPS). It is a list or the products to be
manufactured, when they should be completed and delivered, and in what
quantities. The master schedule must be based on an accurate estimate of
demand and a realistic assessment of the company’s production capacity. The
MPS planning period, or horizon, can be of any length, but should be at least as
long as a company’s longest cumulative lead time (the time it takes to complete
a product from raw material to finished goods.). Many systems include a rough
cut capacity planning (RCCP) capability, which compares certain MPS items of
the master schedule to specified key resources of the plant (or multiple plants)
to determine if the master schedule is workable, given current the plant
capacity. If the master schedule is not achievable, the system modifies the MPS
or the production plan (For example, reduce the amount of products to be
produced or commit to increasing the capacity of the plant) until the master
schedule is achievable.

Modules of Master Scheduling

Master production schedule provides great flexibility in reflecting the overall production plans of management, allowing planned production to be based on predicted demand.

The master production schedule software is useful in many ways.

Enables the user to scan through the file starting at any point to easily locatemaster production schedule software is useful in many ways. data. Accesses items by number or partial

data.

Accesses items by number or partial description.the file starting at any point to easily locate data. Eases forecasting. Allows interactive entry of

Eases forecasting.data. Accesses items by number or partial description. Allows interactive entry of requirement and replenishment

Allows interactive entry of requirement and replenishment orders on theitems by number or partial description. Eases forecasting. master schedule including creation of firm planned orders.

master schedule including creation of firm planned orders.

Merges existing shop orders, purchase orders, and MRP planned orders intomaster schedule including creation of firm planned orders. the master schedule for easy comparison with customer

the master schedule for easy comparison with customer orders and sales

forecast orders.

Maintains orders by exact date, allowing reports to be detailed orcomparison with customer orders and sales forecast orders. summarizes into a variety of user-defined periods. Supports

summarizes into a variety of user-defined periods.

Supports “what if” analysis by projecting into the future with adjustments toor summarizes into a variety of user-defined periods. quantities. Displays or prints how much of each

quantities.

Displays or prints how much of each inventory item is available to promiseprojecting into the future with adjustments to quantities. for delivery in current and future periods. Identifies

for delivery in current and future periods.

Identifies under or over-scheduled key work centres though rough cutto promise for delivery in current and future periods. capacity planning. Pinpoints desired information responding

capacity planning.

Pinpoints desired information responding to user-specified parameters.key work centres though rough cut capacity planning. Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Material Requirements

Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is a computer-based production planning and inventory control system. MRP is concerned with both production scheduling and inventory control. It is a material control system that attempts to keep adequate inventory levels to assure that required materials are available when needed. MRP is applicable in situations of multiple items with complex bills of materials. MRP is not useful for job shops or for continuous processes that are tightly linked.

The major objectives of an MRP system are to simultaneously:

1. Ensure the availability of materials, components, and products for planned

production and for customer delivery,

2. Maintain the lowest possible level of inventory,

3. Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules, and purchasing activities.

MRP is especially suited to manufacturing settings where the demand of many of the components and subassemblies depend on the demands of items that face external demands. Demand for end items is independent. In contrast, demand for components used to manufacture end items depend on the demands for the end items. The distinctions between independent and dependent demands are important in classifying inventory items and in developing systems to manage items within each demand classification. MRP systems were developed to cope better with dependent demand items.

The three major inputs of an MRP system are the master production schedule, the product structure records, and the inventory status records. Without these basic inputs the MRP system cannot function. The demand for end items is scheduled over a number of time periods and recorded on a

Master production schedule (MPS). The master production schedule expresses how much of each item is wanted and when it is wanted. The MPS is developed from forecasts and firm customer orders for end items, safety stock requirements, and internal orders. MRP takes the master schedule for end items and translates it into individual time-phased component requirements. The product structure records, also known as bill of material records (BOM), contain information on every item or assembly required to produce end items. Information on each item, such as part number, description, quantity per assembly, next higher assembly, lead times, and quantity per end item, must be available. The inventory status records contain the status of all items in inventory, including on hand inventory and scheduled receipts. These records must be kept up to date, with each receipt, disbursement, or withdrawal documented to maintain record integrity.

MRP will determine from the master production schedule and the product structure records the gross component requirements; the gross component requirements will be reduced by the available inventory as indicated in the inventory status records.

MRP Computations

We will illustrate MRP computations through examples.

Example

Suppose you need to produce 100 units of product A eight week from now, where product A requires one unit of product B and two units of product C, while product C requires one unit of product D and two units of product E. How many units of each type do you need? In this example it is easy to compute the requirements of each item to produce 100 units of product A:

R eq (B)

=

100,

R eq (C)

=

200,

R eq (D)

=

200,

R eq (E)

=

400.

Suppose further that the lead-times for the products are as follows:

further that the lead-times for the products are as follows: Product A, four weeks, product B

Product A, four weeks, product B three weeks, product C two weeks,

products D and E one week each. Since the production lead-time for product

A is four weeks, we must have products B and C available at the end of week

four. Since product B has a lead time of three weeks, we need to release the

production of product B by the end of the first week. Similarly, product C

need to be released for production at the end of week two, while products D

and E must be released for production at the end of week one A material

requirements plan has been developed for product A based on the product

structure of A and the lead-time needed to obtain each component. Planned

order releases of a parent item are used to determine gross requirements

for its component items. Planned order release dates are simply obtained by

offsetting the lead times.

The computations and steps required in the MRP process are not complicated. They involve only

The computations and steps required in the MRP process are not

complicated. They involve only simple arithmetic. However, the bill-of-

materials explosion must be done with care. What may get complicated is

the product structure, particularly when a given component is used in

different stages of the production of a finished item.

The Level of an Item

To form a useful bill of material matrix it is convenient to order the items by levels. The level of an item is the maximum number of stages of assembly required to get the item into an end product.

Example

Consider a system with two end items, item 1 and item 2.

Item 1 requires two units of item A and one unit of item C.

Item 2 requires one unit of item B, one unit of item D and three units of item E.

Item A requires one unit of item B and two units of item F.

Item B requires two units of item C and one unit of item E.

Item C requires one unit of item F and three units of item G.

Item D requires two units of item B and one unit of item C.

The levels of the items are:

Level 0: Items 1 and 2. Level 1: Items A and D. Level 2: Item
Level 0: Items 1 and 2.
Level 1: Items A and D.
Level 2: Item B.
Level 3: Items C and E.
Level 4: Items F and G.
An Outline of the MRP Process
Starting with end items the MRP process goes through the following steps
1. Establish gross requirements.
2. Determine net requirements by subtracting scheduled receipts and on hand
inventory from the gross requirements
3. Time phase the net requirements.
4. Determined the planned order releases
MRP Table
The planned order releases aggregated over all the end items will result in the
gross requirements for level one item, the gross requirements for this items are
then netted and time phased to determined their own order releases. The
process is continued until all the items have been exploded. Table shows a
typical MRP table.
Example 3 MRP computations are shown in Table where the lead-time is two weeks. Here
Example 3
MRP computations are shown in Table where the lead-time is two weeks. Here
the planned releases were obtained by solving a Wagner-Whitin problem with
time-varying demand. More often, however, MRP will plan releases in a lot-by-lot
fashion.
Standard MRP Table
Shortcomings of MRP
1. Capacity- MRP expects the lead time to be constant regardless of how
much work has been released into the production system, so it is implicitly
assuming infinite capacity. This can create problems when production levels
are at or near capacity. One way to address this problem is to make sure that
the MPS is capacity feasible. Rough-cut capacity planning (RCCP) attempts
to do this by checking the capacity of a few critical resources. RCCP makes
use of the bill of resources (BOR) for each item on the MPS. The BOR
specifies the number of hours required at each critical resource to build a
particular end item and its components, and then aggregates the number of
hours required at each critical resource over the end items in the MPS. RCCP
then checks whether the available resources are enough to cover the MPS
on each time bucket. Notice that RCCP does not perform time offsets, so the
calculation of the number of hours required has to be done with time
buckets that are large enough so that parts and their components can all be
completed within a single time bucket. This usually makes RCCP an
optimistic estimation of what can be done. Advanced MRP systems provide
more detailed capacity analysis proposing alternative production schedules
when the current plan is not feasible.
2. Long Lead Times-There are many pressures to increase planned lead times
in an MRP system. MRP uses constant lead times when, in fact, actual lead
times vary considerably. To compensate, planners typically choose
pessimistic estimates. Long lead times lead to large work-in-process (WIP)

inventories.

3. Nervousness- MRP is typically applied in a rolling horizon basis. As

customer orders firm up, and forecasts become better, a new MPS is fed to

MRP which produces updated planned order releases that may be very

different from the original. Even small changes in the MPS can result in large

changes in planned order releases.

CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS PLANNING (CRP)

MRP does not consider available capacity and often formulates production plans not possible within a given specified plant capacity. Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) takes planned orders from MRP and open (release) shop orders, and translates work orders into hours of work (pre-set standards) on a work centre basis. CRP then, using the cumulative lead times, allocates the work required for each order to the appropriate work centres for the time period that the order will be in that work centre. CRP considers many factors in allocating the load-queue time, move time, machine and many others. In scheduling, CRP can start from current date and schedule the job to completion (forward scheduling) or using the due date for the order, schedule backward to determine the start date of the job (backward scheduling).

There are two types of loading in CRP: finite and infinite. With finite loading, CRP considers the total capacity of a work centre and does not load beyond that point. Infinite loading loads all work for the period into the appropriate work centres then produces over and under load reports showing where more or less capacity are needed to efficiently handle the load. Although they may generate suggestions, most MRP systems require human intervention to help balance the capacity and load. A planner can decide whether delaying the order release, subcontracting the job, splitting the job into several smaller jobs, routing through an alternative work centre, or authorizing overtime will best eliminate the over- under load on the work centre and still get the job done on time. Another aspect of CRP is Input/Output control (I/O). I/O control monitors the amount of work going into and coming out of a work centre and compares it to a standard or expected amount. A back log will develop behind any work centre that continually puts out less work than it takes in. CRP and I/O control are good tools for monitoring the shop floor for bottlenecks and unused capacity.

Modules of Capacity Requirement Plan The CRP software Allows an unlimited planning horizon with user-defined
Modules of Capacity Requirement Plan
The CRP software
Allows an unlimited planning horizon with user-defined reporting period
lengths
Represents the load profile for each work centre.
Provides an effective analysis tool to help maximize facility utilization and
minimize delays.
Gives advance knowledge of potential production bottlenecks so that the
user can increase capacity, decrease the load or change the schedule to
create a realistic production plan.
Monitors both current wok-in-process and planned production concurrently.
Displays the schedule load for any work centre.
Allows the user to test various “what-if” changes without affecting the “live”
date.
Uses both forward and backward scheduling techniques around a
“bottleneck” operation.
Reschedules any number of dependent shop orders when desired.
Prints the “work centre load report” with planned load subtotals for each
reporting period.
Uses work centre efficiency factors in calculating capacity to match
runtimes to reality.
Pinpoints desired information by accepting user-specified parameters on
most reports. Allows reports to be displayed on the screen for immediate inquiry. MRP II

most reports.

Allows reports to be displayed on the screen for immediate inquiry.

MRP II

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) embeds additional procedures to address the shortcomings of MRP. In addition, MRP II attempts to be an integrated manufacturing system by bringing together other functional areas such as marketing and finance. The additional functions of MRP II include forecasting, demand management, rough-cut capacity planning (RCCP), and capacity requirement planning (CRP), scheduling dispatching rules, and input/output control. MRP II works within a hierarchy that divides planning into long-range planning, medium range planning, and short-term control.

To assist planners in tracking some of the problems associated with inventory control, some kind of ‘feedback loop’ is needed in the M.R.P. process, not only to automatically re-schedule certain items (when possible), and avoid excessive manual effort in controlling the process, but to detect and report performance that is ‘out of spec’ (such as a vendor performance report to track on-time delivery performance). This ‘feedback loop’ is the defining factor for an ‘M.R.P. II’ system. Though many systems CLAIM to be an ‘M.R.P. II’ system, few actually fit the mould exactly. Still, with automatic rescheduling capabilities for work orders and/or repetitive build schedules, and ‘reschedule action’ reports for purchase orders and outside contracting, the amount of actual analysis is reduced significantly. Other information, such as vender performance reports and process utilization reports, also help to measure the ‘performance to plan’ capability of the manufacturing plant.

Even when the production plan is running at optimum performance, companies still often have serious problems with the manufacturing process. ‘Hidden Cost’ issues associated with manufacturing increase the total cost of manufacturing, but are extremely hard to track. Some of these ‘Hidden Costs’ can be caused by excessive P.O. rescheduling or excessive ‘crash buy’ programs, excess and/or obsolete inventory, or planning problems that cause incorrectly stocked finished goods (too much of one, not enough of the other) that result in shortages. Another ‘hidden cost’ issue might be frequent line stops related to a ‘limiting process’ (such as a wave solder machine or component inserter), as well as material shortages and excessive ‘kitting’ of common components. In addition,

potential revenue losses from excessively long customer order lead times, or poor on-time customer delivery
potential revenue losses from excessively long customer order lead times, or
poor on-time customer delivery performance, are real problems, but very difficult
to track and measure. As such, none of these problems are tracked nor reported
by any ‘standard M.R.P.’ or ‘M.R.P. II’ system. To help solve these problems, and
improve the company’s competitiveness and profitability, beyond existing
capabilities, the M.R.P. system must go beyond the standard definition of
‘M.R.P. II’.
Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) is defined by APICS (American
Production and Inventory Control Society, Estd. 1957) as a method for the
effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it
addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in dollars, and has a
simulation capability to answer “what-if” questions and extension of closed-loop
MRP.
This is not exclusively a software function, but a marriage of people skills,
dedication to data base accuracy, and computer resources. It is a total
company management concept for using human resources more productively.
MRP II is not
Many items on this list can be part of an MRP II, but are not solely what it is.
a computer system
manufacturing control system
inventory reduction plan Sales & Purchase System
Material Management
Purpose
MRP II integrates many areas of the manufacturing enterprise into a single
entity for planning and control purposes, from board level to operative and from
five-year plan to individual shop-floor operation. It builds on closed-loop Material
Requirements Planning (MRP) by adopting the feedback principle but extending
it to additional areas of the enterprise, primarily manufacturing-related.
Key functions and Features
MRP II is not a proprietary software system and can thus take many forms. It is
almost impossible to visualize an MRP II system that does not use a computer,
but an MRP II system can be based on either purchased / licensed or in-house
software.

Almost every MRP II system is modular in construction. Characteristic basic modules in an MRP II system are:

Master Production Scheduling (MPS)Characteristic basic modules in an MRP II system are: Item Master Data (Technical Data) Bill of

Item Master Data (Technical Data)in an MRP II system are: Master Production Scheduling (MPS) Bill of Materials (BOM) (Technical Data)

Bill of Materials (BOM) (Technical Data)Scheduling (MPS) Item Master Data (Technical Data) Production Resources Data (Manufacturing Technical Data)

Production Resources Data (Manufacturing Technical Data)(Technical Data) Bill of Materials (BOM) (Technical Data) Inventories & Orders (Inventory Control) Purchasing

Inventories & Orders (Inventory Control)Production Resources Data (Manufacturing Technical Data) Purchasing Management Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

Purchasing ManagementTechnical Data) Inventories & Orders (Inventory Control) Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Shop Floor Control

Material Requirements Planning (MRP)& Orders (Inventory Control) Purchasing Management Shop Floor Control (SFC) Capacity planning or Capacity

Shop Floor Control (SFC)Purchasing Management Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Capacity planning or Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP)

Capacity planning or Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP)Requirements Planning (MRP) Shop Floor Control (SFC) Standard Costing (Cost Control) Cost Reporting / Management

Standard Costing (Cost Control)Capacity planning or Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) Cost Reporting / Management (Cost Control) Distribution

Cost Reporting / Management (Cost Control)Requirements Planning (CRP) Standard Costing (Cost Control) Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) Together with ancillary

Distribution Resource Planning (DRP)(Cost Control) Cost Reporting / Management (Cost Control) Together with ancillary systems such as: Business Planning

Together with ancillary systems such as:

Business PlanningPlanning (DRP) Together with ancillary systems such as: Lot Traceability Contract Management Tool Management

Lot TraceabilityTogether with ancillary systems such as: Business Planning Contract Management Tool Management Engineering Change

Contract Managementsystems such as: Business Planning Lot Traceability Tool Management Engineering Change Control Configuration

Tool Managementas: Business Planning Lot Traceability Contract Management Engineering Change Control Configuration Management Shop

Engineering Change ControlLot Traceability Contract Management Tool Management Configuration Management Shop Floor Data Collection Sales

Configuration ManagementManagement Tool Management Engineering Change Control Shop Floor Data Collection Sales Analysis and Forecasting

Shop Floor Data CollectionEngineering Change Control Configuration Management Sales Analysis and Forecasting Finite Capacity Scheduling

Sales Analysis and ForecastingControl Configuration Management Shop Floor Data Collection Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) and related systems such

Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS)Shop Floor Data Collection Sales Analysis and Forecasting and related systems such as: General Ledger Accounts

and related systems such as:Analysis and Forecasting Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) General Ledger Accounts Payable (Purchase Ledger) Accounts

General LedgerCapacity Scheduling (FCS) and related systems such as: Accounts Payable (Purchase Ledger) Accounts Receivable

Accounts Payable (Purchase Ledger)Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) and related systems such as: General Ledger Accounts Receivable (Sales Ledger)

Accounts Receivable (Sales Ledger)Finite Capacity Scheduling (FCS) and related systems such as: General Ledger Accounts Payable (Purchase Ledger)

Sales Order ManagementDistribution Requirements Planning (DRP) [Automated] Warehouse Management Project Management Technical Records Estimating

Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP)Sales Order Management [Automated] Warehouse Management Project Management Technical Records Estimating Computer-aided

[Automated] Warehouse ManagementOrder Management Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP) Project Management Technical Records Estimating

Project ManagementRequirements Planning (DRP) [Automated] Warehouse Management Technical Records Estimating Computer-aided

Technical Records(DRP) [Automated] Warehouse Management Project Management Estimating Computer-aided design/Computer-aided

EstimatingWarehouse Management Project Management Technical Records Computer-aided design/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)

Computer-aided design/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)Management Project Management Technical Records Estimating CAPP The MRP II system integrates these modules together so

CAPPComputer-aided design/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) The MRP II system integrates these modules together so that

The MRP II system integrates these modules together so that they use common data and freely exchange information, in a model of how a manufacturing enterprise should and can operate. The MRP II approach is therefore very different from the “point solution” approach, where individual systems are deployed to help a company plan, control or manage a specific activity. MRP II is by definition fully integrated or at least fully interfaced.

MRP II systems can provide:

Better control of inventoriesor at least fully interfaced. MRP II systems can provide: Improved scheduling Productive relationships with suppliers

Improved schedulingMRP II systems can provide: Better control of inventories Productive relationships with suppliers For Design /

Productive relationships with suppliersprovide: Better control of inventories Improved scheduling For Design / Engineering: Improved design control Better

For Design / Engineering:

Improved design controlrelationships with suppliers For Design / Engineering: Better quality and quality control For Financial and

Better quality and quality controlsuppliers For Design / Engineering: Improved design control For Financial and Costing: Reduced working capital for

For Financial and Costing:

Reduced working capital for inventoryquality and quality control For Financial and Costing: Improved cash flow through quicker deliveries Accurate

Improved cash flow through quicker deliveriesquality and quality control For Financial and Costing: Reduced working capital for inventory Accurate inventory records

Accurate inventory recordscontrol For Financial and Costing: Reduced working capital for inventory Improved cash flow through quicker deliveries

Timely and valid cost and profitability information Industry Specifics MRP II systems have been implemented

Timely and valid cost and profitability information

Industry Specifics

MRP II systems have been implemented in most manufacturing industries. Some industries need specialized functions e.g. lot traceability in regulated manufacturing such as pharmaceuticals or food. Other industries can afford to disregard facilities required by others e.g. the tableware industry has few starting materials – mainly clay – and does not need complex materials planning. Capacity planning is the key to success in this as in many industries, and it is in those that MRP II is less appropriate.

This is not exclusively a software function, but a marriage of people skills, dedication to data base accuracy, and computer resources. It is a total company management concept for using human resources more productively.

MRP and MRPII: History and Evolution

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRPII) are predecessors of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), a business information integration system. The development of these manufacturing coordination and integration methods and tools made today’s ERP systems possible. Both MRP and MRPII are still widely used, independently and as modules of more comprehensive ERP systems, but the original vision of integrated information systems as we know then today began with the development of MRP and MRPII in manufacturing.

The vision for MRP and MRPII was to centralize and integrate business information in a way that would facilitate decision making for production line managers and increase the efficiency of the production line overall. In the 1980s, manufacturers developed systems for calculating the resource requirements of a production run based on sales forecasts. In order to calculate the raw materials needed to produce products and to schedule the purchase of those materials along with the machine and labor time needed, production managers recognized that they would need to use computer and software technology to manage the information. Originally, manufacturing operations built custom software programs that ran on mainframes.

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) was an early iteration of the integrated information systems vision. MRP information systems helped managers determine the quantity and timing of raw materials purchases. Information

systems that would assist managers with other parts of the manufacturing process, MRPII, followed. While MRP was primarily concerned with materials, MRPII was concerned with the integration of all aspects of the manufacturing process, including materials, finance and human relations.

Like today’s ERP systems, MRPII was designed to integrate a lot of information by way of a centralized database. However, the hardware, software, and relational database technology of the 1980s was not advanced enough to provide the speed and capacity to run these systems in real-time, and the cost of these systems was prohibitive for most businesses. Nonetheless, the vision had been established, and shifts in the underlying business processes along with rapid advances in technology led to the more affordable enterprise and application integration systems that big businesses and many medium and smaller businesses use today (Monk and Wagner).

MRP-I and MRPII: General Concepts

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRPII) are both incremental information integration business process strategies that are implemented using hardware and modular software applications linked to a central database that stores and delivers business data and information.

MRP is concerned primarily with manufacturing materials while MRPII is concerned with the coordination of the entire manufacturing production, including materials, finance, and human relations. The goal of MRPII is to provide consistent data to all players in the manufacturing process as the product moves through the production line.

Paper-based information systems and non-integrated computer systems that provide paper or disk outputs result in many information errors, including missing data, redundant data, numerical errors that result from being incorrectly keyed into the system, incorrect calculations based on numerical errors, and bad decisions based on incorrect or old data. In addition, some data is unreliable in non-integrated systems because the same data is categorized differently in the individual databases used by different functional areas.

MRPII systems begin with MRP, Material Requirements Planning. MRP allows for the input of sales forecasts from sales and marketing. These forecasts determine the raw materials demand. MRP and MRPII systems draw on a Master Production Schedule, the breakdown of specific plans for each product on a line. While MRP allows for the coordination of raw materials purchasing, MRPII facilitates the development of a detailed production schedule that

accounts for machine and labor capacity, scheduling the production runs according to the arrival of materials. An MRPII output is a final labor and machine schedule. Data about the cost of production, including machine time, labor time and materials used, as well as final production numbers, is provided from the MRPII system to accounting and finance.

Just In Time (JIT)

Just-in-time manufacturing was a concept introduced to the United States by the Ford motor company. It works on a demand-pull basis, contrary to hitherto used techniques, which worked on a production-push basis. To elaborate further, under just-in-time manufacturing (colloquially referred to as JIT production systems), actual orders dictate what should be manufactured, so that the exact quantity is produced at the exact time that is required. Just-in- time manufacturing goes hand in hand with concepts such as Kanban, continuous improvement and total quality management (TQM). Just-in-time production requires intricate planning in terms of procurement policies and the manufacturing process if its implementation is to be a success.

Highly advanced technological support systems provide the necessary back-up that Just-in-time manufacturing demands with production scheduling software and electronic data interchange being the most sought after.

Advantages

Following are the advantages of Adopting Just-In-Time Manufacturing Systems

Just-in-time manufacturing keeps stock holding costs to a bare minimum.advantages of Adopting Just-In-Time Manufacturing Systems The release of storage space results in better utilization

The release of storage space results in better utilization of space and

thereby bears a favorable impact on the rent paid and on any insurance

premiums that would otherwise need to be made.

Just-in-time manufacturing eliminates waste, as out-of-date or expiredany insurance premiums that would otherwise need to be made. products; do not enter into this

products; do not enter into this equation at all.

As under this technique, only essential stocks are obtained, less workingor expired products; do not enter into this equation at all. capital is required to finance

capital is required to finance procurement. Here, a minimum re-order level is

set, and only once that mark is reached, fresh stocks are ordered making this

a boon to inventory management too.

Due to the aforementioned low level of stocks held, the organizations returnare ordered making this a boon to inventory management too. on investment (referred to as ROI,

on investment (referred to as ROI, in management parlance) would generally

be high.

As just-in-time production works on a demand-pull basis, all goods madeto as ROI, in management parlance) would generally be high. would be sold, and thus it

would be sold, and thus it incorporates changes in demand with surprising

ease. This makes it especially appealing today, where the market demand is

volatile and somewhat unpredictable.

Just-in-time manufacturing encourages the ‘right first time’ concept, so thatthe market demand is volatile and somewhat unpredictable. inspection costs and cost of rework is minimized.

inspection costs and cost of rework is minimized.

High quality products and greater efficiency can be derived from following aso that inspection costs and cost of rework is minimized. just-in-time production system. Close relationships are

just-in-time production system.

Close relationships are fostered along the production chain under a just-in-be derived from following a just-in-time production system. time manufacturing system. Constant communication with the

time manufacturing system.

Constant communication with the customer results in high customerproduction chain under a just-in- time manufacturing system. satisfaction. Overproduction is eliminated when just-in-time

satisfaction.

Overproduction is eliminated when just-in-time manufacturing is adopted.with the customer results in high customer satisfaction. Disadvantages Following are the disadvantages of Adopting

Disadvantages

Following are the disadvantages of Adopting Just-In-Time Manufacturing Systems

Just-in-time manufacturing provides zero tolerance for mistakes, as itdisadvantages of Adopting Just-In-Time Manufacturing Systems makes re-working very difficult in practice, as inventory is

makes re-working very difficult in practice, as inventory is kept to a bare

minimum.

There is a high reliance on suppliers, whose performance is generallyin practice, as inventory is kept to a bare minimum. outside the purview of the manufacturer.

outside the purview of the manufacturer.

Due to there being no buffers for delays, production downtime and line idlingis generally outside the purview of the manufacturer. can occur which would bear a detrimental effect

can occur which would bear a detrimental effect on finances and on the

equilibrium of the production process.

The organization would not be able to meet an unexpected increase infinances and on the equilibrium of the production process. orders due to the fact that there

orders due to the fact that there are no excess finish goods.

Transaction costs would be relatively high as frequent transactions would bewould not be able to meet an unexpected increase in orders due to the fact that

made.

Just-in-time manufacturing may have certain detrimental effects on themade. environment due to the frequent deliveries that would result in increased use of transportation, which

environment due to the frequent deliveries that would result in increased use

of transportation, which in turn would consume more fossil fuels.

Precautions

Following are the things to remember When Implementing a Just-In-Time Manufacturing System

Management buy-in and support at all levels of the organization areWhen Implementing a Just-In-Time Manufacturing System required; if a just-in-time manufacturing system is to be

required; if a just-in-time manufacturing system is to be successfully

adopted.

Adequate resources should be allocated, so as to obtain technologicallymanufacturing system is to be successfully adopted. advanced software that is generally required if a

advanced software that is generally required if a just-in-time system is to be

a success.

Building a close, trusting relationship with reputed and time-tested suppliersrequired if a just-in-time system is to be a success. will minimize unexpected delays in the

will minimize unexpected delays in the receipt of inventory.

Just-in-time manufacturing cannot be adopted overnight. It requireswill minimize unexpected delays in the receipt of inventory. commitment in terms of time and adjustments

commitment in terms of time and adjustments to corporate culture would be

required, as it is starkly different to traditional production processes.

The design flow process needs to be redesigned and layouts need to be re-it is starkly different to traditional production processes. formatted, so as to incorporate just-in-time manufacturing.

formatted, so as to incorporate just-in-time manufacturing.

Lot sizes need to be minimized.formatted, so as to incorporate just-in-time manufacturing. Workstation capacity should be balanced whenever possible.

Workstation capacity should be balanced whenever possible.just-in-time manufacturing. Lot sizes need to be minimized. Preventive maintenance should be carried out, so as

Preventive maintenance should be carried out, so as to minimize machineWorkstation capacity should be balanced whenever possible. breakdowns. Set-up times should be reduced wherever

breakdowns.

Set-up times should be reduced wherever possible.should be carried out, so as to minimize machine breakdowns. Quality enhancement programs should be adopted,

Quality enhancement programs should be adopted, so that total qualitySet-up times should be reduced wherever possible. control practices can be adopted. Reduction in lead times

control practices can be adopted.

Reduction in lead times and frequent deliveries should be incorporated.so that total quality control practices can be adopted. Motion waste should be minimized, so the

Motion waste should be minimized, so the incorporation of conveyor beltslead times and frequent deliveries should be incorporated. might prove to be a good idea when

might prove to be a good idea when implementing a just-in-time

manufacturing system.

Conclusion

Just-in-time manufacturing is a philosophy that has been successfully implemented in many manufacturing organizations.

It is an optimal system that reduces inventory whilst being increasingly responsive to customer needs, this is not to say that it is not without its pitfalls.

However, these disadvantages can be overcome with a little forethought and a lot of commitment at all levels of the organization.

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP)

Enterprises to-day employ a mixture of several approaches to manufacturing. They include:

Make to stockof several approaches to manufacturing. They include: Design to order Make to order Assemble to order

Design to orderapproaches to manufacturing. They include: Make to stock Make to order Assemble to order It must

Make to ordermanufacturing. They include: Make to stock Design to order Assemble to order It must be possible

Assemble to orderThey include: Make to stock Design to order Make to order It must be possible to

It must be possible to operate the company in all these modes. The emerging trend of amalgamations, acquisitions and strategic alliances among competing corporations required more capable software to manage such multi-facility enterprises. Another challenging task is the co-ordination of manufacturing in facilities which are geographically dispersed. For example, a multinational company will have divisions and subsidiaries in U.S.A, Canada, UK, India, Germany, Korea and Japan. An Indian multinational company may have plants in Poland, Belgium and UK. Each country will have its own currency and tax laws. This requires multi currency functionality for the planning software. The need for managing the entire enterprise within a more global, tightly integrated closed-loop solution has led to the evolution of ERP software.

The core activity in ERP is the creation of an integrated data model, covering employees, customers, suppliers etc. A distinguishing feature of the ERP software is that it incorporates best practices. This means that the manufacturing solution developed using ERP is an optimum one.

The implementation of an ERP system includes the following stages:

1. Definition of the scope of the project

2. Identification of the objectives and deliverables

Project organizationproject 2. Identification of the objectives and deliverables 1. Identifying an executive responsible for successful

1. Identifying an executive responsible for successful implementation of ERP

2. Establish a senior management steering committee

3. Establish a project team

4. Define the role of consultants

5. Work plan development

6. Assessment of the business of the company – where it is to day and where it

7. should go

Education of key managersthe company – where it is to day and where it 7. should go Cost/benefit analysis

Cost/benefit analysisto day and where it 7. should go Education of key managers MODULES IN TYPICAL ERP

MODULES IN TYPICAL ERP SOFTWARE

The important modules in typical ERP software are:

1. Finance Module

The finance module extracts financial transactions from the sales and manufacturing areas and \ posts them to the general ledger. The main elements of finance module are:

General ledgerthe general ledger. The main elements of finance module are: Accounts payable Accounts receivable Cash management

Accounts payableThe main elements of finance module are: General ledger Accounts receivable Cash management Fixed Assets Financial

Accounts receivableof finance module are: General ledger Accounts payable Cash management Fixed Assets Financial statement Budget Cost

Cash managementare: General ledger Accounts payable Accounts receivable Fixed Assets Financial statement Budget Cost allocation 1.

Fixed Assetsledger Accounts payable Accounts receivable Cash management Financial statement Budget Cost allocation 1. Distribution

Financial statementledger Accounts payable Accounts receivable Cash management Fixed Assets Budget Cost allocation 1. Distribution Module

Budgetpayable Accounts receivable Cash management Fixed Assets Financial statement Cost allocation 1. Distribution Module

Cost allocationledger Accounts payable Accounts receivable Cash management Fixed Assets Financial statement Budget 1. Distribution Module

1. Distribution Module

This module manages finished goods, raw materials and services. Sales orders are managed by this module. Inventory control, location control, Distribution Requirements planning and replenishment control are part of distribution module. The business objects of this module are:

Item controlmodule. The business objects of this module are: Cost accounting Purchase control Sales control Sales and

Cost accountingThe business objects of this module are: Item control Purchase control Sales control Sales and marketing

Purchase controlobjects of this module are: Item control Cost accounting Sales control Sales and marketing information Electronic

Sales controlmodule are: Item control Cost accounting Purchase control Sales and marketing information Electronic data interchange

Sales and marketing informationItem control Cost accounting Purchase control Sales control Electronic data interchange Replenishment order control

Electronic data interchangecontrol Sales control Sales and marketing information Replenishment order control Inventory control Lot control

Replenishment order controlSales and marketing information Electronic data interchange Inventory control Lot control Location control Distribution

Inventory controlElectronic data interchange Replenishment order control Lot control Location control Distribution requirements

Lot controlinterchange Replenishment order control Inventory control Location control Distribution requirements planning

Location controlReplenishment order control Inventory control Lot control Distribution requirements planning Manufacturing Module This

Distribution requirements planningorder control Inventory control Lot control Location control Manufacturing Module This module is designed to control

Manufacturing Modulecontrol Location control Distribution requirements planning This module is designed to control all the operations

This module is designed to control all the operations related to manufacture. The business objectives of this module are:

Engineering Data Managementto manufacture. The business objectives of this module are: Item control Bill of materials Routing Master

Item controlobjectives of this module are: Engineering Data Management Bill of materials Routing Master production schedule

Bill of materialsof this module are: Engineering Data Management Item control Routing Master production schedule Materials requirement

RoutingEngineering Data Management Item control Bill of materials Master production schedule Materials requirement planning

Master production scheduleData Management Item control Bill of materials Routing Materials requirement planning Capacity requirement planning

Materials requirement planningcontrol Bill of materials Routing Master production schedule Capacity requirement planning Repetitive manufacturing Shop

Capacity requirement planningMaster production schedule Materials requirement planning Repetitive manufacturing Shop floor control Hours accounting

Repetitive manufacturingschedule Materials requirement planning Capacity requirement planning Shop floor control Hours accounting Project budget

Shop floor controlMaterials requirement planning Capacity requirement planning Repetitive manufacturing Hours accounting Project budget