EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The objective of project is to implement management functions in any organization. For this purpose we visited” PAKLITE” which is a manufacturing concern dealing in fixture and fittings. In the project we give the introduction of the organization and then we discuss the history products in details. We discuss the introduction of departments one by one by one. Then we discuss the main part of the project “Implementation of management functions “and analyze how they work .We analyze the production process, resources, management functions, culture environment and put our findings in a detail form. We analyze the market and scanning the environment of company. The culture of organization is very strong .The chief executive is a very innovative person. Core values of organization are very strong. Employees are loyal and devoted with their job. The relationship between employees and employer is good enough. The management of organization is very cooperative .We perform the SWOT analyses, the result of which is very good, Product mix used by the manager. According to our findings PAKLITE is very good company of Gujranwala as it is first company which makes fixture and ballast in Pakistan. The management of this company is very efficient and is playing key role in the success of the company. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .1

INTRODUCTION OF REPORT
The main purpose of the study of M.Com comprises of building core concepts and practical experiences in the fields of commerce, marketing, research and management. This approach proves to be beneficial in evoking excellence of character building and practicality in the students of M.Com. In continuation of this purpose our teacher, Professor Mr. Muhammad Mudassar Ghafoor assigned us a project of Implementation of Management Functions on any public or private production / manufacturing organization in Pakistan. The four management functions include Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling. In order to accomplish this task, information was required about the nature of the company, structure of the company, nature of its products, departments of the company, decision making approaches, foundation of planning, management strategies and organizational culture etc. For the purpose of acquiring information about the structure, management and various departments of the company, our team proposed the strategy that included visiting the Head Office of Tariq Glass Industry Ltd. situated at 128-J Block, Model Town Lahore and their production unit, situated at 33 kilometers, Lahore Sheikhupura road Sheikhupura, more popularly known as “TOYO NASIC” and discussing informally with the members as well as the managers, working in various departments of the company. During our visits, we concentrated to evaluate and capture a clear view of their management effectiveness, decision-making processes, organizational culture, employees’ satisfaction, and job commitment. Finally, we conducted SWOT analysis, BCG matrix and Porter’s five models, that will be discussed later in this report.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .2

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
The project which we have make complete very extensive and creative work certainly we have able to complete this project of numerous factors which played act key rolling in it. We express our profound and cordial gratitude to our dignified and thought resource person knowledgeable: PROF. MUHAMMAD MUDDASSER GHAFOOR for his constructive style of teaching and pleasant atmosphere in the class, which made this subject very interesting for us. We are very thankful our most respectable teacher because he gives us an opportunity to improve our self in this subject (Management)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .3

COMPANY INFORMATION
Company Name Country: Major Industry 2008 Sales: Certification: Organization Structure: PAKLITE Electrical Industries Limited (PEIL) Pakistan Manufacturing, distribution 1,108,446,723 ISO 9001, 2000 Network Structure

HEADQUATER
Paklite activities in Pakistan are co-ordinate from the corporation's head office in Gujranwala at Sheikhupura Road

PAKLITE Electrical Industries (Pvt) Ltd.
Sheikhupura Road, Gujranwala TEL: (+92 055) 4272890 FAX (+92 055) 4272894

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
CHAIRMAN & MANAGING DIRECTOR DIRECTORS MR. JAVAID IQBAL MR. MUHAMMAD TAHIR KHOKHAR MS. SHAHIDA IQBAL ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .4

MR. MUHAMMAD HANIF MR. ZAIB ZAHOOR

“In a world where technology increasingly touches every aspect of our daily lives, we will be a leading solutions provider in the areas of healthcare, lifestyle and enabling technology, aspiring to become the most admired company in our industry as seen by our stakeholders.”

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .5

Their basic mission is to provide the “Lighting Fixtures & Ballasts” of International quality at affordable prices for Pakistani customers and to safeguard them from Multinational exploitation. They also look forward to explore International Markets in order to generate “Foreign Exchange” for their country.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .6

HISTORY OF PAKLITE
P aklite Electrical Industries (Pvt) Ltd (PEIL) was incorporated as a private limited company in May 1994. With a paid up capital of Rs 2 million, which was further increased to Rs. 8.6 million and it now stands for Rs. 20 million. Before that, this business was started in 1987 as a sole-proprietorship and started manufacturing of 40-Watt Ballasts (Chowk) and Strip Lights of 4-Ft size. Soon after Company added 20-Watt Ballasts and 2-Ft Strip Light in the line of production. Within a short period, Company started production of many other quality items such as Double Light, Batten Light, Street Lights, and Office Lights etc. PEIL manufactures a range of different Electric fittings and fixtures. It has a wide distribution network across Pakistan comprising 12 distributors, 3,000 dealers. It has over 200 employees working in the production and other departments. It also has a very sound and professional team of around 25 marketing personnel. The Head Office of PEIL is located in Gujranwala. In all other cities Company is providing services through distribution network. Company possesses 21045 Sq Ft of land with 23151 Sq Ft covered area including ground and 1st Flours. PEIL is one of the fastest growing private limited company in Pakistan Electric and Fitting Industry. It is certified as an ISO–9001 company by BVQI in 2004. It has the highest number of self-manufactured products range in Pakistan. PEIL has complete manufacturing expertise and does not take any vendoring services from outside parties. The company has a very low level of sales returns. PCSIR has approved the quality of the Blast of the company.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .7

INTRODUCTION
PAKLITE was established in 1987 as sole proprietorship and started manufacturing of 40-Watt Ballasts and Strip Lights of 4-Ft size. Soon after they added 20-Watt Ballasts and 2-Ft Strip light in their line of production. Within a short period, they started production of many other quality items such as Double Light, Batten Light, Street Lights, Office Lights etc. Due to expanding business requirements, a company was formulated in 1994 and was named PAKLITE Electrical Industries (Pvt) Ltd with a paid up capital of Rs 2 million, which was further increased to Rs 8.6 million and it now stands for Rs 20 million. They possess 21045 Sq Ft of land with 23151 Sq Ft covered area including ground and 1st Floors. We are providing complete range of electrical fixtures and ballasts through countrywide distribution network. Our market force is well equipped with modern facilities of communications as mobiles, fax and e-mail etc. Paklite is ISO 9001-2000 certified Company due to its high quality of products.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .8

AWARDS OF PAKLITE
Total Quality Management (ISO 9001: 2000)
PAKLITE has taken ISO 2000 as a nice step towards Total Quality Management in Feb 2004. BVQI has certified that the management system of PAKLITE industries has been assessed and found to be in accordance with the quality standards of ISO 2000. The implementation of (TQM) has been executed to all plants. Quality Management is in line with ISO 2000 in all core business operations.

PCSIR
PAKLITE Ballast are also tested and certified through Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. The test report by PCSIR shows that the test results regarding ballast general and safety requirements as well as performance requirements are quite satisfactory as per PS 497-1 (1997) and PS 497-2 (1997) respectively.

PSI
Pakistan Standard Institution (PSI) has also certified the Paklite Electrical Industries. The company after detailed survey as found to be perfectly within the set objectives. It is verified that unit has all the potential to be a quality conscious organization and statements contained in quality control performs were found to be correct and the system in place.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .9

The evidence of these certificates is annexed with the documentation. Many other large companies have also certified the PAKLITE for their good quality.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .10

 Delight customers  Deliver on commitments  Develop people  Depend on each other

Our brand promise is 'sense and simplicity'. It encapsulates our commitment to delivering products and solutions that are advanced, easy to use, and designed to meet the needs of all our users, wherever in the world they may be.

Increase profitability through re-allocation of capital towards opportunities offering more consistent and higher returns Leverage the Philips brand and our core competencies in healthcare, lifestyle and technology to grow in selected categories and geographies Build partnerships with key customers and suppliers, both in the business-tobusiness and business-to-consumer areas

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .11

Continue to invest in maintaining world-class innovation and leverage our strong intellectual property position Strengthen our leadership competencies Drive productivity through business transformation and operational excellence

 

We intent to enter in world market as our products are of international quality. We are in a process with UL listing and work on ISO-9001 is in progress. In future we have plans to install tubular lamplant electrical consideration Products and all the items regarding their field by attaining total customer and many other are quality under items

We are providing complete range of electrical fixtures and ballasts through countrywide distribution network. Our market force is well equipped with modern facilities of communications as mobiles, fax and email etc. Our line of production includes:  Strip Lights  Batten Lights  Industrial Lights ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .12

 Street Lights  Diffuser Lights  Road Lights  Ballasts (ranging from 10 Watts to 400 Watts)

PAKLITE was established in 1987 as sole proprietorship and started manufacturing of 40-Watt Ballasts and Strip Lights of 4-Ft size. Soon after we added 20-Watt Ballasts and 2-Ft

Strip Light in our line of production. Within a short period, we started production of many other quality items such as Double Light, Batten Light, Street Lights, Office Lights etc Due to a expanding business

requirements,

company was formulated in 1994 and was named PAKLITE Electrical Industries (Pvt) Ltd with a paid up capital of Rs 2 million, which was further increased to Rs 8.6 million and it now stands for Rs 20 million. We possess 21045 Sq Ft of land with 23151 Sq Ft covered area including ground and 1st Flours. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .13

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Paklite has the following objectives:
1. To become market leader in electrical fixtures. 2. To provide high quality electrical fixtures at affordable prices to build a longterm business relationship. In PIEL, the concept of quality begins with customer needs and ends with customer satisfaction. 3. To have fair profit volume. 4. To acquire desirable market share, combating competitors in health competition. 5. To safeguard customer from market exploitation by presenting the true picture of quality. 6. To create a sense of belongingness and carefulness of the whole society (Societal concept of marketing). 7. To have 140 million sales for the year 2008-2009. 8. To reduce the large market share of China made products.

ISSUES
To achieve these objectives are not easy. Good planning, better management and authentic controls mandatory for achieving objectives. Sudden slumps in Pakistani economy have compelled the investors to review the investing projects. Time-to-time changes in economic policy have discouraged the investors, from previous two decades. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .14

Political disturbance is a major cause of economic backwardness. Inputs prices are increasing consecutively, causing significant increase in products prices. In this way end-consumer suffers, they stop to reduce buying and ultimately company has less demand for its products and services.

Due to perfect competition in the market it becomes impossible to increase the prices. Smuggled products are also significant threat for local manufacturers. Plant automation has become mandatory to reduce the cost of production. Technological and economic changes may also affect the policies to achieve objectives. Political elements like strikes, protestation, labor unrest, etc hamper the pace of economic activities. Paklite is a member of industrial society and suffer the conditions of all types mentioned above.

QUALTIY POLICY
Quality at PAKLITE means to meet or exceed customer requirements and expectations, and to provide true value of their money. The Company recognizes the vital importance of its customers. The goal of customers’ satisfaction requires us to be flexible, not only accommodating to their needs, but also to delight them consistently.

PROFESSIONALISM
They are a team of professionals, as the challenges of 21st century cannot be met without professionalism. They are enjoying the services of professionals in these fields:  MARKETING  MANAGEMENT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .15

 FINANCE  PRODUCTION  QUALITY CONTROL  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

STRATEGIC PLANNING
Strategic planning is the process of developing and analyzing the organization's mission, overall goals, general strategies, and allocating resources. A strategy is a course of action created to achieve a long-term goal. PEIL is a leading firm manufacturing electrical fixtures. In this dynamic era, it is mandatory for every business concern to have strategic planning to accomplish objectives and goals. Strategic planning is the effective tool to achieve the targets. SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and threats) analysis is an efficient tool for making a strategic plan and it is being practiced in PEIL. PEIL has made a strategic business plan for its sustainability and expansion in a highly competitive and efficient light industry of Pakistan. The company has seen a wonderful growth in its business and profitability for many years, however in order to support the future growth plans, company has to seek a substantial investment to meet the working capital requirements of the expanded trading operations. “Core values are the organization’s essential and enduring tenets, not to be compromised for financial or short-term expediency.” Core values, whether for an individual or an organization, exist to guide the decisions we make, priorities we have, and directions we take. Core values of PEIL are:
 

Passion and commitment through shared ownership

Respect for and valuing the individual ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .16

  

Creativity and innovation in serving our customers Demonstrate integrity through open and honest communication

CEO Building capacity for the business through personal growth and learning ceo

ELECTRICAL CO- ORDIANTOR

PRODUCTION DIRECTOR

ADVERTISING OFFICER

DIRECTOR

ELECTRONIC ENGINEER

GENERAL MANAGER

COMPLAIN OFFICER ASST GM CNC OPERATOR PRODUCTION MANAGER ASST INV MANAGER ACCOUNT MANAGER FINANCE MANAGER
AMIN/HR MANAGER

ASST

ASST F.M ASST ACCT OFFICER ACCT OFFICER

CASH OFFICER

RECEPTION OFFICE BOY S.GUARD WATCHMAN COOK DRIVER SWEEPER

(1) (1) (1) (1) (4) (2) (1)

ASST ASST ACCT ASST INV CO-ORD ASST ASST. FINISH GOODS Dye STOREKEEPER ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------maker ASST foreman STORE KEEPER PURCHASE OFFICER HELPER
FINISH GOODS STOREKEEPER

ASST ACCT

University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus.

.17

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .18

MANAGERIAL ETHICS AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES
“Employees are the basis of our success.” The highly skilled, committed employees of the PAKLITE and the work that they produce form the basis for the company's success. This philosophy is at the heart of the value-oriented and values-based personnel and social policies of the PAKLITE. For more than 15 years, this has been part of the PAKLITE corporate culture, which is based on trust, tolerance, and the concept of "give and take”. Working in the PAKLITE means meeting the demanding requirements of a premium manufacturer - being enthusiastic about the brands and products, achieving results of the highest quality, being willing to learn at all times, being flexible when it come to forms of work and working times and, most of all, wanting to push the success of the PAKLITE further forward in harmony with the model of sustainability. The company offers excellent employment conditions in terms of salary and social welfare benefits, following its concept of "give and take". This too makes the PAKLITE one of the Pakistan’s most attractive employers.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .19

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .20

Following are the main Products of the Company:

 Strip Lights  Channel Lights  Industrial Lights  Street Lights  Highway Lights  Flood Lights  Office Lights  High Bay Lights
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .21

 Canopy Lights  Low Power Ballasts  High Power Ballasts

STRIP LIGHTS

Paklite Slim Shaped Strip Light is most commonly used economical lighting fixture available in 4ft, 2ft and 1ft sizes. Due to its low price factor it is titled by “PL ECONO” and extensively used where initial cost is concerned.

FEATURES:
 Foldable sides  Brilliant white powder coating paint  Outfitted with lizard cover from sides  De-greased & de-rusted mild steel sheet  Pre-wired & equipped with standard Paklite quality ballast

APPLICATIONS:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .22

Stores
       

Pantries Wash Rooms Galleries Quarters Corridors Verandas Balconies Walking Areas

CHANNEL LIGHTS

Modern Way to the series lighting. Paklite semi covered light is a light-to-light attachment system with built in channel. Give enormous look while installed in series and beneath your production flows.

FEATURES:
 Built in channel  Pre treated body for long lasting color satisfaction  All Plastic material used in it made up of quality A.B.S Plastic  Also Available in such material to avoid rusting and deforming for critical environmental conditions.  Pre wired & equipped with Paklite quality ballast ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .23

APPLICATIONS:
        

Halls Go downs Cold Storage Dyeing Units Stitching Units Weaving Units Schools Hospitals Covered Passages

INDUSTRIAL LIGHTS

Durability and maintenance cost stand first. Industrial light is available in 4ft, 2ft, single and double rods utility. Also available in stainless steel for tough environment.

FEATURES:
 Low maintenance cost, as reflector is easy to remove and install again.  Light enhancements by titling reflector to focus on particular operation.  Thick body and strong grips result in tough metal structure.  Pre-wired and installed Paklite quality ballast ensures round the clock operation.  Stainless steel body is also available for moisture atmosphere specially where dying operation is going on. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .24

 Accessible facility for wall fixing and hanging.

APPLICATIONS:
 Halls  Stores  Schools  Banks  Go downs  Dying Areas  Ware Houses  Textile Industries

STREET LIGHTS

Traditional Lighting for boundary walls and uncovered passage areas. Quality is priority that’s why its strong structure would last for long in tough weather.

FEATURES:
 Available in 4ft single and double rod functions.  Pre-wired with Paklite quality ballast and holders.  Model available with bowl meets quality standard IP54.  Grill could be replaced with transparent bowl for low maintenance cost.  Extra strong grip of structure on pipe makes the fixture more strength full.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .25

 Special hammer paint on pre treated mild steel sheet body to with stands rough atmospheric conditions.

APPLICATIONS:
Parks  Streets  Parking  Garages  Walkways  Back Yards  Small Roads  Play Grounds  Boundary Walls

HIGHWAY LIGHTS

Make your project more lustrous example for others to follow. High way light series is a dazzling, flickering and sparkling new product to make your project more attractive and impressive.

FEATURES:
 Confirm to safety standard IP65.  Many options of lamps to choose from.  Electrostatic powder painted for extra protection against rough environment. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .26

 Suitable of 3G vibration conditions.  Sealing ring is made of high temperature resistant silicon rubber.  No induction of dust and insects thus reduces maintenance cost to its minimum.  Hydro-formed reflector is made of pure aluminum plate.

APPLICATIONS:
      

Fly Over High Ways Inter Changes Under Passes Airports Long Parking Petrol Stations

FLOOD LIGHTS

Paklite Flood light series used with high power magnetic ballast to give extensive light output for security purposes. Paklite quality fixture with correct light distribution system would make flood light a boundary watchman.

FEATURES:
 Strong installation and tilting mechanism  Electrostatic powder painted surface for extra protection against rough environment.  Special high-pressure aluminum die-casted body. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .27

 Pre fitted with Paklite quality ballast and igniter.  Light distribution is such designed to cover broader area in focused position.  Sealing ring is made of high temperature resistant silicon rubber.  Reflector is made of pure aluminum plate and the surface is treated with anodic oxidation.

APPLICATIONS:
       

Under Constructions Mega Projects Stadiums Sports Complexes Inter Changes Show Rooms Searching areas Shopping Plazas

OFFICE LIGHTS

Paklite DP Series is a simple and easy installation surface fixture for direct ceiling applications. Available in 1x4, 2x2 and 2x4 ft sizes to fulfill customer’s need.

FEATURES:
 Recessed type fixture to deploy in ceiling.  Many louvers style to choose from.  Possible protection from fire by flameproof sleeves. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .28

 Available in bare & covered louvers of transparent & milky types.  Gleaming white powder coated & pre treated body for handsome look & everlasting beauty.

APPLICATIONS:
      

Corridors Executive interior Walkways Conference rooms Hospitals Schools Lobbies Marriage Halls

HIGH BAY LIGHTS

High roofs need high bay lights. Presenting high bay light series, a style in lighting designs that really differ. Especially for those lighting designers, experts that really want feasibility, professional look and correct light distribution.

FEATURES:
 Easy Installation  Protected from dust ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .29

 Powder coated paint resistant  Available in Aluminum and PCM bowl  Doom available in different sizes  Extra grip on light by its installation strip  Specially designed die-casted structure for strong grip  Gearbox made of casted aluminum with wide cooling fins.

APPLICATIONS:
   

High roofs Airport Hangers Searching Areas Sports complex

CANOPY LIGHTS

Specially developed canopy light for petrol pumps and gas stations. In the dark hours of the night or early morning, artificial lighting becomes an indispensable ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .30

part of running a petrol station. Correct light distribution and extensive light output would figure your project out in late hours.

FEATURES:
 Sparkling white color body.  Pre-wired with Paklite quality ballast and holders.  White reflector to cut light distribution more correctly.  Recessed fixture for inner fitting on gas station ceilings.  Elegant aluminum reflector to create light distribution correctly.  Advance gearbox slight to open to reduce possible maintenance cost.

APPLICATIONS:
  

Gas Stations Petrol pumps Car Service Stations

PAKLITE BALLASTS

In the Paklite labs, the engineers have developed a new breed of ballasts to make such lighting system that saves more energy, are more adaptable, and deliver optimal lamp performance. The innovative, technologies in our new quality ballasts exceed expectations, and are like nothing else available. Our Production line passes through a series of tests I-e; High Voltage test, High voltage leakage test, low voltage test & impact test etc. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .31

FEATURES:
 Made with electrical steel sheet  Purest polyamide supper enameled copper wire.  Low Power losses.  Correct lamp current for long life of lamp.  Correct wattage.  No humming no nasty noises.  Screws type connectors.  Correct pre heat current.

APPLICATIONS:
   

T8, T10 and T12 Rods Application. (For low power ballast) Road Lights, Street Lamps, Flood Lights High way lights High Bay lights (for high power ballasts)

LIST OF MAIN CUSTOMERS

Sr# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Name Ammar Textile (pvt.) Ltd Sally Textile Mills Ltd King Embroidery & Knitwear Mian Sons Knitting (Pvt.) Ltd Klass Textile Gulshan Weaving Mills Ltd. 2 Saira Textile Mills D.G Khan Cement co. Fair Trade & Textile Ind IG Woolen Mills

Address Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Lahore Gujranwala Gujranwala

Item used Industrial+Off lights Ballasts Ballast+Strip Lights Industrial+Off Lights Ballasts+Batten Batten Lights Batten Lights Batten+Off Lights Street+Strip Lights Ballast+Strip Lights

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .32

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Sadiq Woolen Mills Services Textile Spin Kot Textile Ind Hajvery Textile Alvera Textile Mlls Fazal Cotton Mills Chenab Ltd Arzoo Textile Ltd Bilal Textile (Pvt.) Ltd Gul Ahmad Textile Division Siddiq Sons Denim Mills Ltd Reliance Weaving Mills Ltd Crescent Textile Mills

Gujranwala Gujrat Sheikhupura Sheikhupura Sheikhupura Sheikhupura Faisal Abad Faisal Abad Faisal Abad Karachi Karachi Multan Pindi Bhattian

Ballast+Strip Lights Ballast+Ind. Lights Ballast Batten Lights Textile+Sodium Lights Batten Lights Industrial+Off Lights Ind+Batten Lights Industrial Lights Industrial+Off Lights All Range Batten Lights+Channel Strip+batten+Ind Lights

LIST OF MAIN CUSTOMERS

Sr# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NAME Parliament house Aiwan-e-Saddar Supreme Court of Pakistan Shaheed-e-Millat Secretariat Election Commission of Pakistan Federal Public Service Commission Nadra Head Quarter Nab Head Quarter International Islamic University British Embassy

ADDRESS Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad Islamabad

ITEM USED Strip+Batten Lights Ballast+Batten Lights All Range Office Lights Office Lights Office Lights All Range Office Lights Strip+Batten Lights Office Lights

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .33

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission District Hospital Fauji Foundation Tehsil Municipal Administration Tehsil Municipal Administration Tehsil Municipal Administration Tehsil Municipal Administration Tehsil Municipal Administration Tehsil Municipal Administration Munucipal Carporation Munucipal Carporation Munucipal Carporation

Islamabad Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Gujranwala Gujranwala Mianwali Sialkot D.G Khan Khoshab Sialkot Peshawar Jhang

Ballast+Off Lights Strip+Batten Lights All Range Ballast+Street Lights Ballast+Road Lights 250 Ballast+Street Lights Flood Lights+Highway Ballast Ballast+Street Lights All Range Street Lights All Range

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .34

PAKLITE DEPARTMENTS
1. Production department 2. Marketing department 3. R&D department
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .35

4. Purchase department 5. Sales department 6. Finance department 7. Human Resource Department 8. Quality Control Department 9. Inventory Department 10. Accounts Department

Basis of Forming Departments:Basis of forming departments is to increase the efficiency of the organization. The set process is applied in the every department to check the performance of the employee’s.

PAKLITE
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .36 Accounts Inventory Production Marketing R&D Purchase Finance HRM Q.C. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .37

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTS
Manager of production department prepare the production budget and plan all production activities from A to Zee. Production department play a vital role in quality control system. Production budget is forward to all departments to achieve the budgeted targets. This process is executed by informing the department with the help of a formal written document. More over production departments manage the inventory system and finished goods

PRO Manager manages this department. Under him Electrical engineer & coordinator & Asst. manger are working. This department control production process. The production management team is responsible for realizing the visions of the Producer and the Director within constraints of technical possibility. This involves coordinating the operations of various production sub-disciplines. The production manager is the highest-ranking person on the production team. In addition to management and financial skills, a Production Manager must have detailed knowledge of all production disciplines including a thorough understanding of the interaction of these disciplines during the production process. This may involve dealing with matters ranging from the procurement of staff, materials and services, to freight, logistics, customs information coordination, technology, telecommunications, workplace safety. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .38 labor relations,

government liaison, venue booking, scheduling, operations management and

OBJECTIVES OF PRODUCTION DEPARTMEN
The Basic Objectives of Production Departments are as follows:  Operating of new automatic press  Introduction of at least ten new products  Introduction of electronic ballasts  Workers to be more active.  Product passes from 8 stages for its completion

REASON OF ITS FORMULATION: Production department is established to control overall production process .In manufacturing concern production process is very crucial .To ensure that products are processed properly this department so this department is established.

YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT: This department was established at the time of formulation of Company at 1994.

PRODUCTION: The production network of the PAKLITE is the backbone for growth in all our markets. Thanks to the close cooperation between all of the plants, manufacturing takes place quickly and flexibly. They create significant advantages in the Pakistani market. The Paklite currently has 1 production and assembly plant, in Pakistan in Gujranwala.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .39

SOME

OTHER

DEPARTMENT

WHICH

ARE

INCLUDE

IN

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
 Ballast department  Press shop  Cutting department  Moulding and holding department  CNC department  Paint department  Finishing department  Packing department

• BALLAST DEPARTMENT
In ballast department ballasts are manufactured by engineers. Ballast department includes engineers with their assistant and other non-managerial employees. Production manager assigns the duty to manufacture the ballasts according to requirements. Then engineers perform this duty with the help of other non- managerial employees working in ballast department. The quality of ballasts is very high and results into customer delight ness. Ballasts are made with electrical steel sheet. Ballasts of Paklite engineering company are categorized into different watts, height and length.

PRESS SHOP
In press shop steel and other material is pressed so that it can be easily used for further processing. Press shop includes a foreman with his assistants. And production manager also lead to the press shop foreman.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .40

• CUTTING DEPARTMENT
Cutting department cuts the steel and other material according to requirement. In cutting department cutting foreman perform this job with his assistants and other employees working in cutting department. After cutting steel, it is used in manufacturing lights especially in ballasts and poles.

• MOULDING DEPARTMENT
Moulding department convert steel and other material into the shape in which it is required in Moulding department. Moulding second foreman perform his activities with his asst and other non- managerial employees.

• FINISHING DEPARTMENT
After the process of Moulding department finish goods e.g. streetlights, industrial lights, office lights etc are made with the help of copper, aluminium and other material. Finishing department provides the finished goods to the finish goods storekeeper. That keeps the goods in the store with the help of his assistants and other non- managerial employees.

• PACKING DEPARTMENT
The job of packing department is to pack the finish goods. It includes packing foreman that packs the finish goods with the help of his assistants.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .41

MARKETING DEPARTMENT
The written marketing plan with management objective is prepared periodically, by identifying the areas, policies and procedures to touch those areas. The plan is revised when and where required basis. The plan is prepared on the basis of market research, survey, copies of the construction tenders etc. The plan is sub divided in to area, market, and city and project wise and provided to the distributors and sales officers. Marketing departments also prepare the annual sales budget on self-judgment basis. Managing Director also checks sales budget. Targets are assigned to all sales and marketing officers on the basis of sales budget. The Paklite is committed to maintaining and enhancing its presence in key markets in Pakistan. Paklite marketing subsidiaries are present in all over Pakistan. Marketing manager manages marketing with department. facilities The of market force is well equipped modern communication as mobiles, fax and e-mails. MARKETING MANAGER This department is operating to stimulate demand for organization products. Marketing management is a business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firm's marketing resources and activities. Marketing managers are often responsible for influencing the level, timing, and composition of customer demand in a manner that will achieve the company's objectives.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .42

Marketing management’s defined as the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. Any activity or resource the firm uses to acquire customers and manage the company's relationships with them is within the purview of marketing management.

OBJECTIVES OF MARKETING DEPARTMENT The main objectives of this department are as follows:  Appointment of Distributors in Sindh and Balochistan.  More satisfying and delightful experiences to customers with motive that customer sees provider, performance.  Introduction of down lighter.

REASON OF ITS FORMULATION: The purpose of organization is to create exchanges and market is central to the purpose as it helps an organization to create these exchanges by identifying needs, finding out which needs organization can & should serve .For this reason, this department is established.

YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT: In 1994, when the company was incorporated this department was established.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .43

R&D DEPARTMENT
R&D department always work to maintain the best quality but with low cost for customer satisfaction. This department continues working on modification in existing products and introducing new products according to choice of new generation. This dept. is specially designed to cater the needs and desires of valued customers. R&D manager manages this department. Research is a consciously directed investigation to find new knowledge. It is the forerunner of an increasing number of products and process. Progressive firms actively search out new product ideas from both external and internal sources. Externally, customers and competitors are major contributors

OBJECTIVES OF R&D DEPARTMENT
THE BASIC OBJECTIVES OF THIS DEPARTMENT ARE AS FOLLOWS:  Appointment of electronic engineer.  Search on electronic ballast.  Search on cost effective & energy efficient ballast

Reason of its formulation: Research and development adds to goodwill of an organization .It is the basic necessity for any organization therefore this department is added in this organization.

Year of establishment:In 1994, when the company was incorporated this department was established

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .44

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT
Managing Director is responsible for selection, pre-qualification and registration of suppliers. Managing Director is responsible for continual evaluation and performance monitoring of approved suppliers. All departmental Supervisors are responsible for the verification of purchase products. Purchaser is responsible for the purchase of all items. Purchaser receives purchase requisition from various departments. He review and approves all purchase order by G.M. Finance and Director Production.

Purchase department purchases raw material i, e. steel, copper, aluminum electric circuits and other material, use in production. On finishing of raw material or when any extra material is required then Inventory coordinator order the purchase officer to purchase the required material. Then purchase officer purchases such material with the help of his two assistant required in production. purchasers. Purchase department has a wide contact to purchase any sort of material

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .45

FINANCE DEPARTMENT
This department produces the data that measures company’s financial health and guides the company in responding to weakness and opportunities. Following are the roles played by this department: 1. Monitor business financial performance 2. Prepare forecasts and budgets 3. Ensure the business has enough cash to meet both current 4. Obligations and emerging opportunities. Basic skills in financial management start in the critical areas of cash management and bookkeeping, which should be done according to certain financial controls to ensure integrity in the bookkeeping process. New leaders and managers should soon go on to learn how to generate financial statements (from bookkeeping journals) and analyze those statements to really understand the financial condition of the business. Financial analysis shows the "reality" of the situation of a business -- seen as such; financial management is one of the most important practices in management

OBJECTIVES OF R&D DEPARTMENT
  

Monitor business’ financial performance Prepare forecasts and budgets Ensure the business has enough cash to meet both current obligations and emerging opportunities

Reason of its formulation: Finance is the lifeblood of any organization. One of the most important practices in management is financial management therefore this department is needed in the organization.

Year of establishment: In 1994, when the company was incorporated this department was established. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .46

FINANCE DEPARTMENT HIERARCHY

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .47

FUNCTIONS OF THIS DEPARTMENT
The financial staff’s task is to acquire and then help operate resources so as to maximize the value of the firm. Here are some specific activities:

1. Budget Management
A budget depicts what you expect to spend (expenses) and earn (revenue) over a time period. Amounts are categorized according to the type of business activities, or accounts. Budgets are useful for planning finances and then tracking if operating according to plan. They are also useful for projecting how much money l need for a major initiative, for example, buying a facility, hiring a new employee, etc. There are yearly (operating) budgets, project budgets, cash budgets, etc. The overall format of a budget is a record of planned income and planned expenses for a fixed period of time

2. Managing Cash Flow
Probably the most important financial statement for a business is the cash flow statement. The overall purpose of managing cash flow is to make sure that businesses have enough cash to pay current bills. Businesses can manage cash flow by examining a cash flow statement and cash flow projection. Basically, the cash flow statement includes total cash received minus total cash spent. Cash management looks primarily at actual cash transactions.

3. Major investment and Financing Decisions
A successful company usually has rapid growth in sales, which require investment in plants, equipment, and inventory. The financial staffs of PAKLITE help determine the optimal sales growth rate, help decide what specific areas to acquire, and then choose the best way to finance those assets. For example,

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .48

should the company finance with, equity, or some combination of the two, and if debt is used, how much should be long term and how much short term.

4. Dealing with Financial Markets
The financial staff deals with the money and capital markets. Each company affects and is affected by the general financial markets where funds are raised, where the firm’s securities are traded, and where investors either make or lose money.

5. Risk Management
All businesses face risks including natural disasters such as fires and floods, uncertainties in commodity and security markets, volatile interest’s rates, and fluctuating foreign exchange rates. However many of these risks can be reduced by purchasing insurance or by hedging in the derivatives markets. The financial staff is responsible for the firm’s overall risk management program, identifying the risks that should be managed and then managing them in the most efficient manner.

SALES DEPARTMENT
Sales department had a wide contact with a number of large textile mills, plazas, municipal corporations, hospitals, air headquarter and with other places. It sells its products through a big network of electric shops and salesmen. Sales department includes sales officer with his assistants.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .49

INVENTORY DEPARTMENT
This department is managed by inventory manager who directs and control activities we purpose of getting the right inventory in the right place at the right time in the right quantity in the right form at the right cost. This dept. manages all the inventory from purchase of raw material up to the sale of finished goods. An inventory is an idle resource that possesses economic value Inventories are usually in the form of raw material, semi finished goods used in the production process, or finished products ready for delivery to consumers.

PURPOSE OF THIS DEPARTMENT
They aid continuous production by ensuring that inputs are always available and that economic production runs can be made. They help level production activities, stabilize employment, and improve labor relations by storing human and machine effort.

ACCOUNTING FOR INVENTORIES
Three methods are usually followed for accounting for inventories: • • • FIFO (FIRST IN FIRST OUT METHOD) LIFO (LAST IN FIRST OUT METHOD) AVERAGE INVENTORY METHOD

Method used in PAKLITE
This organization follows AVERAGE INVENORY METHOD

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .50

Reason of its formulation
Inventory management has been the key to success of many firms and the cause of failure of numerous others. Insufficient inventories hamper production and fail to generate adequate sales, whereas excessive inventories adversely affect the firm’s cash flows and liquidity position. From either perspective, inventory management is a serious challenge to the viability of an organization; therefore this department is established in the organization

Year of Establishment: In 1994, when the company was incorporated this department was established.

OBJECTIVES
• The creation of goodwill of the Paklite by their proper handling and timely supply of raw material to production department for the use in the production process. • To encourage their employees so much to achieve their goals and given tasks by 1. Ethically 2. Morally 3. Spiritually 4. Monetary • • • • • To determine the order level, minimum level, maximum level and danger level By using the ACM (Average Costing method) of inventory to get the up to date knowledge of inventory Recording of the arrivals Recording of the arrivals To keep aware the top management about the performance

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .51

To give task to the employees and monitor their task to evaluate performance of the employees

HIERARCHY OF INVENTORY DEPARTMENT

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .52

HRM DEPARTMENT
This department is designed to coordinate humane sources of an organization.

The mission of Human Resources is to provide quality services and support in employment, benefits, compensation, employee relations and training, and to serve as a source of information and expertise that provides superior customer service for all employees

Functions of this department: 1. HR Planning recruitment & selection 2. Human resource development 3. Compensation benefits 4. Safety & health 5. Employees & labor relations Getting and keeping competent employees are critical to the success of every organization, whether the organization is just starting or has been in business for years. Therefore, part of every manager’s job in the organizing function is human resource management.

OBJECTIVES OF HRM DEPEARTMENT
1. Employ hand book is to be prepared 2. Aiming on quality culture for every worker 3. Appointments purchase and import managers.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .53

Reason of its formulation: HRM is an important strategic tool. It can help establish an organization, s sustainable competitive advantage. It has a significant impact on organizational performance. For these reasons, this department is included in the organization.

Year of establishment: In 1994, when the company was incorporated this department was established

Department Hierarchy

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .54

QUALITY CONTROL
The company maintains the quality at every step in production process of the strip light. During this process the company makes different tests on the ballast at each level of production. Which are as follow: • • • • • • Preliminary Tests. Air Gap Test. Continuity Test Short Circuit Test. Nominal Running Current Test Induced Voltage Test

Quality Policy: “Quality at PAKLITE means to meet or exceed customer’s requirement and expectations, and to provide true value of their money. The company recognizes the vital importance of our customers. The goals of customer’s satisfaction require us to be flexible, not only accommodating to their needs, but also to delight them consistently.”

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .55

STUCTURAL DIMENTIONS OF PEIL
Formalization
PEIL is an organization with not very high level of formalization. But there are explicit job descriptions, numerous organizational rules, and clearly defined procedures covering work processes, therefore job behaviors of employees are structured at PEIL. And also the degree of formalization varies within this organization.

Specialization
Work specialization is the degree to which activities in an organization are divided into separate jobs. PEIL uses high work specialization to efficiently make products. Managers at PEIL see work specialization as an important organizing mechanism but not as a source of ever-increasing productivity.

Hierarchy of Authority
Paklite delegates authority to their managers. At the lower level the problems are handled by the supervisor in production department, the supervisor has the authority to take the decision for the betterment. But in the upper level of management there is no delegation of authority.

Centralization
The management structure for operation possesses both characteristics of centralization and decentralization. Strategic decisions are made by top management and middle management tries to achieve targets set by the top management. As a whole it is more centralized. Any worker, any manager can share his problem with top-level management. There is no restriction about that.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .56

Professionalism
Company has a team of professionals, as the challenges of 21st century cannot be met without professionalism. It is enjoying services of professionals in these fields:

• Marketing • Management • Finance • Production • Quality Control (ISO 9001-2000) • Research and Development Personnel Ratio
Total number of employees of PEIL is as follow:
Management & Admin. Staff 31 Employees Market personal 20 Employees Labors 186 Workers

Contextual Dimensions of PEIL Size
An organization’s size significantly affects its structure. Large organizations tend to have more specialization, centralization and rules and regulations than do small organizations. However this relationship is not linear. PEIL is a small organization having 200 plus work force but it is more centralized and follows the rules and regulations strictly.

Technology
Every organization has at least one form of technology to convert its inputs into outputs. Workers at PEIL work on a standardized assembly line. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .57

Because it is the age of mass production due to change automatic structure so that in production department automatic press, injection moldings machines are being used instead of a hand press and hand molding presses, similarly automatic cranes for loading and unloading for raw material and automatic lifts are being used to increase the efficiency and to reduce the wastage of time. Paklite has a sound operation system in producing out put, total quality management is deeply observed, implemented and control with the help of computer based operational management to yields out quality products.

External Environment
Its environment can affect organizational structure. PEIL faces the following external environment:

Technological Environment
Today, it is an era of technology. High and advanced technology improves the production and helps to reduce the cost of production. Today every customer is conscious about the quality of the product and wants greater satisfaction against the product which they are offer in the market. So technology plays a vital role to provide the better quality product to the customer at lower price and helps in to grow the market share, which is the main objective of the organization

Economic Environment
Economic environment is very important for an organizational growth. If the economic environment is instable then the local and foreign investor are shy of investment in any type of the business. Govt. of Pakistan tries to boost up the economic condition of the country through various steps; for example, they give relaxation in income tax, they give subsidies to the investors in different field, they provide security to investor that his organization is not transferred into public property. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .58

Political Environment
Political environment also affects the business. There is greater tension between our neighbor country and us. So every political party tries to improve the economic condition of the business and pay much attention on that segment. Foreign investment plays a vital role in the strength of the economy so the political parties every time tries to stable the political condition of the country.

Legal & Regulatory Environment
PAKLITE followed all the legal regulation, which prevails in the Pakistan. We pay much attention on the customer safety. We follow the labor rights according to the (Pakistan Labor Act). We follow the taxations rules and regulation according to (Pakistan Taxation Act)

Social and Cultural Environment
We are not looking only organization affairs but we pay equally attention towards religious affairs and social work. We constructed schools for the benefits of the local community. Our product is benefited for every type of social and cultural classes, which exist in Pakistan. Normally in the urban area, customers like to purchase the Pearl Light where as in rural area Strip Light is more like

Culture
PEIL focus on individual development. It recognize the worth and value of individuals and seeks to create cultures in which employees can continually grow and learn. There is mutual trust, honesty and openness in PEIL’s culture. Managers are not afraid to admit mistakes. PEIL communicate ethical expectations to their employees, visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones. It controls organizational member interaction among each other, and motivate the employees behavior towards organizational goals. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .59

DESIGN DIMENSTIONS OF PEIL
DEFINED WORK ACTIVITIES • Brief Description of Production Process
The inventory shop and it receive raw material e.g. Mild Steel Sheet, Electric Steel Sheet, Copper Wire, and Plastic is transferred to the press shop. In the press shops the M. S. Sheet & E. S. Sheet goes through the following processes; sharing, cutting, bending & punching, to make the Strips & Holder Frames and to make the core of the Ballast. The stripes and holder frames are transferred to the paint section where the powder coating is made on them. Plastic material is transferred to the molding section where it moulds and makes it Rod & Starter Holder. In the ballast section the core is fit on the ballast and the following electric test is made on the ballast I-e, checking of the high voltage of current. This entire component is transferred to the packing department where the assembling of Strip, Holder & Ballast is made. After the assembling of the product is gone in to the warehouse and then it dispatch to the consumer.

• Inventory Management
In the PAKLITE the following procedure uses to manage the inventory.
     

Ordering of Material Receiving of Material Recording of Material Issuing of Material Recording of Issue material Accounting of raw materials

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .60

• Ordering of Material
Storekeeper shall raise the demand on becoming an item on reorder level of inventory. The purchaser shall place the order to the approved supplier by M.D/Director. The Director shall bargain Price with the supplier, particularly of the raw material. The purchaser shall also bargain the price of the stores to be purchased by the final approval shall be got from the M.D/Director. Order may be in writing/oral/telephonic. Supplies should possible be made from manufacturer of quality goods.

• Receiving of Material
All the material purchased, at the time of delivery by supplier, or by the company purchaser, shall be checked, counted at the gate by the gate clerk and he shall issue inward gate pass in triplicate, to copies to supplier or carrier, who shall present these two copies to store keeper along with the material. Storekeeper shall check, count/weigh the material in accordance with the gate pass. He shall get the material & sign the Gate pass in token of receipt of goods. Storekeeper shall prepare daily goods received note (GRN) in duplicate from Gate passes of materials received by him. Each entry of materials in GRN shall be valued from the bills of the supplier or predetermined rate of material. One copy of the valued GRN shall be submitted to accounts office along with the copy of gate passes entered therein. All bills of the suppliers shall be certified by the storekeeper through a stamp that good have been taken on stock vide GRN- NO, & Date.

• Recording of Received Material
The storekeeper shall make posting of all entries of GRN in the stock register with quantity and value of each item. After each entry of receipt in stock register the storekeeper shall calculate the average rate of the item by dividing the ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .61

balance amount over balance quantity. The calculated rate shall be called the issue rate of the items.

• Issuing of Material
Every department foreman shall prepare tore indent for material required to him in triplicate. The store indent will be approved by any of the directors or his authorized production in charge. Storekeeper will issue material against approved indent. Foreman will sign the indent in token of receipt of the material. The items included in the indent but not issued due to their non-availability in the store, shall be market “N/Y”. First two copies of the indent shall be torn off from the indent book by the storekeeper and third copy shall remain in the indent book. The storekeeper after issue of material, shall evaluate the indent at issue rate of each material item issued and will total the indent. One copy of the indent shall be submitted to the account section daily.

• Recording of Issue
Storekeeper shall make posting of all entries of indent in stock register against the account of each item, with quantity & value. At each issue, the item stock will be balanced in quantity and value.

• Accounting of Raw Materials
Accountant shall, on receipt of GRN from the store keeper, check the quantities in GRN from gate passes attached and shall check the rates from supplier bills and then, will check the calculation of GRN. Accountant will check the calculation of the indents from storekeeper. Accountant shall prepare the journal voucher from GRN and indents daily

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .62

Process Flow Chart Of Commercial Items
D. MATERIAL RECEIVED BY INVENTORY.

TRANSFERRE D TO PRESS SHOP SEC 1 MATERIAL TRANSFERRE D TO MOLDING SEC

SHARING, CUTTING, BENDING & PUNCHING OF THE SHEET TO MAKE IT STRIPES AND HOLDERS FRAMES

BALLAST FROM BALLAST PAINT SECTION

TRANSFERRE D TO POWDER COATING SEC

MOLDING OF A.B.S TO MAKE ROD & STARTER HOLDERS

CHECKING OF VOLTS & CURRENT OF THE BALLAST

TRANSFERRE D TO PACKING DEP

ASSEMBLING OF HOLDERS, BALLAST AND STARTERS COVERED TO STRIP

PACKING MATERIAL FROM INVENTORY

PACKING OF PREPARED STRIP LITE

TRANSFERRE D TO WAREHOUSE

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .63

DISPATCHED TO CONSUMER

Process Flowchart Of Ballast
MATERIAL RECEIVED BY INVENTORY.

ISSUED TO PRESS SHOP SEC 1

ENAMEL WIRE TRANSFERRED TO BALLAST SECTION

CUTTING OF T’S & U’S, BASE &UPPER COVER OF THE BALLAST

ENAMEL WIRE IS WRAPED TO MAKE IT COIL

MATERIAL TRANSFERRED TO BALLAST SHOP

FIXING OF T’S WITH U’S ALONG WITH ENAMEL COIL + FIXING BASE & UPPER COVER

CHECKING THE CURRENT & VOLTS OF THE BALLAST

RECYLE BALLAST INTO BALLAST SECTION

TRANSFER TO THE BALLAST PAINT SEC

CHECKING OF VOLTS & CURRENT OF THE BALLAST

TRANFER TO THE PACKERS DEP

TRANSFERRED TO WAREHOUSE

DISPATCH TO CONSUMER

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .64

REPORTING RELATIONSHIPS
Management Profile

Javaid Iqbal. Khalid Iqbal. Muhd. Mushtaq Muhd. Nadeem Muhd. Yahya Muhd. Irfan Muhd Ansar Atif Butt Muhd Tanveer Amir Ali Muhd Tahir Muhd Jahangir Sheraz Hameed Rashid Minhas Imran Rasheed

Managing Director General Manager Financial Manager Asst.Financial Manager Audit Officer Dispatch Officer Inventory Manager Cashier Accountant Store In charge Admin Assistant Sales Executive Marketing Executive Sales Officer

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .65

Responsibility Matrix
ISO 9001:2000 4 4.1 4.2 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 8. 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 QUALITY SYSTEM General Requirements General documentation requirements Management Commitment Customer Focus Quality Policy Planning Responsibility, Authority & Communication Management Review RESOURCE MANAGEMENT General (Provision of Resources) Human Resources Infrastructure Work Environment PRODUCT REALIZATION Planning of realization processes Customer related processes Design and/or Development Purchasing Production & Service Provision Control of measuring & monitoring devices General (Planning) Measurement and monitoring Control of non-conformity Analysis of data Improvement P P P P P S P P P P P P S P S S S S S S S P S S P S S S P S P P P P P P P P S S S S S S S S S S S S P S P P S S S S S S CE GM IM F.M S. Sup.

MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY P P P P P P P P P P P P S P P S S P S S P S S S S S P S S S

MONITORING & IMPROVEMENT S S P S P P P P P P S S S S P S S S S P S S P S P

P S

Primary responsibility Secondary responsibility

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .66

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .67

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
PLANNING
It involves defining goals such as • • • • How much to produce In what manner is to be produced What will be cost They make sub plans to coordinate activities

ORGANIZING
• It involves determining what needs to be done so they determine what they have to do, to achieve desired production and how it will be done and who is to do it. • He divides the work of each employee to achieve desired production

LEADING
• • He motivates all involved parties in production and influence team work and lead them to achieve desired production He leads all employees of production to avoid confliction in the work of production

CONTROLLING
• • He ensure whether desired units of production are achieved or not and if not they will correct it according to desired performance He controls the work of employees by suggesting them to follow necessary actions to correct the situation

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .68

PACKING DEPARTMENT PLANNING
The packing manager makes plan such as He plans how many finished units are to be packed • • • He plans about duration of packing He plans how many packed units are loaded to transport He plans what will be the cost of packing

ORGANIZING
He organizes work such as • • • How packing will be done Who will hire related employees for packing He organize the work of packing to accomplish organizational goals

LEADING
He leads all employees involved in packing such as • • • He makes supervision of packing He divides the work of employees involved in packing He leads them to coordinate activities of packing

CONTROLLING
• • • He checks the desired packing have done or not and if not he will analyze the deviations He will control waste material through process of recycling He controls by checking how many units are loaded to transport after packing

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .69

FINANCE DEPARTMENT
PLANNING
The finance manager plans about • • • • • Total investment made He makes goals of return on investment He will plan if further investment is to be made

He plans about wages and salaries of employees He plans about operational cost in various operations of production and sales such as advertisement

ORGANIZING
• • • The managers coordinate the work of its employees. He organizes the tasks to be performed He divide the work of accounts department and decides who is to do it finance department and

LEADING
• • He will lead all employees of finance department He guides them what tasks are to be performed to achieve targeted goals such as return on investment

CONTROLLING
• • • He controls all work by checking desired goals of return on investment He checks whether least operational cost is achieved or not He also makes budget controlling to estimate whether profits are greater than

expenses ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .70

MARKETING DEPARTMENT
PLANNING
The marketing manager plans of • • What will be the market share What will be our target market whether we have to manufacture our products according to customer specifications or just enter in the market with whole production • He plans about promotional schemes and plans how to achieve highest market growth

ORGANIZING
• • • • He organizes work what tasks are to be performed to achieve highest market share To achieve high growth rate To capture target market To fulfill customer specifications

LEADING
• • • He hires the professionals to determine the needs of customers He leads to achieve highest market share He leads to achieve highest growth rate

CONTROLLING
• • • He controls all activities of marketing department such as

Whether desired market share is to be achieved or not Whether customer specifications are fulfilled or not

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .71

• •

He ensures that there is no conflict among Working of employees

SALES DEPARTMENT
PLANNING
• • • • The sales manager plans how much sales volume he has to achieve He sets target of sales of diversified products He sets the profit margin He plans in which market segment profit margin can be increased

ORGANIZING
• • • He organizes the work what tasks and desired profit and Who will supervise the work of sales and evaluate the profit margin He distributes the work among all employees of sales department are to be done to achieve desired sales

LEADING
• • • The sales manager lead all employees and coordinate their work

activities to achieve desired sales He will guide them in which market segments targeted profits can be achieved He will guide them what tasks are to be performed to achieve desired volume of sales

CONTROLLING
• He controls all or not ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .72 activities and check whether desired sales are achieved

He will check whether targeted profits are achieved or not and if not he will analyze the deviations and then correct them

R&D DEPARTMENT
PLANNING
The R&D manager sets goals and plans such as • • • What research activities are to be performed to analyze the demand of the product in the market What steps are to be taken to make the innovations the product What steps are to be taken to develop the product according to research market and modifications in

ORGANIZING
• • • He coordinate activities of all employees of R&D department He organizes how the research activities are to be performed to analyze the demand in the market He organizes what tasks are to be performed for the development of product the

LEADING
• • • He leads all the employees of R&D to perform their work efficiently effectively He resolves all the conflicts of the employees of R&D department He leads them in which market segment there is more demand of their product and

CONTROLLING
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .73

He analyzes whether the product is developed after analyzing the demands of the product in the market

• •

He analyzes the deviations in the actual performance and after comparison he will make necessary steps to achieve desired results He will correct the deviations if there is any among the desired and actual performance

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .74

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .75

SWOT ANALYSIS
In SWOT Analysis we check the strengths, weaknesses, Opportunities and the Threats of the organization, which is helpful to make the proper strategies for the organization.

S

Strengths
W

Weaknesses
O

Opportunities
T

Threats

IN SHORT, “It is a simple and powerful way to analyze the current market situation.”

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .76

SWOT ANALYSIS OF PAKLITE ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY:
SWOT Analysis of “Paklite Electric Company” involves two type of analysis. I. Internal Analysis II. External Analysis

INTERNAL ANALYSIS
While doing the Internal Analysis of Paklite Electric Company we will check there,  Strengths  Weaknesses

EXTERNAL ANALYSIS
External Analysis involves the analysis of the External Environment Of the organization. In the External Analysis Of Paklite Electric Company we will check the:  Opportunities  Threats

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .77

STRENGTHS
PAKLITE has a lot of strengths. The detail description of these strengths is as under

1. Complete Range of Fixtures and Ballasts
Paklite is providing complete range of Electrical Fixtures and Ballasts through countrywide distribution network.

2. Well Organized Distribution Channels
They have well organized distribution channels in the whole country. Their products are available from Karachi to Khyber. They have their agency holders in almost all the cities of the world.

3. Strong line of Production:
They have strong Production Line including
      

Strip Lights Street Lights Batten Lights Diffuser Lights Industrial Lights Road Lights Ballasts ranging from 10 Watts to 400 watts

Well-Equipped Market Force
Their market force is well equipped with the modern facilities of communication. Like Internet, mobile phones, fax etc. So they can communicate with each other easily and also can find the information from the external sources.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .78

4.

Imported Machinery

They have heavy imported machinery, which is very helpful for them for the reduction of cost. They have imported Slitting Mach, a machine to cut coils and also the machinery for Molding Department has been imported from the modern countries. 5.

Well-Organized R & D Department

The Research and Development Department of Paklite is working very well. They are continuously trying for the improvement of their existing products. They are working on the modern production techniques so they can be able to reduce the cost and increase the profitability

Highly Qualified Professionals
They are a team of highly qualified professionals. Qualified, skilled and experienced employees are working in each and every department of Paklite. These qualified and experienced employees are very helpful for the development of the organization. The example of highly qualified professionals are electrical engineers, technical engineers etc.

Manufacturing of Dyes
They have a special department in which they produce the Dyes to manufacture their product. So they are able to produce most of the dyes, which they are using in the manufacturing of their different products under the same roof. This is very fruitful in order to enhance the self-sufficiency of the organization.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .79

6.

Approvals and Certificates

The products of Paklite are only one in their field, which is approved by PSI. Their Ballasts are also tested and certified by PCSIR (Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)

7. Loyalty for the customers
They have loyalty for their customers and vendors. They are customer oriented, they believe on the strategy of customer pull. They make those products, which are liked and demanded by them.

8. Unipolicy for the price
They have unipolicy for price in the whole country. Their products will be available in the whole market at the same price no matter from where they are being purchased.

WEAKNESSES
Paklite Electric Company like all other organizations also has some weak points. The detail description of the weaknesses of the Paklite is as under:

1) Lack of advertisement
The main weakness of Paklite is the lack of advertisement. Advertisement has got much importance in today’s world. It is very difficult for any organization and even for a product to get the proper market shares without advertisement. Because of the popularity of the product people will be attracted to buy it. So, this will enhance the sale of the product, which is very important for the organization in order to increase the profitability. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .80

2) No Brand Power
One of the main weaknesses of the Paklite is that they have no Brand Power. People are less aware of their brand name. The brand power plays a very important role for any organization. A firm with strong brand name finds it very easy to attract the customers in the market.

3) No Exports
Another major weakness of the Paklite is that they have no exports. They have products of International Quality, which can be exported to other countries in order to, earn foreign exchange.

OPPORTUNITIES
Paklite Electric Company has following opportunities in the external and internal environment.

1. Opportunity of Globalization
Paklite has the opportunity to go to the globe. They have the global market to expand their business. They can do so with the help of export in the international market. In this way, not only they can earn profit but also the foreign exchange for the country.

2. Less number of competitors
The number of competitors of Paklite Electric Company is low. Because in Pakistan a very small number of companies are making electric fixtures and ballasts. The main competitor is Philips, which is multinational. So, a very small number of companies are competing with them. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .81

Thus it is an opportunity for them to come forward and capture the market with their better planning and strategies.

3. Opportunity of atomization and innovations
Paklite has the opportunity to bring variation in the existing products and also for the manufacturing of new products. They can also adopt atomization, which will be helpful in reducing the cost of production.

THREATS
Followings are the important threats prevailing in the environment for Paklite Electric Company.

1. Increasing Price of Inputs
The main threat for Paklite is the increasing price of inputs that includes Copper and Steel. Increase in the prices of Copper and steel has resulted in the closing of a lot of firms in Pakistan in the last few years. So it is a great threat for Paklite.

2. Low profitability
The profits of Paklite Electric Company are decreasing for the last few years, which is an alarming situation for the company. The profit is the primary objective for every organization and also important for the survival and growth. So it is a big threat for Paklite.

3. Brand power of the main competitor
The brand power of their main competitor i.e. Philips is a big threat for Paklite. The awareness of the people about the products of Philips is affecting their business to a great extent. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .82

MOTIVATION
Basic assumptions for motivation
• • • A substantially satisfied need no longer motivates It is the lowest level of ungratified need in the hierarchy that motivates behavior As a lower level of need is met, a person moves up to the next level of needs as a source of motivation

Motivation in the Paklite
Motivation is a process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior induced by the expectation of satisfying individual needs.

Motivation process
Unsatisfied need => Tension => Drives => Search Behavior => Satisfied needs => Reduction of tension => new unsatisfied needs

HIERARCHY OF BASIC MOTIVATION NEEDS 1. Physiological needs:
 Hunger, thirst, shelter, and other bodily needs 2. Safety needs:  Security and protection from physical and emotional harm 3. Social needs:  Affection, belongingness, love, acceptance, and friendship. 4. Esteem needs:  Internal esteem (self-respect, autonomy, achievement), and external esteem (status, recognition, attention, power, and face) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .83

5. Needs for self-actualization:  The drive to best realize one's potential, including potential in personal growth, achievements and self-fulfillment.

Low-order needs
Physiological and safety needs, they are satisfied externally (payment, unions)

High-order needs
Social, esteem, and self-actualization needs, they are satisfied internally.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .84

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .85

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .86

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .87

RECOMMENDATIONS
Our recommendations for Paklite Electric Company are as follows.

1. Advertisement
Paklite should increase the advertisement of their products. Advertisement has got great importance in today’s world. It is very difficult to sell the ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .88

product without its advertisement. The advertisement strategy of Paklite is not satisfactory. So, if they want to increase their sale and profits they must do better advertisement of their products. Both Print Media and Electronic Media can be important in this regard.

2. Production of Aluminum Based Products
Paklite should focus on the production of Aluminum Based products instead of Copper and Steel based products so that they can avoid the threat of increasing values of Copper and Steel.

3. Exports of the Products
Paklite is producing the products of international quality but they aren’t exporting their products. They should export their products to other countries. This will increase their profitability and also they can earn foreign exchange.

4. Aggressive Policy
Paklite Electric Company should adopt Aggressive Policy in the market. This will prove helpful for their survival and growth in the market.

5. Diversification
Paklite is dealing in the same line of production from the last few years. The diversification and innovations in their products are not up to the mark. Although they have strong line of production but Diversification has got great importance now days. So, Paklite should emphasis on the diversified and innovative products. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .89

6. Increase in Brand Power
The Brand Power of Paklite Electric Company is absent. Brand Power is very important for the success of any product and organization. So, we recommend that they should also give importance to their brand image if they want to get success in the market.

7. Atomization
This is the era of atomization. It is the best strategy to adopt in order to decrease cost. So, Paklite should also adopt atomization in some fields of production.

8. Import of Technical Information:
Paklite should import technical information from the developed countries instead of importing heavy machinery. Their own R & D can work on this technical information in order to make the machinery and new and innovative products.

9. Sale of Dyes:
Paklite has capacity to produce the dyes, which is being used by them in the manufacturing of their products. But they are not selling their dyes.

There are some small firms, which are not able to produce dyes and they, purchase. So, Paklite can also sell their dyes, which will be fruitful for them.

10. Implementation of management functions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .90

In Paklite management functions are not properly applied because they are not following each step of management functions. So, we recommend following management functions properly.

11. Globalization
They should set business unit around the globe for increasing their market growth and future profits.

BIBILOGRAPHY
Means the sources from where we get our desired information. In our Project we collect information from the following sources ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .91

Internet:
 www.paklite.com  www.alibaba.com  www.powersourcing.com  www.aseansources.com  www.gujranwalacity.com

Books:
 Business Management By Stephen P. Robbins Organizational Behavior By Fred Loothen  Industrial Management By Henery D. Hodges

Interviews:
 Mr.Mushtaq G.M of Paklite  Mr.Saleem Production Manager

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .92

A Activities:
The time or resources needed to progress from one event to another in a PERT Network.

Authority:
The rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and what to expect them to do it.

B Business plan:
A written document that summarizes a business opportunity and defines and articulates how the identified opportunity is to be seized and exploited.

Behavior:
The action of people.

Budget:
A numerical plan for allocating resources.

C Communication:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .93

The transfer and understanding of meaning, customer service, functions of Internet gripe sites, managing, methods, and comparison of organizational, political correctness.

Communication networks:
The variety of patterns of vertical and horizontal flows of organizational communication.

Conceptual skill:
The ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.

Control:
The process of monitoring the activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations.

Controlling:
Management function that involve monitoring actual performance, comparing actual to standard and taking actions if necessary.

Creativity:
The ability to combine ideas in a unique way.

D Data:
A collection of raw facts.

Decision:
A choice from two or more alternatives. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .94

E Effectiveness:
Completing activities so that organizational goals are attained.

Expert power:
Influence that is based upon expertise, special skills or knowledge.

Exports:
To sale the products outside the country which are manufactured inside the country

External environment:
Outside institutions or forces that potentially affect an organization’s performance.

F First line managers:
Managers at the lowest level of the organization who manage the work of no managerial employees who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization’s products.

Focus strategy:
A business level strategy in which a company pursues a cost or differentiation advantage in a narrow industry segment.

Finance:
An art or science of managing the money. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .95

G Geographical departmentalization:
Group’s jobs on the basis of territory or geography.

Growth strategy:
A corporate level strategy that seeks to increase the organization’s operations by expanding the number of products offered or markets served.

Goals:
Desired outcomes for individuals, groups or entire organization.

H Human resource management:
Process activities necessary for staffing the organization and sustaining high employee performance.

Human resource planning:
The process by which managers ensure that they have the right number and kinds of people in the right times, who are capable of effectively and efficiently performing assigned talks.

Human skills:
The ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.

I Imports:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .96

To purchase the goods from outside the country.

Innovation:
The process of taking a creative idea and turning it into a useful product service, or method of operation.

K Knowledge management:
Cultivating a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather knowledge and share it with others in the organization so as to achieve better performance.

L Labor union:
An organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining.

Leader:
One who can influence others and who has managerial authority.

Leading:
Management function that involves motivating subordinates, influencing individuals or teams as the work, selecting the most effective communication channels, or dealing in any way with employee behavior.

M Management:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .97

Coordinating work activities so these are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.

Manager:
Someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals.

Manufacturing organization:
Organization that produce physical goods.

Middle managers:
Manager between the first-line level and top level of the organization who manage the work of first-line managers.

Mission:
The purpose of an organization.

Multinational organization:
A company that maintains significant operations in multiple countries but Managed by home country.

N Need:
An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive

Non-managerial employees:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .98

The employees who do not participate in the management activities like clerks, peons, sweepers etc.

O Opportunities:
Positive trends in external environment factors.

Organization:
A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose.

Organizing:
Management Function that involves the process of creating an organization’s structure by determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do it, how the task are to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.

P Perception:
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment.

Performance:
The end result of an activity.

Performing:
The fourth stage of group development when the group is fully functional.

Planning:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .99

A management function that involves the process of defining the organizational goals establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals.

Project:
A one-time-only set of activities that have a definite beginning and ending point in time.

Q Quality:
Anything, which is in customer’s mind.

R Resources:
The assets of the organization.

Responsibility:
The obligation to perform an assigned duty.

Risk:
A situation where the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes.

Roles:
A set of behavior patterns expected of someone occupying or giving position in a social unit.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .100

S Small business:
A business that is independently owned operated and financed; has fewer than 100 employees; doesn’t necessarily engage in any new or innovative practice; and has relatively little impact on its industry.

Strengths:
Any activities that organization does well or any unique resources that it has.

SWOT analysis:
An analysis of the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

T Technical skill:
Knowledge of and proficiency in a specialized field.

Threats:
Negative trend in external environment factors.

Top managers:
Managers at or near the top level of the organization who are responsible of making organization-wide decisions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organization.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .101

U Uncertainty:
A situation where a decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available.

V Values:
Basic conviction about what is right and wrong.

W Weakness:
Activities the organization does not do well or resources it wellness programs.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .102

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .103

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus. .104

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful