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Cranes

Cranes: used for lifting and moving heavy loads

Types: Mainly two types

gantry cranes
Overhead cranes

Overhead cranes : Hook and line mechanism runs along a horizontal beam that runs along a rail mounted on two
walls

Gantry crane : the bridge carrying the trolley is rigidly supported on two or more legs
moving on fixed rails embedded in the floor. Key differences

OH Crane Gantry crane

1.Pillars are fixed and tracks are 1. Tracks are at floor level

On the pillars

2.Trolley is movable on beam 2.the pillars on movable on the track on the ground

OH Crane Gantry crane

Types of motions mainly included in cranes :

The first motion is the hoist, which raises and lowers the material
o The second is the trolley (cross travel),
The third is the gantry or bridge motion (long travel), which allows the entire crane to be moved along the working area.

Load sharing configuration overview:


This load sharing can be done through drives

Drive : System which controls the motion of electric machine is an electric drive

Block Diagram:

Source------Power modulator--------motor--------Load

| |

Control unit--------------------------Sensing unit

Input command

Power modulator (power electronic circuit either chopper/invertor/rectifier/variable impedance circuit)

In large scale application of cranes, mainly multi motor drives are used.

Type of motors:

1. Permanent magent DC motors:


For low tprque, PMDC motors are used.
Higher efficiceny than wound field motors
Quiter operation
Most suited for intermittent operation

2. Wound DC motors:
Series DC motors are used in hoisting because of their characteristic very high starting torque
DC motors consume more power than PMDC motors to produce their electromagnetic field
Shunt DC motors are used in constant speed applications

Note: If maintenance Is the problem for wound DC motors, PMDC motors are the best option.

Source: http://www.ohioelectricmotors.com/2015/07/dc-motors-used-in-electric-hoists-reels-and-winches/

3. Slip ring induction motors


High startingtorque and low starting current compared to squirrel cage
Speed can be controlled in a limited range

Note: Mostly used for crane travel motion

4. Squirrel cage IM:


Robust
Can be used with variable frequency drives

Regenerative energy saving in cranes:


When an electric motor is driven by a variable frequency drive (VFD), electric
power delivered to the motor is regenerated while the motor decelerates by
applying negative torque to the motor shaft. Usually energy storage capacity
inside the VFD is very limited so regenerative energy should be returned to
the grid or quickly dissipated by a braking resistor.

Dynamic braking resistors have been widely used to convert regenerated


energy into heat loss because of simplicity and low installation cost,

But a regenerative power unit provides a significant energy cost saving


opportunity while a crane is decelerated

Load sharing:
Load sharing is a term used to describe a system where multiple converters and motors are coupled and used to run one
mechanical load
load-sharing means that the amount of torque applied to the load from each motor is prescribed and carried out by each converter
and motor set.

Load sharing is not possible when

Multiple motors that are run from a single converter because torque control of individual motors is not possible.
Motors that are controlled by separate converters without any interconnection.
The lack of interconnection defeats any possible comparison and error signal generation that is required to compensate
for the differences in the load that is applied to any single drive and motor set.

Control topologies
There are three categories of load sharing
techniques:
1. common speed reference
2. torque follower
3. speed trim follower

common speed reference :

In this, speed reference is given to two control units

Torque follower:
If speed regulation is required, one of the
converters ("master") may be in "speed mode". In speed mode controller provides a torque
command at output which can be distributed to the other converters ("slaves" or "torque
followers"). The second converter operates in torque regulation mode with the torque
reference of the master as command.

Speed trim follower:


In speed trim follower configuration, all converters are operated in speed
regulation mode and receive the same speed reference. The torque reference of the master is
sent to the follower converters. Each follower converter compares its own torque reference
with that of the master, The output of the comparator is an error signal that trims
the speed of the follower

Torque and power requirements for crane drives:


Speed control is an essential feature in crane drives. The torque and power that have to be delivered by the drive
may be obtained from the torque versus speed characteristic from the load

During acceleration, kinetic energy is stored in the system. To stop the crane, this energy
must be absorbed by the drive. In the indoor situation, this energy is well known and only
present for a short period of time. For outdoor applications, the wind forces may become
very important. When travelling in the same direction as the wind, the wind drives the
crane and a situation may occur, where a continuous electrical braking is required. The
drive must be capable of handling this inverse power direction either by consuming the
power in a resistor or preferably by feeding it back to the supply

Frequency converters for induction motor drives


adjustable speed drives (ASD) are normally based
on the concept of variable voltage, variable frequency (VVVF) The three-phase AC supply network is rectified. The
DC
capacitor, which links the supply rectifier to the inverter, assures that the inverter sees a
constant DC voltage from which it generates the required supply voltage and frequency to
the motor.

Active front end rectifier


This is the most used front end recitififer where diode rectifier is replaced PWM voltage source rectifier.
The term Active Front End Inverter refers to the power converter system consisting of the
line-side converter with active switches such as IGBTs, the DC link capacitor bank, and the
load-side inverter. The line-side converter normally functions as a rectifier. But, during
regeneration it can also be operated as an inverter, feeding power back to the line.

Types of motors: