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Operational Conditions for Continuous Mining Systems in Hard Rock Open Pit Mines

Operational Conditions for Continuous Mining


Systems in Hard Rock Open Pit Mines

(Deutsche Version dieser Seite)

Project responsibility Prof.Dr.-Ing. Dr.h.c.mult. F.L. Wilke


at TUB Dipl.-Ing. F.X. Spachtholz

Project partners Technical University of Berlin ( Mining Engineering Dept.),


Germany
Instituto Superior Technico, Portugal
Sociedade Mineira de Pegmatitica Lda, Portugal
Wirtgen GmbH, Deutschland
Project support European Union, Brite-EuRam II Programme
Project No. BE 6044
Project start September 1993
Project duration 36 Months
Project state Running, almost finished
(Aug. 1996)

Description of research project

Operational Conditions for Continuous Mining Systems in Hard


Rock Open Pit Mines
by
Dipl.-Ing. F.X. Spachtholz

Index

1. Introduction

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Operational Conditions for Continuous Mining Systems in Hard Rock Open Pit Mines

2. State of the art


3. Objectives
4. Partnership
5. Testing
1. Test site location
2. Surface miner 2100 EX
3. Testprogramme
6. Project results
1. Rocmechanical data
2. Machine parameters
3. Cutting tool location system
4. Cutting tools
5. Quarrying tests
1. Performance
2. Sieving
3. Statistical evaluation
6. Environmental measurements
1. Dust suppression system of the prototype
2. Dust emission measurements for the surface mining system
3. Noise emission measurements for the surface mining system
7. Cost evaluation under testbed conditions
1. Specific bit costs
2. Cost model
8. Demonstration of feasibility in testbed
7. Further research activities until the end of the project
8. Conclusions
9. Links to other research projects of the institute
10. Published papers by TUB
11. Addresses of project partners

Introduction
As a result of the continuously increasing environmental awareness of the population and administration
in the densely populated industrial countries, the application of the drilling and blasting mining method
is subject to more and more restrictions. Intense research efforts have been directed towards minimising
the negative aspects like the emissions of noise, dust, blasting vibrations and fly rocks. A completely
new approach to this problem is conducted by Wirtgen GmbH, Pegmatitica Lda, and the research
departments of the Technical Universities of Lisbon and Berlin with the support of the European
Commission. By extending the applicability of the surface miner/road cutting technology from soft
material into semi-hard and hard rocks with UCS of up to 120 MPa, an economically and
environmentally acceptable alternative to drilling and blasting could be available. By taking into account
the rockmechanical and mine planning aspects of the test application, an evaluation of the overall

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economical feasibility and the transfer of the results to other hard rock mines can be ensured.

State of the art


Continuous mining and milling techniques for the hard rock industry are up to now limited through the
hardness of rock material. The application limits for the future technique will be placed above the limits
of bucket wheel excavating systems with a diggability of normal up to 10 MPa of uniaxial compressive
strength. This can be expanded with special designed excavators for frozen hard coal or soft limestone.
Horizontal and vertical ripping techniques are currently used for materials up to 50 MPa compressive
strength sometimes combined with inpit crushing systems.

Continuous surface miner, which are designed to cut softer rock materials like sandstone, clay, bauxite,
hard coal, phosphate, gypsum and marl are operating between 10 MPa and 70 MPa compressive
strength. Nowadays, road cutting machines are working materials up to 110 MPa compressive strength.
The very recent developments show that there is a need for investigations to enlarge the mentioned
application limits.

Objectives
The overall objective of the research project is to define the operational conditions for the utilisation of a
continuous mining system - surface miner - in hard rock open pit mines. First of all, this means the
development and testing of a surface miner being able to cut material of up to 120 MPa UCS and more if
possible. Starting from a surface miner as it is in successful everyday use in the road building industry
and in soft rock mining, it is envisaged to modify the cutting system in such a way that the wear of the
cutting tools can be reduced so that the new machine not only offers a technically possible but also an
economic alternative to the existing mining methods in hard rock open pits.

In order to offer such an alternative, it is not sufficient to present only a new technology without fitting
this technology into the mine structure. For that reason one of the objectives also has to be the
development of a principal planning for hard rock mines using this technology which reflects the special
conditions and necessities for the operation of a continuous mining system.

To be able to transfer the achieved results to other hard rock mines, it is necessary to identify the rock
parameters responsible for the "cuttability" of a deposit. The development of such a generalised
classification system is therefore an important objective of the project as well.

Results which will be obtained by this project can result in applications in different industrial sectors.
The main applications will of course be found in the surface mining and road construction sectors.
Further applications or input can be expected into all those sectors utilising bits comparable to those
tested in the project (e.g. improved underground cutting head machines or machines for railway
construction, rebuilding of concrete/asphalt pavements of roads and airport runways, water and gas

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pipeline trenches, underground installations, etc.). New applications could be seen in zones where rock
soils could be transformed into zones with agricultural capacities.

Partnership
The project co-ordinator is the Institut fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften I, Fachgebiet Bergbaukunde
of the Technische Universitt Berlin. This Mining Department is well-known for its lessons in mining
economics and surface mining. In addition, it is well known for their software based mine planning
experiences and their research work related to mining economics, mining environmental purposes and
non-explosive mining technologies. Out of this the main task of TU Berlin is the "Economic
Evaluation". This means in more detail an overall economic evaluation consisting of an ultimate pit
design, detailed mine planning and final economic conclusions for the developed technology in
comparison with conventional systems. In addition, TUB supports Wirtgen to evaluate the machine
system tests.

TU Lisbon is well-known for its education in the mineral and geological domain. The Centro de
Valorizaco de Recursos minerais (CVRM) belongs to the Instituto Superior Technico and carries out
research work in computerised planning of mining operations, open pit designs and geostatistics. Main
research focuses on the subject of geological modelling and reserves estimation. The main task of TU
Lisbon is the "Rockmechanical Evaluation". A "checklist" should be developed which will allow future
applicants of the cutting technology to assess the possible success of the developed application to their
specific case.

The main business of Wirtgen is the design, manufacturing and supply of road milling and mining
machines in the EC and world-wide. The company has several agencies all over the world and is
engaged in road construction as well as in the mining industry. The main roles of Wirtgen in the project
are

design, construction and development of the prototype machine and final evaluation of the machine
system and their specific tools.

Pegmatitica is a well-known and traditional family-run mining company. The director of the mine, Mr.
Jose Carolino carried out research work in the mineral industries since 1958. Engaged in mineral
processing and open pit technology, he is manager of Pegmatitica Lda since 1968. His subject of interest
is mineralogy, especially for ceramic raw materials like special pegmatite stone with contribution of
lithium. The role of Pegmatitica Lda in this project is assisting and supporting the other partners during
all phases of the project.

Testing

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Test site location


The test mine Castanho is located approx. 200 km south-east of Porto near the city of Guarda in the
north-eastern part of Portugal. The deposit consists of 3 nearly horizontal pegmatite layers with a width
ranging from a few decimetres up to 8 metres which are outcropping on a hill slope. The mineralogy of
the pegmatite layers is essentially composed of quartz, albite, microclin and lithium, which is of most
interest for the ceramic industry. The pegmatite layers are embedded in massive granite. The north-
eastern part of the deposit is highly disturbed by a set of perpendicular faults. Parts of the deposit in this
area have been mined out by previous activities (hydraulic excavator). This method came to an end until
all weathered parts were mined.

Measured seismic wave velocities (Vp) ranging from 500 m/s close to the surface up to 2500 m/s in
depths of approx. 20 m indicate an evolution from very weathered rock on the surface to nearly solid
rock. This fact and the big range between maximum and minimum rock hardness and the high Quartz
content make it possible to test the prototype under varying conditions within the test area.

Surface miner 2100 EX


The prototype development was based on a Wirtgen 2100 DC surface miner as it is in use for road
construction or in soft rock mining. The design with a mid-located cutting drum was expected to be
more promising for hard rock applications than the front-end designs. Here, the whole weight of the
machine is available for the penetration process and only a smaller torque resulting from the cutting
process has to be counterbalanced. Besides, the surface miner with middle drum concept moves during
the winning process. Due to this great moved mass, much more dynamic mass forces are possible than
during the movement of the small mass of the cutting organ mounted on a boom.

Modifications and development work for the prototype focused mainly on different cutting tool location
systems, the corresponding cutting drums, specifications of the cutting tools, a dust suppression system
and the design of adapters for the measuring instruments. Reinforcements of the cutting drum, drive
housing, conveyor system and the crawler protection corresponding to the abrasive mining conditions
were incorporated where necessary.

Testprogramme
Fife different cutting tools were tested during 4 intensive testsequences. The cutting tools and their
position were especially marked. After each testsequence the marked cutting tools were photographed,
measured (length), and qualified (with reference to their rotary behaviour and wear). 20 cutting tools of
each type were returned to the manufacturer for measuring the remaining content of hard metal and the
weight of the basic cutting tool body as well as for qualifying the cutting tools in general.

For special cuts travelling speed, torque at the drum, number of revolutions of the engine, number of

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revolutions of drum gear box, the temperature of the exhaust gas, feed mechanism, loading on
supporting cylinders and accelerations were measured.

During the prototype introduction work, a total of 54 surface samples were collected to identify the
relevant characteristics of the material for comparison purposes with the prototype behaviour. With the
same objective 19 sieving analysises were carried out.

For each cutting lane the cutting time was measured as well as the motor hours per day and per bit. The
time measurements as well as the measurements of cutting length, depth and width were carried out to
combine the performance of the surface miner with the evaluation of the rockmechanical measurements
of the samples and the cutting system measurements. Special quarrying tests were carried out for the
later mine planning.

Noise and dust pollution measurements were made. Different influences of the mined material
consistence, the prepared noise preventing dumps surrounding the mine and selective removal and
storage of the overburden layer for later reclamation were taken into account.

Project results
Rocmechanical data
For each rock sample a medium of 4 cylindrical cores were tested. The tensile strength ranged between
2,6 MPa and 21,12 MPa, the compressive strength ranged between 21,7 MPa and 157,3 MPa. Other
measured rock parameters are the Ed module and the seismic wave velocities.

Quantitative chemical analysis of five elements (SiO2, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O and Li2O) was executed for
the samples. One of the observations is that material with a high content of Na2O (sodic feldspar) has
low content of Lithium (Li2O) in opposite to the samples with an accentuated grade of K2O and high
content of Lithium.

For the mineralogical study some rock slides were cut. These rock slides were observed with a
microscope and its quartz grain size diameter, in average, (related to 1000 grains observed in each slide)
was determined. It can be stated that for this kind of material (Pegmatite), the quartz content (Si) is
about 36 % (SiO2 = 60 % - 70 %), which average grainsize is in the range of 2 mm. This aspect is very
important in what concerns the abrasive capacity of the material against the cutting tool wear.

Machine parameters
The machine has not reached its limits in average concerning motorload, torque at the cutting drum and
travelling forces. However, unexpected high load peaks of the torque occurred. The maximum measured

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torque was up to 4 times higher than the rated torque. During testsequence 3 in very hard material the
load on the rear cylinders was "0". That means that the resistance of the material to be cut was higher
than the penetration force of the cutting drum. In these cases the limit of the present machine concept to
penetrate material with full cutting depth was reached.

Cutting tool location system


The number of bits for cutting drums 1 and 2 were 76 and the bit spacing was 35 mm. After the first
testsequence it was quite clear that there was an excessive wear at some tool holders located in the edge
ring area. To reach good cutting results with high cutting tool and machine life the tools have to be
positioned on the drum in the following way:

Always the same number of tools need to be in contact with the material to reach equal load conditions.
Each tool needs to cut an equal amount of material to reach equal wear of all tools. The tools need to be
positioned so that material flow from the outer areas of the drum to the centre will be possible.

To fulfil these requirements Wirtgen developed a computer program to find the best cutting tool
position. Therefore, on cutting drum 2 rearrangements mainly of the tools on the edge ring were made.
This resulted in less wear on tool bodies, less wear on tool holders and less torque required for cutting.

For cutting drum 3 the number of bits were reduced to 60. This resulted in a greater bit spacing of 50
mm. Theoretically the volume to be cut by each tool increases by 42,8 % (against tool holder system 2).
Because of the lower number of tools in contact with the material a better penetration and therefore a
higher forward speed (increase of 17,6 %) can be expected.

Higher production and coarser material but also higher forces could be reached during testsequence 3.
The average production (cutting depth class: 0,175 m - 0,25 m) with tool holder system 2 was 138 m3/h.
An increase of 47,83 % could be reached with tool holder location system 3 (average production: 204
m3/h).

Cutting tools
Four different type of cutting tools (round shank bits) were selected for testsequence 1. Type E, X and Y
varied in the diameter and the composition of the tungsten carbide tip, while type Z had a newly
designed form and bedding for the tungsten carbide tip.

During testsequence 2 the best cutting tool type E from testsequence 1 and a newly developed cutting
tool type W (new design and gluing material) were tested.

In testsequence 3 extensive wear tests with tool type W mounted on cutting drum 2 and cutting drum 3
were carried out. In testsequence 4 the same tests were carried out with tool type E.

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In testsequence 1 and 2 it could be figured out that only tools type E and W show good potential to be
cost effective in hard material cutting operations. All other tool types showed high wear res.
overproportional high amount of breakage.

In the testsequence 3 extensive wear tests with tool W showed, that good results with low wear and low
number of broken bits could only be reached in conjunction with tool holder location system 2. In
conjunction with tool holder location system 3 overproportional high amount of broken tools could be
verified. This extensive breakage occurred mainly when working in areas where large, hard boulders
were ripped off the ground and had to be crushed in the cutting drum housing.

Tool type E mounted on both cutting drums 2 and 3 (testsequence 4) showed nearly no difference in
wear and breakage behavior. This type can be used for different applications (all-round).

Quarrying tests

Performance

During testsequence 1 a total of 1713.6 m were cut with the test bits E, X, Y and Z and cutting drum 1
during 56.4 total operating hours (incl. standstills due to measuring, motor warm up, discussions, ...),
resulting in an overall production of 30,4 m/h. An average cutting performance - this belongs to the real
cutting time - of 104 m3/h (cutting depth class: 0,125 m - 0,175 m) and a maximum cutting performance
of 206,29 m3/h was reached with an specific cutting time of 5,20 s/m and a given cutting depth of 0,1 m.

During the 2nd testsequence a total of 2218 m3 were cut with the test bits E and W during 42,25 total
motor operating hours resulting in an overall production of 52,5 m3/h. An average cutting lane
performance of 113,55 m3/h and a maximum cutting lane performance of 243,88 m3/h was reached with
a specific cutting time of 10,56 s/m.

During the 3rd testsequence a total of 1024,91 m3 were cut with the test bit W mounted on cutting drum
2 during 35 total motor operating hours resulting in an overall production of 29,28 m3/h and an average
fuel consumption of 8,8 ltr./h in no-load operation, 24,7 ltr./h while driving and 57,77 ltr./h while
cutting. An average cutting lane performance of 106,14 m3/h and a maximum cutting lane performance
of 264,46 m3/h was reached with a specific cutting time of 2,72 s/m and an average cutting depth of 0,1
m.

In addition, a total of 1127,81 m3 were cut with the test bit W mounted on cutting drum 3 and during
32,5 total motor operating hours resulting in an overall production of 34,70 m3/h. An average cutting
lane performance of 139,55 m3/h and a maximum cutting lane performance of 361,36 m3/h was reached
with a specific cutting time of 3,98 s/m and an average cutting depth of 0,2 m.

During testsequence 4 a total amount of 885,9 m3 was cut with the combination "drum 3 - bit E" during

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18,4 total motor operating hours resulting in an overall production of 48,15 m3/h. An average cutting
lane performance of 188,29 m3/h and a maximum cutting lane performance of 261,82 m3/h was reached
with an average cutting depth of 0,15 m. The average cutting speed was 10,46 m/min.

In addition, a total amount of 976,06 m3 was cut with the combination "drum 2 - bit E" during 14,3 total
motor operating hours resulting in an overall production of 68,26 m3/h. An average cutting lane
performance of 191,60 m3/h and a maximum cutting lane performance of 353,19 m3/h was reached with
an average cutting depth of 0,15 m. The average cutting speed was 10,62 m/min.

Sieving

The sieving analysis for conveyor loading and cutting with drum 1 shows that more than 20 % of the cut
Pegmatite was smaller than 1 mm and nearly 80 % of it was smaller than 30 mm. This will be an
advantage for the whole system due to the saving of crushing steps. Conventionally, after excavating the
material, it must be crushed before selling to the ceramic industry. The grain size should be less than 30
mm.

For windrowing the material through the window in the back of the cutting drum housing (drum 2) it
was evaluated that nearly 15 % of the cut Pegmatite was smaller than 1 mm and only 45 % of it was
smaller than 30 mm. It can be stated that while windrowing the fine grain content is lower than while
conveyor loading.

The results from sieving analysis made for testsequence 3 show that the location of the cutting tools
significantly influences the gradation. With location system 2 (tool spacing 35 mm) between 85 % and
90 % of the cut material are below 31,5 mm. With location system 3 (tool spacing 50 mm) only 35 % to
70 % are below 31,5 m.

This will also be an advantage of the whole system as for other applications in other industries (e.g.
cement industry) a less fine grain part is more profitable for the customer. In addition, the possibility to
vary the grain size distribution while working with one machine (loading system, tool spacing) would be
very advantageous for all mining or construction applications.

Statistical evaluation

The majority of the quarry tests were carried out during the third testsequence, although results from
sequence 1 and 2 were utilised where available (especially for the performance tests). Due to the variety
of tests (with different objectives) carried out during the test period it was not always possible to get
enough results for each test to carry out a statistical analysis. In addition, reproducible test results can
not be expected from in-situ tests where the conditions can change from cut to cut. It is therefore
necessary to interpret the achieved results taking into account the circumstances under which they were
obtained.

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Statistical evaluations were made for:

Aspects of the machine availability times for levelling times for incut times for outcut times for parallel
truck loading times for in line truck loading times for turning reversing speed Cutting performance
depending on cut depth and drum type Cutting performance depending on the discharge system Cutting
performance depending on inclined cutting, curve cuts, selectivity and possible side slopes

Environmental measurements

Dust suppression system of the prototype

During testsequence 3 different combinations of dust suppression systems installed at the surface miner
have been tested with respect on its ability to prevent dust. Generally, with increasing cutting depth the
specific dust in g/m3 (measured on two cyclon systems mounted above the conveyor boom) will
decrease and without using the water spray system the specific dust will be doubled.

Dust emission measurements for the surface mining system

The following qualitative results were achieved:

While windrowing whether it is windy or not no dust occurs. While conveyor loading and cutting dry
Granite or Pegmatite the dust pollution in a windy situation is very high. But this pollution does not
depend on the cut material, rather it depends on the cutting system (cutting drum) which will be used.
Concerning the sieving analysis the dust pollution while cutting with drum 3 will be less than while
cutting with drum 2 or 1. While conveyor loading and cutting moist Granite the dust pollution in a
"windy" situation is expectable less than while cutting dry Granite. While conveyor loading, cutting dry
Pegmatite and using the water spray system no dust occurs.

Noise emission measurements for the surface mining system

With increasing measuring distance (cutting and loading on trucks) the sound level decreases. In all
cases the sound level in the back of the SM 2100 EX is higher than in front of it and on both sides.

Special noise measurement at the boundary of the village Goncalo were made. The noise emission of the
Castanho Mine (truck dumping, cutting and loading) in a distance of nearly 400 m are in the same order
of magnitude as the noise emissions of the village Goncalo itself (35 dbA). Comparing to this the noise
emissions of a driving car and a barking dog in 10 m distance is more than double (80 dbA).

A noise preventing dump in little distances is very effective for preventing urban regions but in greater
distances than 150 m the effect of the noise preventing dump is neglectful.

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In April 1996 TU Lisbon and Pegmatitica carried out a special explosion test in the Companheiro Mine.
While working with an excavator, a front shovel and two trucks at the same time the noise level in 20 m
distance was in average 68 dbA (surface miner and trucks: 89 dbA in average). During the explosion (1
shot for 37 boreholes at the same time filled with 25 kg gelamonite) the noise pollution in 100 m
distance was 147 dbA (surface miner and trucks: 53 dbA in average) and in 200 m distance 123,5 dbA.

Cost evaluation under testbed conditions

Specific bit costs

Before starting the cost evaluation for the use of the surface miner SM 2100 EX on testbed conditions
for different "drum-bit" combinations

the maximum bit length wear per bit, the maximum cutting volume per cutting drum and the broken bits
per maximum cutting volume

must be determined. After this evaluation the specific bit wear costs for the different "drum-bit"
combinations were calculated.

As mentioned above only tools type E and W show good potential to be cost effective in hard material
cutting operations. First, it can be stated that while cutting with little bit spacing (drum 2: 35 mm) and
little force per bit the tool type W is more profitable. While cutting with greater bit spacing (drum 3: 50
mm) the tool type E seems to be more profitable. Second, due to the difference of the specific bit costs
for tool type W on both drums it was shown that this type is only for special purposes. Due to the fact
that there is nearly no difference in the specific bit costs for tool type E on drum 2 or 3 this type can be
used for different applications.

Cost model

The objective of the developed cost model was to identify the hourly and the m related costs for the use
of the surface miner under testbed conditions. This cost model will suit as a basis for the economic
evaluation taking also into account the mine layout.

The developed cost model consists of 3 parts:

Basic production data for the operation, cost calculation of capital and operating costs and determination
of the effective operating hours for the surface miner.

A comparison of the specific production costs achieved with the surface miner SM 2100 EX with the
extraction costs provided by Pegmatitica for the conventional method used in the mine shows that the
surface miner system is not only economically competitive but that there is a good possibility to achieve

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lower overall costs. But for the time being the economic figures for both methods are not really
comparable (different production levels, no transportation costs for the surface miner system, ...). A final
decision on the economic aspects will be given in the economic evaluation.

Demonstration of feasibility in testbed


On October 9th, 1995 a public demonstration in the testbed was carried out. The demonstration of
feasibility in testbed was devided into a conference presentation about the project structure and the
current project results as well as a prototype feasibility presentation in the testbeds. Nearly 40 people of
mining industry, ceramic industry, mining institutes as well as members of universities from Sweden,
Norge, Spain, Germany and Portugal participated at the presentation. Out of the discussions with the
visitors all project partners concluded that this was a very interesting and successful presentation.

According to the workprogramme, the final presentation was carried out on Friday, 5th July 1996 in the
new Companheiro Mine (especially developed for surface mining with the SM 2100 EX).

Further research activities until the end of the


project
A general profile for the applicability of the surface mining system to hard rock mines will be created
and documented in form a guideline. This profile will cover the rockmechanical, machine technical and
the planning/economical aspects of the use of the surface miner. It will be a guideline for the further
application of the mining system in other comparable hard rock mines through Europe.

For the economical evaluation the Ultimate Pit Design will be performed and the planning of the final
mine design, the mining sequence and production quality control will be executed for a full-scale mining
operation.

The machine tool and machine parameter evaluation will be continued. This evaluation will contain all
aspects for the use of the surface miner and its cutting tools for the use in hard rock mines.

Conclusions
Non-explosive hard rock excavation technology holds a particular fascination due to its elimination of
the costs and dangers of explosive use, transport and storage. Wirtgen GmbH, Pegmatitica Lda and the
research departments of the Technical Universities of Lisbon and Berlin (the last acting as Project Co-
ordinator) with the support of the European Commission take a completely new approach to continuous
hard rock mining. The overall industrial objective of the project is to define and improve the operational
conditions for continuous mining in hard rock while taking into account the development and testing of

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a prototype surface miner, development of a principal mine planning, development of a rock


classification system for "cuttability", and an evaluation of the whole system.

The prepared testbeds offered the opportunity to test the prototype in more than 3 different types of rock.
A total of 54 samples were collected to identify the relevant characteristics of the material vs. the
prototype behaviour. The uniaxial compressive strength ranges from 21,7 MPa to 157,3 MPa, the tensile
strength varies from 2,6 MPa to 21 MPa, the quartz (Si) content is in the range of 36 %. The new cutting
tool type W represents a substantial improvement in cutting tool design regarding breakage of tungsten
carbide tip and wear of the tool body. The maximum cutting performance reached with bit type W (drum
3) was 361,36 m3/h. Rearrangement of mainly the tools on the corner ring of cutting drum N 2 reduced
wear on tool bodies and tool holders as well as torque required for cutting. When changing the loading
system and/or the tool spacing the grain size distribution can be varied.

The surface mining system as a whole will be a new approach for both industries mining and
construction. Due to the ability of the machine to cut, crush and load material in one process, a simple
operation is possible what attracts customers all over the world. With these results a further step to
substitute drilling and blasting with continuous mining techniques is made.

Links to other research projects of the institute


Non-Explosive Mining Systems for Hard Rock Mines
CEC Primary Raw Materials Programme
MA2M-CT91-0053RZJE
Innovative Design of Diamond Wire Saw Systems for the Optimisation of
the Recovery of Value and Volume of Saleable Dimension Stone from
Granite Quarries
CEC Brite EuRam II
BRE2.CT94.0977
BE-7691

Published papers by TUB


Spachtholz, F.X., Wilke, F.L.: Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Gewinnungssystems fr
Festgesteinstagebaue unter Benutzung einer modifizierten Tagebaufrse. Proceedings of the 4th
International Continuous Surface Mining Symposium, Aachen, Germany, 6th - 8th June , 1995, page VI-
1/VI-8.

Wilke, F.L., Spachtholz, F.X., Rapp, M.: Development and application of a surface mining system in
hard rock open pit mines. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Mine Mechanization
and Automation, Golden, Colorado, USA, 12th -14th June, 1995, Volume II, page 14-11/14-17.

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Operational Conditions for Continuous Mining Systems in Hard Rock Open Pit Mines

Spachtholz, F.X., Wilke, F.L.: An introduction of a continuous mining system in hard rock open pit
mines using a modified surface miner. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Mine
Planning and Equipment Selection, Calgary, Canada, 31st October - 3rd November 1995, page 529/534.

Spachtholz, F.X., Wilke, F.L.: Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Gewinnungssystems fr


Festgesteinstagebaue unter Benutzung einer modifizierten Tagebaufrse. BRAUNKOHLE-Surface
Mining, 48 (1996) Nr. 1 Januar/Februar 1996, page 37/41.

Under work:

Brito, M.G., Carolino, A., Spachtholz, F.X., Schimm, B., Carolino, J., Wilke, F.L., Rogado, J.Q.: Novos
mtodos de desmonte contnuo em minas a cu aberto. BOLETIM de MINAS, Portugal..

Rapp, M., Wilke, F.L.: Mine layout and economic evaluation for a surface mining system in hard rock
open pit mines. Fifth International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, 22nd - 25th
October, 1996, So Paulo, Brazil.

Spachtholz, F.X.: Technische, gebirgsmechanische und bergbauliche Aspekte fr die sprengstofflose


Gewinnung im Festgesteinstagebau basierend auf Einsatzerfahrungen mit einer Mittelwalzenfrse.
Kolloquium Sprengstofflose Festgesteinsgewinnung, 21st February 1997, Freiberg, Germany.

Addresses of project partners


Project Coordinator:

Technische Universitt Berlin


Institut fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften I
Fachgebiet Bergbaukunde
Prof.Dr.-Ing.Dr.h.c.mult. F.L. Wilke
Dipl.-Ing. F.X. Spachtholz
- Sekr. EB 11 -
Strae des 17. Juni 135
10623 Berlin / Germany
Tel.: 0049 30 314 24139
Fax: 0049 30 314 21107
E-mail: wilke@bg.tu-berlin.de
E-mail: spachtholz@bg.tu-berlin.de

Partners:

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Operational Conditions for Continuous Mining Systems in Hard Rock Open Pit Mines

Instituto Superior Technico CVRM


Prof. J.Q. Rogado
Eng. G. Brito
Av. Rovisco Pais
1096 Lisbon / Portugal
Tel.: 00351 1 841 7247
Fax: 00351 1 841 7442
E-mail: pcm2955@alfa.ist.utl.pt

Sociedade Mineira de Pegmatitica Lds


Director J. Carolino
Dr. A. Carolino
3530 Mangualde / Portugal
Tel.: 00351 32 614 363
Fax.: 00351 32 614 566

Wirtgen GmbH
Dipl.-Ing. B. Schimm
Hohner Str. 2
53578 Windhagen / Germany
Tel.: 0049 2645 131 187
Fax.: 0049 2645 3207

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Last update: 15-08-1996 Contact: Franz Xaver Spachtholz

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