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Power System Stability Control

Power System Stability Control

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control

Wei Gu, Ping Jiang

Abstract This paper presents a novel practical approach for (ii) it only work for first-swing stability analysis. Due to these

large-disturbance stability control. Firstly, the relation between disadvantages, energy function methods are still used as a

large-disturbance stability region LDSR and small-signal stabil- complement to the traditional TDS method. That to say, the

ity region SSSR is investigated. Then, a method to approximately

identify LDSR through shrinking the SSSR of the corresponding analysis results of energy function methods still need to be

post-disturbance, is proposed in terms with several rational examined through TDS method.

assumes. Finally, a scheme of large-disturbance stability control In contrast to large-disturbance stability analysis, small-

based on the strategy of optimal bifurcation control(OBC) is disturbance stability analysis approach, based on bifurcation

presented combined with the method of shrinking SSSR . WSCC theory, has been furtherly developed by Vaithianathan Venkata-

9-bus and NewEngland 39-bus system are use to illustrate and

test the proposed approach. subbramanian etc. Small-signal stability region SSSR , also

called as feasibility region, was presented to identify the

Index Terms Large-Disturbance Stability Region, Optimal stability region in parameter space. With SSSR the stability

Bifurcation Control, Optimal Hopf Bifurcation Control, Optimal

Saddle-Node Bifurcation Control, Small-Signal Stability Region control based on optimization theory can be easily realized.

This enlightens us that if we can get the accurate large-

disturbance stability region LDSR , the large-disturbance sta-

I. I NTRODUCTION bility control will be solved without difficulty.

VER the last fifteen to twenty years, utility engineers, The paper is organized as follows. Section II provides the

O consultants, and university researchers have intensely

studied large-disturbance stability [1][5]. Hundreds of tech-

detailed models of power systems, including generator, AVR,

PSS, loads and static Var compensator(SVC). Section III

nical papers have resulted, along with many conferences, provides outlines of differential-algebraic equations of power

symposiums, and seminars. Utilities have developed practical systems and bifurcation analysis. In particular, the concept

analysis techniques, and are now planning and operating of stability region is briefly described. Section IV presents

power systems to prevent instability for considerable large- a novel approach for large-disturbance stability control.

disturbance. The relations between SSSR and LDSR are developed. In

Large-disturbance stability control is also called as transient Section V, the proposed approach is applied to WSCC 9-bus

stability control. Although large-disturbance stability is fairly test system and NewEngland 39-bus test system to illustrate

well understood, there are many facets to the problem, rang- its validity. Finally, in Section VI, conclusions are duly drawn.

ing from stability analysis method to control scheme. The

physical characteristics and mathematical models of a wide

range of equipment are important. Now its research faces two II. P OWER S YSTEM M ODELING

bottlenecks: (i) time-consuming calculations. In the large-scale It is well known that a proper modeling of power system de-

power systems analysis, using more than one processor based vices, such as generators, loads, and regulators is fundamental

on parallel processing obviously will speed up the calculation. to properly understand and reproduce the instability scenar-

(ii) It is difficult to determine the stability region of a post-fault ios. The power system can be mathematically formulated as

power systems [3]. follows.

Time domain simulation(TDS) and energy function methods

are the main approaches to process the large-disturbance

A. Synchronous Generator

stability over the past twenty years [3], [4]. TDS approach

can be applied to any level of detail of power system models The two-axis model, describing the synchronous generator

and give visual description for all state variables. One of the dynamics can be given as:

main disadvantages of TDS approach, except time-consuming, i = i 1 (1)

is that it can not provide an index marking the degree of system

Mi i = Pmi (Eqi Xdi Idi )Iqi

stability. Therefore, TDS approach is low-efficient for stability

control because it can not provide a quantity index. In contrast (Edi + Xqi Iqi ) Di (i 1) (2)

to TDS approach, energy function approach can provide a Td0i Eqi = Ef di [Eqi + (Xdi Xdi )Idi ] (3)

quantity index of the degree of stability, and it also avoids

Tq0i Edi = Edi + (Xqi Xqi )Iqi (4)

the time-consuming step-by-step integrations. Energy function

methods also have disadvantages: (i) it only applicable to where i is the generator rotor angle; i is the generator

power system stability models which have energy functions; angular speed; Mi is the generator inertia constant;D is the

DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

2

BSVC _ 0

Vref E fd VrefC KR

1 STC KA

1 STB 1 ST A

1 STR BSVC B

Vi BSVC min

V VRmin

V pss_ max

i 1) Static Load Models: For traditional stability studies,

KS 1 ST1 1 ST3 V pss

where the investigated time frame is at most around 10s after

1 ST 1 ST2 1 ST4

Pei the disturbance, the most commonly used model types are

V pss_ min static models. The most common model for voltage depen-

dency is:

Fig. 2. Power System Stabilizer

P = P0 (V /V0 )a (10)

Q = Q0 (V /V0 )b (11)

generator damping; Pmi is the mechanical power of prime

mover; Idi and Iqi are direct axis and quadrature axis cur- Where P0 and Q0 are the real and reactive powers consumed

at a reference voltage V0 . The exponents a and b depend on

rents respectively; Edi and Eqi are transient direct axis and

the type of load that is being represented, a = b = 0 means

quadrature axis electromotive force (EMF), respectively; Td0i

a constant power load, a = b = 1 means a constant current

and Tq0i are direct axis and quadrature axis open circuit

load, and a = b = 2 means a constant impedance load.

time constants, respectively; Xdi and Xqi are direct axis and

quadrature axis transient reactances; 2) Dynamic Load Models: Around half of all electric power

The interface equations between generators and network can used by the industry is used for operation of motors. So a

be given as follows: three-order model of induction motor is considered in this

paper:

Pgi Vi Idi sin(i i ) Vi Iqi cos(i i ) = 0 (5)

Qgi Vi Idi cos(i i ) + Vi Iqi sin(i i ) = 0 (6) TjL s = TM TE (12)

Where Pgi and Pgi are the generator output powers, Vi and Td0L eLR

= W1 eLR (13)

i are the magnitude and angle of bus voltage respectively; Td0L eLI = U1 eLI (14)

The dynamics of synchronous generator stator can be de-

scribed as follows: Here,

Eqi Vi cos(i i ) Rsi Iqi Xdi Idi = 0 (7)

Edi Vi sin(i i ) Rsi Idi +

Xqi Iqi =0 (8) TM = KL [ + (1 )(1 s)P ] (15)

W1 = KZ (X X )II + Td0L

eI s 2f0 (16)

Where Rsi is armature resistance of the machine.

U1 = KZ (X X )IR Td0L

eR s 2f0 (17)

B. Excitation Control System

Where, s is the rotor slip; TjL and Td0L are the rotor time

The reference [6] presents a simplified excitation system constant and transient open-circuit time constant, respectively;

and its corresponding mathematical model is shown in Fig. 1. eLR and eLI are the real and reactive part of transient

If TB and TC are set to zero, this model will be simplified electromotive force eL , respectively.

to the first order model:

TA Ef d = Ef d + KA (Vref Vt ) (9)

E. SVC Model

A simplified SVC model, which presented in reference [6],

C. Power System Stabilizer

is used in this paper and its mathematical model is shown in

The model of PSS(Power System Stabilizer) is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. In the dynamics calculation, the input machine speed

or electrical power is used to calculate the rates of change of

the PSS states. F. Network Models

The network Models can be written as:

D. Load Models

n

Modeling of loads is very complicated problem due to Pgi Pli Vi Vj (Gij cos ij + Bij sin ij ) = 0 (18)

the unpredictability of the compunding of devices (e.g. Flu- j=1

orescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamps, Refrigerators, Heater, n

Motor). There we will give the static and dynamic load models Qgi Qli Vi Vj (Gij sin ij Bij cos ij ) = 0 (19)

according to the traditional classification. j=1

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III. P OWER SYSTEM STABILITY p Stability Region Boundary p Stability Region Boundary

In this paper, only Saddle-node Bifurcation(SNB) and Hopf Optimal Control Point

Small-Disturbance Stability

Small-Disturbance Stability

Region

Region

A. Bifurcation Point Tracing

Direct method can be used to identify SNB and HB without P P ref P

calculating eigenvalues of Asys . Define = + j and ux

as the eigenvalue and right eigenvector of Asys , respectively. Fig. 4. Power system small-disturbance stability region and its control

Then,

Asys ux = ux (20)

Define u = [uTx uTy ]T , where uy = gy1 gx ux , Equations (20)

can be rewritten as:

Large-Disturbance Stability Region in

fx fy ux u Parameter Space

= ( + j) x (21)

gx gy uy 0 :SSSR boundary

Define :LDSR boundary of the same post-contingency

ux = uxR + juxI

(22)

uy = uyR + juyI Fig. 5. Power system large-disturbance stability region and its control

where uxR , uxI Rn and uyR , uyI Rm . Substituting

equation (22) in equation(21), rearranging and simplifying, we

( B s are the instable regions identified by these local bifur-

get: cations.).

0 = fx uxR + fy uyR uxR + uxI

0 = f u + f u u u

Fig. 4 shows the small-signal stability region, described in

x xI y yI xI xR

(23) two-dimensions space with uncontrollable parameters and

0 = gx uxR + gy uyR controllable parameters p.

0 = gx uxI + gy uyI

C. Optimal Bifurcation Control

Then considering system equilibrium constraint, Equations

(23) and normalization equations of the feature vector, we Combined with the definition of SSSR , small-signal sta-

bility control can be described as a question of optimal

have:

0 = f (x, y, , p) bifurcation control Assuring the uncontrollable bifurcation

parameters ref , seeks for the optimal configuration of

0 = g(x, y, , p)

controllable parameters in small-signal stability region to make

0 = fx uxR + fy uyR uxR + uxI

the minimum control costs.

0 = f u + f u u u

x xI y yI xI xR As is shown in Fig. 4, the Optimal Control Point is the

(24)

0 = gx uxR + gy uyR

optimization result of optimal bifurcation control. There, we

0 = gx uxI + gy uyI have a assumption that An increase in stability index will

always result in corresponding increase in control costs or

uTxR uxR uTxI uxI = 1

T deteriorating some special performance indices. This assump-

uxR uxI uTxI uxR = 0 tion is most likely case in practice, such as the increase of load

For SNB, Equation (24) satisfies uxR = ux , uyR = uy , uxI = margin is likely to need the increase of reactive power compen-

uyI = 0, and = = 0; For HB, Equation (24) satisfies sation and the larger gain of AVR may improve the first-swing

= 0 and = 0. stability while deteriorating the damping performance in large

interconnecting power systems.

B. Stability Region IV. L ARGE -D ISTURBANCE S TABILITY C ONTROL BASED

Small-signal stability region SSSR , also called as feasi- ON O PTIMAL B IFURCATION C ONTROL A PPROACH

bility region, was presented by Vaithianathan Venkatasubbra- A. Relations between SSSR and LDSR

manian etc in references [7], [8]. According to the definition

Proposition 1: The post-contingency stability region in pa-

of Venkatasubbramanian, small-signal stability regionSSSR

rameter space is a subset of small signal stability region under

is the stability region in parameters space, which composed

the same contingency:

of all equilibrium states that can be researched quasi-statically

from the current operating point without loss of local stability.

LDSR SSSR (25)

SSSR = {BSNB BHB BSLIB BSIB }. If the singular-

induced bifurcation is not concerned, small-signal stability Proposition 2: The stability of power system may be de-

region can be rewritten as SSSR = {BSNB BHB BSLIB }. picted by the load level. If the system lies in sufficient small

DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

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Start

load level, it will keep stable even suffering a sufficient large

disturbance. Contingency

Selecting

Proposition 3: The control strategy, which used to improve

the small signal stability of power system, will also improve

There is a Hopf bifurcation Yes

large-disturbance stability. after the contingency?

SD LD No

>0 (26)

p p

Cont

P SNB !0 Cont

P HB !0

Cont Cont

disturbance and large disturbance, respectively. Here, the P SNB (n 1) H ' P HB (n 1) H '

parts: (i) can keep stable status in a higher load level when Optimal SNB Control Optimal HB Control

suffering the same large disturbance; (ii) In the same load

level and the same large disturbance, the system changes from

instability to stability. Contingency analysis Yes Contingency analysis

Using TDS, stable Using TDS, stable

According to Proposition 1-3, a method to approximately No

No No

identify LDSR through shrinking the SSSR of the corre- Cont Cont Cont Cont

P SNB (n 1) P SNB ( n) ' P HB (n 1) P HB ( n) '

sponding post-disturbance is not difficult to gain. If the un-

controllable parameter is used to mark the stability margin,

End

we have:

SD > LD (27) Fig. 6. Flow Chat of Large-disturbance stability control based on optimal

bifurcation control method

Defining as a compensatory value reflecting the severity

degree of contingency, then we have:

0 = f (x, y, Cont

SNB , p)

0 = g(x, y, Cont , p)

B. Formulation for Optimal Bifurcation Control

SNB

0 = f u + f y uy

x x

(31)

The large-disturbance stability control procedure is a non- s.t. 0 = gx ux + gy uy

linear constrained optimization problem and consists of an ob-

uTx ux = 1

jective function and a set of equality and inequality constraints,

Cont

as follows: SNB Cont

h(x, y, SNB , p) 0

0 = f (x, y, , p) 0 = f (x, y, Cont

HB , p)

0 = g(x, y, , p) (29)

Cont

s.t.

0 = g(x, y, HB , p)

(, p) LDSR

0 = fx uxR + fy uyR + uxI

h(x, y, , p) 0

0 = fx uxI + fy uyI uxR

0 = g u + g u

x xR y yR (32)

Substituting (28) into (29), we have: s.t.

0 = gx uxI + gy uyI

min C(p)

uTxR uxR uTxI uxI = 1

0 = f (x, y, SD , p) uxR uxI uxI uxR = 0

T T

Cont

0 = g(x, y, SD , p)

HB

(30)

h(x, y, Cont , p) 0

s.t. Bifurcation Conditions HB

SD

h(x, y, , p) 0 C. Systematic Approach for Large-Disturbance Stability Con-

SD

trol

In this paper, We only focus on the saddle-node bifurcation Fig. 6 depicts the flowchart of the proposed approach for

and Hopf bifurcation. Define the post-disturbance indices of large-disturbance stability control. This approach works as

SNB and Hopf bifurcation as Cont Cont

SNB and HB , respectively.

follows:

Using equations (24) to replace Bifurcation Conditions, 1) Initializations, typical contingency selecting;

equations (30) can be rewritten as equations (31) and equations 2) If there is no Hopf bifurcation after the typical contin-

(32): gency, then go to 3), otherwise go to 6);

DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

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SNB , if SNB > 0, go to 5), otherwise

Cont

set SNB (n + 1) = < ;

4) Perform the optimal saddle-node bifurcation control

module;

5) Examine the stability at the current status of power

system using time domain simulation, if stable, go to SVC

finishes; Otherwise, set Cont Cont

SNB (n+1) = SNB (n+1)+,

then go to 4);

6) Calculate the Cont Cont

HB , if HB > 0, go to 8), otherwise

Cont

set HB (n + 1) = < ;

7) Perform the optimal Hopf bifurcation control module;

8) Examine the stability at the current status of power

system using time domain simulation, if stable, go to

Fig. 7. WSCC 9-bus test system

End and the optimal bifurcation control procedure

finishes; Otherwise, set Cont Cont

HB (n+1) = HB (n+1)+, TABLE I

then go to 7). O UTLINE OF OPTIMAL H OPF BIFURCATION CONTROL IN WSCC TEST

Two methods are used to estimate whether there is a Hopf SYSTEM

bifurcation after the typical contingency:

Control Parameters Gains of AVR, [KA1 , KA2 , KA3 ]

1) Approximate method: If the system presents an un-

Objective Functions Con K 0 )T W

C(KA ) = (KA

damped oscillations after the contingency, we think a A KA ,

2) Accurate method: A bifurcation point tracing method Inequality Constraints 0.95 Vi 1.15, Cont

HB

may be used to detect existence of Hopf bifurcation Optimization Algorithm Sequential Quadric Programming (SQP)

point. Step Size = 0.015(Norm

HB Cont

HB )

= 0.015(0.32 0.0) = 0.0064

How to determine the value of the ? If is too

large, the computational time will be decreased while the

optimization results will be conservative and uneconomical; If

is too small, the optimal procedure will be time-consuming 2) Typical Contingency Selection: As we know, the line

though a more economic result will be achieved. According to outage contingencies are easy to induce an oscillatory instabil-

computational experience to many different-scale systems, we ity in power systems. The post-contingency Hopf bifurcation

give the experiential values in different scenarios as follows: index introduced in Section IV. is computed to rank the

selected contingencies in the order of severity. The compu-

1) If the contingencies are serious disturbances, such as

tation results indicate that line 15-16 outage is the typical

three phases grounding fault etc,

contingency because of the minimum Cont HB .

= 0.05(Norm Cont

SNB SNB ) for optimal SNB control and 3) Large-Disturbance Stability Control based on Optimal

= 0.05(HB Cont

Norm

HB ) for optimal HB control; Hopf Bifurcation Control: Hopf bifurcation indices of pre-

2) Toward the sub-serious disturbances, such as unsymmet-

contingency and post-contingency are Norm HB = 0.32 and

ric faults and some line outage etc,

Cont = 0.0, respectively.

= 0.01(Norm Cont

SNB SNB ) for optimal SNB control and

HB

Table I depicts the control information for optimal Hopf

= 0.015(HB Cont

Norm

HB ) for optimal HB control.

bifurcation control, showing the control parameters, objective

functions, inequality constraints, optimization algorithm and

V. C ASES S TUDIES step size in one control step. Table II and Fig. 8 illustrates

The proposed approach for large-disturbance stability con- the detailed process of the proposed OHBC technique. Ob-

trol is applied to the WSCC 9-bus and NewEngland 39-bus serve that the overall control approach to ensuring the large-

test system [9]. disturbance stability is realized in three steps when Cont

HB =

0.0192; Optimal control results indicate that only the gain of

2

A. WSCC 9-bus Test Case AVR at generator 2 needs to be adjusted, thus KA = 118.675

[10]. The proposed approach based on optimal bifurcation TABLE II

method will be applied to ensure system stability under N-1 O UTLINE OF OPTIMAL H OPF BIFURCATION CONTROL IN WSCC 9- BUS

contingency. TEST SYSTEM

Generators First Step Second Step Third Step

operation parameters are listed in reference [10], except the

1 100 100 100

gains of AVR KA1 = KA2 = KA3 = 100. We assume that

1 107.545 112.985 118.675

the current load level is 0 = 0.1 (0 = 0.0 stands for initial

load level). 1 100 100 100

DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

6

1.015

Gen1

Gen2

First Step Second Step Third Step Gen3

1.01

Cont Cont

P HB (1) 0.0064 P HB (3) 0.0192

Cont Cont

P HB (0) 0.0 P HB (2) 0.0128 1.005

1

Fig. 8. Optimal HB Control realized in three steps

1.015

0.995

1.01 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Time (s)

Generator Angular Speed (p.u.)

Fig. 10. Time domain simulation after contingency in WSCC 9-bus test

1.005

system, with control

20 20

1

15 15

10 10

5 5

0.995

image

image

0 0

5 5

Gen1

Gen2 10 10

Gen3

0.99 15 15

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Time (s) 20 20

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

real real

Fig. 9. Time domain simulation after contingency in WSCC 9-bus test (a) = 0.04 (b) = 0.08

system, without control

Load Factor = 0.12

20 Load Factor = 0.165

20

15

15

2

and control costs are 18.675. Then we set KA = 120 and

10

10

5

5

image

image

0

0

5

15

10

15

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

outage happens; with optimal HB control, system will remain real real

Fig. 11. Eigenvalues in four different load levels for line 15-16 outage

B. NewEngland 39-bus Test Case

1) Introduction of System Operation Status: The static and

dynamic data of NewEngland 39-bus is gained from reference eigenvalues are in the left side of imaginary axis, that is to

[9]. Capacitors of 50 Mvar are added in Bus-12 and Bus-15, say, there is no Hopf bifurcation before SNB. So based on

respectively. Loads at Bus-4, Bus-12 and Bus-15 use induction the control strategy shown in Fig. 6, an optimal SNB control

motor model and constant impedance load model is used in the approach is used to solve this instability problem.

other loads. We assume that the current load level is 0 = 0.14 Table III depicts the control information for optimal saddle-

(0 = 0.0 stands for initial load level). node bifurcation control, showing the control parameters,

2) Typical Contingency Selection: In this paper, only line objective functions, inequality constraints, optimization algo-

outages contingency are concerned. When the terminal fault rithm and step size in one control step. Table IV and Fig. 12

in generators are not considered, the fault of line 15-16 outage illustrates the detailed process of the proposed OHBC tech-

is the typical contingency (In practice, the system will remain nique. Observe that the overall control approach to ensuring

stable in other line outage contingencies except this one.). the large-disturbance stability is realized in two steps when

3) Large-Disturbance Stability Control based on Opti- Cont

SNB = 0.045; Optimal control results indicate that only some

mal SNB Control: Saddle-node bifurcation indices of pre- of AVR reference set-point Vref need to be adjusted, showing

contingency and post-contingency are Norm SNB = 0.96 and in Table IV; control costs are 2.635.

Cont

SNB = 0.025, respectively. Fig. 13 and Fig. 14 depict the time domain simulation

Fig. 11 shows the eigenvalue plot in four different load results after line-outage contingency. Observe that, without

levels for the line 15-16 outage case. Observe that that one control, system will undertake an aperiodic instability when

eigenvalue crosses the imaginary axis for = 0.165, thus 15-16 line-outage happens; with optimal SNB control, system

leading to a saddle-node bifurcation. When < 0.165, all the will remain stable, though the equilibrium is close to voltage

DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

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TABLE III 1

0.8

Voltage profile at bus 15

0.85

0.7

0.6

Objective Functions Con V 0 )T W

C(Vref ) = (Vref

0.75

0.7

WVref = [1, 1, 1] 0.4

0.65

Inequality Constraints 0.95 Vi 1.15, Cont

HB 0.3

0.6

0.2

SNB SNB ) 0.5 0.1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

t (s)

TABLE IV

Fig. 13. Time domain simulation after contingency in NewEngland 39-bus

O UTLINE OF OPTIMAL SADDLE - NODE BIFURCATION CONTROL IN

test system, without control

N EW E NGLAND 39- BUS TEST SYSTEM

1 0.1

0.08

30 1.2451 1.2451

0.8 0.07

31 1.3720 1.3720

Voltage profile at bus 15

0.06

32 1.3338 1.4038 0.7

0.05

33 1.3429 1.4451

34 1.6703 1.7534 0.6 0.04

35 1.4137 1.4137 0.03

0.5

36 1.4027 1.4027 0.02

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

t (s)

38 1.3754 1.3838

39 1.2060 1.2060 Fig. 14. Time domain simulation after contingency in NewEngland 39-bus

test system, with optimal SNB control

stability limits.

the control scheme obtained through optimal bifurcation

VI. C ONCLUSION control method.

2) it can work for multi-swing stability control. Multi-

In this paper, a novel approach for large-disturbance stability

swing instability, which also called as oscillatory insta-

control is proposed in the engineering viewpoint. Firstly, the

bility, can be explained with Hopf bifurcation theory and

method of shrinking the SSSR of the corresponding post-

examined with TDS method.

contingency is proposed to calculate the approximate SSSR .

Only SNB and HB are concerned in SSSR boundary tracing. There are also some problems not solved ideally:

Then, a systematic approach and frame for large-disturbance 1) values of the varies according to the changes of

stability control, combining bifurcation control theory and contingency scenarios, system scale etc. Therefore, a lot

TDS method, are proposed. Finally, the results of applied of off-line pre-analysis is needed to get the value of ;

the proposed approach to two test systems demonstrate the 2) a good algorithm is also needed to solve this large-scale

validity. constrained optimization problem.

The advantages of the proposed approach are as follows:

1) it provides an approximate quantity index identifying A PPENDIX I

the degree of system stability. With the examination of E XAMPLE P ROOF OF P ROPOSITION 1-3

TDS method, this approach can ensure the validity of Proof: If the system remains stable when suffering a

large disturbance, it must have a stable equilibrium in post-

contingency, this ensures LDSR SSSR . With the operation

First Step Second Step

parameters in the boundary of SSSR , system can not remain

stable to the same large disturbance, that to say, LDSR <

SSSR . Thus, proposition 1 LDSR SSSR is true.

A Single Machine Infinite Bus test system, showing in

Cont Cont

Fig. 15, is used to demonstrate the propositions 2-3. Assuming

Cont

P SNB (0) 0.025 P SNB (1) 0.035 P SNB (2) 0.045

a three phases grounding fault occurring to the line B1-

B2 at the B1 side, the fault critical clearing time and load

level before the contingency are studied using time domain

Fig. 12. Optimal SNB Control realized in two steps simulation.

DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

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R EFERENCES

[1] M. A. Pai, Energy Function Analysis for Power System Stability.

Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989.

[2] Y. Ni, S. Chen, and B. Zhang, Theory and Analysis of Dynamic Power

Systems. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2002.

[3] H.-D. Chiang, C.-C. Chu, and G. Cauley, Direct stability analysis of

Fig. 15. SMIB: single machine infinite bus test system electric power systems using energy functions: theory, applications, and

perspective, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1497 1529,

1995.

TABLE V [4] V. Vittal, Consequence and impact of electric utility industry restructur-

L OAD FACTOR AND CRITICAL CLEARING TIME IN THE SAME ing on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis, Proceedings

of the IEEE, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 196 207, 2000.

CONTINGENCY

[5] Y. Xue, Extended equal area criterion revised, IEEE Trans. Power

Syst., vol. 7, pp. 10121022, June 1992.

Load factor (p.u.) Critical clearing time (s) [6] Power System Toolbox Ver. 2.0: Dynamic Tutorial and Functions, Cherry

0 0.08 Tree Scientific Software, 1999.

[7] V. Venkatasubramanian, H. Schattler, and J. Zaborszky, Dynamics of

-0.1 0.17 large constrained nonlinear systems - a taxonomy theory, Proceedings

-0.2 0.23 of the IEEE, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1530 1561, 1995.

-0.3 0.30 [8] , Local bifurcations and feasibility regions in differential-algebraic

systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 40, no. 12, pp.

-0.4 0.37 1992 2013, 1995.

-0.5 0.46 [9] W. Gu, Optimal bifurcation control in power systems, Ph.D. disserta-

-0.6 0.56 tion, Southeast University, China, May 2006.

[10] Power System Analysis Toolbox: Documentation for PSAT version 1.3.0,

-0.7 0.71 Free Software Foundation, Federico Milano, 2004.

-0.8 0.96

-0.9 > 1.4

Fig. 16, we can draw the two conclusions as follows:

1) The stability of power system may be depicted by the

load level. If the system lies in sufficient small load

level, it will keep stable even suffering a sufficient large

disturbance;

2) The control strategy, which used to improve the small Wei Gu received the B.Eng degree and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical

signal stability of power system, will also improve large- Engineering from Southeast University, China, in 2001 and 2006, respectively.

disturbance stability. He is now a lecturer in the School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast

University. His research interests are power system stability and control,

Thus, propositions 1-3 are demonstrate to be true. FACTS and power quality.

Load Factor = 0.0 (p.u.) critical clearing time = 0.08 (s) Load Factor = 0.3 (p.u.) Critical Clearing Time = 0.3 (s)

1.5 150 1.5 200

Voltage Profile at Bus B1

Voltage Profile at Bus B1

Rotor Angle Profile of Gen G1 Rotor Angle Profile of Gen G1

1 100 1 100

Bus Voltage (p.u.)

0.5 50 0.5 0

0 0 0 100

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (s) t (s)

Ping Jiang received his B.Eng. from Southeast University, Nanjing, China in

1.5

Load Factor = 0.5 (p.u.) Critical Clearing Time =0.46 (s)

200 1.4

Load Factor = 0.8 (p.u.) Critical Clearing Time = 0.96 (s)

200 1982. He is now a professor in the School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast

1.2

Rotor Angle Profile of Gen G1

150

University. His research interests are power system operation and control,

1 100

power electronic and its applications in power systems.

1 100

Rotor Angle Profile of Gen G1

Bus Voltage (p.u.)

Rotor Angle (ang)

0.8 50

0.6 0

0.5 0

0.4 50

0.2 100

0 100 0 150

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (s) t (s)

Fig. 16. Time domain simulations for SMIB system, with different load

factors and critical clearing time

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